Publications by authors named "Yue Ma"

851 Publications

Sulfur Induces Resistance against Canker Caused by pv. via Phenolic Components Increase and Morphological Structure Modification in the Kiwifruit Stems.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 10;22(22). Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Fruit Industry Development Service Centre, Guiyang 550200, China.

Bacterial canker caused by pv. (Psa) has led to considerable losses in all major kiwifruit-growing areas. There are no commercial products in the market to effectively control this disease. Therefore, the defense resistance of host plants is a prospective option. In our previous study, sulfur could improve the resistance of kiwifruit to Psa infection. However, the mechanisms of inducing resistance remain largely unclear. In this study, disease severity and protection efficiency were tested after applying sulfur, with different concentrations in the field. The results indicated that sulfur could reduce the disease index by 30.26 and 31.6 and recorded high protection efficiency of 76.67% and 77.00% after one and two years, respectively, when the concentration of induction treatments was 2.0 kg/m. Ultrastructural changes in kiwifruit stems after induction were demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and the accumulation of lignin were determined by biochemical analyses. Our results showed that the morphological characteristics of trichomes and lenticels of kiwifruit stem were in the best defensive state respectively when the sulfur concentration was 3.0 kg/m and 1.5 kg/m. Meanwhile, in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 kg/m, the sulfur could promote the chloroplast and mitochondria of kiwifruit stems infected with Psa to gradually return to health status, increasing the thickness of the cell wall. In addition, sulfur increased the activities of PAL, POD and PPO, and promoted the accumulation of lignin in kiwifruit stems. Moreover, the sulfur protection efficiency was positively correlated with PPO activity ( < 0.05) and lignin content ( < 0.01), which revealed that the synergistic effect of protective enzyme activity and the phenolic metabolism pathway was the physiological effect of sulfur-induced kiwifruit resistance to Psa. This evidence highlights the importance of lignin content in kiwifruit stems as a defense mechanism in sulfur-induced resistance. These results suggest that sulfur enhances kiwifruit canker resistance via an increase in phenolic components and morphology structure modification in the kiwifruit stems. Therefore, this study could provide insights into sulfur to control kiwifruit canker caused by Psa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8625120PMC
November 2021

Exploring the Mystery of the Sweetness of Baijiu by Sensory Evaluation, Compositional Analysis and Multivariate Data Analysis.

Foods 2021 Nov 17;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Lab of Brewing Microbiology and Applied Enzymology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi 214122, China.

Sweetness is an important Baijiu quality marker, but there is limited research on it. In this study, the main contributors to Baijiu sweetness were identified by "sensomics" combined with "flavoromics". A total of 43 volatile compounds (mostly esters) were found that appeared to contribute to Baijiu sweetness, through sensory-guided fractionation and compositional analysis. Correlation analysis between the volatile composition and perceived sweetness of 18 Baijiu samples with different sweet intensities identified 14 potential contributors. Additional testing verified that combining the 14 compounds reproduced Baijiu sweetness exactly, and omission testing identified ethyl hexanoate, hexyl hexanoate and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate as the major contributors to Baijiu sweetness. These findings not only broadened our understanding of Baijiu sweetness, but also highlighted the major contribution of volatile compounds to sweetness perception, knowledge which may facilitate future flavor modification of a wide variety of foods and beverages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10112843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8622430PMC
November 2021

Photon counting correction method to improve the quality of reconstructed images in single photon compressive imaging systems.

Opt Express 2021 Nov;29(23):37945-37961

Compressive sensing has been widely used in single photon imaging systems because of its advantages of high efficiency and low cost. However, when the received photon flux is large, some photons cannot be recorded by single photon detectors due to the dead time effect, which introduces nonlinear errors between the measurement results and actual values and further damages the imaging quality. In this paper, a photon counting correction method specific to paralyzable detectors is proposed to improve the quality of reconstructed images in single photon compressive imaging systems. To verify this method, a single photon compressive imaging system is built, which uses a digital micromirror device (DMD) to modulate the light and a PMT as the single photon detector. The Monte Carlo simulation is also implemented to double validate the performance of the proposed method and the results from the experiment. Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is used as the imaging quality evaluation standard. The experimental and simulation results indicate that our method can overcome negative effect of the dead time and accurately recover the intensity and waveform shape of echo signal, which can significantly improve the quality of reconstructed images and has a better performance than traditional methods in the single photon compressive imaging system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.443084DOI Listing
November 2021

Lesion-Specific Peri-Coronary Fat Attenuation Index Is Associated With Functional Myocardial Ischemia Defined by Abnormal Fractional Flow Reserve.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 3;8:755295. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

The association between abnormal invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) and the fat attenuation index (FAI) of lesion-specific peri-coronary adipose tissue (PCAT) is unclear. Data of patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and subsequent invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and FFR measurement within 1 week were retrospectively included. Lesion-specific FAI (FAI), lesion-free FAI (FAI), epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and attenuation was collected, along with stenosis severity and plaque characteristics. Lesions with FFR <0.8 were considered functionally significant. The association between FFR and each parameter was analyzed by logistic regression or receiver operating characteristic curve. A total of 227 patients from seven centers were included. EAT volume or attenuation, traditional risk factors, and FAI (with vs. without ischemia: -82 ± 11 HU vs. -81 ± 11 HU, = 0.65) were not significantly different in patients with or without abnormal FFR. In contrast, lesions causing functional ischemia presented more severe stenosis, greater plaque volume, and higher FAI (with vs. without ischemia: -71 ± 8 HU vs. -76 ± 9 HU, < 0.01). Additionally, the CTA-assessed stenosis severity (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.04-1.08, < 0.01) and FAI (OR 1.08, 95%CI 1.04-1.12, < 0.01) were determined to be independent factors that could predict ischemia. The combination model of these two CTA parameters exhibited a diagnostic value similar to the invasive coronary angiography (ICA)-assessed stenosis severity (AUC: 0.820 vs. 0.839, = 0.39). It was FAI, not general EAT parameters, that was independently associated with abnormal FFR and the diagnostic performance of CTA-assessed stenosis severity for functional ischemia was significantly improved in combination with FAI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.755295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8595266PMC
November 2021

Is the Scope of Costs Considered in Budget Impact Analyses for Anticancer Drugs Rational? A Systematic Review and Comparative Study.

Front Public Health 2021 5;9:777199. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

School of International Pharmaceutical Business, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

With the increasing disease burden of cancer worldwide, more and more anticancer drugs have been approved in many countries, and the results of budget impact analyses (BIAs) have become important evidence for related reimbursement decisions. We systematically reviewed whether BIAs for anticancer drugs consider the scope of costs rationally and compared the results of different cost scopes to provide suggestions for future analyses and decision-making. Eligible BIAs published in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from 2016 to 2021 were identified based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We extracted 15 terms from the included studies and analyzed how they considered the scope of costs. In addition, a budget impact model was developed for the introduction of geptanolimab to China's National Reimbursement Drug List to enable a comparison of two cost-scope scenarios. A total of 29 studies were included in the systematic review. All 29 studies considered the costs of anticancer drugs, and 25 (86%) also considered condition-related costs, but only 11 (38%) considered subsequent treatment costs. In the comparative study, the predicted budget impacts from 2022 to 2024 were significantly impacted by subsequent treatment costs, with annual differences between the two cost-scope scenarios of $39,546,664, $65,866,161, and $86,577,386, respectively. The scope of costs considered in some existing BIAs for anticancer drugs are not rational. The variations between different cost scopes in terms of budget impact were significant. Thus, BIAs for anticancer drugs should consider a rational scope of costs that adheres to BIA guidelines. Researchers and decision-makers should pay more attention to the scope of costs to achieve better-quality BIAs for anticancer drugs and enhance reimbursement decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.777199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8602071PMC
November 2021

Machine Learning Approach Effectively Predicts Binding Between SARS-CoV-2 Spike and ACE2 Across Mammalian Species - Worldwide, 2021.

China CDC Wkly 2021 Nov;3(46):967-972

CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogen Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently emergent coronavirus of natural origin and caused the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The study of its natural origin and host range is of particular importance for source tracing, monitoring of this virus, and prevention of recurrent infections. One major approach is to test the binding ability of the viral receptor gene ACE2 from various hosts to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, but it is time-consuming and labor-intensive to cover a large collection of species.

Methods: In this paper, we applied state-of-the-art machine learning approaches and created a pipeline reaching >87% accuracy in predicting binding between different ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 spike.

Results: We further validated our prediction pipeline using 2 independent test sets involving >50 bat species and achieved >78% accuracy. A large-scale screening of 204 mammal species revealed 144 species (or 61%) were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infections, highlighting the importance of intensive monitoring and studies in mammalian species.

Discussion: In short, our study employed machine learning models to create an important tool for predicting potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2 and achieved the highest precision to our knowledge in experimental validation. This study also predicted that a wide range of mammals were capable of being infected by SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2021.235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8598542PMC
November 2021

Role of self-efficacy in nursing organizational climate: A way to develop nurses' humanistic practice ability.

J Nurs Manag 2021 Nov 19. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

School of Nursing, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the impact of self-efficacy on the relationship between organizational climate and humanistic practice ability (HPA) in Chinese nurses.

Background: To date, studies on the effect of organizational climate on nursing care have focused on care outcomes rather than care processes. Thus, this effect remains poorly understood.

Methods: A total of 757 participants were sampled from three tertiary hospitals in Guangdong Province from November to December 2019; subsequently, they completed a structured electronic questionnaire. A structural equation model was used to explore the impact of nursing organizational climate on nurses' HPA.

Results: A total of 688 valid questionnaires were collected. The nurses' average HPA score was 107.82 (SD 12.47). There was a positive correlation between organizational climate and HPA (r = .409, p < .05). Additionally, self-efficacy mediated this relationship (p < .01).

Conclusions: This study provides new insights into nursing organizational climate, self-efficacy and nurses' HPA.

Implications For Nursing Management: The significant mediating effect of self-efficacy suggests that managers should implement nurse professional development programmes using targeted strategies to foster greater self-efficacy, which could improve the quality of care and nurse-patient relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13516DOI Listing
November 2021

Augmented Renal Clearance: What Have We Known and What Will We Do?

Front Pharmacol 2021 2;12:723731. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Augmented renal clearance (ARC) is a phenomenon of increased renal function in patients with risk factors. Sub-therapeutic drug concentrations and antibacterial exposure in ARC patients are the main reasons for clinical treatment failure. Decades of increased research have focused on these phenomena, but there are still some existing disputes and unresolved issues. This article reviews information on some important aspects of what we have known and provides suggestion on what we will do regarding ARC. In this article, we review the current research progress and its limitations, including clinical identification, special patients, risk factors, metabolism, animal models and clinical treatments, and provide some promising directions for further research in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.723731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8593401PMC
November 2021

Choline Kinase Alpha Promoted Glioma Development by Activating PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2021 Nov 16. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, China.

The most commonly reported primary brain tumor in adults is glioma. Choline kinase alpha () has been proved to play important roles in glioma. However, the mechanism of involved remains unclear. Therefore, this study aims to explore the mechanism of in glioma development. Immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and Western blot were used to detect the expression of . Flow cytometry, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), transwell, and wound healing assays were performed to evaluate cell apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, and migration, respectively. RNA sequencing was used to explore the differentially expressed genes affected by . The enrichment analysis of gene ontology () and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes () helped to detect the signaling pathways affected. Tumor-bearing mice were established and evaluated by TUNEL assay, Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. and hematoxylin and eosin staining. increased in glioma tissues and promoted cell proliferation, invasion, and migration, while inhibiting the glioma cell apoptosis. It was also showed that promoted glioma development . and KEGG analysis indicated that PI3K/AKT was significantly enriched in knockdown U251 cells. And promoted glioma development by activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. The authors demonstrated that was significantly elevated in glioma tissues. Mechanism analysis indicated that could promote glioma development by activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, suggesting that is promising to be a biomarker and therapeutic strategy for prognostic prediction of patients with glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2021.0294DOI Listing
November 2021

Boosting the Electrochemical Performance of a Spinel Cathode with the In Situ Transformed Allogenic Li-Rich Layered Phase.

Langmuir 2021 Nov 15;37(47):13941-13951. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, 391 Binshui Road, Tianjin 300384, China.

High-voltage spinel materials have attracted widespread attention because of their advantages such as good rate performance, low cost, abundant source, and easy preparation. However, the Mn dissolution and Jahn-Teller effect of spinel materials during cycling limit their practical application. In this paper, the allogenic composites (1 - )Li(NiCoMn) O·Li(NiCoMn)O ( = 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5) are developed by the carbonate co-precipitation method combined with the high-temperature sintering method, which are certified by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image. The results show that the lithium-rich phase of the allogenic composites can effectively improve the initial discharge capacity, alleviate the side reaction between the spinel material and the electrolyte, and improve the cycle stability. This work reveals the relationship between the structure and electrochemical performance of the in situ transformed [email protected] allogenic composites and provide a new clue to design a high-performance spinel cathode for advanced Li-ion batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c02569DOI Listing
November 2021

Value of Active Warming Devices for Intraoperative Hypothermia Prevention-A Meta-Analysis and Cost-Benefit Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 10 28;18(21). Epub 2021 Oct 28.

School of International Pharmaceutical Business, China Pharmaceutical University, No. 639 Longmian Street, Nanjing 211198, China.

Purpose: Historically, studies suggested that intraoperative hypothermia (IH) could result in significant resource consumption, but more recent studies have found the opposite. The purpose of this study is to estimate the value of active warming devices for IH prevention based on synthesized evidence.

Methods: A cost-benefit analysis was conducted using the effect of active warming versus passive warming devices for intraoperative hypothermia from a meta-analysis. The item-based aggregated treatment cost approach was adopted to estimate the cost of each adverse event, which was then weighted to calculate the total cost of IH.

Results: IH was associated with higher risks of bleeding, surgical site infection, and shivering compared with normothermia. The cost of one case of IH was $363.80, and the use of active warming devices might save $152.80. Extra investment in active warming (e.g., $291.00) might only be cost-beneficial when the minimum willingness-to-pay is $150.00.

Conclusions: Synthesized evidence showed that the cost of IH might be overestimated. Furthermore, the value of using active warming devices remains uncertain because the willingness to pay may vary between decision-makers. As not enough awareness of hypothermia prevention in some countries, further research into the clinical use of active warming devices during major surgeries is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8582721PMC
October 2021

LncRNA GAS5 participates in childhood pneumonia by inhibiting cell apoptosis and promoting SHIP-1 expression via downregulating miR-155.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Nov 11;21(1):362. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Medicine, Clinical Medical College of Hulunbeier, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Hulunbuir People's Hospital, Hulunbuir City, 021008, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.

Background: LncRNA GAS5 and miR-155 are reported to play opposite roles in lung inflammatory responses. Lung inflammation participates in childhood pneumonia, indicating the involvement of GAS5 and miR-155 in pneumonia. The study aimed to analyze the potential interaction between GAS5 and miR-155 in childhood pneumonia.

Methods: GAS5 and miR-155 levels in plasma samples from pneumonia patients and controls were detected using RT-qPCR. The role of GAS5 in miR-155 RNA gene methylation in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs) was analyzed by methylation analysis. Flow cytometry and RT-qPCR were applied to analyze cell apoptosis and SHIP-1 expression, respectively.

Results: GAS5 was downregulated in pneumonia, and miR-155 was upregulated in pneumonia. GAS5 and miR-155 were inversely correlated. GAS5 overexpression decreased miR-155 expression in HBEpCs, while miR-155 overexpression showed no significant effects on GAS5 expression. In addition, GAS5 suppressed LPS-induced HBEpC apoptosis, promoted SHIP-1 expression, and reduced the enhancing effect of miR-155 on cell apoptosis and SHIP-1 expression.

Conclusions: GAS5 may participate in childhood pneumonia by inhibiting cell apoptosis and promoting SHIP-1 expression via downregulating miR-155.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-021-01724-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8582100PMC
November 2021

Association of comprehensive mental health with incident cardiovascular disease: A prospective cohort study.

J Affect Disord 2022 Feb 6;298(Pt A):388-395. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, 22 Qixiangtai Road, Heping District, Tianjin 300070, China. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence is limited regarding the impact of comprehensive mental health on the risk of subsequent cardiovascular events.

Objectives: To investigate the association of mental health status with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the UK Biobank.

Methods: This prospective study included 339,616 participants aged 40 to 69 years who were enrolled between 2006 and 2010 and were followed up to 2020, without CVD at baseline. A mental health score was created using information about depressive symptoms, anxiety, loneliness, and neuroticism. Cardiovascular disease events ascertained through hospital inpatient. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals across mental health score.

Results: During a median follow-up of 11.3 years (3.7 million person-years), we documented 22,688 CVD cases including 18,460 CHD cases and 5,070 stroke cases (some individuals were diagnosed as having both CHD and stroke). A statistically significantly increased risk of incident CVD was observed for the four mental factors individually, with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.03 to 1.44. The composite score of such four mental factors was also positively associated with CVD risk in a dose-response manner, with the highest scores associated with a 1.56-fold (95% confidence interval 1.47 to 1.65), 1.61-fold (1.51 to 1.72), and 1.44-fold (1.25 to 1.67) higher CVD, CHD, and stroke risk, respectively.

Conclusions: In this large prospective study, poor mental health status was associated with an increased risk of CVD. Our results highlight the importance to jointly investigate the mental health factors in relation to the risk of CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.11.008DOI Listing
February 2022

Alleviating Oxidative Damage-Induced Telomere Attrition: a Potential Mechanism for Inhibition by Folic Acid of Apoptosis in Neural Stem Cells.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Nov 5. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, 22 Qixiangtai Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300070, China.

DNA oxidative damage can cause telomere attrition or dysfunction that triggers cell senescence and apoptosis. The hypothesis of this study is that folic acid decreases apoptosis in neural stem cells (NSCs) by preventing oxidative stress-induced telomere attrition. Primary cultures of NSCs were incubated for 9 days with various concentrations of folic acid (0-40 µM) and then incubated for 24 h with a combination of folic acid and an oxidant (100-µM hydrogen peroxide, HO), antioxidant (10-mM N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), or vehicle. Intracellular folate concentration, apoptosis rate, cell proliferative capacity, telomere length, telomeric DNA oxidative damage, telomerase activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, cellular oxidative damage, and intracellular antioxidant enzyme activities were determined. The results showed that folic acid deficiency in NSCs decreased intracellular folate concentration, cell proliferation, telomere length, and telomerase activity but increased apoptosis, telomeric DNA oxidative damage, and intracellular ROS levels. In contrast, folic acid supplementation dose-dependently increased intracellular folate concentration, cell proliferative capacity, telomere length, and telomerase activity but decreased apoptosis, telomeric DNA oxidative damage, and intracellular ROS levels. Exposure to HO aggravated telomere attrition and oxidative damage, whereas NAC alleviated the latter. High doses of folic acid prevented telomere attrition and telomeric DNA oxidative damage by HO. In conclusion, inhibition of telomeric DNA oxidative damage and telomere attrition in NSCs may be potential mechanisms of inhibiting NSC apoptosis by folic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02623-3DOI Listing
November 2021

Circular Rims2 Deficiency Causes Retinal Degeneration.

Adv Biol (Weinh) 2021 Dec 5;5(12):e2100906. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren HospitalCapital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, 100730, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) refer to a newly recognized family of non-coding RNA with single-stranded RNAs. Despite emerging evidence indicating that circRNAs are abundantly expressed in various tissues, especially in the brain and retina, the role of circRNAs in retinal function and diseases is still largely unknown. Circular Rims2 (circRims2) is highly expressed and conserved in both the human and mouse brains. However, little is known about the expression and function of circRims2 in the retina. In the current study, the high-throughput RNA-seq analysis reveals a high expression of circRims2 in the retina. In addition, it is found that circRims2 is mainly located in plexiform layers that contain synapses between retinal neurons. Knocking down circRims2 with short hairpin RNA through subretinal adeno-associated viral (AAV) delivery in the mice leads to the decrease of the thickness of the outer and inner segment (OS/IS) layers and outer nuclear layer (ONL), and cessation of scotopic and photopic electroretinogram responses. Furthermore, the current study finds that circRims2 deficiency evokes retinal inflammation and activates the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway. Therefore, circRims2 may play an important role in the maintenance of retinal structure and function, and circRims2 deficiency may lead to pathogenic changes in the retina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.202100906DOI Listing
December 2021

Glycosyl-Radical-Based Synthesis of -Alkyl Glycosides via Photomediated Defluorinative -Difluoroallylation.

Org Lett 2021 Nov 2;23(22):8899-8904. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

National Engineering Research Center for Carbohydrate Synthesis, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China.

We have developed a stereoselective, glycosyl radical-based method for the synthesis of -alkyl glycosides via a photomediated defluorinative -difluoroallylation reaction. We demonstrate for the first time that glycosyl radicals, generated from glycosyl bromides, can readily participate in a photomediated radical polar crossover process, affording a diverse array of -difluoroalkene containing -glycosides. Notable features of this method include scalability, mild conditions, broad substrate scope, and suitability for the late-stage modification of complex molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c03390DOI Listing
November 2021

Neuronal deletion induces spinal cord motor neuron degeneration and early post-natal lethality.

Brain Commun 2021 10;3(3):fcab208. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Neurodegenerative Science, Van Andel Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA.

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the selective degeneration of neuronal populations in different brain regions and frequently the formation of distinct protein aggregates that often overlap between diseases. While the causes of many sporadic neurodegenerative diseases are unclear, genes associated with familial or sporadic forms of disease and the underlying cellular pathways involved tend to support common disease mechanisms. Underscoring this concept, mutations in the () gene have been identified to cause late-onset, autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease, whereas reduced VPS35 protein levels are reported in vulnerable brain regions of subjects with Alzheimer's disease, neurodegenerative tauopathies such as progressive supranuclear palsy and Pick's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Therefore, VPS35 is commonly implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. VPS35 plays a critical role in the retromer complex that mediates the retrieval and recycling of transmembrane protein cargo from endosomes to the -Golgi network or plasma membrane. VPS35 and retromer function are highly conserved in eukaryotic cells, with the homozygous deletion of inducing early embryonic lethality in mice that has hindered an understanding of its role in the brain. Here, we develop conditional knockout mice with the selective deletion of in neurons to better elucidate its role in neuronal viability and its connection to neurodegenerative diseases. Surprisingly, the pan-neuronal deletion of induces a progressive and rapid disease with motor deficits and early post-natal lethality. Underlying this neurological phenotype is the relatively selective and robust degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord. Neuronal loss is accompanied and preceded by the formation of p62-positive protein inclusions and robust reactive astrogliosis. Our study reveals a critical yet unappreciated role for VPS35 function in the normal maintenance and survival of motor neurons during post-natal development that has important implications for neurodegenerative diseases, particularly amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8445400PMC
September 2021

Roles of virulence regulator ToxR in viable but non-culturable formation by controlling reactive oxygen species resistance in pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus.

Microbiol Res 2022 Jan 23;254:126900. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China; Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Maricultured Animal Vaccines, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:

Under adverse circumstances, bacteria enter the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, a dormancy-like state for survival. The altered gene regulation underlying the entry of the VBNC state has not yet been well elucidated. Here, we reported that a subpopulation of cells (23.8 %) in Vibrio alginolyticus cultures enters the VBNC state in response to nutrient limitation at alkaline pH. The proteolysis of pivotal virulence regulator ToxR at these conditions is associated with VBNC formation. Meantime, ToxR abrogation impaired the mobility and the expression of virulence-associated genes, resulting in attenuated virulence in V. alginolyticus. RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analyses of the cells grown in VBNC-inducing conditions revealed that ToxR directly controls the expression of ∼8 genes including ahpC and dps involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) resistance. ToxR binds to the promoter regions of kdgR, ppiC, ahpC, and dps and further controls their respective expression under oxidative stress conditions. The cells with impaired ToxR accumulated detrimental intracellular ROS. Moreover, these genes contribute to bacterial culturability as their in-frame deletion strains exhibiting severely decreased plate counts and the complementary strain showed rescued viability. Collectively, this study revealed the role of ToxR in switching on the VBNC state by sensing unfavorable environmental signals such as endogenous ROS (hydrogen peroxide, HO) in V. alginolyticus and provided mechanistic insights into Vibrio lifestyle adaptation in the marine environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2021.126900DOI Listing
January 2022

Continuous Porous Aromatic Framework Membranes with Modifiable Sites for Optimized Gas Separation.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Oct 23. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate and Reticular Material Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024, China.

Continuous microporous membranes are widely studied for gas separation, due to their low energy premium and strong molecular specificity. Porous aromatic frameworks (PAFs) with their exceptional stability and structural flexibility are suited to a wide range of separations. Main-stream PAF-based membranes are usually prepared with polymeric matrices, but their discrete entities and boundary defects weaken their selectivity and permeability. The synthesis of continuous PAF membranes is still a major challenge because PAFs are insoluble. Herein, we successfully synthesized a continuous PAF membrane for gas separation. Both pore size and chemistry of the PAF membrane were modified by ion-exchange, resulting in good selectivity and permeance for the gas mixtures H /N and CO /N . The membrane with Br as a counter ion in the framework exhibited a H /N selectivity of 72.7 with a H permeance of 51844 gas permeation units (GPU). When the counter ions were replaced by BF , the membrane showed a CO permeance of 23058 GPU, and an optimized CO /N selectivity of 60.0. Our results show that continuous PAF membranes with modifiable pores are promising for various gas separation situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202113682DOI Listing
October 2021

Unveiling the Reversibility and Stability Origin of the Aqueous V O -Zn Batteries with a ZnCl "Water-in-Salt" Electrolyte.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Oct 19:e2102053. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Center for Nano Energy Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University and Shaanxi Joint Laboratory of Graphene (NPU), Xi'an, 710072, China.

Aqueous V O -Zn batteries, an alternative chemistry format that is inherently safer to operate than lithium-based batteries, illuminates the low-cost deployment of the stationary energy storage devices. However, the cathode structure collapse caused by H O co-insertion in aqueous solution dramatically deteriorates the electrochemical performance and hampers the operation reliability of V O -Zn batteries. The real-time phase tracking and the density functional theory (DFT) calculation prove the high energy barrier that inhibits the Zn diffusion into the bulk V O , instead the ZnCl "water-in-salt electrolyte" (WiSE) can enable the dominant proton insertion with negligible lattice strain or particle fragment. Thus, ZnCl WiSE enables the enhanced reversibility and extended shelf life of the V O -Zn battery upon the high temperature storage. The improved electrochemical performance also benefits by the inhibition of vanadium cation dissolution, enlarged voltage window, as well as the suppression of the Zn dendrite protrusion. This study comprehensively elucidates the pivotal role of a concentrated ZnCl electrolyte to stabilize the aqueous batteries at both the static storage and dynamic operation scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202102053DOI Listing
October 2021

Association of Pericoronary Adipose Tissue Quality Determined by Dual-Layer Spectral Detector CT With Severity of Coronary Artery Disease: A Preliminary Study.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 30;8:720127. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Pericoronary adipose tissue (PCAT) is considered as a source of inflammatory mediators, leading to the development of coronary atherosclerosis. The study aimed to investigate the correlation between PCAT quality derived from dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), and whether PCAT parameters were independently associated with the presence of CAD. A total of 403 patients with symptoms of chest pain who underwent SDCT were included. PCAT quality including fat attenuation index (FAI) measured from conventional polychromatic CT images (FAI) and spectral virtual mono-energetic images at 40 keV (FAI), slope of spectral HU curve (λ), and effective atomic number (Eff-Z) were measured around the lesions representing the maximal degree of vascular stenosis in each patient. Meanwhile, overall epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) attenuation was acquired in the conventional polychromatic energy imaging. FAI, λ, Eff-Z, and FAI increased along with the degree of CAD in general and were superior to the overall EAT attenuation for detecting the presence of CAD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that FAI was the most powerful independent indicator (odds ratio 1.058, 95% CI 1.044-1.073; < 0.001) of CAD among these parameters. Using an optimal cut-off (-131.8 HU), FAI showed higher diagnostic accuracy of 80.6% compared with the other parameters. These preliminary findings suggest that FAI on SDCT may be an appealing surrogate maker to allow monitoring of PCAT changes in the development of CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.720127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8514719PMC
September 2021

Cyy260, a novel small molecule inhibitor, suppresses non-small cell lung cancer cell growth via JAK2/STAT3 pathway.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(9):4241-4258. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang, China.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a malignant tumor that accounts for the most new cancer cases and cancer-related deaths worldwide, and the proliferation and metastasis of NSCLC are the main reasons for treatment failure and patient death. Traditional chemotherapeutic drugs have low selectivity, which can kill cancer cells and cause damage to normal cells at the same time. Therefore, it is particularly important to study therapies that target cancer cells and to find low-toxicity, high-efficiency anticancer drugs. Cyy260 is a novel small molecule inhibitor that we synthesized for the first time. Here, we investigated the and antitumor activities of Cyy260 and explored the underlying mechanisms in NSCLC. Cyy260 had a concentration- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on NSCLC cells, but it was less toxic to normal cells. Cyy260 regulated apoptosis through intracellular and extracellular apoptotic pathways. In addition, Cyy260 could also induce cell cycle arrest, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. Further analysis of molecular mechanisms showed that the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway was involved in the antitumor effect mediated by Cyy260. Analysis of subcutaneously transplanted tumors in mice showed that Cyy260 suppressed tumor growth . Our results proved that Cyy260 is a novel inhibitor of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway thus may have potential in therapy of NSCLC and other cancers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493399PMC
September 2021

First Report of Causing Calyx and Receptacle Blight on Strawberry in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Shenyang Agricultural University, 98428, College of Plant protection, Shenyang, China;

Strawberry () is widely cultivated in Liaoning Province, the most important strawberry production area in China. In November 2020, extensive brown spotting on the calyces and receptacles and dark brown necrotic lesions on the leaves of 'YanLi' strawberry plants were observed in the greenhouse, College of Horticulture, in Shenyang Agriculture University of Liaoning Province, China. The incidence ranged from 15% to 20% in the greenhouse. As the disease progressed, the spots extended to cover the entire receptacles and entire leaves. Fresh samples (5 mm) were cut from the margin of healthy and infected tissues. The isolation and purification of methods were as described previously (Obregón et al. 2018). Fungal isolations are suborbicular with irregular edges. The colonies showed white aerial mycelium at the early stage and formed concentric circles after 5 days culture at 28°C on PDA. Black viscous acervuli appeared and scattered on the surface of the colony after 7~10 days culture. Acervulus was 162.4 µm in average diameter, n= 30. Conidia were spindle shape, five cells, four septa, 7.0 µm (average width) and 24.0 µm (average length), n=30. The apical and basal cells are lighter in color, most of them are hyaline, the middle three cells are darker in color, mostly brown. There are 2 to 4 colorless and transparent unbranched accessory filaments at the top, 30.8 µm in average length, and the basal cell has a small appendage, 9.0 µm in average length, n=30 (Fig. 1c-g). For fungal identification to species level, genomic DNA was extracted by the 2% CTAB method. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, gene () and translation elongation factor-1α () were amplified (Qiu et al. 2020), respectively. Purified PCR products were sequenced in single direction. BLASTn searches of GenBank, using the partial ITS (MW861730), (MW856302) and (MW861729) sequences of representative isolate NP102 as the queries, revealed 97%, 100% and 100% sequence identity, respectively, to strain WJ31 accessions MG729690, MG740736 and MG740759. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by MEGA X (Fig. 2) (Kumar et al. 2018). Pathogenicity assay was carried out by spraying a spore suspension (1 × 10 spores/ml) of 8-day-old culture of fungus on six healthy 'YanLi' strawberry plants. An additional six control plants were only sprayed with sterile distilled water, and the inoculated plants were maintained in a light incubator at 25 ± 1°C, 90% relative humidity, with a photoperiod of 12 h. Calyx and receptacle blight and leaf spot symptoms resembled those observed in the greenhouse on all inoculated tissues after 10 days (Fig. 1h and i), whereas calyces, receptacles and leaves on control plants remained asymptomatic. The experiment was repeated twice. was successfully reisolated from the infected tissues, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Researchers in Spain (Chamorro et al. 2016) reported for the first time on strawberry. After two years, was found in Argentina (Obregón et al. 2018). The reports characterized it mainly as a root rot pathogen. In January 2021, spp. were reported that it is a pathogen of strawberry leaves and fruits in Florida strawberry fields (Juliana et al. 2021). Our studies indicated that isolate NP102 was more aggressive. In the warm and humid greenhouse, the disease struck suddenly at the early stages of strawberry fruiting. Unlike previous reports, symptoms were a calyx and receptacle blight as well as a leaf spot. This pathogen can cause serious economic losses to strawberry growers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of calyx and receptacle blight by on strawberry in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-21-1376-PDNDOI Listing
October 2021

Bioinspired Antiaging Binder Additive Addressing the Challenge of Chemical Degradation of Electrolyte at Cathode/Electrolyte Interphase.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Nov 13;143(43):18041-18051. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Qingdao Industrial Energy Storage Research Institute, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101, P. R. China.

For layered transition metal oxides cathode-based lithium batteries, the chemical degradation of electrolytes leads to fast battery capacity decay, severely challenging their practical applications. This kind of chemical degradation of electrolytes is caused by the oxidation of reactive oxygen (e.g., singlet oxygen) and the attack of free radicals during cycling. To address this, we first report a biologically inspired antiaging strategy of developing the photostabilizer with singlet oxygen- and free radicals-scavenging abilities as a cathode binder additive. It is fully evidenced that this binder system consisting of the binder additive and a commercially available polyvinylidene difluoride can scavenge singlet oxygen and free radicals generated during high-voltage cycling, thus significantly restraining electrolyte decomposition. As a result, high-voltage layered transition metal oxides-based lithium batteries with reproducibly superior electrochemical performance, even under elevated temperatures, can be achieved. This bioinspired strategy to scavenge reactive oxygen and free radicals heralds a new paradigm for manipulating the cathode/electrolyte interphase chemistry of various rechargeable batteries involving layered transition metal oxides-based cathodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c06003DOI Listing
November 2021

Antifungal Activity and Action Mechanism Study of Coumarins from Cnidium monnieri Fruit and Structurally Related Compounds.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Oct 12:e2100633. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, P. R. China.

The increasing resistance of plant diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi highlights the need for highly effective and environmentally benign agents. The antifungal activities of Cnidium monnieri fruit extracts and five isolated compounds as well as structurally related coumarins against five plant pathogenic fungi were evaluated. The acetone extract, which contained the highest amount of five coumarins, showed strongest antifungal activity. Among the coumarin compounds, we found that 4-methoxycoumarin exhibited stronger and broader antifungal activity against five phytopathogenic fungi, and was more potent than osthol. Especially, it could significantly inhibit the growth of Rhizoctonia solani mycelium with an EC value of 21 μg mL . Further studies showed that 4-methoxycoumarin affected the structure and function of peroxisomes, inhibited the β-oxidation of fatty acids, decreased the production of ATP and acetyl coenzyme A, and then accumulated ROS by damaging MMP and the mitochondrial function to cause the cell death of R. solani mycelia. 4-Methoxycoumarin presented antifungal efficacy in a concentration- dependent manner in vivo and could be used to prevent the potato black scurf. This study laid the foundation for the future development of 4-methoxycournamin as an alternative and friendly biofungicide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202100633DOI Listing
October 2021

MicroRNA-146b-5p promotes atrial fibrosis in atrial fibrillation by repressing TIMP4.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Nov 13;25(22):10543-10553. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Alteration of tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)/matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) associated with collagen upregulation has an important role in sustained atrial fibrillation (AF). The expression of miR-146b-5p, whose the targeted gene is TIMPs, is upregulated in atrial cardiomyocytes during AF. This study was to determine whether miR-146b-5p could regulate the gene expression of TIMP4 and the contribution of miRNA to atrial fibrosis in AF. Collagen synthesis was observed after miR-146b-5p transfection in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived atrial cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-aCMs)-fibroblast co-culture cellular model in vitro. Furthermore, a myocardial infarction (MI) mouse model was used to confirm the protective effect of miR-146b-5p downregulation on atrial fibrosis. The expression level of miR-146b-5p was upregulated, while the expression level of TIMP4 was downregulated in the fibrotic atrium of canine with AF. miR-146b-5p transfection in hiPSC-aCMs-fibroblast co-culture cellular model increased collagen synthesis by regulating TIMP4/MMP9 mediated extracellular matrix proteins synthesis. The inhibition of miR-146b-5p expression reduced the phenotypes of cardiac fibrosis in the MI mouse model. Fibrotic marker MMP9, TGFB1 and COL1A1 were significantly downregulated, while TIMP4 was significantly upregulated (at both mRNA and protein levels) by miR-146b-5p inhibition in cardiomyocytes of MI heart. We concluded that collagen fibres were accumulated in extracellular space on miR-146b-5p overexpressed co-culture cellular model. Moreover, the cardiac fibrosis induced by MI was attenuated in antagomiR-146 treated mice by increasing the expression of TIMP4, which indicated that the inhibition of miR-146b-5p might become an effective therapeutic approach for preventing atrial fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8581305PMC
November 2021

circCOL1A1 Promotes the Progression of Gastric Cancer Cells through Sponging miR-145 to Enhance RABL3 Expression.

J Immunol Res 2021 29;2021:6724854. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Huai'an Second People's Hospital, The Affiliated Huai'an Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Huai'an, China.

Circular RNA has been reported to be a new noncoding RNA which plays important roles in tumor progression. One of the most common functions of circular RNA is to regulate microRNA expression by acting as a microRNA sponge. However, the circular RNA expression profile and function remain mostly unclear in gastric cancer. In the study, we explored the expression and function of circCOL1A1 (hsa_circ_0044556) in gastric cancer. We performed RT-PCR with divergent primers, mRNA stability assay, and RNase R digestion assay to characterize circCOL1A1 in gastric cancer cell lines. qRT-PCR was applied to detect the level of circCOL1A1 in both gastric cancer cell lines and tissues. Gain- and loss-of-function studies were carried out to detect the influence of circCOL1A1 on gastric cancer cells by performing CCK8, migration, and invasion assays. The regulation of the downstream genes was identified by qRT-PCR, western blot assay, dual luciferase assay, and RNA pull-down assay. The results showed that circCOL1A1 was highly expressed in both gastric cancer cells and tissues. Silence of circCOL1A1 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells. circCOL1A1 regulated the expression of miR-145 by acting as a microRNA sponge, and the influence of circCOL1A1 could be abrogated by miR-145 mimics. Our research shows that miR-145 plays its functions through targeting and regulating RABL3. Inhibition of circCOL1A1/miR-145/RABL3 could effectively suppress gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. circCOL1A1 also promote the transformation of M1 into M2 macrophage. Our study identified circCOL1A1 as a novel oncogenic circRNA and will provide more information for gastric cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6724854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494588PMC
September 2021

Common Postzygotic Mutational Signatures in Healthy Adult Tissues Related to Embryonic Hypoxia.

Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

CAS Key Laboratory of Genomic and Precision Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences/China National Center for Bioinformation, Beijing 100101, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, Shanghai 200438, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Postzygotic mutations are acquired in normal tissues throughout an individual's lifetime and hold clues for identifying mutagenic factors. We investigated postzygotic mutation spectra in healthy individuals using optimized ultra-deep exome sequencing of time-series samples from the same volunteer and samples from different individuals. In blood, sperm, and muscle cells, we resolved three common types of mutational signatures. Signatures A and B represent clock-like mutational processes, and polymorphisms of epigenetic regulation genes influence the proportion of signature B in mutation profiles. Notably, signature C, characterized by C>T transitions at GpCpN sites, tends to be a feature of diverse normal tissues. Mutations of this type are likely to occur early during embryonic development, supported by their relatively high allelic frequencies, presence in multiple tissues, and decrease in occurrence with age. Almost none of the public datasets for tumors feature this signature, except for 19.6% of samples of clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma with increased activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling pathway. Moreover, the accumulation of signature C in the mutational profile was accelerated in a human embryonic stem cell line with drug-induced activation of HIF-1α. Thus, embryonic hypoxia may explain this novel signature across multiple normal tissues. Our study suggests that hypoxic condition in an early stage of embryonic development is a crucial factor inducing C>T transitions at GpCpN sites; and individuals' genetic background may also influence their postzygotic mutation profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gpb.2021.09.005DOI Listing
October 2021

Association between Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations and the First Ischemic Stroke in Hypertensive Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A 7-Year Retrospective Cohort Study from China.

Dis Markers 2021 28;2021:9953858. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Hypertension Center of People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Hypertension Institute, National Health Committee Key Laboratory of Hypertension Clinical Research, Xinjiang Clinical Medical Research Center for Hypertension Diseases, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.

Purpose: This study was aimed at investigating the association between baseline plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations and the risk of the first ischemic stroke (IS) and at investigating any possible influential modifying factors in hypertensive patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Methods: Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to investigate the relationship between plasma Hcy concentration and the first IS. A generalized additive model was applied to determine the nonlinear relationship. In addition, we conducted subgroup analysis.

Results: A total of 2350 hypertensive patients with OSA without a history of IS were enrolled in this study. At a median follow-up of 7.15 years, we identified 93 cases of the first IS. After adjusting for potential confounding, the findings revealed that plasma Hcy concentration was strongly and positively associated with the occurrence of the first IS (per SD increment; HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.30-1.44). A nonlinear relationship was found between plasma Hcy concentration and the risk of developing the first IS with inflection points for plasma Hcy of 5 mol/L. In stratified analysis, a greater positive correlation was found between baseline plasma Hcy concentrations and new-onset IS in patients with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg (per SD increment; HR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.33-1.65 vs. <90 mmHg: HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.02-1.42; -interaction = 0.04) and BMI ≥ 24 and <28 kg/m (per SD increment; HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.26-1.70 vs. <24 kg/m: HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.95-1.33 vs. ≥28 kg/m: HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.25-1.70; -interaction = 0.03).

Conclusion: Elevated plasma Hcy concentrations are independently associated with the risk of the first IS in hypertensive patients with OSA. Plasma Hcy concentrations ≥ 5 mol/L surely increased the risk of the first IS in hypertensive patients with OSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9953858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492296PMC
September 2021

Theoretical model considering optimal ranging performance and energy efficiency for photon-counting lidars with multiple detectors.

Appl Opt 2021 Oct;60(28):8838-8850

With an orbital speed of several kilometers per second, space-borne photon-counting lidars can only perform several to a few tens of measurements on the same target. The ranging uncertainty can exceed tens of centimeters with a pulse width of several nanoseconds and has a great impact on the total ranging error. When multiple photons are recorded (using multiple detectors) in a single laser shot, the ranging uncertainty can be effectively suppressed by the average method. Higher signal levels (receiving more photons) introduce a better ranging uncertainty, but a worse ranging bias is caused by the dead time effect of photon-counting detectors. In this study, a theoretical ranging performance model is proposed to address that question: What signal levels and how many detectors are the optimum selection to achieve a better ranging performance? A photon-counting lidar system with four photomultiplier tubes is used to verify the proposed ranging performance model. Experiments are conducted under nine sets of different signal levels, and the ranging performance of experiment results agree well with the theoretical predictions. The average residual error is 0.31 cm and all error ratios are less than 10%. The energy efficiency and ranging uncertainty are further quantitatively analyzed. When multiple detectors are employed, the total ranging error (i.e., the root sum square of the ranging bias and ranging uncertainty) has the minimum value. For a space-borne photon-counting lidar, the expected signal photon number in each detector is recommended as 0.5∼1 (wasting a small part of the received energy). With a 4×4 detector array and a received pulse width of 1.5 ns, the total ranging error can reach approximately 5 cm when the expected signal photon number is close to 10. This theoretical model is essential in estimating the ranging performance for a give photon-counting lidar and in optimizing the design of lidar system parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.433461DOI Listing
October 2021
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