Publications by authors named "Yue Guo"

417 Publications

Development and Validation of a Deep Learning Model for Brain Tumor Diagnosis and Classification Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 Aug 1;5(8):e2225608. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

National Center for Clinical Medicine of Neurological Diseases, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Importance: Deep learning may be able to use patient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to aid in brain tumor classification and diagnosis.

Objective: To develop and clinically validate a deep learning system for automated identification and classification of 18 types of brain tumors from patient MRI data.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This diagnostic study was conducted using MRI data collected between 2000 and 2019 from 37 871 patients. A deep learning system for segmentation and classification of 18 types of intracranial tumors based on T1- and T2-weighted images and T2 contrast MRI sequences was developed and tested. The diagnostic accuracy of the system was tested using 1 internal and 3 external independent data sets. The clinical value of the system was assessed by comparing the tumor diagnostic accuracy of neuroradiologists with vs without assistance of the proposed system using a separate internal test data set. Data were analyzed from March 2019 through February 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Changes in neuroradiologist clinical diagnostic accuracy in brain MRI scans with vs without the deep learning system were evaluated.

Results: A deep learning system was trained among 37 871 patients (mean [SD] age, 41.6 [11.4] years; 18 519 women [48.9%]). It achieved a mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.84-0.99) on 1339 patients from 4 centers' data sets in diagnosis and classification of 18 types of tumors. Higher outcomes were found compared with neuroradiologists for accuracy and sensitivity and similar outcomes for specificity (for 300 patients in the Tiantan Hospital test data set: accuracy, 73.3% [95% CI, 67.7%-77.7%] vs 60.9% [95% CI, 46.8%-75.1%]; sensitivity, 88.9% [95% CI, 85.3%-92.4%] vs 53.4% [95% CI, 41.8%-64.9%]; and specificity, 96.3% [95% CI, 94.2%-98.4%] vs 97.9%; [95% CI, 97.3%-98.5%]). With the assistance of the deep learning system, the mean accuracy of neuroradiologists among 1166 patients increased by 12.0 percentage points, from 63.5% (95% CI, 60.7%-66.2%) without assistance to 75.5% (95% CI, 73.0%-77.9%) with assistance.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that deep learning system-based automated diagnosis may be associated with improved classification and diagnosis of intracranial tumors from MRI data among neuroradiologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.25608DOI Listing
August 2022

A Novel Immune-Related Gene Signature to Identify the Tumor Microenvironment and Prognose Disease Among Patients With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Using ssGSEA: A Bioinformatics and Biological Validation Study.

Front Immunol 2022 6;13:922195. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Department of Stomatology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most invasive oral malignancy in adults and is associated with a poor prognosis. Accurate prognostic models are urgently needed, however, knowledge of the probable mechanisms behind OSCC tumorigenesis and prognosis remain limited. The clinical importance of the interplay between the immune system and tumor microenvironment has become increasingly evident. This study explored immune-related alterations at the multi-omics level to extract accurate prognostic markers linked to the immune response and presents a more accurate landscape of the immune genomic map during OSCC. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) OSCC cohort (n = 329) was used to detect the immune infiltration pattern of OSCC and categorize patients into two immunity groups using single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) and hierarchical clustering analysis. Multiple strategies, including lasso regression (LASSO), Cox proportional hazards regression, and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to screen clinically significant signatures and identify an incorporated prognosis model with robust discriminative power on the survival status of both the training and testing set. We identified two OSCC subtypes based on immunological characteristics: Immunity-high and immunity low, and verified that the categorization was accurate and repeatable. Immunity_ high cluster with a higher immunological and stromal score. 1047 differential genes (DEGs) integrate with immune genes to obtain 319 immue-related DEGs. A robust model with five signatures for OSCC patient prognosis was established. The GEO cohort (n = 97) were used to validate the risk model's predictive value. The low-risk group had a better overall survival (OS) than the high-risk group. Significant prognostic potential for OSCC patients was found using ROC analysis and immune checkpoint gene expression was lower in the low-risk group. We also investigated at the therapeutic sensitivity of a number of frequently used chemotherapeutic drugs in patients with various risk factors. The underlying biological behavior of the OSCC cell line was preliminarily validated. This study characterizes a reliable marker of OSCC disease progression and provides a new potential target for immunotherapy against this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.922195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9351622PMC
July 2022

Construction and Application of Standardized Postoperative Pain-Management Procedure for Patients With Perianal Abscess: A Retrospective Study.

Front Surg 2022 18;9:809622. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Central Surgery Department, Shanxi Bethune Hospital, Shanxi Academy of Medical Sciences, Tongji Shanxi Hospital, Third Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi, China.

Objective: The present study explored the construction and application of a standardized postoperative pain-management procedure for patients with perianal abscess.

Methods: Two study groups (the observation group and the intervention group) were established retrospectively. The observation group comprised 46 patients with perianal abscess who enrolled in this study between June 2019 and June 2020. The intervention group comprised 48 patients who enrolled in the study between July 2020 and July 2021. All patients were enrolled using the convenience sampling method. A pain-management team was established, and standardized procedure management was implemented in the intervention group, while routine pain management was implemented in the observation group. Indices related to the patients' postoperative pain-control satisfaction and rehabilitation were compared between the two groups.

Results: The patients' pain-control satisfaction, wound edema score, edema disappearance time, urinary retention, and defecation difficulty following intervention were better in the intervention group than in the observation group, and the differences were statistically significant ( < 0.05 for all).

Conclusion: The implementation of the standardized postoperative pain-management procedure in patients with perianal abscess can effectively improve the patient's level of pain and satisfaction and promote rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2022.809622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339645PMC
July 2022

Neuroinflammation in Low-Level PM2.5-Exposed Rats Illustrated by PET via an Improved Automated Produced [F]FEPPA: A Feasibility Study.

Mol Imaging 2022 7;2022:1076444. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: [F]FEPPA is a potent TSPO imaging agent that has been found to be a potential tracer for imaging neuroinflammation. In order to fulfill the demand of this tracer for preclinical and clinical studies, we have developed a one-pot automated synthesis with simplified HPLC purification of this tracer, which was then used for PET imaging of neuroinflammation in fine particulate matter- (PM2.5-) exposed rats.

Results: Using this automated synthesis method, the RCY of the [F]FEPPA was 38 ± 4% ( = 17, EOB) in a synthesis time of 83 ± 8 min from EOB. The radiochemical purity and molar activities were greater than 99% and 209 ± 138 GBq/mol (EOS, = 15), respectively. The quality of the [F]FEPPA synthesized by this method met the U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP) criteria. The stability test showed that the [F]FEPPA was stable at 21 ± 2°C for up to 4 hr after the end of synthesis (EOS). Moreover, microPET imaging showed that increased tracer activity of [F]FEPPA in the brain of PM2.5-exposed rats ( = 6) were higher than that of normal controls ( = 6) and regional-specific.

Conclusions: Using the improved semipreparative HPLC purification, [F]FEPPA has been produced in high quantity, high quality, and high reproducibility and, for the first time, used for PET imaging the effects of PM2.5 in the rat brain. It is ready to be used for imaging inflammation in various clinical or preclinical studies, especially for nearby PET centers without cyclotrons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1076444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9328187PMC
June 2022

Constructing Cu-CuO heterostructured skin on Cu cubes to promote electrocatalytic ammonia production from nitrate wastewater.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Jul 21;439:129653. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China; Institute for Advanced Studies (IAS), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China. Electronic address:

Electroreducting nitrate (NO) into ammonia (NH), i.e. NORA, can not only relieve NO pollution but also produce high value-added NH. Cu-based species have been taken as a promising catalyst for NORA because of their relatively high Faradaic efficiency (FE), benefiting from the weak side hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, their NH yield rates are still unsatisfactory due to the multiple electron paths of NORA. Herein, we report a Cu cube with Cu-CuO heterostructured skin, prepared by electrochemically induced reconstruction from a CuO cube. This novel Cu-based catalyst presents a mol-level NH yield rate of 3.17 mol h g ranking at the top level among non-noble metal catalysts and an ultrahigh FE of 98.7 %. These excellent performances attribute to the Cu-CuO heterostructured skin of Cu cubes, which has favorable energy for the hydrogenation of *NO to *NOH during the NORA process and an unfavorable one for HER. For the NO removal of real river water, this novel Cu-based catalyst presents a high NO removal rate of 95.5 % after the NORA test for 12 h, resulting in a lower NO concentration than the maximum residual amount of NO in drinking water limited by WHO and China. This study provides a feasible strategy by the electrochemical reconstruction method to prepare superior Cu-based electrocatalysts with mol-level NORA performances for the purification of nitrate wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129653DOI Listing
July 2022

Insight into the decay mechanism of cycling capacitance for layered double hydroxides at subnanometer scale.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Jul 26. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, Jiangsu Provincial Laboratory for Nanotechnology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

The application of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in supercapacitors is encouraged by their high capacitances but still limited by deficient cycling stability. The remarkable capacitance decay of LDHs during cycling mainly results from the narrowing of the interlayer distance due to the interlayer anion replacement. A polymer encapsulation strategy is developed to improve the cycling stability of LDHs by inhibiting the anion exchange, opening a new avenue to develop stable LDH-based supercapacitor materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc02633cDOI Listing
July 2022

Traditional Chinese medicine promotes bone regeneration in bone tissue engineering.

Chin Med 2022 Jul 20;17(1):86. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Stomatology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 139 Renmin Middle Road, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.

Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is a promising method for the repair of difficult-to-heal bone tissue damage by providing three-dimensional structures for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been introduced as an effective global medical program by the World Health Organization, comprising intricate components, and promoting bone regeneration by regulating multiple mechanisms and targets. This study outlines the potential therapeutic capabilities of TCM combined with BTE in bone regeneration. The effective active components promoting bone regeneration can be generally divided into flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, and polyphenols, among others. The chemical structures of the monomers, their sources, efficacy, and mechanisms are described. We summarize the use of compounds and medicinal parts of TCM to stimulate bone regeneration. Finally, the limitations and prospects of applying TCM in BTE are introduced, providing a direction for further development of novel and potential TCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-022-00640-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9297608PMC
July 2022

Organic Cation Modulation Triggered Second Harmonic Response in Manganese Halides with Bright Fluorescence.

Inorg Chem 2022 Aug 20;61(30):11514-11518. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225002, People's Republic of China.

Zero-dimensional (0D) hybrid manganese halides have been recently synthesized and exhibited rich functional properties including fluorescence, ferroelectrics, and ferromagnetism. However, few studies on second-harmonic generation (SHG) behaviors of manganese halide crystals have been reported, presumably owing to the d-d transitions. Here, we report three manganese bromides, [TEA]MnBr (TEA = tetraethylammonium; ), [BTEA]MnBr (BTEA = benzyltriethylammonium; ), and [BTMA]MnBr (BTMA= benzyltrimethylammonium; ), with linear and nonlinear optical properties via benzyl or ethyl/methyl substitution strategies. They feature 0D structures containing isolated [MnBr] anions and quaternary ammonium cations with different sizes inserted for charge balance. They all show green phosphorescence, and possesses good luminescence efficiency with a quantum yield of 97.8%, which is larger than those of (79%) and (72%). Specifically, acentric and present effective SHG responses about 0.48 and 0.59 times that of KDP, respectively. The result throws light on the new properties of the hybrid manganese halides and provides a new way to develop novel nonlinear optical-active organic-inorganic hybrid metal halides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.2c01796DOI Listing
August 2022

Exploring the Potential Relationship Between Global Greenness and DALY Loss Due to Depressive Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2022 28;13:919892. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States.

Objective: Prior studies have shown that greenness can reduce the burden of depressive disorders. However, most were focused on local-scale analyses while limited evaluated globally. We aimed to investigate the association between greenness and the burden of depressive disorders using data from 183 countries worldwide.

Methods: We used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate greenness. Country-level disability-adjusted life year (DALY) loss due to depressive disorders was used to represent depressive disorder burdens. A generalized linear mixed model was applied to assess the relationship between greenness and depressive disorders after controlling for covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted to determine the effects of greenness across several socio-demographic levels.

Results: The findings showed a significant negative association between greenness and the health burden of depressive disorders with a coefficient of -0.196 (95% CI: -0.356, -0.035) in the DALY changes per interquartile unit increment of NDVI. The stratified analyses suggested beneficial effects of greenness on depressive disorders across sex, various age groups especially for those aged <49 years, with low-income and/or those living in highly urbanized countries.

Conclusions: Our study noted that greenness exposure was significant negative association with the burden of depressive disorders. The findings should be viewed as recommendations for relevant authorities in supporting environmental greenness enhancement to reduce the mental burdens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.919892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9273782PMC
June 2022

Long-term imaging of individual mRNA molecules in living cells.

Cell Rep Methods 2022 Jun 25;2(6):100226. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Computational and Systems Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Single-cell imaging of individual mRNAs has revealed core mechanisms of the central dogma. However, most approaches require cell fixation or have limited sensitivity for live-cell applications. Here, we describe SunRISER (SunTag-based reporter for imaging signal-enriched mRNA), a computationally and experimentally optimized approach for unambiguous detection of single mRNA molecules in living cells. When viewed by epifluorescence microscopy, SunRISER-labeled mRNAs show strong signal to background and resistance to photobleaching, which together enable long-term mRNA imaging studies. SunRISER variants, using 8× and 10× stem-loop arrays, demonstrate effective mRNA detection while significantly reducing alterations to target mRNA sequences. We characterize SunRISER to observe mRNA inheritance during mitosis and find that stressors enhance diversity among post-mitotic sister cells. Taken together, SunRISER enables a glimpse into living cells to observe aspects of the central dogma and the role of mRNAs in rare and dynamical trafficking events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crmeth.2022.100226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9243547PMC
June 2022

Role of NOD2 and hepcidin in inflammatory periapical periodontitis.

BMC Oral Health 2022 06 28;22(1):263. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Stomatology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.

The immunological response occurring during periapical inflammation includes expression of nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2 and hepcidin. Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2 deficiency increases infiltration of inflammatory cells close to alveolar bone. Hepcidin has an important role in iron metabolism affecting bone metabolism.We investigated the role of nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2 and hepcidin in inflammatory periapical periodontitis. Periapical periodontitis was induced in rats and confirmed by micro-computed tomography. Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 and hepcidin were evaluated through immunohistochemistry. Bioinformatics analysis was undertaken usingthe Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology databases. Micro-computer tomography revealed alveolar bone resorption in the periapical region and furcation area of mandibular molars in rats of the periapical periodontitis group. Immunohistochemistry showed increased expressionof nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2 and hepcidin around root apices in rats of the periapical periodontitis group. Bioinformatics analysis of differentially expressed genes in inflamed and non-inflamed tissues revealed enrichment in the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway. Our data suggest that nucleotide binding oligomization domain contain2 and hepcidin have important roles in periapical periodontitis severity because they can reduce alveolar bone loss.They could elicit new perspectives for development of novel strategies for periapical periodontitis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02286-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9241313PMC
June 2022

Identification and Characterization of Shaker K Channel Gene Family in Foxtail Millet () and Their Role in Stress Response.

Front Plant Sci 2022 9;13:907635. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

School of Life Sciences, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China.

Potassium (K) is one of the indispensable elements in plant growth and development. The Shaker K channel protein family is involved in plant K uptake and distribution. Foxtail millet (), as an important crop, has strong tolerance and adaptability to abiotic stresses. However, no systematic study focused on the Shaker K channel family in foxtail millet. Here, ten Shaker K channel genes in foxtail millet were identified and divided into five groups through phylogenetic analysis. Gene structures, chromosome locations, cis-acting regulatory elements in promoter, and post-translation modification sites of Shaker K channels were analyzed. analysis of transcript level demonstrated that the expression of Shaker K channel genes was tissue or developmental stage specific. The transcription levels of Shaker K channel genes in foxtail millet under different abiotic stresses (cold, heat, NaCl, and PEG) and phytohormones (6-BA, BR, MJ, IAA, NAA, GA3, SA, and ABA) treatments at 0, 12, and 24 h were detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that , , and were worth further research due to their significant responses after most treatments. The yeast complementation assay verified the inward K transport activities of detectable Shaker K channels. Finally, we found interactions between SiKAT2 and SiSNARE proteins. Compared to research in Arabidopsis, our results showed a difference in SYP121 related Shaker K channel regulation mechanism in foxtail millet. Our results indicate that Shaker K channels play important roles in foxtail millet and provide theoretical support for further exploring the K absorption mechanism of foxtail millet under abiotic stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.907635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218596PMC
June 2022

miR-143-Mediated Responses to Betaine Supplement Repress Lipogenesis and Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Targeting MAT1a and MAPK11.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Jul 23;70(26):7981-7992. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Control, National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, No. 483 Wushan Road, Guangzhou, 510642 China.

The liver as the central organ is responsible for lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and one-carbon metabolism. Methyl donors (e.g., betaine) modulate metabolic homeostasis and gene regulation through one-carbon metabolism. MiR-143 regulates DNA methylation by targeting DNMT3A, thereby suggesting that this miRNA participates in one-carbon metabolic pathways. However, the effect and mechanism that regulate glucose and lipid metabolism via the methyl group metabolism pathway remain elusive. In this study, we found that a betaine supplement and miR-143 KO significantly promoted lipolysis and glucose utilization and repressed lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis through enhancing energy consumption and thermogenesis, repressing GPNMB and targeting MAPK11, respectively. We further explored the relationship between miR-143 and a methyl donor (betaine) and the miR-143-mediated responses to the betaine supplement regulating the mechanism of the glucose and lipid metabolism. The results showed that betaine significantly down-regulated the expression of miR-143 that subsequently increased SAM levels in the liver by targeting MAT1a. In brief, the regulations of glucose and lipid metabolism are related to the miR-143-regulation of one-carbon units, and the relationship between betaine and miR-143 in the methionine cycle is a typical yin-yang type of regulation. Thus, betaine and miR-143 function together as key regulators and biomarkers for preventing and diagnosing metabolic diseases such as fatty liver disease, obesity, and diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.2c02940DOI Listing
July 2022

Effects of iodoacetic acid drinking water disinfection byproduct on the gut microbiota and its metabolism in rats.

J Environ Sci (China) 2022 Jul 17;117:91-104. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China; Key Laboratory of Longevity and Aging-related Diseases of Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China; Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Highly Prevalent Diseases, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China; Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environment and Health Research, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China. Electronic address:

Iodoacetic acid (IAA) is an unregulated disinfection byproduct in drinking water and has been shown to exert cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, tumorigenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. However, the effects of IAA on gut microbiota and its metabolism are still unknown, especially the association between gut microbiota and the metabolism and toxicity of IAA. In this study, female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to IAA at 0 and 16 mg/kg bw/day daily for 8 weeks by oral gavage. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that IAA could alter the diversity, relative abundance and function of gut microbiota in female and male rats. IAA also increased the abundance of genes related to steroid hormone biosynthesis in the gut microbiota of male rats. Moreover, metabolomics profiling revealed that IAA could significantly disturb 6 and 13 metabolites in the feces of female and male rats, respectively. In female rats, the level of androstanediol increased in the IAA treatment group. These results were consistent with our previous findings, where IAA was identified as an androgen disruptor. Additionally, the perturbed gut microbiota and altered metabolites were correlated with each other. The results of this study indicated that IAA could disturb gut microbiota and its metabolism. These changes in gut microbiota and its metabolism were associated with the reproductive and developmental toxicity of IAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2022.02.048DOI Listing
July 2022

TRIM46 upregulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling by inhibiting Axin1 to mediate hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HK2 cells.

Mol Cell Biochem 2022 Jun 7. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Nephrology, Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No.358 Datong Road in Pudong New District, Shanghai, 200137, China.

Hypoxia can cause Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal tubular cells, and in turn, renal fibrosis. We tested the expression of TRIM46, a member of tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) family proteins, and mesenchymal markers under hypoxia. Our results showed that hypoxia significantly enhanced expression of TRIM46 in HK2 human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our data further showed that hypoxia led to upregulated expression of mesenchymal markers including α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and Snail, and downregulated expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin, coupled with an increased abundance of nuclear β-catenin. However, such effects were reversed when TRIM46 expression was knocked down. TRIM46 overexpression had similar effects as hypoxia exposure, and such effects were reversed when cells were treated with XAV-939, a selective inhibitor for β-catenin. Furthermore, we found that TRIM46 promoted ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of Axin1 protein, a robust negative regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity. Finally, increased TRIM46 coupled with decreased Axin1 was observed in a rat renal fibrosis model. These data suggest a novel mechanism contributing to EMT that mediates hypoxia-induced renal fibrosis. Our results suggest that selectively inhibiting this pathway that activates fibrosis in human kidney may lead to development of a novel therapeutic approach for managing this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-022-04467-4DOI Listing
June 2022

Intravitreal injection of mitochondrial DNA induces cell damage and retinal dysfunction in rats.

Biol Res 2022 Jun 3;55(1):22. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Background: Retinal neurodegeneration is induced by a variety of environmental insults and stresses, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we explored the involvement of cytosolic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), resulting in the cGAS-STING dependent inflammatory response and apoptosis in retinal damage in vivo.

Methods: Retinal injury was induced with white light or intravitreal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After light- or LPS-induced injury, the amount of cytosolic mtDNA in the retina was detected by PCR. The mtDNA was isolated and used to transfect retinas in vivo. WB and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the activation of cGAS-STING pathway and the levels of apoptosis-associated protein at different times after mtDNA injection. Retinal cell apoptosis rate was detected by TUNEL staining. Full-field electroretinography (ERG) was used to assess the retinal function.

Results: Light injury and the intravitreal injection of LPS both caused the leakage of mtDNA into the cytoplasm in retinal tissue. After the transfection of mtDNA in vivo, the levels of cGAS, STING, and IFN-β mRNAs and the protein levels of STING, phosph-TBK1, phospho-IRF3, and IFN-β were upregulated. mtDNA injection also induced the activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9. BAX and BAK were increased at both the mRNA and protein levels. The release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol was increased after mtDNA injection. The wave amplitudes on ERG decreased and retinal cell apoptosis was detected after mtDNA injection.

Conclusions: Cytosolic mtDNA triggers an inflammatory response. It also promotes apoptosis and the dysfunction of the retina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40659-022-00390-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9164539PMC
June 2022

Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide and Its Property in Delaying Cellular Senescence.

Front Nutr 2022 16;9:876992. Epub 2022 May 16.

Key Laboratory of Vector Biology and Pathogen Control of Zhejiang Province, Huzhou University, Huzhou, China.

The sulfated polysaccharide was isolated from the purified polysaccharide (PGP), and its property in delaying HO-induced 2BS cellular senescence was studied. The results showed that PGP was a linear polysaccharide containing alternating α-(1 → 3)- and β-(1 → 4)-galactopyranose units. Most of the sulfate groups are at C6 of the -(1 → 4)-α-D-Galp, and a small part of them are at C3 and C6. PGP pretreatment could decrease SA-β-gal-positive cells and prevent the formation of senescence-associated heterochromatic foci (SAHF) induced by HO in a dose-dependent manner. It is speculated that PGP may delay aging by downregulating the expression of p21 and p53 genes. The finding provides new insights into the beneficial role of . polysaccharide (GP) on retarding senescence process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.876992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9149564PMC
May 2022

Strategies and Reasons for Nondisclosure in Close Relationships During Adolescence.

J Youth Adolesc 2022 Sep 31;51(9):1841-1857. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Adolescents keep secrets from parents to assert independence or avoid punishment; however, there is little research on nondisclosure in other close relationships during adolescence. This article examines strategies and reasons for nondisclosure between adolescents (N = 244, 47.5% female, M = 12.71, SD = 1.66) and multiple close relationships (parents, siblings, and best friends). The results show that adolescents tended to use nondisclosure strategies more for personal information (e.g., thoughts/feelings). Adolescents had more reasons to keep information from family as they got older, and girls reported keeping information from mothers more than boys because they would feel bad, embarrassed, or ashamed. These findings provide a greater understanding of patterns of nondisclosure during adolescence, which may in turn have implications for adolescent adjustment and relationship quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-022-01634-0DOI Listing
September 2022

How do China's lockdown and post-COVID-19 stimuli impact carbon emissions and economic output? Retrospective estimates and prospective trajectories.

iScience 2022 May 30;25(5):104328. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

School of Economics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

This paper develops a multi-sector and multi-factor structural gravity model that allows an analytical and quantitative decomposition of the emission and output changes into composition and technique effects. We find that the negative production shock of China's containment policy propagates globally via supply chains, with the carbon-intensive sectors experiencing the greatest carbon emission shocks. We further reveal that China's current stimulus package in 2021-2025 is consistent with China's emission intensity-reduction goals for 2025, but further efforts are required to meet China's carbon emissions-peaking target in 2030 and Cancun 2°C goal. Short-term changes in carbon emissions resulting from lockdowns and initial fiscal stimuli in "economic rescue" period have minor long-term effects, whereas the transitional direction of future fiscal stimulus exerts more predominant impact on long-term carbon emissions. The efficiency improvement effects are more important than the sectoral structure effects of the fiscal stimulus in achieving greener economic growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.104328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9118742PMC
May 2022

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant: Epidemiological Features, Biological Characteristics, and Clinical Significance.

Front Immunol 2022 29;13:877101. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biosafety Emergency Response, Shanghai Institute of Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, National Medical Center for Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1529) variant was designated as a variant of concern (VOC) by the World Health Organization (WHO) on November 26, 2021. Within two months, it had replaced the Delta variant and had become the dominant circulating variant around the world. The Omicron variant possesses an unprecedented number of mutations, especially in the spike protein, which may be influencing its biological and clinical aspects. Preliminary studies have suggested that increased transmissibility and the reduced protective effects of neutralizing antibodies have contributed to the rapid spread of this variant, posing a significant challenge to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is, however, a silver lining for this wave of the Omicron variant. A lower risk of hospitalization and mortality has been observed in prevailing countries. Booster vaccination also has ameliorated a significant reduction in neutralization. Antiviral drugs are minimally influenced. Moreover, the functions of Fc-mediated and T-cell immunity have been retained to a great extent, both of which play a key role in preventing severe disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.877101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9099228PMC
April 2022

Global, regional, and national burden of mortality associated with short-term temperature variability from 2000-19: a three-stage modelling study.

Lancet Planet Health 2022 05;6(5):e410-e421

Faculty of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.

Background: Increased mortality risk is associated with short-term temperature variability. However, to our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive assessment of the temperature variability-related mortality burden worldwide. In this study, using data from the MCC Collaborative Research Network, we first explored the association between temperature variability and mortality across 43 countries or regions. Then, to provide a more comprehensive picture of the global burden of mortality associated with temperature variability, global gridded temperature data with a resolution of 0·5° × 0·5° were used to assess the temperature variability-related mortality burden at the global, regional, and national levels. Furthermore, temporal trends in temperature variability-related mortality burden were also explored from 2000-19.

Methods: In this modelling study, we applied a three-stage meta-analytical approach to assess the global temperature variability-related mortality burden at a spatial resolution of 0·5° × 0·5° from 2000-19. Temperature variability was calculated as the SD of the average of the same and previous days' minimum and maximum temperatures. We first obtained location-specific temperature variability related-mortality associations based on a daily time series of 750 locations from the Multi-country Multi-city Collaborative Research Network. We subsequently constructed a multivariable meta-regression model with five predictors to estimate grid-specific temperature variability related-mortality associations across the globe. Finally, percentage excess in mortality and excess mortality rate were calculated to quantify the temperature variability-related mortality burden and to further explore its temporal trend over two decades.

Findings: An increasing trend in temperature variability was identified at the global level from 2000 to 2019. Globally, 1 753 392 deaths (95% CI 1 159 901-2 357 718) were associated with temperature variability per year, accounting for 3·4% (2·2-4·6) of all deaths. Most of Asia, Australia, and New Zealand were observed to have a higher percentage excess in mortality than the global mean. Globally, the percentage excess in mortality increased by about 4·6% (3·7-5·3) per decade. The largest increase occurred in Australia and New Zealand (7·3%, 95% CI 4·3-10·4), followed by Europe (4·4%, 2·2-5·6) and Africa (3·3, 1·9-4·6).

Interpretation: Globally, a substantial mortality burden was associated with temperature variability, showing geographical heterogeneity and a slightly increasing temporal trend. Our findings could assist in raising public awareness and improving the understanding of the health impacts of temperature variability.

Funding: Australian Research Council, Australian National Health & Medical Research Council.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(22)00073-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9177161PMC
May 2022

The recognition of aristolochic acid I based on fluorescence quenching of bovine serum albumin-stabilized gold nanoclusters.

Anal Methods 2022 05 27;14(20):1963-1972. Epub 2022 May 27.

Pharmaceutical College, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning 530021, China.

Aristolochic acid I (AAI) is one of the nephrotoxic derivatives present in genera and . Although some detection strategies for monitoring AAI have been reported, the application of these methods is limited because they involve tedious preparation and require professional operation. In this work, bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been introduced as a reducing agent and stabilizing agent to synthesize gold nanoclusters with strong red fluorescence for the rapid and effective detection of AAI. Under excitation at 328 nm, the fluorescence intensity at the maximum emission wavelength of the bovine serum albumin-stabilized gold nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) decreased with the addition of AAI, and the degree of quenching showed a linear relationship with the concentration of AAI from 0.1-12.8 μg mL. The obtained BSA-AuNCs were stable, and quenching in the presence of AAI could be achieved within 10 seconds. Here, we have focused on the application of these gold nanoclusters as an optical sensing material for AAI in rat urine samples, including a discussion on the detection mechanism. The detection result of the fluorescent probe was consistent with that of the HPLC method. In view of this reality, the reported protein-AuNCs sensing platform can serve as a convenient detection strategy in toxicological analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ay00492eDOI Listing
May 2022

A comprehensive analysis of the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network in osteocyte-like cell associated with Mycobacterium leprae infection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 05 2;16(5):e0010379. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Stomatology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Bone formation and loss are the characteristic clinical manifestations of leprosy, but the mechanisms underlying the bone remodeling with Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infection are unclear.

Methodology/principal Findings: Osteocytes may have a role through regulating the differentiation of osteogenic lineages. To investigate osteocyte-related mechanisms in leprosy, we treated osteocyte-like cell with N-glycosylated muramyl dipeptide (N.g MDP). RNA-seq analysis showed 724 differentially expressed messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and 724 differentially expressed circular RNA (circRNAs). Of these, we filtered through eight osteogenic-related differentially expressed genes, according to the characteristic of competing endogenous RNA, PubMed databases, and bioinformatic analysis, including TargetScan, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Based on these results, we built a circRNA-microRNA (miRNA)-mRNA triple network. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blots analyses confirmed decreased Clock expression in osteocyte-like cell, while increased in bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), implicating a crucial factor in osteogenic differentiation. Immunohistochemistry showed obviously increased expression of CLOCK protein in BMSCs and osteoblasts in N.g MDP-treated mice, but decreased expression in osteocytes.

Conclusions/significance: This analytical method provided a basis for the relationship between N.g MDP and remodeling in osteocytes, and the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA triple network may offer a new target for leprosy therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0010379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9098081PMC
May 2022

Disorder-Order Conversion-Induced Enhancement of Thermal Stability of Pyroxene Near-Infrared Phosphors for Light-Emitting Diodes.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Jul 12;61(28):e202204411. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan.

The minimization of thermal quenching, which leads to luminescence loss at high temperatures, is one of the most important issues for near-infrared phosphors. In the present work, we investigated the properties of near-infrared Ca(Sc,Mg)(Al, Si)O  : Cr phosphors with a pyroxene-type structure under blue light excitation. The CaScAlSiO  : Cr end member of Ca(Sc,Mg)(Al,Si)O  : Cr phosphor led to broadband emission at a full-width half maximum of 215 nm, whereas the CaMgSi O  : Cr end member exhibited high thermal stability at 150 °C, with an intensity of 88.4 % of that at room temperature. The structural analysis and density functional theory calculations revealed the absence of soft conformations and local space confinement contributed to the high structural rigidity and weakened the thermal quenching effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202204411DOI Listing
July 2022

Thermally Conductive AlN-Network Shield for Separators to Achieve Dendrite-Free Plating and Fast Li-Ion Transport toward Durable and High-Rate Lithium-Metal Anodes.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2022 Jun 23;9(18):e2200411. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE and Jiangsu Provincial Laboratory for Nanotechnology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, P. R. China.

Lithium-metal anodes suffer from inadequate rate and cycling performances for practical application mainly due to the harmful dendrite growth, especially at high currents. Herein a facile construction of the porous and robust network with thermally conductive AlN nanowires onto the commercial polypropylene separator by convenient vacuum filtration is reported. The so-constructed AlN-network shield provides a uniform thermal distribution to realize homogeneous Li deposition, super electrolyte-philic channels to enhance Li-ion transport, and also a physical barrier to resist dendrite piercing as the last fence. Consequently, the symmetric Li|Li cell presents an ultralong lifetime over 8000 h (20 mA cm , 3 mAh cm ) and over 1000 h even at an unprecedented high rate (80 mA cm , 80 mAh cm ), which is far surpassing the corresponding performances reported to date. The corresponding Li|LiFePO cell delivers a high specific capacity of 84.3 mAh g at 10 C. This study demonstrates an efficient approach with great application potential toward durable and high-power Li-metal batteries and even beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202200411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218647PMC
June 2022

IFI16 induces inflammation in hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis by regulating the Caspase-1/ IL-1 ß pathway.

Diagn Pathol 2022 Apr 23;17(1):39. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Department of Liver Diseases, Shandong Public Health Clinical Center, Shandong University, Jinan, 250000, China.

Aims And Background: IFI16 plays an important role in innate immunity against invasive microbial infection by sensing double-stranded DNA viruses due to caspase-1-dependent inflammasome activation and subsequent maturation and secretion of IL-1β. However, the role of IFI16 in regulating the immune response to viruses in Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN), especially in sensing hepatitis B virus (HBV), has not been determined. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory role of IFI16 in HBV-GN.

Methods: A total 75 kidney tissue including 50 HBV-GN and 25 chronic glomerulonephritis (CCN) were collected to determine the expression of IFI16, Caspase-1 and IL-1β using immunohistochemistry (IHC), then the correlation between them was analyzed. In vitro, the primary human glomerular mesangial (HGM) cells and HEK-293 T cell lines were used in this study. The cell lines were both co-transfected with HBVDNA and overexpression or silencing IFI16. Quantitative Real-time PCR and western blotting were used to determine the expression of IFI16, Caspase-1 and IL-1β.

Results: IFI16 expression in HBV-GN biopsies (80.0%) was significantly higher than in CGN (24.0%) and positively correlated with HBVDNA,caspase-1 and IL-1β expression in HBV-GN. Meanwhile, over expression of IFI16 increased caspase-1 and IL-1β expression in HBV-infected HGM and HEK-293 T cell lines, knockdown of IFI16 mRNA by siRNA resulted in downregulation of the caspase-1 and IL-1β expression in both cell lines.

Conclusions: The elevation of IFI16 during HBV infection or replication may contribute to renal damage due to inflammation, thus providing a putative therapeutic target and a new avenue for researching the pathogenesis of HBV-GN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13000-022-01220-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9034479PMC
April 2022

Snacking among shiftwork nurses related to non-optimal dietary intake.

J Adv Nurs 2022 Apr 15. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Susan Wakil School of Nursing and Midwifery, The Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.

Aims: To compare nurses' non-optimal eating behaviours across different shifts, to examine whether non-day shifts were related to deviation from optimal dietary behaviours compared with day shifts and whether such deviation was related to non-optimal macronutrient intake.

Design: This is a 4-day intensive longitudinal study.

Methods: A convenience sample of hospital nurses was recruited in Taiwan. From September 2018 through January 2019, 120 participants completed 4-days of 24-h dietary recalls. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to compare differences in energy and macronutrient intake and frequency of meals and snacking, respectively. Generalized linear regressions examined (1) the associations between shiftwork schedules and non-optimal eating behaviours and (2) associations between non-optimal eating and high energy contribution of non-optimal macronutrients.

Results: Nurses consumed less energy on evening and night shifts compared with day shifts. However, energy intake from snacking was higher on evening and night shifts relative to day shifts. Nurses consumed less meals but had higher snacking frequency on non-day shifts. In addition, high energy intake from snacking was positively associated with high energy intake from saturated fat.

Conclusions: Nurses were more likely to have non-optimal eating behaviours on non-day shifts, which may contribute to an increased intake of saturated fat; thus, increasing their risk of chronic diseases. Strategies to improve non-day shift nurses' non-optimal eating behaviours may be beneficial to their health.

Impact: Shiftwork is known to affect nurses' eating behaviours; however, which shift is associated with unhealthy eating remains inconclusive. Despite lower energy intakes, nurses had higher intake by snacking on evening and night shifts. High snacking intake was associated with a high intake of saturated fat. Hospitals can increase the availability of healthy foods on evening or night shifts, which may improve non-day shift nurses' non-optimal eating behaviours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.15253DOI Listing
April 2022

Silver ions involved fluorescence "on-off" responses of gold nanoclusters system for determination of carbendazim residues in fruit samples.

Food Chem 2022 Aug 29;386:132836. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, PR China. Electronic address:

Herein, a fluorescence "on-off" system was developed for monitoring carbendazim (CBZ) residues in fruit samples, based on glutathione-gold nanoclusters (GSH-Au NCs) and silver ions (Ag). First, the fluorescence intensity of GSH-Au NCs was greatly enhanced (turn on) with aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) effect in the presence of Ag, then fluorescence quenching occurred (turn off) with adding CBZ by the chelation between CBZ and Ag. The quenching degree was well linearly dependent on CBZ concentration covering from 0.5 to 20 μM. Moreover, the GSH-Au NCs-Ag system exhibited superior selectivity towards CBZ and was sensitive for the determination of CBZ in apple and orange juices with a low detection limit of 0.12 μM. The recoveries of CBZ spiked in fruit samples ranged from 81.0 % to 111.4% with the relative standard deviations less than 6.6%, demonstrating its great potential for monitoring CBZ residues in fruit samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132836DOI Listing
August 2022

Incidence and Risk of Fatal Vehicle Crashes Among Professional Drivers: A Population-Based Study in Taiwan.

Front Public Health 2022 8;10:849547. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Ph.D. Program in Environmental and Occupational Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University and National Health Research Institutes, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Fatal vehicle crashes (FVCs) are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Professional drivers often drive under dangerous conditions; however, knowledge of the risk factors for FVCs among professional drivers remain scant. We investigated whether professional drivers have a higher risk of FVCs than non-professional drivers and sought to clarify potential risk factors for FVCs among professional drivers. We analyzed nationwide incidence rates of FVCs as preliminary data. Furthermore, by using these data, we created a 1:4 professionals/non-professionals preliminary study to compare with the risk factors between professional and non-professional drivers. In Taiwan, the average crude incidence rate of FVCs for 2003-2016 among professional drivers was 1.09 per 1,000 person-years; professional drivers had a higher percentage of FVCs than non-professional drivers among all motor vehicle crashes. In the 14-year preliminary study with frequency-matched non-professional drivers, the risk of FVCs among professional drivers was significantly associated with a previous history of involvement in motor vehicle crashes (adjustment odds ratio [OR] = 2.157; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.896-2.453), previous history of benzodiazepine use (adjustment OR = 1.385; 95% CI, 1.215-1.579), and speeding (adjustment OR = 1.009; 95% CI, 1.006-1.013). The findings have value to policymakers seeking to curtail FVCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.849547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8957854PMC
March 2022
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