Publications by authors named "Yubo Yan"

44 Publications

MiR-139-5p Targetedly Regulates YAF2 and Mediates the AKT/P38 MAPK Signaling Pathway to Alleviate the Metastasis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells and Their Resistance Against Cisplatin.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 5;13:3639-3650. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Harbin Medical University Tumer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, 150000, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To explore relevant mechanisms of miR-139-5p in alleviating the metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC) and their resistance against cisplatin.

Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB) assays were carried out to determine the protein levels of miR-139-5p and YAF2, and cisplatin (DDP)-resistant NSCLC cell strains were established. Subsequently, an MTT assay was employed to evaluate the viability of the cell strains, a Transwell assay to evaluate cell invasion activity, and flow cytometry to analyze cell apoptosis rate. Finally, a Western blot assay was carried out to determine the protein levels of P-PI3K and p-p38.

Results: NSCLC tissues showed lower miR-139-5p expression and higher YAF2 expression than paracancerous tissues and human normal lung epithelial cells, and miR-139-5p was related to the prognosis of NSCLC patients. Overexpression of miR-139-5p or knock-down of YAF2 inhibited the proliferation and invasion of NSCLC cells and induced their apoptosis. Additionally, the dual-luciferase reporter assay verified a targeting relationship between miR-139-5p and YAF2. Overexpression of miR-139-5p and knockdown of YAF2 reversed the resistance of A549/DDP cells against DDP, inactivated p38 and Akt proteins, and inhibited the AKT/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, inhibiting the AKT/p38 MAPK signaling pathway with MK2206 resisted the effects of knock-down of miR-139-5p on DDP resistance in NSCLC cells.

Conclusion: MiR-139-5p targetedly regulates YAF2 and mediates the AKT/p38 MAPK signaling pathway to alleviate the metastasis of NSCLC cells and their resistance against cisplatin, which may be a novel target for improving the therapeutic effect on NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S254671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8109024PMC
May 2021

Distribution, behaviour, bioavailability and remediation of poly- and per-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in solid biowastes and biowaste-treated soil.

Environ Int 2021 May 5;155:106600. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA; Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

Aqueous film-forming foam, used in firefighting, and biowastes, including biosolids, animal and poultry manures, and composts, provide a major source of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) input to soil. Large amounts of biowastes are added to soil as a source of nutrients and carbon. They also are added as soil amendments to improve soil health and crop productivity. Plant uptake of PFAS through soil application of biowastes is a pathway for animal and human exposure to PFAS. The complexity of PFAS mixtures, and their chemical and thermal stability, make remediation of PFAS in both solid and aqueous matrices challenging. Remediation of PFAS in biowastes, as well as soils treated with these biowastes, can be achieved through preventing and decreasing the concentration of PFAS in biowaste sources (i.e., prevention through source control), mobilization of PFAS in contaminated soil and subsequent removal through leaching (i.e., soil washing) and plant uptake (i.e., phytoremediation), sorption of PFAS, thereby decreasing their mobility and bioavailability (i.e., immobilization), and complete removal through thermal and chemical oxidation (i.e., destruction). In this review, the distribution, bioavailability, and remediation of PFAS in soil receiving solid biowastes, which include biosolids, composts, and manure, are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106600DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of added calcium-based additives on swine manure derived biochar characteristics and heavy metals immobilization.

Waste Manag 2021 Mar 8;123:69-79. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huai'an 223300, China. Electronic address:

Although pyrolysis is a promising way for treating animal manure, the application is restricted with some limitations of biochar. To improve the quality of biochar derived from swine manure and enhance the immobilization of heavy metals (Cu and Zn) in it, swine manure was mixed with four types of Ca-based additives (CaO, CaCO, Ca(OH), and Ca(HPO)) prior to pyrolysis at 300-700 °C. The thermogravimetric characteristics of swine manure were obviously influenced The addition of CaO, CaCO, and Ca(OH) during the whole decomposition process. Furthermore, with the addition of CaO and Ca(OH), the emission of CO and CO was substantially decreased at 200-500 °C, whereas the formation of CO, H, CO, and CH was drastically increased at 600-800 °C. The biochar produced with CaO addition had the highest pH, surface area and carbon content. Moreover, by addition of Ca-based additives, except for Ca(HPO), the transformation of labile Cu and Zn to the stable fraction was promoted, and the leachability and environmental risk of them were simultaneously reduced. In contrast, CaO and Ca(OH) were more favorable for the immobilization of Cu and Zn than CaCO. Our study indicated that the catalytic pyrolysis using CaO was an effective and valuable method of animal manure treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.01.020DOI Listing
March 2021

Remediation of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) contaminated soils - To mobilize or to immobilize or to degrade?

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 9;401:123892. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Soil- and Groundwater-Management, Institute of Soil Engineering, Waste- and Water-Management, Faculty of Architecture und Civil Engineering, University of Wuppertal, Germany; Department of Environment, Energy and Geoinformatics, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, South Korea.

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals, which are introduced to the environment through anthropogenic activities. Aqueous film forming foam used in firefighting, wastewater effluent, landfill leachate, and biosolids are major sources of PFAS input to soil and groundwater. Remediation of PFAS contaminated solid and aqueous media is challenging, which is attributed to the chemical and thermal stability of PFAS and the complexity of PFAS mixtures. In this review, remediation of PFAS contaminated soils through manipulation of their bioavailability and destruction is presented. While the mobilizing amendments (e.g., surfactants) enhance the mobility and bioavailability of PFAS, the immobilizing amendments (e.g., activated carbon) decrease their bioavailability and mobility. Mobilizing amendments can be applied to facilitate the removal of PFAS though soil washing, phytoremediation, and complete destruction through thermal and chemical redox reactions. Immobilizing amendments are likely to reduce the transfer of PFAS to food chain through plant and biota (e.g., earthworm) uptake, and leaching to potable water sources. Future studies should focus on quantifying the potential leaching of the mobilized PFAS in the absence of removal by plant and biota uptake or soil washing, and regular monitoring of the long-term stability of the immobilized PFAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025151PMC
January 2021

Hydroxyapatite as a passivator for safe wheat production and its impacts on soil microbial communities in a Cd-contaminated alkaline soil.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 28;404(Pt B):124005. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

The remediation of Cd-contaminated alkaline soil plays a critical role in safe wheat production. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAP), a functional environmental remediation material, was selected to investigate the effects of HAP on cadmium accumulation in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Cd bioavailability in alkaline soil moderately polluted with Cd (2.46 mg kg) and the soil bacterial community via pot experiments. The results showed HAP effectively inhibited Cd accumulation in the grains of two investigated wheat cultivars by hindering root uptake. The Cd concentrations decreased by 49.9-81.9%, and 35.7-92.4% in the grains of Zhoumai-30 and Zhengmai-7698, respectively. HAP increased the soil pH and reduced the bioavailability of Cd. 16S rRNA sequencing analysis indicated that the changes of soil physicochemical properties changed the diversity and composition of the bacterial community by increasing the relative abundance of beneficial soil bacteria. These results demonstrated the application of 2.5% HAP combined with planting Zhengmai-7698 treatment was a potential remediation method for safe wheat production, and also benefited soil P and N cycling by increasing the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria. The good performance of HAP in inhabiting Cd accumulation in wheat grains indicated it is a promising material for safe wheat production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124005DOI Listing
February 2021

Evaluation of hydroxyapatite derived from flue gas desulphurization gypsum on simultaneous immobilization of lead and cadmium in contaminated soil.

J Hazard Mater 2020 12 15;400:123038. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan Campus, NSW, 2308, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for High Performance Soil (Soil CRC), Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia.

Flue gas desulphurization gypsum (FGD) is a major solid waste in coal-fired energy plants, and the appropriate reuse of this resources is still a major challenge. In this study, the feasibility of FGD as a calcium source to produce hydroxyapatite (FGD-HAP) for the immobilization of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in spiked soil was investigated. The effects of FGD and FGD-HAP on soil properties and redistribution, bioaccessibility and plant uptake of Pb and Cd were examined. Results showed that application of FGD and FGD-HAP could significantly improve the enzymes activities of contaminated soils, but the effectiveness was more pronounced with FGD-HAP. Addition of only 1% FGD-HAP could effectively reduce bioavailable Pb and Cd concentration in soil as measured by CaCl extraction by 60.6% and 65.4%, respectively. On the other hand, plant available Pb and Cd could significantly decrease by 93.8% and 73.2% after amendment of 5% FGD-HAP. Significant changes in the micro-scale distribution of heavy metals before and after FGD-HAP treatment demonstrated that while heavy metals were predominantly associated with iron/manganese oxides in untreated soil, high correlation between heavy metals and phosphorus/sulfur was observed in FGD-HAP treated soil. In addition, results of the leaching tests showed that incorporation of FGD-HAP enhanced the retention capacity of heavy metals in soil, indicating that application of FGD-HAP could diminish the environmental risk of leachable heavy metals to groundwater. Overall, this study highlighted the potential value of FGD-HAP as a low-cost and high-efficient amendment for remediation of Pb and Cd contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123038DOI Listing
December 2020

Constructing a global transcriptional regulatory landscape for early non-small cell lung cancer to identify hub genes and key pathways.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 Sep 14;12(18):17948-17957. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin 150081, Heilongjiang Province, China.

This study aimed to investigate the potential pathogenesis of early non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), by constructing a global transcriptional regulatory landscape to identify hub genes and key pathways. A total of 1,206 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in early NSCLC were identified compared to normal lung tissue samples in GSE33532 and GSE29013. DEGs-related protein-protein interaction networks (PPIs) were constructed based on the STRING database and were then modularly analyzed using the ClusterOne tool. The enrichment analysis revealed that multiple modules were significantly involved in pathways such as the TNF signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway and PI3K/AKt signaling pathway. Ten genes were identified as hub genes in the PPIs and also found up-regulated at protein level. The prognostic value of the hub genes and the ten hub gene set variation score varied according to the different pathological types of NSCLC, which suggested the ten hub gene expression patterns can reflect the heterogeneity of two types of NSCLC. In conclusion, by carrying out a series of in-depth analyses, hub genes and key pathways associated with early NSCLC were identified by a global transcriptional regulatory landscape.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585098PMC
September 2020

Molecular Sorption Mechanisms of Cr(III) to Organo-Ferrihydrite Coprecipitates Using Synchrotron-Based EXAFS and STXM Techniques.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 10 2;54(20):12989-12997. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

Ubiquitous organo-ferrihydrite coprecipitates (OFC) significantly affect the mobility and availability of Cr in soil through sorption, but the underlying sorption mechanisms remain unclear at the molecular level. Due to the potential formation of OFC in agricultural soils with returned crop straws, we synthesized OFC with rice/rape straw-derived carbon (C) sources and different loadings. The molecular sorption mechanisms of Cr(III) to the synthesized OFC under different conditions were investigated by Cr K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Cr(III) sorption by OFC decreased with increasing C loading and decreasing pH, regardless of C sources. Moreover, inhibition of Cr(III) sorption to OFC with high C loading occurred when ionic strength (IS) increased, suggesting the presence of outer-sphere complexed Cr(III). EXAFS analysis revealed that more Cr(III) were bound to ferrihydrite of the OFC at a relatively high pH, and organically bound Cr(III) enhanced when increasing C loading and decreasing IS. STXM analysis strongly suggested that C loading reduced Cr(III) sorption through blocking the binding sites on the ferrihydrite, which overwhelmed Cr(III) retention by the direct binding of Cr(III) to carboxyl of the particulate organic matter (OM) and OM coated on the Fh fractions of the OFC. These findings facilitated the comprehensive understanding of the sorption mechanisms of Cr(III) to OFC at the molecular level, which will assist the prediction of Cr(III) mobility in soils, particularly for Cr(III)-contaminated agricultural soils with the application of crop straws.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c02872DOI Listing
October 2020

Identification of an Immune Gene Expression Signature for Predicting Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Prognosis.

Biomed Res Int 2020 27;2020:5024942. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, China.

Growing evidence indicates that immune-related biomarkers play an important role in tumor processes. This study investigates immune-related gene expression and its prognostic value in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). A cohort of 493 samples of patients with LUSC was collected and analyzed from data generated by the TCGA Research Network and ImmPort database. The R coxph package was employed to mine significant immune-related genes using univariate analysis. Lasso and stepwise regression analyses were used to construct the LUSC prognosis prediction model, and clusterProfiler was used for gene functional annotation and enrichment analysis. The Kaplan-Meier analysis and ROC were used to evaluate the model efficiency in predicting and classifying LUSC case prognoses. We identified 14 immune-related genes to incorporate into our prognosis model. The patients were divided into two subgroups (Risk-H and Risk-L) according to their risk score values. Compared to Risk-L patients, Risk-H patients showed significantly improved overall survival (OS) in both training and testing sets. Functional annotation indicated that the 14 identified genes were mainly enriched in several immune-related pathways. Our results also revealed that a risk score value was correlated with various signaling pathways, such as the JAK-STA signaling pathway. Establishment of a nomogram for clinical application demonstrated that our immune-related model exhibited good predictive prognostic performance. Our predictive prognosis model based on immune signatures has potential clinical implications for assessing the overall survival and precise treatment for patients with LUSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5024942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338973PMC
April 2021

Influence of pyrolysis temperature on the properties and environmental safety of heavy metals in chicken manure-derived biochars.

J Environ Sci Health B 2020 27;55(11):941-950. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

School of Life Sciences, Huaiyin Normal University, China.

Animal manures usually contain high contents of heavy metals (HMs) and thus pose a considerable threat to human health and environment when applied to soil. In this study, the effect of pyrolysis temperature (300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C, and 700 °C) on the properties of biochar produced from chicken manure was studied. In addition, the response of speciation, bioavailability, leachability, and environmental risk of HMs in biochar to different pyrolysis temperature was investigated. The results showed that biochars pyrolyzed at high temperatures generally had high pH, ash content, surface area, and stability. As the pyrolysis temperature increased, the total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cr, and Ni continually increased, whereas those of Pb and Cd initially increased and then decreased. Moreover, the transformation of the bioavailable fractions of HMs into stable fractions obviously increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Thus, pyrolysis at high temperature led to a further decrease in the bioavailability, leachability, and environmental risk of six HMs, as shown by DTPA, TCLP, and the potential ecological risk index. Overall, it is convincing that that 700 °C is the optimal temperature when considering the quality and environmental safety of biochar derived from chicken manure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2020.1797424DOI Listing
January 2021

Enhanced removal of hexavalent chromium by different acid-modified biochar derived from corn straw: behavior and mechanism.

Water Sci Technol 2020 May;81(10):2270-2280

School of Life Sciences, Huaiyin Normal University, Huai'an, 223300, China.

It is of great significance to remove Cr(VI) from water as a result of its high toxicity. Biochar from corn straw was modified by different acids (HNO, HSO and HPO) to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. To estimate the removal mechanisms of Cr(VI) by the acid-modified biochars, batch experiments were performed in the light of contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, and pH, and the characteristics of acid-modified biochars before and after Cr(VI) adsorption were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) by acid-modified biochars were consistent with the pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption isotherm obeyed the Freundlich model. Furthermore, the acid- modified biochars could supply more oxygen-containing functional groups (-COOH and -OH) as electron donor (e) and hydrogen ion (H) to enhance the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), resulting in enhanced removal of Cr(VI). HNO-modified biochar exhibited the highest removal efficiency of Cr(VI). In general, the acid modifition of biochar was an effective method to increase the removal of Cr(VI).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2020.290DOI Listing
May 2020

Generation of a human iPSC line CIBi007-A from a patient with young-onset Parkinson's disease carrying variants in PRKN and HTRA2.

Stem Cell Res 2020 Jul 3;47:101905. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Laboratory of iPSC and Disease Models, Cell Inspire Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518101, China; Cell Inspire Therapeutics Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518101, China. Electronic address:

Variations in PRKN or HTRA2 are associated with Parkinson's disease. We generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line CIBi007-A from a patient with young-onset Parkinson's disease (YOPD) who carried variants in PRKN and HTRA2. The generated iPSCs resembled human embryonic stem cells, expressed pluripotency markers, exhibited a normal karyotype, and could be differentiated into three germ layers in vitro. This line will be valuable for investigating disease mechanisms of YOPD and screening candidate drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2020.101905DOI Listing
July 2020

Phosphorus-rich biochar produced through bean-worm skin waste pyrolysis enhances the adsorption of aqueous lead.

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 8;266(Pt 3):115177. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan Campus, NSW, 2308, Australia; Cooperative Research Centre for High Performance Soil (Soil CRC), Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia.

In China, more than 10,000 tons of bean-worm, which is rich in protein (68.5%) and essential amino acids (52.8%), is consumed annually. Thus, a large amount of bean-worm skin waste is generated, and is often indiscriminately disposed of, potentially causing environment problems. In this study, bean-worm skin (BWS) waste was pyrolyzed at 500 °C to produce biochar (BWS-BC), and the surface properties of BWS and BWS-BC were characterized using various spectroscopic techniques. Pb(II) adsorption properties of BWS and the corresponding biochar as a function of solution pH, contact time, and equilibrium concentration of Pb(II) were examined using adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics studies. The maximum Pb(II) adsorption capacities based on the Langmuir isotherm model were calculated as 45 and 62 mg g for BWS and BWS-BC, respectively, which were comparable to the values obtained for biochars derived from other agro-wastes. The adsorption feasibility, favorability and spontaneity of Pb(II), as derived from the thermodynamic parameters, indicated that chemisorption and precipitation (e.g., hydroxypyromorphite) were the main adsorption mechanism in case of BWS and BWS-BC, respectively. Thus, conversion of BWS to biochar for Pb(II) adsorption can be considered as a feasible, promising and high value-added approach for BWS recycling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115177DOI Listing
November 2020

MiR-210 in exosomes derived from CAFs promotes non-small cell lung cancer migration and invasion through PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway.

Cell Signal 2020 09 21;73:109675. Epub 2020 May 21.

the First Department of Respiratory Medical Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) function as a crucial factor in tumor progression by carrying exosomes to neighboring cells. This study was assigned to expound the underlying mechanism of CAFs-derived exosomal miR-210 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression.

Method: CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were isolated and identified. Exosomes secreted from CAFs and NFs were isolated to analyze their effects on tumor volume and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Exosomal miR-210 expression level was measured. The effects of exosomal miR-210 and UPF1 on cell viability, EMT, PTEN/PI3K/AKT signal pathway were determined. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was utilized to validate the binding of UPF1 to miR-210.

Results: CAFs-derived exosomes (CAFs-exo) were successfully extracted and proven to be uptake by lung cancer cells. Up-regulated expression level of miR-210 was found in CAFs-exo, which was then proved to enhance cell migration, proliferation, invasion abilities and EMT in NSCLC cells. Overexpression of miR-210 can also inhibit UPF1 and PTEN, but activate the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway. UPF1 was a target gene of miR-210. MiR-210 can up-regulate UPF1 expression level to activate PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway.

Conclusion: MiR-210 secreted by CAFs-exo could promote EMT by targeting UPF1 and activating PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway, thereby promoting NSCLC migration and invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2020.109675DOI Listing
September 2020

Effects of wogonoside on invasion and migration of lung cancer A549 cells and angiogenesis in xenograft tumors of nude mice.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Apr;12(4):1552-1560

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150000, China.

Background: Lung cancer is the most prevalent and deadly tumors around the world. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of wogonoside (also called baicalin) on the invasion and migration of lung cancer A549 cells and angiogenesis in xenograft tumors in nude mice.

Methods: A549 cells of lung cancer were treated with different doses of wogonoside. After 24 h, CCK8 was used to detect the survival rate of cells. The non-toxic doses of wogonoside (0, 10, 25, and 50 µM) were selected for subsequent experiments. Transwell and scratch assays were used to detect invasion and migration. The number of microtubule nodules was detected by microtubule formation experiment, and the expressions of VEGF, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and Vimentin were detected by Western blotting. BALB/c nude mice were subcutaneously injected with lung cancer A549 cells to establish the xenograft model, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg of wogonoside. After 30 days, tumor volume was measured, and the levels of VEGF and vimentin were detected with immunohistochemistry. The level of CD34 was determined by flow sorting.

Results: A549 cell survival decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, with the survival rate significantly reduced when the concentration of wogonoside exceeded 100 µM (P<0.05). A549 cell invasion and the number of microtubule nodules were significantly lower in the wogonoside 20 µM and the wogonoside 50 µM groups (P<0.05) compared with the wogonoside 0 µM group, while the rate of scratch closure and the protein levels of VEGF, N-cadherin, and Vimentin were all significantly reduced (P<0.05), and the expression level of E-cadherin was significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the tumor volumes of wogonoside (80 mg/kg) treated mice were significantly reduced after 30 days (P<0.05), and the levels of VEGF and vimentin positive cells were significantly reduced (P<0.05), as was the level of CD34 (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Wogonoside can inhibit the invasion and migration of lung cancer A549 cells and angiogenesis of xenograft tumors in nude mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-1555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212121PMC
April 2020

Novel strategy of incorporating biochar in solid-state fermentation for enhancing erythritol production by forming "microzones".

Bioresour Technol 2020 Mar 6;306:123141. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomass-based Energy and Enzyme Technology, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian, China; Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Regional Modern Agriculture & Environmental Protection, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian, China. Electronic address:

Biochar is increasingly considered in addressing bioprocess issues due to its strong adsorbability and excellent compatibility to microbes. Here, biochar was first applied in aerobic solid-state fermentation (SSF) for erythritol production. Biochars derived from different agricultural wastes under various pyrolysis temperatures were evaluated, and wheat straw pyrolyzed at 300 °C (WSc) performed the best in enhancing fermentative erythritol production, with a dosage of 4% (w/w). In this procedure, cell-biochar-substrate "microzones" were formed, which was conductive to cell growth and attachment, and hence contributed enhanced enzyme activities, oil consumption, and erythritol production. The resultant erythritol productions of batch and fed-batch fermentations were 207.3 and 222.5 mg/gds, respectively. In repeated-batch fermentation, high cell viability and robust erythritol synthesis were maintained throughout seven cycles. This study demonstrates that SSF can be remarkably facilitated by biochar addition, suggesting a new perspective of biochar application in microbiological processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123141DOI Listing
March 2020

Influence of sodium hydroxide addition on characteristics and environmental risk of heavy metals in biochars derived from swine manure.

Waste Manag 2020 Mar 3;105:511-519. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huai'an 223300, China.

In order to improve characteristics of biochar, especially enhance immobilization of heavy metals in biochar, swine manure was pyrolyzed at low pyrolysis temperature (300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C) with different amounts of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) added (0.5% and 2%, W/W). Results showed that NaOH addition during pyrolysis increased the pH, EC, ash content, yield rate, aromaticity and hydrophily, but did not increase surface area and porosity of resultant biochars. The addition of NaOH promoted the transformation of the mobile fraction of Cu, Zn and Cd into the oxidizable fraction. With respect to Cr and Pb, the oxidizable and residual fractions were increased slightly by the presence of NaOH. Meanwhile, adding NaOH could reduce the leachability and ecological risks of heavy metals in biochars. Our study suggested that NaOH-assisted pyrolysis of swine manure was an effective disposal approach for the immobilization of heavy metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2020.02.035DOI Listing
March 2020

circRNA-002178 act as a ceRNA to promote PDL1/PD1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma.

Cell Death Dis 2020 01 16;11(1):32. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been identified play a vital role in various different types of cancer via sponging miRNAs (microRNAs). However, their role in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains largely unclear. In this study, we systematically characterized the circRNA expression profiles in the LUAD cancer tissues and paired adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Three circRNAs were found to be significantly upregulated. Among them, has-circRNA-002178 was further confirmed to be upregulated in the LUAD tissues, and LUAD cancer cells. Subsequently, we also found has-circRNA-002178 could enhance PDL1 expression via sponging miR-34 in cancer cells to induce T-cell exhaustion. More importantly, circRNA-002178 could be detected in exosomes of plasma from LUAD patients and could serve as biomarkers for LUAD early diagnosis. Finally, we found circRNA-002178 could be delivered into CD8 T cells to induce PD1 expression via exosomes. Taken together, our study revealed that circRNA-002178 could act as a ceRNA to promote PDL1/PD1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2230-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6965119PMC
January 2020

Clanis bilineata larvae skin-derived biochars for immobilization of lead: Sorption isotherm and molecular mechanism.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 23;704:135251. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan Campus, NSW 2308, Australia.

Clanis bilineata larva skin (CBLS), a new residue from the food industry, was first used to produce biochars by pyrolysis at 300 °C (CBLS300) and 700 °C (CBLS700), respectively, for Pb immobilization. The sorption isotherms and immobilization mechanisms of Pb on two biochars were investigated. CBLS700 exhibited more high-efficiency in sorption of Pb than CBLS300 due to the predicted maximum sorption capacity of CBLS700 (77.52 mg/g) was larger than that of CBLS300 (49.02 mg/g). Synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray fluorescence analysis exhibited the co-distribution of Pb and P in the sorption product of CBLS700 rather than CBLS300. Microfocused X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis highlighted the significance of organic ligand in the biochar for Pb immobilization due to both sorption products have organic complexed Pb. Moreover, 25% of total Pb was present as hydrocerussite on CBLS300 but partially transformed into stable hydroxylpyromorphite on CBLS700 (~21%), which was in accordance with the analysis of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy disperse spectra. Additionally, addition of CBLS700 was more effective in reducing the leachable Pb in shooting range soil than that of CBLS300. These results strongly suggested the potential application of the new biochar (CBLS700) for the remediation of Pb-contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135251DOI Listing
February 2020

Oil crop wastes as substrate candidates for enhancing erythritol production by modified Yarrowia lipolytica via one-step solid state fermentation.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Dec 25;294:122194. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomass-based Energy and Enzyme Technology, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian, China.

Oil crop wastes are attractive feedstocks in microbial processes due to their low cost. However, the product yields can be limited by their undesirable nitrogen surplus. Present study proposed a one-step solid state fermentation (SSF) method for producing erythritol from unrefined oil crop wastes using a modified strain Y. lipolytica M53-S. Enhanced erythritol production (185.4 mg/gds) was obtained from peanut press cake mixed with 40% sesame meal and 10% waste cooking oil. The process was performed at pH 4.0 in 5 L flasks, with initial moisture content, NaCl addition, and inoculum size of 70%, 0.02 g/gds, and 7.5 × 10 cells/gds, respectively. This procedure showed advantages in terms of lower material cost than that of submerged fermentation and shorter culture cycle (96 h) than other SSF processes. In repeated-batch fermentation, erythritol was continuously produced for seven cycles. This study presents a feasible approach in developing an efficient erythritol cultivation from nitrogen-rich wastes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122194DOI Listing
December 2019

Co-processing of MSWI fly ash and copper smelting wastewater and the leaching behavior of the co-processing products in landfill leachate.

Waste Manag 2019 Jul 5;95:628-635. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Nanjing 210094, China. Electronic address:

The solidification/stabilization of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is required before it enters a landfill, and water is needed in this process. At the same time, a large quantity of Ca(OH) is consumed during copper smelting wastewater treatment. The purpose of this study was to utilize both MSWI fly ash and copper smelting wastewater in a co-processing process. The elements Cr, Cu, Pb, and As were selected to study the stability of the co-processing products. The effects of HSO and As in copper smelting wastewater on the stability of the co-processing products were studied. A TCLP leaching procedure and a BCR sequential extraction procedure were conducted to evaluate the stability of the co-processing products. HSO (0-50 g/L) in simulated copper smelting wastewater had no significant influence on the stability of Cr and Cu; however, it enhanced the stability of Pb and As in the co-processing products. The stability of Cu and Pb increased with the content of As (0-5000 mg/L) in simulated copper smelting wastewater, while the stability of Cr and As decreased. When the co-processing products came into contact with the landfill leachate, the leaching of Cu was promoted. The co-processing products helped to reduce the concentration of Pb and As in landfill leachate. The results indicated that a chelating agent is needed to enhance the stabilization of Cu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.07.003DOI Listing
July 2019

A further inquiry into co-pyrolysis of straws with manures for heavy metal immobilization in manure-derived biochars.

J Hazard Mater 2019 12 13;380:120870. Epub 2019 Jul 13.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Eco-Agricultural Biotechnology around Hongze Lake/Collaborative Innovation Center of Regional Modern Agriculture & Environmental Protection, Huaiyin Normal University, Huai'an, 223300, China.

Co-pyrolysis of straws with manures has been found effective to mitigate heavy metal risks in manure-derived biochars. This study further investigated co-pyrolysis strategy on the levels, species and risks of metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Cd) carried by manure-based biochars through co-pyrolyzing swine manure (SM) and corn straw (CS) with different mixture ratios (1:0, 0:1, 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3, w/w) at 300 ℃, 500 ℃ and 700 ℃. The total heavy metals in SM biochars were significantly reduced by CS addition except when SM/CS ratio was 3:1 at 300 ℃. Notably, CS addition increased stable Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd, but simultaneously mobilized part of Ni, Zn, Cu and Pb in SM biochars, especially at higher CS ratio and higher temperature. Co-pyrolysis converted less stable Cd to more stable Cd at all pyrolysis conditions, with higher CS ratio and higher temperature more effective. Overall, higher temperature (700 ℃) and higher addition ratio of CS (SM/CS 1:3) were more favorable for mitigating the potential ecological index of biochar-bearing Cd, Cu and Zn, the dominating risky contributor to SM biochars, hence more effective to mitigate the overall environmental risks of heavy metals in the derived SM biochars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.120870DOI Listing
December 2019

A new low-cost hydroxyapatite for efficient immobilization of lead.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Oct 26;553:798-804. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan Campus, NSW 2308, Australia.

Distiller waste (DW), a common by-product of soda ash plants, was used as the unique calcium source to produce low-cost hydroxyapatites (HAPs) for the first time. The DW-derived HAPs were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and BET methods and investigated as amendments for soil Pb immobilization. The DW-derived HAPs displayed relatively smaller particle size (30-80 nm) and larger BET specific surface areas (60.00-64.06 m/g) compared with two selected commercial HAPs (technical grade HAP and biological reagent HAP designated as HAP-TG and HAP-BR, respectively). The maximum sorption capacity of Pb on the DW-derived HAPs predicted from Langmuir sorption isotherm model was 726-734 mg/g higher than the commercial HAPs and even other well-designed sorbents. TCLP leaching experiments and BCR sequential extraction experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of HAP additions on Pb immobilization in soil. A lower addition ratio is required for the DW-derived HAPs than commercial HAPs to reduce Pb leachability to below the harmless level. Meanwhile, the DW-derived HAPs were found to be superior to commercial HAPs in transformation of readily bioavailable forms of Pb to stable speciation in soil, with residual fraction of Pb increased from 6.7% in non-amended soil to 60.7-61.4% in DW-derived HAPs amended soils, 58.3% in HAP-TG amended soil and 42.6% in HAP-BR amended soil, respectively. This study strongly demonstrated the feasibility and low-cost of HAPs derived from the distiller waste for reducing the environmental risks and bioavailability of Pb in soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2019.06.090DOI Listing
October 2019

Spiderweb-Like Fe-Co Prussian Blue Analogue Nanofibers as Efficient Catalyst for Bisphenol-A Degradation by Activating Peroxymonosulfate.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019 Mar 10;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 10.

Key Laboratory of New Membrane Materials, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Nanjing University of Science & Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.

Prussian blue and its analogues (PBA) based nanomaterials have been widely applied to removing pollutants in the recent years. However, easy aggregation and poor recycling largely limit their practical applications. In this work, spiderweb-like Fe-Co Prussian blue analogue/polyacrylonitrile (FCPBA/PAN) nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and applied to degrading bisphenol-A (BPA) by activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS). Detailed characterization demonstrated that a high loading of FCPBA (86% of FCPBA in FCPBA/PAN) was successfully fixed on the PAN nanofibers. 67% of BPA was removed within 240 min when 500 mg·L PMS and 233 mg·L FCPBA/PAN were introduced in 20 mg·L BPA solution at initial pH of 2.8. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and radical inhibition experiments were performed to identify the possible degradation mechanism. For comparison, a low loading of FCPBA nanofibers (0.6FCPBA/PAN nanofibers, 43% of FCPBA in FCPBA/PAN) were also prepared and tested the catalytic performance. The results showed that the activity of FCPBA/PAN was much higher than 0.6FCPBA/PAN. Furthermore, a FCPBA/PAN packed column was made as a reactor to demonstrate the reusability and stability of FCPBA/PAN nanofibers, which also exhibited the bright future for the industrial application. This work makes it possible to fabricate efficient PBA nanocatalysts with excellent recyclability and promotes the application of PBA in industrial areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano9030402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6473942PMC
March 2019

Prognostic value of PD-L1 expression in resected lung adenocarcinoma and potential molecular mechanisms.

J Cancer 2018 8;9(19):3489-3499. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Department of Medical oncology, Heilongjiang Provincial Hospital, Harbin, 150000, China.

The prognostic role of PD-L1 expression in surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) remains controversial. The present study was aimed to clarify the role of PD-L1 expression in predicting prognosis and to investigate its biological function in ADC. The association between PD-L1 expression and clinical outcomes in patients with resected ADC was analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in our cohort (n=104), externally validated by a meta-analysis of 13 published studies. The biological role of in ADC was explored using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Positive PD-L1 expression in tumor cells was observed in 38.5% (40/104). High PD-L1 expression levels were significantly correlated with poor overall survival (P=0.008). Furthermore, the meta-analysis also showed that positive PD-L1 expression was associated with shorter OS than negative PD-L1 expression (HR= 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26-2.42; <0.001). In subgroup analysis stratified according to ethnicity, the pooled results demonstrated that increased PD-L1 expression was an unfavorable prognostic factor for Asian populations (HR= 2.11, 95% CI: 1.48-3.02; <0.001), but not for non-Asian populations (HR=1.16, 95% CI: 0.63-2.11, =0.64). The pooled odds ratios (ORs) indicated that PD-L1 expression was associated with positive lymph node metastasis (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.23-2.46; =0.002) and male (OR=1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.37; =0.04). GSEA revealed PD-L1 expression levels positively correlated with immune process or immune-related pathways. PD-L1 expression is an important negative prognostic factor in resected ADC. This finding has important implications for immunotherapy targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in patients with resected ADC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.26155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171018PMC
September 2018

Molecular basis for RGD-containing peptides supporting adhesion and self-renewal of human pluripotent stem cells on synthetic surface.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Nov 26;171:451-460. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, PR China; Central Laboratory, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing, 100081, PR China. Electronic address:

The ability to obtain a large number of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) under chemically defined conditions plays a key role in clinical application of hPSCs. Chemically defined, economical and effective synthetic peptide displaying surfaces should be the optimal choice for clinical applications involving hPSCs. However, synthetic peptide displaying surfaces are worse than Matrigel surface in supporting cell adhesion and self-renewal. Moreover, the correlations between peptide amino acid sequences and the ability of peptides to support cell survival has never been investigated in hPSCs. In this study, we focused on the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence and integrin receptors, which constitute the major recognition system for cell adhesion. Several new RGD-containing peptides were designed by altering the amino acids surrounding the RGD sequence. We investigated the ability of these peptides to sustain hPSC survival, and identified the Ac-KGGPQVTRGDTYRAY sequence, which was capable of supporting cell reprogramming, long-term self-renewal and lineage differentiation. In addition, this report demonstrates that the introduction of mutations in the amino acids surrounding the RGD sequence is a good strategy to design peptides that display excellent adhesion properties and promote hPSC self-renewal. Our results will help improve the current understanding of the mechanisms by which RGD-containing peptides exhibit different abilities in sustaining hPSC culture, and will promote clinical application of both peptide displaying surfaces and hPSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.07.050DOI Listing
November 2018

Novel two-stage solid-state fermentation for erythritol production on okara-buckwheat husk medium.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Oct 4;266:439-446. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomass-based Energy and Enzyme Technology, Huaiyin Normal University, Huaian, China.

An economical model of two-stage solid state fermentation (SSF) (prefermentation stage with Mucor flavus and in situ erythritol fermentation stage with Yarrowia lipolytica) for enhancing erythritol production was investigated. Buckwheat husk (BH) was utilized as inert support for the first time and okara as the substrate. Morphological properties suggested yeast cells were exposed in adequate oxygen leading to high erythritol yield, and enzyme activities analysis indicated M. flavus and Y. lipolytica grew and cooperated well during the two ferment stages. Maximum erythritol production (143.3 mg/gds) was obtained from okara-BH mixture (5:2, w/w) supplemented with 0.01 g/gds NaCl, with an initial moisture content of 60% and pH of 4.0 for 192 h, while undesired mannitol and citric acid were suppressed. Compared with submerged fermentation, two-stage SSF was short period, energy conserving and operable for erythritol production from insoluble wastes, and this is the first report on erythritol production via SSF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.07.009DOI Listing
October 2018

CO suppresses prostate cancer cell growth by directly targeting LKB1/AMPK/mTOR pathway in vitro and in vivo.

Urol Oncol 2018 Jun 19;36(6):312.e1-312.e8. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Urology, Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan China. Electronic address:

Background: CO is a freely diffusible gas that acts as a physiological mediator of many biological and cellular processes, which has been shown to possess anticancer effect in many kinds of cancers. However, the effect of CO on prostate cancer has not been demonstrated. Therefore, we analyzed the antitumor activities and related mechanisms of CO on prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: Cell viability of LNCaP and PC-3 cells after CORM-2 treatment was measured by CCK-8 assay, whereas the ATP production were detected by ATP detection assay. The early apoptosis induced by CO was evaluated by flow cytometry, and the expression level of apoptosis-related molecules (Caspases 3, 8, 9 and cleaved-Caspases 3, 8, 9) was detected using Western blot. Matrigel in vitro invasion assay was used to evaluate the effect of CO on cell invasion. We then evaluated the impact of CO on the expression of several key regulators involved in the LKB1 signaling pathway. At last, xenograft tumor in nude mice was used to further investigate the antitumor effect of CO in vivo.

Results: Our results showed that CO could significantly inhibit proliferation and invasion, and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cell lines. The expression of LKB1 could be up-regulated after CO treatment, and CO also could increase p-AMPK levels and decrease p-mTOR. Furthermore, LKB1 knockdown could weaken the effect of CO on prostate cancer cells. In vivo, CO treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth and induced apoptosis in xenografts tumor in nude mice.

Conclusions: CO possesses striking anticancer effect in human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which is largely mediated by LKB1-AMPK-mTOR axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2018.02.013DOI Listing
June 2018

Effect of nanoscale zero-valent iron confined in mesostructure on Escherichia coli.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Oct 14;24(30):24038-24045. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaihai Institute of Technology, Lian yungang, 222005, People's Republic of China.

Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (NZVIs) confined in the mesochannels of SBA-15 have superabilities in the remediation of contaminated groundwater. As a new kind of remediation nanomaterials, it is necessary to investigate the ecotoxicity of NZVIs/SBA-15 composites during their applications. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of NZVIs/SBA-15 on Escherichia coli and proposed a possible mechanism. Compared with the bare NZVIs and SBA-15 surface-supported NZVIs at the same equivalent concentration of NZVIs (0.42 or 0.84 g/L), NZVIs/SBA-15 composites had a minimal cytotoxicity on E. coli, though they had the smallest iron nanoparticle size, the largest zeta potential, and the best stability in water. The mechanism may be attributed to the protection of the mesochannels and the electrostatic hindrance resulting from the silica host that could keep NZVIs from directly contacting with the cell. Thus, NZVIs confined in the mesostructures can be safely used in the remediation of contaminated natural water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0101-4DOI Listing
October 2017

Cadmium solubility and bioavailability in soils amended with acidic and neutral biochar.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jan 5;610-611:1457-1466. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Southern Cross GeoScience, Southern Cross University, PO Box: 157, Lismore 2480, NSW, Australia.

This study was designed to investigate the effects of acidic and neutral biochars on solubility and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) in soils with contrasting properties. Four Cd contaminated (50mg/kg) soils (EN: Entisol, AL: Andisol, VE: Vertisol, IN: Inceptisol) were amended with 5% acidic wood shaving biochar (WS, pH=3.25) and neutral chicken litter biochar (CL, pH=7.00). Following a 140-day incubation, the solubility and bioavailability/bioaccessibility of cadmium (Cd) were assessed. Results showed that both biochars had no effect on reducing soluble (pore water) and bioavailable (CaCl extractable) Cd for higher sorption capacity soils (AL, IN) while CL biochar reduced those in lower sorption capacity soils (EN, VE) by around 50%. Bioaccessibility of Cd to the human gastric phase (physiologically based extraction test (PBET) extractable) was not altered by the acidic WS biochar but reduced by neutral CL biochar by 18.8%, 29.7%, 18.0% and 8.82% for soil AL, EN, IN and VE, respectively. Both biochars reduced soluble Cd under acidic conditions (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) extractable) significantly in all soils. Pore water pH was the governing factor of Cd solubility among soils. The reduction of Cd solubility and bioavailability/bioaccessibility by CL biochar may be due to surface complexation while the reduced mobility of Cd under acidic conditions (TCLP) by both biochars may result from the redistribution of Cd to less bioavailable soil solid fractions. Hence, if only leaching mitigation of Cd under acidic conditions is required, application of low pH biochars (e.g., WS biochar) may be valuable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.228DOI Listing
January 2018