Publications by authors named "Yuanyuan Jin"

61 Publications

Prognostic value of circulating clonal plasma cells in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

Hematology 2021 Dec;26(1):510-517

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: Multiple myeloma (MM) involves a clinically and biologically heterogeneous malignancy of plasma cells. It is difficult to predict the prognosis of MM. The presence of circulating clonal plasma cells (CPC) has been associated with a worse prognosis in patients with MM.

Methods: This study retrospectively analysed CPC in 108 newly diagnosed MM patients by 8-colour flow cytometry to investigate their value for predicting the outcome and combined the level of CPC with the revised International Staging System (R-ISS) to stratify the MM patients according to risk.

Results: CPC were detected in 58/108 patients (53.7%). The optimum cut-off for the prediction of overall survival was determined to be 0.105%. Patients with higher R-ISS stages seemed to harbour more CPC. A level of CPC≥0.105% was an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes (<0.001). The combination of the R-ISS staging system and level of CPC was used to stratify MM patients according to risk, and the combination of R-ISS stage III and a level of CPC≥0.105% defined the ultra-high-risk group.

Conclusion: This study suggests that a high proportion of CPC is associated with aggressive disease and that the use of the current R-ISS system in conjunction with assessment of the level of CPC may facilitate the stratification of newly diagnosed MM patients into clinically relevant prognostic subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16078454.2021.1948208DOI Listing
December 2021

Expression, purification and X-ray crystal diffraction analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 from Artemisia annua L.

Protein Expr Purif 2021 Jul 14;187:105943. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address:

Alcohol dehydrogenase 1 identified from Artemisia annua (AaADH1) is a 40 kDa protein that predominately expressed in young leaves and buds, and catalyzes dehydrogenation of artemisinic alcohol to artemisinic aldehyde in artemisinin biosynthetic pathway. In this study, AaADH1 encoding gene was subcloned into vector pET-21a(+) and expressed in Escherichia coli. BL21(DE3), and purified by Co affinity chromatography. Anion exchange chromatography was performed until the protein purity reached more than 90%. Crystallization of AaADH1 was conducted for further investigation of the molecular mechanism of catalysis, and hanging-drop vapour diffusion method was used in experiments. The results showed that the apo AaADH1 crystal diffracted to 2.95 Å resolution, and belongs to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters, a = 77.53 Å, b = 78.49 Å, c = 102.44 Å, α = 71.88°, β = 74.02°, γ = 59.97°. The crystallization condition consists of 0.1 M Bis-Tris pH 6.0, 13% (w/v) PEG 8000 and 5% (v/v) glycerol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2021.105943DOI Listing
July 2021

LncRNA MSC-AS1 motivates the development of melanoma by binding to miR-302a-3p and recruiting IGF2BP2 to elevate LEF1 expression.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Jul 4. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Chengdu Second People's Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Melanoma is considered as the most common malignancy among skin cancers. The roles of many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been clearly identified in multiple tumors. Nevertheless, lncRNA MSC antisense RNA 1 (MSC-AS1) has not been deeply investigated melanoma. In the present study, RT-qPCR and western blot analyses were used to measure the expression of RNAs and proteins. Functional and in vivo assays were implemented to detect the function of genes in melanoma. RNA pull-down, RIP and luciferase reporter assays were applied for determining interactions between RNA and protein molecules. It was observed that MSC-AS1 and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) were remarkably up-regulated while microRNA-302a-3p (miR-302a-3p) down-regulated in melanoma cell lines. The silencing of MSC-AS1 hindered cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, MSC-AS1 regulated LEF1 expression through sponging miR-302a-3p and recruiting insulin like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2). Eventually, LEF1 overexpression rescued cell progression impaired by MSC-AS1 knock-down. In summary, our research identified the MSC-AS1/miR-302a-3p/IGF2BP2/LEF1 axis in melanoma development, which indicated that MSC-AS1 is a potential biomarker in the treatment of melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/exd.14427DOI Listing
July 2021

Applications of Nanobiomaterials in the Therapy and Imaging of Acute Liver Failure.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Nov 19;13(1):25. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Laboratory of Biomaterials and Translational Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510630, People's Republic of China.

Highlights: This review focuses on the therapeutic mechanisms, targeting strategies of various nanomaterials in acute liver failure, and recent advances of diverse nanomaterials for acute liver failure therapy, diagnosis, and imaging. This review provides an outlook on the applications of nanomaterials, especially on the new horizons in acute liver failure therapy, and inspires broader interests across various disciplines. Acute liver failure (ALF), a fatal clinical disease featured with overwhelming hepatocyte necrosis, is a grand challenge in global health. However, a satisfactory therapeutic option for curing ALF is still absent, other than liver transplantation. Nanobiomaterials are currently being developed for the diagnosis and treatment of ALF. The liver can sequester most of nanoparticles from blood circulation, which becomes an intrinsic superiority for nanobiomaterials targeting hepatic diseases. Nanobiomaterials can enhance the bioavailability of free drugs, thereby significantly improving the therapeutic effects in ALF. Nanobiomaterials can also increase the liver accumulation of therapeutic agents and enable more effective targeting of the liver or specific liver cells. In addition, stimuli-responsive, optical, or magnetic nanomaterials exhibit great potential in the therapeutical, diagnostic, and imaging applications in ALF. Therefore, therapeutic agents in combination with nanobiomaterials increase the specificity of ALF therapy, diminish adverse systemic effects, and offer a multifunctional theranostic platform. Nanobiomaterial holds excellent significance and prospects in ALF theranostics. In this review, we summarize the therapeutic mechanisms and targeting strategies of various nanobiomaterials in ALF. We highlight recent developments of diverse nanomedicines for ALF therapy, diagnosis, and imaging. Furthermore, the challenges and future perspectives in the theranostics of ALF are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00550-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187515PMC
November 2020

The Development of a Situation-Specific Nurse-Led Culturally Tailored Self-Management Theory for Chinese Patients With Heart Failure.

J Transcult Nurs 2021 Jun 10:10436596211023973. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Tongji University Affiliated Shanghai East Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: Self-management is essential for treating heart failure (HF). Culture influences the ability to cope, negotiate, and adopt self-management behaviors. However, current HF self-management interventions for Chinese patients do not take culture into consideration. The aim of this article is to describe the development of a situation-specific nurse-led culturally tailored self-management theory for Chinese patients with HF.

Methodology: An integrative approach was used as theory development strategy for the situation-specific theory.

Results: Based on theoretical and empirical evidence, and theorists' experiences from research and practice, a nurse-led culturally tailored self-management theory for Chinese patients with HF was developed.

Discussion: Researchers addressing health phenomena often have difficulty defining, conceptualizing, and operationalizing culture. The situation-specific theory developed in this study has the potential to increase specificity (i.e., logical adequacy and usefulness) of existing theories while informing the application to nursing practice. Further critique and testing of the situation-specific theory is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10436596211023973DOI Listing
June 2021

LncRNA NKILA knockdown promotes cell viability and represses cell apoptosis, autophagy and inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis model by regulating miR-140-5p/CLDN2 axis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 28;559:8-14. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Emergency Internal Medicine, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai City, China. Electronic address:

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in human diseases, including sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Here, we aimed to investigate the functions of lncRNA NKILA in sepsis-engendered AKI.

Methods: HK2 cells stimulated with LPS were used to mimic sepsis-induced AKI in vitro. qRT-PCR was conducted for lncRNA NKILA and miR-140-5p levels. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry analysis were employed to analyze cell viability and apoptosis. Western blot assay was utilized to measured protein levels. ELISA kits were used to examine the concentrations of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was utilized to analyze the relationships among lncRNA NKILA, miR-140-5p and claudin 2 (CLDN2).

Results: LPS restrained HK2 cell viability and accelerated cell apoptosis and autophagy. LncRNA NKILA was increased in LPS-treated HK2 cells. LncRNA NKILA silencing reversed the promotional influence of LPS on cell progression in HK2 cells. miR-140-5p inhibition ameliorated lncRNA NKILA knockdown-mediated cell injury in LPS-mediated HK2 cells. CLDN2 was the target of miR-140-5p. MiR-140-5p elevation promoted cell viability and suppressed cell apoptosis, autophagy and inflammation in LPS-induced HK2 cells, with CLDN2 elevation overturned the effects.

Conclusion: LncRNA NKILA silencing protected HK2 cells from LPS-induced impairments by reducing CLDN2 through sponging miR-140-5p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.04.074DOI Listing
June 2021

Complete chloroplast genomes of Achnatherum inebrians and comparative analyses with related species from Poaceae.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Jun 10;11(6):1704-1718. Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Engineering Research Center of Grassland Industry, Ministry of Education, Gansu Tech Innovation Centre of Western China Grassland Industry, Centre for Grassland Microbiome, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, China.

This article reports the complete chloroplast genome of Achnatherum inebrians, a poisonous herb that is widely distributed in the rangelands of Northern China. The genome is 137 714 bp in total and consists of a large single-copy (81 758 bp) region and small single-copy (12 682 bp) region separated by a pair of inverted repeats (21 637 bp). The genome contains 130 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes, 38 tRNA genes and 8 ribosomal RNA genes, and the guanine + cytosine content is 36.17%. We subsequently performed comparative analysis of complete genomes from A. inebrians and other Poaceae-related species from GenBank. Thirty-eight simple sequence repeats were identified, further demonstrating rapid evolution in Poaceae. Finally, the phylogenetic trees of 37 species of Poaceae and 2 species of Amaranthaceae were constructed by using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, based on the genes of the complete chloroplast genome. We identified hotspots that can be used as molecular markers and barcodes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as for species identification. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that A. inebrians is a member of the genus Stipa rather than Achnatherum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.13170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167873PMC
June 2021

Multifunctional hybrid sponge for postoperative management to inhibit tumor recurrence.

Biomater Sci 2021 Jun;9(11):4066-4075

Laboratory of Biomaterials and Translational Medicine, Center for Nanomedicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630, China. and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Liver Disease, Guangzhou 510630, China.

Disseminated tumor cells in bleeding and residual tumor cells in the resection tumor site are the primary factors that result in tumor recurrence after surgery. Safe and efficient local implantation of the drug depot system into the resection cavity to inhibit tumor recurrence would be of great benefit to reduce the mortality of postoperative patients. Here, a sandwich-like doxorubicin-triptolide-loaded fiber/(chitosan/gelatin) sponge, DTF/CGS, is fabricated, combining hemostatic, antibacterial, and chemotherapeutic capability. The CGS obtained via freeze-drying can efficiently prevent bleeding; meanwhile, the metastatic residual tumor cells are stuck with the clotted absorbed blood. Subsequently, dual drugs released from the electrospun fiber can further kill the stuck tumor cells in CGS and the disseminated tumor cells to significantly inhibit the tumor recurrence. This antitumor recurrence strategy by immediately implanting a multifunctional hybrid sponge for in situ postoperative management may possess great potential for preventing tumor recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00085cDOI Listing
June 2021

3D Printed Bioceramic Scaffolds as a Universal Therapeutic Platform for Synergistic Therapy of Osteosarcoma.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 15;13(16):18488-18499. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Biomaterials and Translational Medicine, Center for Nanomedicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630, China.

The postoperative tumor recurrence and chemotherapy resistance in clinical osteosarcoma treatment have raised an imperative need to develop local implants for selectively killing residual tumor cells and simultaneously provide a scaffold for effectively filling the tumor resection-induced bone defects. Herein, a multifunctional platform is developed through successively coating TiN microparticles and doxorubicin (DOX) on the surface of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds to achieve synergetic effects of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy for osteosarcoma. The content of TiN and DOX in the scaffolds can be flexibly adjusted by immersing the scaffolds into the solution containing different concentrations of TiN and DOX. The excellent therapeutic effect was achieved both and through the precise photothermal therapy and localized controlled-release chemotherapy. Moreover, the overall bulk scaffolds provide the mechanical support for bone tissue when implanting scaffolds into bone defects resulting from surgical removal of osteosarcoma. Importantly, using the poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) as the medium, the scaffolds can be exploited as a universal platform for loading different kinds of therapeutic agents. This study may provide insights into designing multifunctional local implantation for eradicating tumors after surgical interventions with mitigated side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c00553DOI Listing
April 2021

The Complex Structure of Protein AaLpxC from with ACHN-975 Molecule Suggests an Inhibitory Mechanism at Atomic-Level against Gram-Negative Bacteria.

Molecules 2021 Mar 7;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

New drugs with novel antibacterial targets for Gram-negative bacterial pathogens are desperately needed. The protein LpxC is a vital enzyme for the biosynthesis of lipid A, an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The ACHN-975 molecule has high enzymatic inhibitory capacity against the infectious diseases, which are caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, but clinical research was halted because of its inflammatory response in previous studies. In this work, the structure of the recombinant UDP-3--(R-3-hydroxymyristol)--acetylglucosamine deacetylase from in complex with ACHN-975 was determined to a resolution at 1.21 Å. According to the solved complex structure, ACHN-975 was docked into the AaLpxC's active site, which occupied the site of AaLpxC substrate. Hydroxamate group of ACHN-975 forms five-valenced coordination with resides His74, His226, Asp230, and the long chain part of ACHN-975 containing the rigid alkynyl groups docked in further to interact with the hydrophobic area of AaLpxC. We employed isothermal titration calorimetry for the measurement of affinity between AaLpxC mutants and ACHN-975, and the results manifest the key residues (His74, Thr179, Tyr212, His226, Asp230 and His253) for interaction. The determined AaLpxC crystal structure in complex with ACHN-975 is expected to serve as a guidance and basis for the design and optimization of molecular structures of ACHN-975 analogues to develop novel drug candidates against Gram-negative bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962117PMC
March 2021

The combination of C-Myc rearrangement and 1q21 gain is associated with poor prognosis in multiple myeloma.

Ann Hematol 2021 May 8;100(5):1251-1260. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Hematology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Beijing, 100730, China.

The prognostic value of chromosomal 1q21 gain in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) remains controversial. Add-on Myc aberrations may further worsen the outcome. To investigate whether specific genes located at the 1q21 region, such as myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), are involved in NDMM progression, we examined bone marrow cytogenetic abnormalities in 153 patients with NDMM by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Their response to treatment and survival was also analyzed. C-Myc and Mcl-1 expressions in bone marrow samples were analyzed by RT-PCR. The expression of Mcl-1 was evaluated in bone marrow sections by immunohistochemistry. MM cell lines were transfected with Mcl-1 siRNA. 1q21 gain was present in 55/153 (35.9%) patients and strongly associated with Myc rearrangement (31/153, 20.3%, P = 0.004). A positive correlation was observed between Myc and Mcl-1 mRNA levels in bone marrow cells from 47 patients (r = 0.57, P < 0.001). The combination of 1q21 gain and Myc rearrangement was associated with poorer overall survival than Myc rearrangement alone (16.8 vs. 27.9 months, P = 0.077) or 1q21 gain alone (16.8 vs. 60.7 months, P < 0.01). High Mcl-1 protein expression in bone marrow plasma cells was associated with Myc rearrangement. Mcl-1 silencing by siRNA inhibited Myc protein expression in three myeloma cell lines. Treatment with the small-molecule Mcl-1 inhibitor, UMI-77, produced similar results. Overall, the combination of Myc rearrangement and 1q21 gain was associated with particularly poor prognosis in patients with MM. Furthermore, our data are consistent with Mcl-1-dependent Myc protein activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04475-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Helping persons with multiple chronic conditions overcome barriers to self-management.

Nurse Pract 2021 Mar;46(3):20-28

Abstract: The prevalence of multiple chronic conditions is growing dramatically, which complicates day-to-day self-management for patients. This article describes the features of multiple chronic conditions, an updated chronic care model, barriers to self-management, and strategies NPs can use to reduce or eliminate barriers to self-management in adults with multiple chronic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NPR.0000733676.28520.dbDOI Listing
March 2021

Identification of Functional Fragments in gMYL6 and the Mechanism of Improving NK Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity.

Iran J Immunol 2020 12;17(4):292-302

School of Basic Medical Sciences, North China University of Science and Technology, Hebei 063210, China.

Background: In a previous study, the unrecognized role of gMYL6 in the up-regulation of human NK cells development and cytotoxicity was reported.

Objective: To further elucidate the mechanism of action of small recombinant fragments of gMYL6 enhancing the NK cells activity.

Methods: Mononuclear cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood (UCB) by density-gradient centrifugation and NK cells were propagated and cultured. The small peptides from the gMYL6, with the ability to enhance the cytotoxicity of NK cells were screened by CCK-8 method and one of the most powerful peptides was identified for the next study. Flow cytometry was used to assess the proliferation and apoptosis of K562 cells, as well as the cell cycle arrest. The apoptosis of target cells was observed by AO/EB fluorescence staining, and the degree of apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. Protein imprinting method was also used to explore the pathway of small peptides to enhance the NK cells' activity. On the other hand, Real-time Quantitative PCR Detecting System was used to verify the mechanism of K562 cells suppression.

Results: Small D peptide significantly increased NK cells cytotoxicity and induced both cell cycle arrest at G2/M and apoptosis of K562 cells.

Conclusion: Small D peptide could be a novel promising peptide for cancer immunotherapy since it was shown to promote the cytotoxicity of cord blood-derived NK cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/iji.2020.84865.1676DOI Listing
December 2020

Seamlessly Splicing Metallic Sn Mo S at MoS Edge for Enhanced Photoelectrocatalytic Performance in Microreactor.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Dec 16;7(24):2002172. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Institute of Chemical Biology and Nanomedicine (ICBN) State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Hunan University Changsha 410082 P. R. China.

Accurate design of the 2D metal-semiconductor (M-S) heterostructure via the covalent combination of appropriate metallic and semiconducting materials is urgently needed for fabricating high-performance nanodevices and enhancing catalytic performance. Hence, the lateral epitaxial growth of M-S Sn Mo S/MoS heterostructure is precisely prepared with in situ growth of metallic Sn Mo S by doping Sn atoms at semiconductor MoS edge via one-step chemical vapor deposition. The atomically sharp interface of this heterostructure exhibits clearly distinguished performance based on a series of characterizations. The oxygen evolution photoelectrocatalytic performance of the epitaxial M-S heterostructure is 2.5 times higher than that of pure MoS in microreactor, attributed to the efficient electron-hole separation and rapid charge transfer. This growth method provides a general strategy for fabricating seamless M-S lateral heterostructures by controllable doping heteroatoms. The M-S heterostructures show increased carrier migration rate and eliminated Fermi level pinning effect, contributing to their potential in devices and catalytic system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739950PMC
December 2020

Field-effect transistor bioassay for ultrasensitive detection of folate receptor 1 by ligand-protein interaction.

Mikrochim Acta 2020 Nov 4;187(12):637. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Institute of Chemical Biology and Nanomedicine (ICBN), State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082, People's Republic of China.

A miniaturized and integrated bioassay was developed based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS) field-effect transistor (FET) functionalized with bovine serum albumin-folic acid (BSA-FA) for monitoring FOLR1. We performed the electrical test of FOLR1 within the range 100 fg/mL to 10 ng/mL, and the limit of detection was 0.057 pg/mL. The ultrahigh sensitivity of the bioassay was realized by ligand-protein interaction between FA and FOLR1, with a ligand-protein binding ratio of 3:1. The formation of FA-FOLR1 was confirmed with ELISA. The binding affinity dissociation constant K was 12 ± 6 pg/mL. This device can work well for FOLR1 detection in human serum, which presents its promising application in point-of-care diagnosis. This study supports the future applications of such ligand-protein-based bioassays in the clinical practices. Graphical abstract MoS-based FET device for detecting folate receptor 1 (FOLR1) was fabricated. The molecular folic acid as a probe can specifically bound to FOLR1 with a high affinity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-020-04630-yDOI Listing
November 2020

Clinical significance of CD200 expression in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients and dynamic changing during treatment.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 03 27;62(3):709-715. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing, China.

The aim of our study was to determine the impact of CD200 expression in newly diagnosed myltiple myeloma (MM) patients. CD200 patients had significantly shorter median overall survival time (OS) than CD200 patients (41.0 months not reached,  = .009). The ratio of CD4 to CD8 T cells was lower in CD200 patients and this reduction was significantly related to the increase of CD8 T cells ( = .021). Moreover, we analyzed dynamic changes of CD200 expression in 47 CD200 patients during treatment. Thirty-eight (80.9%) patients switched to CD200 during treatment. Those patients had a favorable survival compared with the others (median OS, 65.0 32.0 months,  < .001; median PFS, 29.0 11.5 months,  = .027). We concluded that CD200 expression is an independent marker for MM prognostic estimation during treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1839653DOI Listing
March 2021

The relationships among self-efficacy, social support, resilience, and subjective well-being in persons with spinal cord injuries.

J Adv Nurs 2021 Jan 3;77(1):221-230. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Spinal Injury Rehabilitation Center, Kavre, Nepal.

Aims: To examine the contribution of self-efficacy, social support, and resilience to subjective well-being (SWB), to examine the mediating effect of resilience in the relationship between social support and SWB, and to investigate if marital status moderates the relationship between social support and SWB among people with spinal cord injuries (SCI).

Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted from November 2017-January 2018.

Methods: One hundred and two individuals with SCI were recruited from a rehabilitation center and a community setting in Nepal. SWB, self-efficacy, social support, resilience, demographics and injury-related information was collected using self-reported questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analysis, mediation analysis, and moderation analysis were performed in SPSS and R to test the hypotheses.

Results: Self-efficacy, social support, and resilience uniquely explained 19% of the variance on SWB after controlling for demographic covariates. In the mediation analysis, resilience partially mediated the relationship between social support and SWB. In the moderation analysis, marital status moderated the relationship between resilience and SWB.

Conclusion: Subjective well-being of persons with SCI is associated with many factors. Interventions to strengthen self-efficacy, resilience, and social networks can be effective to enhance SWB. A stronger association between resilience and SWB among single participants reflects the need to provide specific considerations for persons with SCI who are single. Longitudinal and/or experimental studies are needed to further validate these findings.

Impact: This study identified external and internal factors contributing to SWB in persons with SCI. Self-efficacy, social support, and resilience were found to be significantly associated with SWB. Resilience acted as a mediator between social support and SWB. The relationship between resilience and SWB was stronger in single participants than married participants. The findings have potential implications in the field of nursing since nurses are one of the integral members of the SCI rehabilitation team.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.14573DOI Listing
January 2021

AKR1B10 Inhibitor Epalrestat Facilitates Sorafenib-Induced Apoptosis and Autophagy Via Targeting the mTOR Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Int J Med Sci 2020 18;17(9):1246-1256. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Infectious Disease, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China.

Sorafenib is the standard systemic treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and improving its therapeutic effects is crucial for addressing cancer aggression. We previously reported that epalrestat, an aldo-keto reductase 1B10 inhibitor, enhanced sorafenib's inhibitory effects on HCC xenograft in nude mice. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of epalrestat's anti-tumour enhancing effects on sorafenib. HepG2 cells were treated with sorafenib, epalrestat, and their combination. Cell proliferation was assessed with Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assays. AKR1B10 supernate concentration and enzyme activity were detected by ELISA assay and the decrease of optical density of NADPH at 340 nm. Cell cycle and apoptosis analyses were performed with flow cytometry. Western blots clarified the molecular mechanism underlying effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy. The anti-tumour mechanism was then validated through TUNEL and immunohistochemistry staining of HCC xenograft sections. Epalrestat combined with sorafenib inhibited HepG2 cellular proliferation , arrested the cell cycle at G0/G1, and promoted apoptosis and autophagy. Treatment with a specific mTOR activator MHY-1485 increased mTOR phosphorylation, while suppressing apoptosis and autophagy. Consistent with results, data from the HCC-xenograft nude mouse model also indicated that combined treatment inhibited the mTOR pathway and promoted apoptosis and autophagy. In conclusion, epalrestat heightens sorafenib's anti-cancer effects via blocking the mTOR pathway, thus inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.42956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294918PMC
March 2021

Structural, mechanical and electronic properties and hardness of ionic vanadium dihydrides under pressure from first-principles computations.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 1;10(1):8868. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, 434023, China.

Based on a combination of the CALYPSO method for crystal structure prediction and first-principles calculations, we explore the crystal structures of VH under the pressure range of 0-300 GPa. The cubic Fm-3m phase with regular VH cubes is predicted to transform into orthorhombic Pnma structure with fascinating distorted VH tetrakaidecahedrons at 47.36 GPa. Both the Fm-3m phase at 0 GPa and the Pnma phase at 100 GPa are mechanically and dynamically stable, as verified with the calculations of elastic constants and phonon dispersions, respectively. Moreover, the calculated electronic band structure and density of states indicate both stable phases are metallic. Remarkably, the analyses of the Poisson's ratio, electron localization function (ELF) and Bader charge substantiate that both stable phases are ionic crystals on account of effective charges transferring from V atom to H. On the basis of the microscopic hardness model, the Fm-3m and Pnma crystals of VH are potentially incompressible and hard materials with the hardness values of 17.83 and 17.68 GPa, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65910-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264295PMC
June 2020

Effect of astragaloside IV on cognitive dysfunction in rats with cerebrally infarcted via TGF-β / Smad signaling pathway.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2020 May 15;66(2):87-92. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Encephalopathy, Jinan Municipal No.2 Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250200, China.

Cerebral infarction is an acute cerebrovascular disease caused by abnormal blood circulation in the brain. In the present study, we investigate the effect of astragaloside IV on cognitive dysfunction in cerebrally infarcted rats via transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) / Smad signaling pathway. For this purpose, 45 rats were divided into three groups including astragaloside, model, and control. 30 of 45 healthy adult male SD rats were randomly selected to establish an acute cerebral infarction model. 15 modeled rats were enrolled as a model and astragaloside group, and another 15 rats as a blank control group. The rats in the astragaloside group were fed with astragaloside IV according to 1.08 g/kg body weight, and those in the blank group and model group were given matching normal saline. The levels of TGF-β, Smad1, Smad3 and Smad7 of TGF-β/Smad signaling transduction pathway at T0 (week 0), T1 (week 3) and T2 (week 6) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The modified neurological severity score (mNSS) was used to evaluate the improvement of cognitive dysfunction in rats. The mNSS of rats with cerebral infarction in the astragaloside group was lower than that in the control group and model group (P< 0.05). While the levels of TGF-β, Smad1, Smad3 and Smad7 in the astragaloside group were higher than those in the control group and model group (P< 0.05). Astragaloside IV plays an important role in improving cognitive dysfunction in rats with cerebral infarction while affecting the levels of TGF-β, Smad1, Smad3 and Smad7 and activating TGF-β / Smad signaling pathway.
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May 2020

Correlation between environmental low-dose cadmium exposure and early kidney damage: A comparative study in an industrial zone vs. a living quarter in Shanghai, China.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Oct 12;79:103381. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Occupational Diseases of Yangpu Hospital Under Yangpu District Central Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University, Shanghai 200090, China. Electronic address:

To investigate heavy metal exposure in an industrial zone vs. a living quarter in Shanghai and explore the relationship between the heavy metal source and urine cadmium (Cd) and early kidney damage. Blood lead and urine Cd, manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As) and EKD indexes were compared between residents in Exposure group (n = 168) and Control group (n = 168). It was found that PM level in Exposure group was significantly higher than that in Control group, and serum Cys-C and urine Cd, NAG, mAlb, KIM-1 and Cd-MT levels in Exposure group were also significantly higher than those in Control group, suggesting that differences in urine Cd and heavy metal levels between the residents of the two groups may be due to different PM concentrations in the environments of the two areas. Cd accumulation within the human body can induce kidney damage, probably through its potential hazard to the proximal tubular epithelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2020.103381DOI Listing
October 2020

The Microstructure and Electronic Properties of Yttrium Oxide Doped With Cerium: A Theoretical Insight.

Front Chem 2020 28;8:338. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

College of Computer and Information Engineering, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi, China.

Trivalent Cerium (Ce) doped Yttrium Oxide (YO) host crystal has drawn considerable interest due to its popular optical 5d-4f transition. The outstanding optical properties of YO:Ce system have been demonstrated by previous studies but the microstructures still remain unclear. The lacks of YO:Ce microstructures could constitute a problem to further exploit its potential applications. In this sense, we have comprehensively investigated the structural evolutions of YO:Ce crystals based on the CALYPSO structure search method in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. Our result uncovers a new rhombohedral phase of YO:Ce with R-3 group symmetry. In the host crystal, the Y ion at central site can be naturally replaced by the doped Ce, resulting in a perfect cage-like configuration. We find an interesting phase transition that the crystallographic symmetry of YO changes from cubic to rhombohedral when the impurity Ce is doped into the host crystal. With the nominal concentration of Ce at 3.125%, many metastable structures are also identified due to the different occupying points in the host crystal. The X-ray diffraction patterns of YO:Ce are simulated and the theoretical result is comparable to experimental data, thus demonstrating the validity of the lowest energy structure. The result of phonon dispersions shows that the ground state structure is dynamically stable. The analysis of electronic properties indicate that the YO:Ce possesses a band gap of 4.20 eV which suggests that the incorporation of impurity Ce ion into YO host crystal leads to an insulator to semiconductor transition. Meanwhile, the strong covalent bonds of O atoms in the crystal, which may greatly contribute to the stability of ground state structure, are evidenced by electron localization function. These obtained results elucidate the structural and bonding characters of YO:Ce and could also provide useful insights for understanding the experimental phenomena.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198891PMC
April 2020

Cardioprotection of cortistatin against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in rats.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Mar;8(6):309

Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, China.

Background: The present study was designed to examine whether cortistatin (CORT) could protect rats from myocardial injury induced by subcutaneously injecting isoproterenol (ISO) and to clarify the possible mechanisms.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were placed at random into four groups: the control group, the ISO group, the ISO + CORT 25 µg/(kg·d) group, and the ISO + CORT 50 µg/(kg·d) group. Rat models of myocardial injury were established with the subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of 85 mg/kg ISO for 2 days. In the ISO+ CORT 25 µg/(kg·d) group and ISO+ CORT 50 µg/(kg·d) group, rats were given s.c. injections of CORT 25 µg/(kg·d) and CORT 50 µg/(kg·d) on the day before ISO, 3 days, respectively. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) activity were measured by corresponding test kits. Western blot was applied to evaluate the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related protein glucose regulatory protein 78 (GRP78), enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-12 (caspase-12), LC3-II, Beclin-1, and p62 in the rat myocardium.

Results: CORT alleviated the increased enzyme activities of serum LDH and CK-MB, and content of MDA (a typical marker of lipid peroxidation) in rats induced by ISO. CORT also prevented pathological myocardial injury in rats induced by ISO. Moreover, CORT attenuated the increased protein levels of GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12, and reduced the increase of LC3-II, LC3-II/I, Beclin-1, and p62 in rats induced by ISO.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate that CORT can attenuate ISO-induced acute myocardial injury in rats likely by reducing lipid peroxidation, and inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy. This supports CORT as a potentially being a new target for preventing and treating myocardial injury and its related disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.02.93DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186754PMC
March 2020

Use of Direct In-Person Observation in the Care of Hospitalized Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review.

J Gerontol Nurs 2020 May;46(5):23-30

Hospitalized older adults with cognitive impairment (CI) due to dementia and/or delirium may require individualized care strategies such as direct observation to mitigate safety concerns and manage behavioral symptoms. Despite common use of direct observation as a strategy, little is known about its practice and outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to identify, appraise, and synthesize literature on direct observation among hospitalized older adults with CI. The search yielded 16 eligible studies, with four describing current practices, nine reporting quality improvement efforts to broaden direct observation, and three focusing on direct observation reduction. Strength of evidence across studies was weak, limited in scope, and lacking clarity in definitions, indications for use and discontinuation, and documentation. Overall, findings highlight differing views on direct observation and the need for future, rigorous evaluation of approaches (e.g., nursing autonomy in initiating and discontinuing observation) to better align direct observation with patient needs. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 46(5), 23-30.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00989134-20200313-02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184966PMC
May 2020

Low absolute CD4 T cell counts in peripheral blood predict poor prognosis in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 08 23;61(8):1869-1876. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing, China.

The T lymphocyte system plays an active role in tumor immunosurveillance in multiple myeloma (MM), and abnormal T lymphocyte populations are often observed in patients with MM. In the current study, we evaluated the prognostic impact of abnormal T lymphocyte subset distributions in patients with newly diagnosed MM (NDMM). Between December 2012 to October 2016, 110 NDMM patients were included in this study. Multiparameter flow cytometry was applied to quantitatively analysis the peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets, including CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, and CD4/CD8 ratio. Survival analyses were performed based on the patients' clinical data and the quantity of T lymphocyte subsets. The median follow-up time was 27.0 months (range, 2.5-66). Baseline percentages and absolute CD4 T cell counts and the CD4/CD8 ratio were positively correlated with both overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) according to Kaplan-Meier curves ( < .05). In the multivariate COX analysis, lower CD4 T cell count was an independent unfavorable factor in predicting both OS ( = .016) and PFS ( = .010). Furthermore, lower CD4/CD8 ratio was an independent adverse prognostic factor for shorter PFS ( = .017). These results suggested that T lymphocyte subsets were crucial indicators in correlation with MM patients' prognosis. Low CD4 T cell counts and CD4/CD8 ratio were independent unfavorable prognostic predictors for patients with MM at diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1751840DOI Listing
August 2020

Growth of Large-Area Homogeneous Monolayer Transition-Metal Disulfides via a Molten Liquid Intermediate Process.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Mar 6;12(11):13174-13181. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Institute of Chemical Biology and Nanomedicine (ICBN), State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, P. R. China.

Growth of large-area, uniform, and high-quality monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) for practical and industrial applications remains a long-standing challenge. The present study demonstrates a modified predeposited chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process by employing an annealing procedure before sulfurization, which helps in achieving large-area, highly uniform, and high-quality TMDs on various substrates. The annealing procedure resulted in a molten liquid state of the precursors in the CVD process, which not only facilitated a uniform redistribution of the precursor on the substrate (avoid the aggregation) because of the uniform redistribution of the liquid precursor on the substrate but more importantly avoided the undesired multilayer growth via the self-limited lateral supply precursors mechanism. A 2 in. uniform and continuous monolayer WS film has been synthesized on the SiO/Si substrate. Moreover, uniform monolayer WS single crystals can be prepared on more general and various substrates including sapphire, mica, quartz, and SiN using the same growth procedure. Besides, this growth mechanism can be generalized to synthesize other monolayer TMDs such as MoS and MoS/WS heterostructures. Hence, the present method provides a generalized attractive strategy to grow large-area, uniform, single-layer two-dimensional (2D) materials. This study has significant implications in the advancement of batch production of various 2D-material-based devices for industrial and commercial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b22397DOI Listing
March 2020

Recruitment and retention of underrepresented populations in Alzheimer's disease research: A systematic review.

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2019 19;5:751-770. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.

Introduction: Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) disproportionately impact racial and ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged adults. Yet, these populations are significantly underrepresented in research.

Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature for published reports describing recruitment and retention of individuals from underrepresented backgrounds in ADRD research or underrepresented participants' perspectives regarding ADRD research participation. Relevant evidence was synthesized and evaluated for quality.

Results: We identified 22 eligible studies. Seven studies focused on recruitment/retention approaches, all of which included multifaceted efforts and at least one community outreach component. There was considerable heterogeneity in approaches used, specific activities and strategies, outcome measurement, and conclusions regarding effectiveness. Despite limited use of prospective evaluation strategies, most authors reported improvements in diverse representation in ADRD cohorts. Studies evaluating participant views focused largely on predetermined explanations of participation including attitudes, barriers/facilitators, education, trust, and religiosity. Across all studies, the strength of evidence was low.

Discussion: Overall, the quantity and quality of available evidence to inform best practices in recruitment, retention, and inclusion of underrepresented populations in ADRD research are low. Further efforts to systematically evaluate the success of existing and emergent approaches will require improved methodological standards and uniform measures for evaluating recruitment, participation, and inclusivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trci.2019.09.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6944728PMC
November 2019

LncRNA TP73-AS1 Activates TGF-β1 to Promote the Migration and Invasion of Colorectal Cancer Cell.

Cancer Manag Res 2019 16;11:10523-10529. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Anorectal Hemorrhoid Fistula, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou City, Sichuan Province 646000, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: LncRNA TP73-AS1 has been demonstrated to promote the developments of several types of human cancer. However, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is unknown.

Methods: All CRC patients (n=70, 40 males and 30 females, 38 to 66 years' old, 52.1 ± 5.3 years' old) in this study were enrolled in the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University from July 2012 to January 2014. Cells, vectors, and transient transfections, RT-qPCR, western-blotting, as well as measurements of cell migration and invasion abilities were carried out during the research.

Results: In the present study, we found that TP73-AS1 was upregulated in CRC tissues compared with adjacent non-CRC tissues in CRC patients. Upregulation of TP73-AS1 was closely correlated with poor prognosis. TGF-β1 was also upregulated in CRC tissues and positive correlated with TP73-AS1. TP73-AS1 overexpression caused upregulated TGF-β1 in CRC cells, while TGF-β1 overexpression showed no significant effect on TP73-AS1. TP73-AS1 and TGF-β1 overexpressions caused enhanced migration and invasion of CRC cells. TGF-β inhibitor treatment caused suppressed migration and invasion of CRC cells and attenuated effects of TP73-AS1 and TGF-β1 overexpression.

Conclusion: Therefore, TP73-AS1 may inactivate TGF-β1 to inhibit the migration and invasion of CRC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S228490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6924583PMC
December 2019

The Prevalence of HBV Infection: A Retrospective Study of 13 Years in a Public Hospital of Northeast China.

Viral Immunol 2020 03 13;33(2):99-104. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Infectious Disease, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, P.R. China.

The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was an imbalance in different provinces of China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV infection and evaluate the prophylactic measures in a public hospital of northeast China over the preceding 13 years. A total of 13,948 patients in 2004 and 15,256 patients in 2017 of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University were tested of serum HBsAg, HBeAg, HBsAb, HBeAb, and HBcAb levels with Abbott MEIA Kits. In people born before 1992, HBsAg-positive rate was 5.45% and 6.47%; isolated HBsAb positive rate was 14.62% and 21.24%; HBV marker negative rate was 54.27% and 42.77% in 2004 and 2017 survey, respectively. The males had a significant higher HBsAg-positive rate than the females. In people born during 1992-2004, HBsAg positive rate was 0.58% and 0.57%, isolated HBsAb positive rate was 41.47% and 46.57%; and HBV marker negative rate was 51.97% and 46.86% in 2004 and 2017 survey, respectively. Males and females had no difference of HBsAg-positive rate. In children born after 2005, HBsAg positive rate was 0.11%, isolated HBsAb positive rate was 76.68%, and HBV marker negative rate was 18.51% in 2017 survey. No difference of HBsAg-positive rate was found between the genders. A dramatic decrease of HBsAg positive rate and a progressive increase of HBsAb-positive rate were found among people born after 1992 and progressed further in those born after 2005. Immunization of infants and timely birth dose was the key method for prevention of HBV infection. Expanded HB vaccination would be needed for people born before 2005, especially those born between 1992 and 2004.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2019.0104DOI Listing
March 2020

Discovery of hPRDX5-based peptide inhibitors blocking PD-1/PD-L1 interaction through in silico proteolysis and rational design.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 01 19;85(1):185-193. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

NHC Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Antibiotics, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 1 Tiantanxili, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100050, China.

Purpose: The human peroxiredoxin-5 (hPRDX5) is a member of the family of antioxidant enzymes, which could resist immunosuppression by promoting immune organs development, lymphocyte proliferation and up-regulation of the levels of serum cytokines. However, being a recombinant protein, the hPRDX5 exhibits some problems including the high production cost and bad tissue penetration. Compared to macromolecular therapeutic agents, synthetic peptides have several advantages as drug candidates, such as lower manufacturing costs, reduced immunogenicity, and better organ or tumor penetration. The purpose of this research was to design the novel peptides come from hPRDX5 that can block the interaction of PD-1 and PD-L1.

Methods: Herein in this work, we firstly confirmed the inhibitory activity of hPRDX5 on the binding of PD-L1 to PD-1 based on the previous observation, subsequently, in silico proteolysis and rational design (such as alanine scanning mutagenesis and truncation) were used to automate the design of new peptides derived from hPRDX5 with anti-tumour activity.

Results: We found that the most potent peptide could block the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction effectively with an IC of 0.646 μM, and could restore the function of Jurkat T cells which had been suppressed by stimulated HCT116 cells. Moreover, experiments with tumor-bearing mice models showed that the peptide IMB-P6-10 could effectively inhibit tumor growth and showed extraordinary low acute toxicity in vivo.

Conclusions: The peptides described in this paper may provide novel low-molecular-weight drug candidates for cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-019-03995-zDOI Listing
January 2020
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