Publications by authors named "Yuanyuan Huang"

259 Publications

Enhanced biocrude production from hydrothermal conversion of municipal sewage sludge co-liquefaction with various model feedstocks.

RSC Adv 2022 Jul 13;12(31):20379-20386. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Shenergy Environmental Technologies Co., Ltd Buiding 7. Vanka Canter, 988 Shenchang Rd Shanghai 201100 China

Hydrothermal co-liquefaction has the potential to improve biocrude yield. To investigate the influence of various types of biomass on co-liquefaction with municipal sewage sludge (MSS), experiments on MSS with three kinds of model feedstocks (soy oil, soy protein, and starch) were carried out. Reaction temperatures of 300, 320, and 340 °C proved to be the appropriate reaction temperatures for the highest biocrude yield for soy oil, soy protein, and starch, respectively. A synergistic effect on the biocrude yield of co-liquefaction was proved, and starch showed the highest synergistic effect with a 57.25% increase in biocrude yield, while soy oil only presented a slight synergistic effect. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) results suggested that co-liquefaction with soy oil increased the light oil fractions in biocrude by 20.81%, but protein and starch led to more heavy oil fractions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) indicated that co-liquefaction with protein or starch produced more cyclic compounds in the biocrude, while almost no new components appeared from co-liquefaction with soy oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra02325cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9277621PMC
July 2022

Determination of the Metabolites and Metabolic Pathways for Three β-Receptor Agonists in Rats Based on LC-MS/MS.

Animals (Basel) 2022 Jul 23;12(15). Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071000, China.

This paper developed a universal detection method by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to detect three typical clenbuterols, CLB, SAL, and RAC, and to investigate the metabolism of β-agonists in vivo. The parent ions and daughter ions of the three β-receptor agonist standards and the residues in the muscle, liver, and blood samples of rats were obtained by Total Ions Scan mode. The metabolites produced in different tissues at a specific time were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, and the corresponding metabolic pathways were inferred. The results showed that the three β-receptor agonists mainly existed in the form of prototype drugs in rats, with a small amount of clenbuterol methyl compound and albuterol methyl compound. There were significant differences in residual metabolism between different tissues of the same species. In addition, different β-receptor agonists have different absorption and utilization rates in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani12151885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332168PMC
July 2022

Gender differences in associations of cognitive impairments with homocysteine in schizophrenia.

Asian J Psychiatr 2022 Jul 16;75:103214. Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2022.103214DOI Listing
July 2022

Toward a Global Model for Soil Inorganic Phosphorus Dynamics: Dependence of Exchange Kinetics and Soil Bioavailability on Soil Physicochemical Properties.

Global Biogeochem Cycles 2022 Mar 18;36(3):e2021GB007061. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems South China Botanical Garden Chinese Academy of Sciences Guangzhou China.

The representation of phosphorus (P) cycling in global land models remains quite simplistic, particularly on soil inorganic phosphorus. For example, sorption and desorption remain unresolved and their dependence on soil physical and chemical properties is ignored. Empirical parameter values are usually based on expert knowledge or data from few sites with debatable global representativeness in most global land models. To overcome these issues, we compiled from data of inorganic soil P fractions and calculated the fraction of added P remaining in soil solution over time of 147 soil samples to optimize three parameters in a model of soil inorganic P dynamics. The calibrated model performed well (  > 0.7 for 122 soil samples). Model parameters vary by several orders of magnitude, and correlate with soil P fractions of different inorganic pools, soil organic carbon and oxalate extractable metal oxide concentrations among the soil samples. The modeled bioavailability of soil P depends on, not only, the desorption rates of labile and sorbed pool, inorganic phosphorus fractions, the slope of P sorbed against solution P concentration, but also on the ability of biological uptake to deplete solution P concentration and the time scale. The model together with the empirical relationships of model parameters on soil properties can be used to quantify bioavailability of soil inorganic P on various timescale especially when coupled within global land models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2021GB007061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9286372PMC
March 2022

Cancer-associated fibroblast-derived exosomal microRNA-20a suppresses the PTEN/PI3K-AKT pathway to promote the progression and chemoresistance of non-small cell lung cancer.

Clin Transl Med 2022 Jul;12(7):e989

Department of VIP Region, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) contributes to overall tumor progression. In the current survey, we explored the ability of microRNA-20a (miR-20a) within these CAF-derived exosomes to influence non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression.

Materials And Methods: Normal tissue-associated fibroblasts (NAFs) and CAFs were collected from samples of NSCLC patient tumors and paracancerous lung tissues. Exosomes derived from these cells were then characterized via Western blotting, nanoparticle tracking analyses, and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of miR-20a was assessed via qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). CCK-8, EdU uptake, and colony formation assessments were used for evaluating tumor proliferation, while Hoechst staining was performed to monitor the in vitro apoptotic death of tumor cells. A model of xenograft tumor established in nude mice was also used to evaluate in vivo tumor responses.

Results: CAF-derived exosomes exhibited miR-20a upregulation and promoted NSCLC cell proliferation and resistance to cisplatin (DDP). Mechanistically, CAF-derived exosomes were discovered to transmit miR-20a to tumor cells wherein it was able to target PTEN to enhance DDP resistance and proliferation. Associated PTEN downregulation following exosome-derived miR-20a treatment enhanced PI3K/AKT pathway activation.

Conclusion: The achieved outcomes explain that CAFs can release miR-20a-containing exosomes capable of promoting NSCLC progression and chemoresistance, highlighting this pathway as a possible therapeutic target in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9299573PMC
July 2022

Comparison of fluoxetine with other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of premature ejaculation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Andrologia 2022 Sep 27;54(8):e14500. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

The Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

The primary goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of fluoxetine with other oral pharmaceuticals in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). We searched through databases including CNKI, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane to find research published up to 31 March 2022. PROSPERO was used to pre-register this meta-analysis (registration number CRD42022315459). Two separate writers extracted relevant details from all of the papers included in the study. To analyse the quality of literature publishing, we used the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The severity of premature ejaculation was determined using intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), and the effectiveness and safety of pharmacological interventions were determined using standardized mean difference (SMD) and risk ratio (RR) values with matching 95% confidence level intervals (95% CIs). Our meta-analysis includes a total of ten trials to investigate into the differences in treatment efficacy and safety between fluoxetine and other medicines. The findings revealed that fluoxetine was more effective than placebo in treating PE, whereas sertraline and paroxetine were more effective than fluoxetine (p < 0.05). The side effects of the medications were not significantly different, and they were all acceptable. The results of the sensitivity analysis were unaffected by the removal of any of the articles. There was no evidence of bias in the media. This meta-analysis examined the differences in efficacy and safety between fluoxetine and other oral medications and can be used by clinicians in the treatment of PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.14500DOI Listing
September 2022

Brown adipose tissue activation with ginsenoside compound K ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome.

Br J Pharmacol 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background And Purpose: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic and endocrine disease affecting women of reproductive age. Due to its complex aetiology, there is no currently effective cure for PCOS. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is significantly decreased in PCOS patients, and BAT activation has beneficial effects in animal models of PCOS. Here, we investigated the effect of ginsenoside compound K (CK) in an animal model of PCOS and its mechanism of BAT activation.

Experimental Approach: Primary brown adipocytes, Db/Db mice and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rats were used. The core body temperature, oxygen consumption, energy metabolism related gene and protein expression were assessed to identify the effect of CK on overall energy metabolism. Oestrous cycle, serum sex hormone, ovarian steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and ovarian morphology were also evaluated following CK treatment.

Key Results: Our results indicated that CK treatment could significantly protect against body weight gain in Db/Db mice via BAT activation. Furthermore, we found that CK treatment could normalize hyperandrogenism, oestrous cyclicity, normalize steroidogenic enzyme expression and decrease the number of cystic follicles in PCOS rats. Interestingly, as a potential endocrine intermediate, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand-14 protein (CXCL14) was significantly up-regulated following CK administration. In addition, exogenous CXC14 supplementation was found to reverse DHEA-induced PCOS in a phenotypically similar manner to CK treatment.

Conclusion And Implications: In summary, CK treatment significantly activates BAT, increases CXCL14 expression and ameliorates PCOS. These findings suggest that CK might be a potential drug candidate for PCOS treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.15909DOI Listing
June 2022

Climatic and biotic factors influencing regional declines and recovery of tropical forest biomass from the 2015/16 El Niño.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 06 22;119(26):e2101388119. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives-CNRS-Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

The 2015/16 El Niño brought severe drought and record-breaking temperatures in the tropics. Here, using satellite-based L-band microwave vegetation optical depth, we mapped changes of above-ground biomass (AGB) during the drought and in subsequent years up to 2019. Over more than 60% of drought-affected intact forests, AGB reduced during the drought, except in the wettest part of the central Amazon, where it declined 1 y later. By the end of 2019, only 40% of AGB reduced intact forests had fully recovered to the predrought level. Using random-forest models, we found that the magnitude of AGB losses during the drought was mainly associated with regionally distinct patterns of soil water deficits and soil clay content. For the AGB recovery, we found strong influences of AGB losses during the drought and of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text] is a parameter related to canopy structure and is defined as the ratio of two relative height (RH) metrics of Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) waveform data-RH25 (25% energy return height) and RH100 (100% energy return height; i.e., top canopy height). A high [Formula: see text] may reflect forests with a tall understory, thick and closed canopy, and/or without degradation. Such forests with a high [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text] ≥ 0.3) appear to have a stronger capacity to recover than low-[Formula: see text] ones. Our results highlight the importance of forest structure when predicting the consequences of future drought stress in the tropics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2101388119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9245643PMC
June 2022

Is deception defensible in dementia care? A care ethics perspective.

Nurs Ethics 2022 Jun 20:9697330221092336. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

The Department of Medical Ethics and Law, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Deception is common in dementia care, although its moral legitimacy is questionable. This paper conceptually clarifies when does dementia care involve deception and argues that care ethics is an appropriate ethical framework to guide dementia care compared with the mainstream ethical theories that emphasize abilities. From a perspective of care ethics, this paper claims that morally defensible deception is context-specific, embodied as a caring process that needs to be identified through instant, creative and interactive care procedures. According to this argument, it further analyses and concludes the moral rationality of deception in five common cases. While deception is morally justified in many situations, another concern is that it is usually not the last resort but a means of convenience. As the ability to interact, autonomy and dignity of persons with dementia (PWDs) are generally ignored; nurses need more training and education to master the essential procedures to ensure that the value of authenticity and autonomy is maintained and considered throughout dementia care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09697330221092336DOI Listing
June 2022

Spray dried hydroxyapatite-based supraparticles with uniform and controllable size and morphology.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2022 Jun 3;217:112610. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Engineering Research Centre of Advanced Powder Technology (ERCAPT), School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, PR China. Electronic address:

This work aims to prepare uniform spray dried hydroxyapatite-based (SD HAP-based) supraparticles with controllable morphology via micro-fluidic spray drying. Sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were used to prepare the precursor suspensions by regulating the inter-particle repulsive forces and electrostatic shielding effect, respectively. The particle size (D50) and zeta potential of the suspension were highly associated with the mass ratio of HAP to PAAS (m/m) and the NaCl concentration (C), which further had significant effect on the permeability (k) of the droplet shell formed during spray drying and ultimately the supraparticle morphology. D50 ˂ 2 µm and absolute zeta potential ˃ 20 mV, obtained when m/m ˂ 100 under low C, rendered ultralow k and consequently deformed supraparticles; Whereas D50 ˃ 2 µm and absolute zeta potential ˂ 20 mV, achieved by decreasing PAAS amount, i.e. m/m ≥ 100 or improving C to efficiently screen surface net charge of HAP, high k and spherical supraparticles were thus preferentially formed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2022.112610DOI Listing
June 2022

A scFv phage targeting the C. albicans cell wall screened from a bacteriophage-based library of induced immune protection in mice.

Infect Genet Evol 2022 08 14;102:105303. Epub 2022 May 14.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun City, Jilin Province 130024, PR China.. Electronic address:

C. albicans is the most prevalent opportunistic fungal and can cause life-threatening systemic infections under certain circumstances. The inefficiency and resistance of traditional therapy make the development of novel techniques indispensable. The main components, proteins and glycoproteins, of the C. albicans cell wall are highly immunogenic and very different from those of the host, making it an ideal source of targets for antifungal drug development. This study aimed to screen and identify specific peptides that bind to the C. albicans cell wall using a phage-display peptide library, and to develop a peptide-based therapy targeted to C. albicans. After four rounds of screening, JC-1 ScFv was found to bind to the C. albicans cell wall specifically, inhibit C. albicans growth and viability in vitro, and protect mice from C. albicans infection in vivo. Further study showed that JC-1 could provoke an immune response in C. albicans-infected mice. These results indicated that JC-1 ScFv screened from a phage-display peptide library had the potential to be developed as a vector for targeting C. albicans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2022.105303DOI Listing
August 2022

Pantothenate protects against obesity via brown adipose tissue activation.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2022 07 16;323(1):E69-E79. Epub 2022 May 16.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the primary site of adaptive thermogenesis, which is involved in energy expenditure and has received much attention in the field of obesity treatment. By screening a small-molecule compound library of drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration, pantothenic acid was identified as being able to significantly upregulate the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a key thermogenic protein found in BAT. Pantothenate (PA) treatment decreased adiposity, reversed hepatic steatosis, and improved glucose homeostasis by increasing energy expenditure in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. PA also significantly increased BAT activity and induced beige adipocytes formation. Mechanistically, the beneficial effects were mediated by UCP1 because PA treatment was unable to ameliorate obesity in UCP1 knockout mice. In conclusion, we identified PA as an effective BAT activator that can prevent obesity and may represent a promising strategy for the clinical treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. PA treatment effectively and safely protected against obesity via the BAT-UCP1 axis. PA has therapeutic potential for treating obesity and type II diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00293.2021DOI Listing
July 2022

Engineering microbial systems for the production and functionalization of biomaterials.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2022 08 11;68:102154. Epub 2022 May 11.

Center for Materials Synthetic Biology, Shenzhen Institute of Synthetic Biology, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China; Cas Key Laboratory of Quantitative Engineering Biology, Shenzhen Institute of Synthetic Biology, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

A new trend in biomaterials synthesis is harnessing the production of microorganisms, owing to the low cost and sustainability. Because microorganisms use DNA as a production code, it is possible for humans to reprogram these cells and thus build living factories for the production of biomaterials. Over the past decade, advances in genetic engineering have enabled the development of various intriguing biomaterials with useful properties, with commercially available biomaterials representing only a few of these. In this review, we discuss the common strategies for the production of bulk and commodity biogenic polymers, and highlight several notable approaches such as modular protein engineering and pathway optimization in achieving these goals. We finally investigate the available synthetic biology tools that allow engineering of living materials, and discuss how this emerging class of materials has expanded the application scope of biomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2022.102154DOI Listing
August 2022

Field-based tree mortality constraint reduces estimates of model-projected forest carbon sinks.

Nat Commun 2022 04 19;13(1):2094. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Le Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, IPSL-LSCECEA/CNRS/UVSQ Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Considerable uncertainty and debate exist in projecting the future capacity of forests to sequester atmospheric CO. Here we estimate spatially explicit patterns of biomass loss by tree mortality (LOSS) from largely unmanaged forest plots to constrain projected (2015-2099) net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (HR) and net carbon sink in six dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) across continents. This approach relies on a strong relationship among LOSS, NPP, and HR at continental or biome scales. The DGVMs overestimated historical LOSS, particularly in tropical regions and eastern North America by as much as 5 Mg ha y. The modeled spread of DGVM-projected NPP and HR uncertainties was substantially reduced in tropical regions after incorporating the field-based mortality constraint. The observation-constrained models show a decrease in the tropical forest carbon sink by the end of the century, particularly across South America (from 2 to 1.4 PgC y), and an increase in the sink in North America (from 0.8 to 1.1 PgC y). These results highlight the feasibility of using forest demographic data to empirically constrain forest carbon sink projections and the potential overestimation of projected tropical forest carbon sinks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-29619-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9018757PMC
April 2022

Discovery and preclinical profile of LX-039, a novel indole-based oral selective estrogen receptor degrader (SERD).

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2022 06 15;66:128734. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

WuXi AppTec, 288 Fute Zhong Road, Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Shanghai 200131, China. Electronic address:

We previously described the discovery of a novel indole series compounds as oral SERD for ER positive breast cancer treatment. Further SAR exploration focusing on substitutions on indole moiety of compound 12 led to the discovery of a clinical candidate LX-039. We report herein its profound anti-tumor activity, desirable ER antagonistic characteristics combined with favorable pharmacokinetic and preliminary safety properties. LX-039 is currently in clinical trial (NCT04097756).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2022.128734DOI Listing
June 2022

Current Topics of Relevance to the Xenotransplantation of Free Pig Islets.

Front Immunol 2022 1;13:854883. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Imaging Department, Shenzhen Institute of Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Pig islet xenotransplantation is a potential treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes. Current efforts are focused on identifying the optimal pig islet source and overcoming the immunological barrier. The optimal age of the pig donors remains controversial since both adult and neonatal pig islets have advantages. Isolation of adult islets using GMP grade collagenase has significantly improved the quantity and quality of adult islets, but neonatal islets can be isolated at a much lower cost. Certain culture media and coculture with mesenchymal stromal cells facilitate neonatal islet maturation and function. Genetic modification in pigs affords a promising strategy to prevent rejection. Deletion of expression of the three known carbohydrate xenoantigens (Gal, Neu5Gc, Sda) will certainly be beneficial in pig organ transplantation in humans, but this is not yet proven in islet transplantation, though the challenge of the '4th xenoantigen' may prove problematic in nonhuman primate models. Blockade of the CD40/CD154 costimulation pathway leads to long-term islet graft survival (of up to 965 days). Anti-CD40mAbs have already been applied in phase II clinical trials of islet transplantation. Fc region-modified anti-CD154mAbs successfully prevent the thrombotic complications reported previously. In this review, we discuss (I) the optimal age of the islet-source pig, (ii) progress in genetic modification of pigs, (iii) the immunosuppressive regimen for pig islet xenotransplantation, and (iv) the reduction in the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.854883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9010617PMC
April 2022

Dynamic analysis and application in medical digital image watermarking of a new multi-scroll neural network with quartic nonlinear memristor.

Eur Phys J Plus 2022 7;137(4):434. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

College of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 China.

Memristor is widely used in various neural bionic models because of its excellent characteristics in biological neural activity simulation. In this paper, a piecewise nonlinear function is used to transform the quartic memristor, which is introduced into the ternary Hopfield neural network (HNN) with self-feedback, and a piecewise quartic memristive chaotic neural network model with multi-scroll is constructed. Through simulation analysis, the number of scroll layers changes with memristor parameters and has significant coexistence of multi-scroll attractors and high initial value sensitivity has been found. Using its excellent unpredictability, a digital watermarking algorithm based on wavelet transform is improved and used in the protection of personal medical data. The results show that it not only improves the confidentiality and convenience, but also ensures its robustness and has good encryption effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjp/s13360-022-02652-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8988118PMC
April 2022

Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals Aberrant Brain Age Trajectory During Youth in Schizophrenia Patients.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 3;14:823502. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

School of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou International Campus, Guangzhou, China.

Accelerated brain aging had been widely reported in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). However, brain aging trajectories in SZ patients have not been well-documented using three-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. In this study, 138 schizophrenia patients and 205 normal controls aged 20-60 were included and multimodal MRI data were acquired for each individual, including structural MRI, resting state-functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. The brain age of each participant was estimated by features extracted from multimodal MRI data using linear multiple regression. The correlation between the brain age gap and chronological age in SZ patients was best fitted by a positive quadratic curve with a peak chronological age of 47.33 years. We used the peak to divide the subjects into a youth group and a middle age group. In the normal controls, brain age matched chronological age well for both the youth and middle age groups, but this was not the case for schizophrenia patients. More importantly, schizophrenia patients exhibited increased brain age in the youth group but not in the middle age group. In this study, we aimed to investigate brain aging trajectories in SZ patients using multimodal MRI data and revealed an aberrant brain age trajectory in young schizophrenia patients, providing new insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.823502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8929292PMC
March 2022

Application of a three-dimensional printed model to localize a cranial cerebrospinal fluid leak: a case report.

J Int Med Res 2022 Feb;50(2):3000605221078412

Department of Neurosurgery/Neuro-oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center; State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine; Guangzhou, China.

Localization of defect sites is a major challenge for surgical repair of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. Here, we report a case in which we applied a 3-dimensional (3D) printed model to accurately identify the defect sites and facilitate the successful repair of a cranial CSF leak. A 37-year-old female patient diagnosed with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma suffered CSF rhinorrhea and severe bacterial meningitis. Lumbar drainage and antibiotic administration failed to control the condition. In addition to high resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, we applied a 3D printed model of the skull to improve the understanding of the osseous destruction at the skull base and aid in accurately localizing the defect sites of the right middle fossa. Accordingly, a right temporalis pedicled flap combined with an autogenous fascia lata flap was applied to cover the defect sites. The leak stopped postoperatively, and meningitis was relieved by enhanced antibacterial treatment. As a complement to high resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, a 3D printed model may improve localization of complex defect sites and surgical planning by allowing preoperative visualization of the skull condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605221078412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8987368PMC
February 2022

Oceanobacter mangrovi Sp. Nov., a Novel Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate Accumulating Bacterium Isolated from Mangrove Sediment.

Curr Microbiol 2022 Feb 12;79(4):100. Epub 2022 Feb 12.

College of Oceanology and Food Science, Quanzhou Normal University, Quanzhou, China.

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile, mesophilic, and aerobic bacterial strain, designated SM2-42 was isolated from a mangrove sediment. Catalase activity and oxidase activity were positive. Growth was observed at 20 °C-40 °C, pH 6.0-8.0, and in the presence of 0.5-5.0% NaCl. Cells of strain SM2-42 contained poly-β-hydroxybutyrate granules. The 16S rRNA gene of strain SM2-42 had maximum sequence similarity with Oceanobacter kriegii 197 of 97.1%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and 120 conserved concatenated proteins indicated that strain SM2-42 was affiliated to the genus Oceanobacter and formed a monophyletic branch with O. kriegii 197. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain SM2-42 and O. kriegii 197 were 76.43% and 21.60%, respectively. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The major fatty acids (> 10%) comprised C, summed feature 8 (Cω7c and C ω6c), C, and summed feature 3 (Cω7c and/or C ω6c). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified lipids. The draft genome size was 5,115,008 bp with DNA G + C content of 54.3%. Based on phylogenetic analyses and whole genomic comparisons, strain SM2-42 represented a novel species, for which the name Oceanobacter mangrovi sp. nov. was proposed. The type strain was SM2-42 (= MCCC 1K06300 = KCTC 82938).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-022-02798-5DOI Listing
February 2022

Anomalous polarization pattern evolution of Raman modes in few-layer ReS by angle-resolved polarized Raman spectroscopy.

Nanoscale 2022 Feb 3;14(5):1896-1905. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Shaanxi Joint Lab of Graphene, International Collaborative Center on Photoelectric Technology and Nano Functional Materials, State Key Laboratory of Photon-Technology in Western China Energy, Institute of Photonics & Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China.

Low-symmetry of ReS has not only in-plane but also out-of-plane anisotropic light scattering, which is complicated, yet interesting with intrinsic strong electron-phonon coupling. In such a case, the Raman tensor also gets sophisticated with nine non-zero elements, which is layer-dependent for different Raman modes. Herein, we systematically investigated the polarization pattern evolution of both in-plane and out-of-plane Raman modes of few-layer ReS by angle-resolved polarized Raman spectroscopy. We found that in-plane Raman modes with less layer-dependence could be used to determine the crystal orientation (Re-chain direction) due to the weak electron-phonon interaction between layers. However, the out-of-plane and mixed vibration Raman modes demonstrate much evident layer-dependence due to the obvious electron-phonon interaction between layers. As such, the polarization patterns for the out-of-plane vibration Raman modes are distorted with layers in not only petal types but also maximum Raman intensity directions. This distortion is mainly due to the phase difference between Raman elements, which are complex values due to the near bandgap excitation laser. The results reveal that deep insights into anisotropy in low-symmetry two-dimensional materials could afford not only rich physics but also potential polarized optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr06733hDOI Listing
February 2022

Open-Label, Phase I, Pharmacokinetic Studies in Healthy Chinese Subjects to Evaluate the Bioequivalence and Food Effect of a Novel Formulation of Abiraterone Acetate Tablets.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2022 3;16:3-12. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

XiangYa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410013, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Abiraterone acetate tablets (I)(N-AbA) is a novel tablet co-formulated with the absorption enhancer sodium N-(8-[2-hydroxybenzoyl] amino) caprylate (SNAC). This study aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence, safety, and food effects of N-AbA with the reference ZYTIGA (R-AbA) in healthy Chinese male subjects.

Patients And Methods: This study was conducted in three parts. Part I was an open, dose-escalation trial conducted in 16 Chinese healthy males; Part II was a randomized, open-label, 2 × 4 crossover, single-dose bioequivalence trial conducted in 36 subjects; Part III was a randomized, 3 × 3 crossover trial conducted on 24 volunteers to investigate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of N-AbA.

Results: The exposure (AUC) and maximum concentration (C) of abiraterone and excipient SNAC were linear in the range of 75-450 mg dose. The bioavailability of N-AbA 300 mg was equivalent to that of R-AbA 1000 mg. The drug exposure of prednisone and prednisolone was not affected by SNAC co-administration. The C of orally administered abiraterone as R-AbA in a modified fed state was 5.9 times and AUC was 4.3 times, respectively, higher than those in of orally administered abiraterone as N-AbA in a high-fat diet. The C and AUC of orally administered abiraterone as N-AbA on a high-fat diet were 2.2 times and 2 times, respectively, higher than those on a fasting state. All adverse events reported in the three parts of the study were grade 1 or 2, and no serious adverse events were reported.

Conclusion: These three Phase I trials showed that N-AbA and excipient SNAC had excellent linear pharmacokinetic characteristics. A single dose of N-AbA 300 mg was bioequivalent to R-AbA 1000 mg in healthy subjects under fasting conditions. Meanwhile, SNAC had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of prednisone and prednisolone. The effect of food on N-AbA was significantly lower than that on R-AbA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S339305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8740623PMC
March 2022

Rethinking the Precedent Autonomy, Current Minimal Autonomy, and Current Well-Being in Medical Decisions for Persons with Dementia.

J Bioeth Inq 2022 03 11;19(1):163-175. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China.

As patient autonomy expands, a highly controversial issue has emerged. Should the advance directives (ADs) of refusing life-saving treatments or requesting euthanasia of persons with dementia (PWDs) who express changed minds or are often in a happy state be fulfilled? There are two autonomy-related positions. The mainstream position in philosophical discussions supports the priority of ADs based on precedent autonomy. Buchanan and Brock, and Dworkin represent this view. The other position supports the priority of PWDs' current wishes based on minimal autonomy represented by Jaworska. By rethinking the theoretical and practical challenges of the two positions and their arguments respectively, the paper concludes that in such a scenario, the priority of ADs is morally indefensible, and it is also challenging to establish minimal autonomy defend the moral priority of PWDs' current wishes. For PWDs whose past values, beliefs, and preferences fade away but who retain apparent intrinsic sentience of well-being, a modified defined quality-of-life (QoL) approach serves as another reasonable basis in their medical decision-making, and the ADs and the QoL should be further merged to reduce the uncertainty of the grey zone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11673-021-10159-3DOI Listing
March 2022

Two new triterpenes isolated from C. Y. Cheng et W. L. Sha and their antiproliferative activities.

Nat Prod Res 2022 Jan 11:1-7. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Scientific Experimental Center of Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning, China.

Two new triterpenes, 3, 7-dihydroxyolean-12-en-11-one (1) and 3--acetyl-7-hydroxyolean-12-en-11-one (2), along with four known triterpenes 3-hydroxyolean-12-en-11-one (3), -amyrin (4), lup-20(29)-ene-1, 3-diol (5) and 1, 3-dihydroxy-urs-9(11)-12-diene (6), were isolated from the stems and leaves of C. Y. Cheng et W. L. Sha. Their structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as MS and IR experiments. Compounds (3-6) were isolated from for the first time. Compounds - were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against Eca-109, PANC-1, EJ and HeLa cell lines. The results showed that compounds - displayed a certain degree of inhibitory effects against the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.2023870DOI Listing
January 2022

Anisotropic Second-Harmonic Generation Induced by Reduction of In-Plane Symmetry in 2D Materials with Strain Engineering.

J Phys Chem Lett 2022 Jan 5;13(1):352-361. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Shaanxi Joint Lab of Graphene, International Collaborative Center on Photoelectric Technology and Nano Functional Materials, State Key Laboratory of Photon-Technology in Western China Energy, Institute of Photonics & Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China.

Strain engineering is an attractive method to induce and control anisotropy for polarized optoelectronic applications with two-dimensional (2D) materials. Herein, we have investigated the nonlinear optical coefficient dispersion relationship and the second-harmonic generation (SHG) pattern evolution under the uniaxial strains for graphene, WS, GaSe, and InSe monolayers. The uniaxial strain can break the in-plane symmetry of 2D materials, leading to both trade-off breaking of the nonlinear coefficient and new emergent nonlinear coefficients. In such a case, a classical sixfold ϕ-dependent SHG pattern is transformed into a distorted sixfold SHG pattern under the strain. Due to the lattice symmetry breaking and the uneven charge density distribution in strained 2D materials, the SHG patterns also depend on the excitation photon energy. The results could give a guide for the SHG pattern analysis in experiments, suggesting strain engineering on 2D materials for the tunable anisotropy in polarized and flexible nonlinear optical devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c03571DOI Listing
January 2022

Layer-Dependent Nonlinear Optical Properties of WS, MoS, and BiS Films Synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jan 31;14(1):2390-2400. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Shaanxi Joint Lab of Graphene, State Key Laboratory of Photon-Technology in Western China Energy, International Collaborative Center on Photoelectric Technology and Nano Functional Materials, Institute of Photonics & Photon-Technology, School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China.

Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials have shown layer-dependent optical properties in both linear optical and nonlinear optical (NLO) regimes due to prominent interlayer coupling and quantum confinement in an atomic scale. However, the NLO properties become more complicated as both saturable absorption (SA) and reverse saturable absorption (RSA) easily happen in 2D materials, which results in a significant challenge to understand the evolution of nonlinear absorption with layers. Motivated by this, chemical vapor-deposited chalcogenide compounds (WS, MoS, and BiS) are used to investigate the pump intensity and layer number-dependent NLO properties. The values of nonlinear absorption coefficients of these chalcogenide compounds increase with the pump intensity by an 800 nm femtosecond laser, which can be described by an empirical power law function. The SA process due to the large transition probability of the ground state readily takes place in thick samples, while RSA occurs easily in thin samples due to the two-photon absorption (TPA). The transition from TPA to SA is deduced to occur at 13L-WS, 15L-MoS, and 5L-BiS, which is related to the layer-dependent band gaps. Our results provide an efficient way to tune optical nonlinearities with a controlled layer number and to design corresponding NLO devices such as optical switches and saturable absorbers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c21797DOI Listing
January 2022

Vitamin D Insufficiency Predicts Susceptibility of Parathyroid Hormone Reduction after Total Thyroidectomy in Thyroid Cancer Patients.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 15;2021:8657918. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Institute of Basic Medicine and Cancer (IBMC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 East Banshan Road, Hangzhou 310022, Zhejiang, China.

Objective: Given its role in the regulation of calcium and PTH levels, vitamin D was presumed as a potential predictor of postoperative hypoparathyroidism. However, the reports about their association were controversial. This study aims to reveal the relationship between preoperative vitamin D and postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH).

Methods: A total of 242 papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients who underwent total thyroidectomy (TT) during the period from June 2016 to December 2017 at our hospital were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups, HypoP and Non-HypoP groups, based on postoperative PTH < 15.0 or ≥15.0 pg/mL, and ΔPTH+ and ΔPTH- groups, based on postoperative PTH reduction ratio ≥ 50% or <50%. Clinicopathological features and laboratory data were compared between two sets of groups.

Results: Preoperative PTH level was lower in the HypoP group than in the Non-HypoP group (42.83 vs. 47.52 pg/mL, =0.018). No significant difference of vitamin D insufficiency was found between the HypoP and Non-HypoP groups (80.8% vs. 74.1%, =0.226). The rate of vitamin D insufficiency was higher in the ΔPTH+ group than in the ΔPTH- group (82.6% vs. 68.4%, =0.010). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, vitamin D insufficiency was an independent predictor of postoperative PTH reduction ratio ≥ 50% (OR = 2.2, =0.017).

Conclusion: Vitamin D insufficiency is not associated with postoperative PTH in PTC patients undergoing TT. However, vitamin D insufficiency is an independent predictor of postoperative PTH reduction ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8657918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8695026PMC
December 2021

Interaction Preference Differences between Elderly and Younger Exergame Users.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 11 29;18(23). Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Universal Design Institute, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

Existing motion capture technology can efficiently track whole-body motion and be applied to many areas of the body. This whole-body interaction design has gained the attention of many researchers. However, few scholars have studied its suitability for elderly users. We were interested in exercise-based whole-body interactive games, which can provide mental and physical exercise for elderly users. We used heuristic evaluation to measure participants' actions during exergame tasks and analyzed preference differences between elderly and younger users through the distribution of actions in four dimensions. We found that age affected the actions performed by users in exergame tasks. We discuss the mental model of elderly users during the process of performing these tasks and put forward some suggestions for interactive actions. This model and these suggestions theoretically have guiding significance for the research and application of exergame design for elderly users and may help designers develop more effective exergames or other whole-body interaction interfaces suitable for elderly users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8656892PMC
November 2021

Is there a need for advance care planning in China?-an interview survey of healthcare professionals in the neurology department.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Nov;10(11):11918-11930

Institute of Medical Information, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Family-oriented medical decision-making in China is founded on Confucian family-determination. The value and necessity of individual autonomy are marginalized in theory and practice. However, the dilemma in end-of-life (EOL) decision-making caused by the lack of advance care planning (ACP) has been increasingly concerned by the public. This study explores the value and necessity of ACP practice in China from the perspective of healthcare professionals (HCPs).

Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with five neurological physicians and five neurological nurses from a Grade 3 Class A hospital in Beijing.

Results: The results showed that in situations with a poor prognosis, respondents tended to believe that as part of ACP regarding, a patient's right to refuse invasive treatments should be followed, although all ten interviewees agreed that nasogastric feeding tubes (NGTs) should be maintained. Factors influencing a families' considerations in EOL decision making included prognosis and age, prior similar experiences, others' moral judgement, and the advice of HCPs. Four respondents had experienced patients expressing their wishes for EOL treatments and reported some obstacles in considering these wishes. Seven respondents considered creating an ACP themselves, two respondents doubted it would work in practice, and one respondent thought it was unnecessary.

Conclusions: The differences in the concept and practice of palliative care may be significantly related to the differences in the idea of ACP between Chinese and Western. The family-oriented decision-making model under Confucian culture cannot replace the ACP practice. Clinical situations and therapeutic measures that reveal the necessity and value of ACP should be the priority exploration to advance ACP practice. The practice of ACP and palliative care should be promoted simultaneously at the national level, and legislation for advance directives (ADs) is necessary for mainland China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-3228DOI Listing
November 2021

Analysis of immune-related genes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis based on bioinformatics and experimental verification.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Nov;10(11):11598-11614

Clinical Medical College of Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China; Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China.

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lung disease involving chronic progressive fibrosis, with unclear pathogenesis. In recent years, people have paid increasing attention to the role of immune mechanism. In this study, bioinformatics analysis was used to determine the potential immune-related biomarkers for the diagnosis of IPF, and further analyze the role of immune cell infiltration in the pathogenesis of IPF.

Methods: The IPF data set (GSE150910) was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. We used R software to screen differential immune-related genes (IRGs). Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression, random forest algorithm, and support vector machine (SVM) were used to screen and determine IPF IRGs to be diagnostic biomarkers. The GSE32537 and GSE10667 data sets were combined into 1 data set to verify the diagnostic efficacy of biomarkers. Cell-type Identification by Estimating Relative Subsets of RNA Transcripts (CIBERSORT) was used to evaluate the infiltration of immune cells in IPF tissues, and analyze the relationship between diagnostic markers and immune cell infiltration. Meanwhile, clinical specimens were used to verify the diagnostic efficacy of biomarkers and their relationship with immune cell infiltration.

Results: In this study, 408 participants were involved in the screening to find that PLXNA4 and SLIT2 can be used as diagnostic biomarkers of IPF, and the results were verified by clinical samples. Immune cell infiltration analysis found that regulatory T cells (Tregs), memory B cells, plasma cells, and eosinophils might be involved in the process of IPF. In addition, Tregs were most closely related to PLXNA4 and SLIT2. In clinical samples, forkhead box p3 (FOXP3), a specific marker of Tregs, was positively correlated with PLXNA4 and negatively correlated with SLIT2, which is consistent with the results of bioinformatics analysis.

Conclusions: The genes PLXNA4 and SLIT2 can be used as diagnostic markers of IPF, and immune cell infiltration plays an important role in the occurrence and development of IPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-2676DOI Listing
November 2021
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