Publications by authors named "Yuanyuan Duan"

71 Publications

Efficacy and Safety of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 6;12:609213. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Medical Affairs, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Until now, there is no clinically approved specific medicine to treat COVID-19. Prior systematic reviews (SRs) have shown that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reduces the number of patients with severe disease and time to fever clearance, promotes clinical effectiveness, and improves chest images and the negativity rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid test. Few SRs arrived at a definitive conclusion, and more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were published. We conducted this study to summarize the latest evidence of TCM in COVID-19. Eight online databases were searched from December 2019 to July 2020, updated to March 2021. Only RCTs evaluating the clinical efficacy and safety of TCM in the treatment of COVID-19 were included. Primary outcomes were clinical cure and the negativity of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test. Secondary outcomes included clinical deterioration, ARDS, mechanical ventilation, death, time to fever clearance, duration of hospitalization, and chest imaging improvement. Safety outcomes included adverse events and serious adverse events during treatment. Two reviewers selected the included articles, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data independently and in duplicate. A total of 25 RCTs involving 2222 participants were selected in the systematic review, and seven RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that TCM plus routine treatment was significantly better than routine treatment alone in clinical cure (risk ratio [RR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.04, 1.38], = 0.01) and chest image improvement (RR = 1.22, 95% CI [1.07, 1.39], = 0.01) and could reduce clinical deterioration (RR = 0.39, 95% CI [0.18, 0.86], = 0.02), ARDS (RR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.11, 0.69], = 0.01), mechanical ventilation (RR = 0.30, 95% CI [0.12, 0.77], = 0.01), or death rate (RR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.09, 0.84], = 0.02). No significant difference between TCM and routine treatment in the negativity of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test (RR = 1.08, 95% CI [0.94, 1.23], = 0.29) was observed. Finally, there was no overall significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two groups. The summary of evidence showed moderate confidence of a benefit of 11.8% in clinical cure and 14.0% in chest image improvement and a reduction of 5.9% in clinical deterioration, 25.4% in ARDS, 18.3% in mechanical ventilation, and 4.5% in death with TCM plus routine treatment compared to routine treatment alone in patients with COVID-19. A low confidence of a benefit of 5.4% in the negativity of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test was also observed. Synethized evidence of 21 outcomes in 8 RCTs showed moderate certainty that TCM treatment plus routine treatment may promote a clinical cure and chest image improvement compared to routine treatment alone while reducing clinical deterioration, development of ARDS, use of mechanical ventilation, and death in patients with COVID-19. TCM treatment plus routine treatment may not promote the negativity of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test compared to routine treatment alone. TCM treatment was found to be safe for patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.609213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379002PMC
August 2021

Clinical, laboratory and brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV-negative neurosyphilis patients.

J Infect Chemother 2021 Nov 28;27(11):1596-1601. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Dermatology,Jinling Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210002, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: There are few studies concerning the differences between asymptomatic neurosyphilis (ANS) and symptomatic neurosyphilis (SNS). This study aimed to summarize clinical, laboratory and brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) characteristics of HIV-negative patients with ANS and SNS.

Methods: Data from 43 HIV-negative patients with ANS and 59 HIV-negative patients with SNS were retrospectively collected from our hospital between December 2012 and December 2018.

Results: Compared with the ANS group, SNS group had more patients that were male, age≥45 years, had brain MRI abnormalities, and exhibited higher serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) TRUST titer, CSF WBC count, CSF protein concentration (P < 0.05). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that male sex, age ≥45 years and CSF TRUST titer were risk factors for SNS [odds ratio (OR) = 7.946,P = 0.001;OR = 3.757, P = 0.041; OR = 2.713, P = 0.002; respectively]. The brain MRI findings of 78 patients without comorbidities showed that ischemic infarct lesions presented in 17/37 (45.95%) of patients with ANS; infarct ischemic stroke (73.17%) especially multiple cerebral infractions (46.34%), cerebral atrophy (48.78%) were also common presentations in the SNS group.

Conclusions: Patients with HIV-negative ANS and SNS presented different clinical, laboratory and brain MRI features. Male sex, age ≥45 years and elevated CSF TRUST titer may have an increased risk of developing neurological symptoms. Brain MRI abnormalities may present prior to clinical symptoms. Multiple cerebral infarctions without explained reasons or cerebral atrophy should alert clinicians the possibility of SNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2021.07.004DOI Listing
November 2021

First Report of Blight on Pinellia ternata (Banxia) Caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines , NO.253,College Road, Enshi, HuBei, China, 445000;

Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino ex Briet. (banxia, crow-dipper) is a perennial herbaceous plant native to China, Japan, and Korea. A member of the family Araceae, it is considered an invasive weed in parts of Europe and North America. In August 2020, P. ternata plants showing blight symptoms (8% incidence in a 30-ha field) were observed, near Qianjiang City (30°50'N, 112°92'E), Hubei Province, China. Brown water-soaked lesions first appeared on flowers followed by flower blight and leaf and stem rot during periods of more than 80% humidity (Supplementary figure 1). White, cottony mycelia grew from rotted tissues and produced sporangiophores with brown to black sporangiola. To identify the causal agent, 12 diseased samples were surface disinfested with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite and 75% ethyl alcohol, then plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) maintained at 25°C. Ten fungal isolates were selected by hyphal tip isolation and placed on fresh PDA. White fungal colonies grew rapidly that later turned pale yellow and produced abundant sporangiola in 13 days. Sporangiophores were smooth, hyaline, aseptate, and produced monosporous sporangiola. Sporangiola were ellipsoid, indehiscent, pediculate, brown to dark brown, 8 to 16 × 14 to 21 μm (n = 50) in size, with visible longitudinal striations . Sporangia with a few or many sporangiospores were subglobose, pale brown to brown, and 55 to 165 μm (n = 40) in diameter. Sporangiospores were broadly ellipsoid, brown to pale brown, striate, 8 to 12 × 15 to 25 μm (n=30) in size, with hyaline polar appendages. Based on these morphological characteristics, the fungus was identified as Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk. & Ravenel) Thaxt. (Kirk 1984). To confirm the identification, the strain QJFY1 was chosen for DNA sequencing. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA and large subunit (LSU) region of ribosomal RNA were amplified with primers ITS1/ITS4 and NL1/LR3 (Walther et al. 2013) and the amplicons were sequenced. BLAST analysis of the 593bp sequences (accession no. MW295532) and the 699bp sequence(accession no. MW341527)showed ≥99.5% identity with C. cucurbitarum strains CBS 674.93 (GenBank accession no. JN943006.1 and JN939195.1; Supplementary figure 2). Based on morphological and molecular characteristics, the fungus was identified as C. cucurbitarum. Koch's postulates were fulfilled by inoculating flowers of three healthy 30-day-old P. ternata plants with 50 μL of inoculum suspension (1 x 104 conidia/ml) obtained from 13-day old cultures of C. cucurbitarum isolate QJFY1. Another three plants treated with sterile distilled water served as controls. All plants were placed in a greenhouse with relative humidity of 90% for 2 days and thereafter placed in the glasshouse at 25 ± 1°C. After three days, symptoms similar to those seen under field conditions, were observed on inoculated plants and non-inoculated plants remained healthy. C. cucurbitarum was reisolated and identified by molecular characteristics (ITS and LSU) from inoculated plants. The experiment was repeated thrice with similar results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Choanephora blight caused by C. cucurbitarum on P. ternata in China and worldwide. Hubei Province is one of the most important banxia producing areas in China and C. cucurbitarum can pose a new threat to banxia production. Our results provide a basis to develop effective measures to manage this disease. References: Kirk, P. M. 1984. Mycol. Pap. 152:1. Walther, G., et al. 2013. Persoonia 30:11. http://dx.doi.org/10.3767/003158513X665070 Acknowledgements Science Funds for Young Scholar of Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences (grant no. 2019ZYCJJ01), Key Research and Development Program of Hubei Province (grant no. 2020BCA059), Support Plan of Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences (grant no. 2019fcxjh09), Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crops of Central China, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R.China / Hubei Key Laboratory of Crop Disease, Insect Pests and Weeds Control (grant no. 2019ZTSJJ6), Hubei Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Center Project (grant no.2019-620-003-001).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-20-2558-PDNDOI Listing
July 2021

Analyzing protein-protein interactions in rare cells using microbead-based single-molecule pulldown assay.

Lab Chip 2021 08 24;21(16):3137-3149. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China. and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China and State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China and HKUST Shenzhen Research Institute, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China and Hong Kong Branch of Guangdong Southern Marine Science and Engineering Laboratory (Guangzhou), Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.

For studying protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in general, a powerful and commonly used technique is conventional coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP/pulldown) followed by western blotting. However, the technique does not provide precise information regarding the kinetics and stoichiometry of PPIs. Another drawback is that the sensitivity of conventional co-IP is not suitable for examining PPIs in rare cells such as sensory hair cells, circulating tumor cells, embryonic stem cells, and subsets of immune cells. The current single-molecule pulldown (SiMPull) assay can potentially be used for studying PPIs in rare cells but its wide application is hindered by the high technical barrier and time consumption. We report an innovative, agarose microbead-based approach for SiMPull. We used commercially available, pre-surface-functionalized agarose microbeads to capture the protein of interest together with its binding partners specifically from cell extracts and observed these interactions under a microscope at the single-molecule level. Relative to the original method, microbead-based SiMPull is considerably faster, easier to use, and more reproducible and yet provides similar sensitivity and signal-to-background ratio; specifically, with the new method, sample-preparation time is substantially decreased (from ∼10 to ∼3 h). These crucial features should facilitate wide application of the powerful and versatile SiMPull method in common biological and clinical laboratories. Notably, by exploiting the simplicity and ultrahigh sensitivity of microbead-based SiMPull, we used the method in the study of rare auditory hair cells and γδ T cells for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1lc00260kDOI Listing
August 2021

Rehabilitation of Atrophic Posterior Maxilla with Pterygoid Implants: A 3D Finite Element Analysis.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2021 May-Jun;36(3):e51-e62

Purpose: Clinical cases have shown that pterygoid implants are a successful alternative solution for the rehabilitation of atrophic posterior maxillae; however, little research on the biomechanical behavior has been produced. This study created 3D models of pterygoid implant-supported prostheses and compared the stress and strain distributions in the pterygoid implants and surrounding bone using finite element analysis.

Materials And Methods: Three-dimensional models of a standardized human skull, pterygoid implants, and conventional dental implants were created using Simpleware, based on microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and CBCT images. Six constructs with varying implant positions and numbers were designed to simulate various clinical scenarios for patients with complete maxillary edentulism. Finite element volume meshes were created and exported to ABAQUS, where the modulus of elasticity and Poisson ratio were assigned for each respective structure. Two load scenarios were simulated with conditions as follows: (1) 150-N axial loading; and (2) 150-N axial loading with simultaneous 50-N lateral loading. Then, the Von Mises stress and maximum principle strain distributions for all models were collected, analyzed, and compared.

Results: The maximum stress and strain in the pterygoid implants and surrounding bone under both loading scenarios were found in model 4, which had two pterygoid implants and two anterior implants, at the implant-abutment connection and crestal bone of the premolar region, respectively. The stress and strain in the pterygoid implants for all constructs analyzed were at values within the limit of material strength. Additionally, the stress and strain in the surrounding bone for all constructs analyzed were at values within the bone resorption threshold. The maximum stress in the surrounding bone for all models with pterygoid implants was lower than the stress in the control model, which contained no pterygoid implants.

Conclusion: Pterygoid implants decreased the stress and strain level in the surrounding bone for all cases studied. Additional concern should be placed on the crestal bone of the premolar region and the implant-abutment connections of the pterygoid implants, since these locations had the highest recorded values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/jomi.8185DOI Listing
June 2021

Baseline sensitivity and control efficacy of strobilurin fungicide pyraclostrobin against Sclerotium rolfsii.

Plant Dis 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Huazhong Agricultural University, Plant Protection, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, HuBei, China, 430070;

Sclerotium rolfsii is a fungi pathogen of southern blight with broad host range. The QoI fungicide pyraclostrobin was officially approved for controlling many diseases in 2015. In this study, baseline sensitivity of S.rolfsii to pyraclostrobin was established by measuring the 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 155 isolates of S.rolfsii. The EC50 ranged from 0.0291 to 1.0871 ug/ml with the mean EC50 values of 0.4469 ± 0.2490 ug/ml (mean ± SD). As preventive fungicide in vitro and field experiment, pyraclostrobin preventive efficacy reached 90% and 80%, respectively, which were much higher than that of control agent carbendazim. Curative efficacy of pyraclostrobin was significantly lower than its preventive efficacy. Pyraclostrobin at 0.1, 0.5, and 2 μg/mL significantly reduced the number of sclerotia produced on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, but had no significant influence on their total weight. Pyraclostrobin had no significant influence on mycelial cell membrane permeability, but it significantly reduced oxalate secretion and protein synthesis of S. rolfsii. Our findings are of great significance for resistance monitoring of S. rolfsii and also provide new insight into action mechanism of pyraclostrobin against S. rolfsii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-21-0176-REDOI Listing
May 2021

Finite element analysis of a ram brain during impact under wet and dry horn conditions.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 07 4;119:104400. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, 39216, USA.

In this study, ram impacts at 5.5 m/s are simulated through finite element analysis in order to study the mechanical response of the brain. A calibrated internal state variable inelastic constitutive model was implemented into the finite element code to capture the brain behavior. Also, constitutive models for the horns were calibrated to experimental data from dry and wet horn keratin at low and high strain rates. By investigating responses in the different keratin material states that occur in nature, the bounds of the ram brain response are quantified. An acceleration as high as 607 g's was observed, which is an order of magnitude higher than predicted brain injury threshold values. In the most extreme case, the maximum tensile pressure and maximum shear strains in the ram brain were 245 kPa and 0.28, respectively. Because the rams do not appear to sustain injury, these impacts could give insight to the threshold limits of mechanical loading that can be applied to the brain. Following this motivation, the brain injury metric values found in this research could serve as true injury metrics for human head impacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104400DOI Listing
July 2021

Duohua huangjing (Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua) seedling basal rot caused by Fusarium redolens in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines , NO.253,College Road, Enshi, HuBei, China, 445000;

Duohua huangjing (Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua) seedling basal stem rot caused by Fusarium redolens in China Tao Tang1, Fanfan Wang1, Jie Guo1, Xiaoliang Guo1, Yuanyuan Duan1,Jingmao You1* 1 Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Enshi, 445000, China. Duohua huangjing (Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua), a herbal medicine, that is mostly planted in several provinces in China. In April 2020, severe diseases with about 40% seedling losse was found in the Huangjing seedling base in Shiyan city, Hubei province. The symptoms included softening and decay of the roots and stem bases, a progressive yellowing and wilting of leaves, and finally being completely rotted. Small pieces of symptomatic stems (0.5 cm in length) and leaves (0.5 × 0.5 cm in size) were surface sterilized with 75% ethanol for 30 s, followed by 0.1% HgCl2 for 1 min, rinsed three times with sterile water, and then dried with sterilized absorbent paper. The sections were placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium containing 10 µg/ml of ampicillin and incubated at 25°C in the dark. After 3 days incubation, eight isolates with the same colony morphology were sub-cultured and purified by hyphal tip isolation. Macroconidia were sickle-shaped, 15.8 - 32.3 × 3.1 - 5.6 μm (n = 25), and three to five septate. Microconidia were oval or kidney-shaped, 5.2 - 11.4 × 2.0 - 3.2 μm (n = 25), and zero to one septate. To confirm the identity of the pathogen, molecular identification was performed with strain HJCD1. Following DNA extraction, PCR was performed using the TSINGKE 2×T5 Direct PCR Mix kit. Target areas of amplification were the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1α (TEF-1α) using ITS1/4 (White et al. 1990) , EF1/EF2 (Taylor et al. 2016), respectively. Following BLAST searches and phylogenetic reconstruction, the ITS region (GenBank MW485770.1) showed 99% identity with those of Fusarium redolens in GenBank (KU350713.1) and the TEF-1α (GenBank MW503930.1) showed 100% identity with F. redolens GenBank (MK922537.1). Pathogenicity tests were performed to fulfill Koch's postulates. Huangjing seedlings were rinsed with sterile water, wiped clean with sterile absorbent paper, and transferred to a tray covered with wet filter paper to maintain high humidity. The mycelial piugs of F. redolens HJCD1 were inoculated onto the surface of leaves and basal stems. Controls were inoculated with sterile PDA plugs. The inoculated seedlings were sealed with plastic wrap, and then cultivated in a 25 ℃ growth chamber with 16 h of light per day. The pathogen-inoculated plants exhibited etiolation and typical wilt symptoms after 4 days, whereas no symptoms were observed in the control plants. F. redolens was reisolated from the infected tissues, and colony morphology and ITS sequence of re-isolates were same as that of HJCD1. The pathogen has been reported previously in american ginseng in China (Fan et al. 2021), lentil in Pakistan (Rafique et al. 2020), and wild rocket in United Kingdom (Taylor et al. 2019). However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of F. redolens causing seelding basal rot on Duohua huangjing in China. References: White, T. J., et al. 1990. Page 315 in: PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Taylor, A., et al. 2016. Mol. Plant Pathol. 17:1032. https://doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12346 Fan, S. H., et al. 2021. Plant Dis. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-19-2519-PDN Rafique, K., et al. 2020. Plant Dis. 9:104. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-19-2519-PDN Taylor, A., et al. 2019. Plant Dis.6:103. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-18-2143-PDN Funding: Science Funds for Young Scholar of Hubei Academy of Agricultural Science (grant no. 2020NKYJJ20), National Modern Agricultural Industrial Technology System (grant no. CARS-21), Technology R&D Program of Enshi (grant no. D20190015), Science Funds for Young Scholar of Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences (grant no. 2019ZYCJJ03), Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crops of Central China, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China / Hubei Key Laboratory of Crop Disease, Insect Pests and Weeds Control (grant no.2020ZTSJJ6).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-21-0597-PDNDOI Listing
April 2021

Occurrence of Dickeya fangzhongdai Causing Soft Rot of Banxia (Pinellia ternata) in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines , NO.253,College Road, Enshi, HuBei, China, 445000;

Banxia [Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Breit., Araceae] is a perennial herbaceous plant, where the tuber is commonly used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In the summer of 2020, an outbreak of soft rot of Banxia was observed in Zhugentan Town (30°50'N, 112°91'E), Qianjiang City, Hubei Province, with about 56% percentage of infected plants. Symptomatic plants initially appeared with small water-soaked spots on leaves that progressed into extensive translucent spots when facing a light source. The bacteria further spread to the stems and tubers. Infected tubers appeared normal, but inner macerated inclusions exuded when touched. The whole plant was macerated and collapsed within a few days. Ten leaves with typical symptoms were obtained from a diseased field, by surface sterilizing in 75% ethanol for 30 s and 0.3% NaClO for 5 min, washing the tissue sections three times in sterile water. Small pieces of tissue (5 × 5 mm) were removed from lesion borders, plated on nutrient ager medium, and cultivated at 37 ℃ for 48 h. Five representative isolates were selected for further identification. Colonies were all smooth and transparent. In addition, these strains were Gram-negative, and had the ability to reduce D-arabinose, melibiose, galactose, raffinose, rhamnose, inositol, and mannitol, but not reduce 5-keto-D-gluconate, L-xylose, amygdalin, and sorbitol. Genomic DNA was extracted from isolate stain ZG5. The 16S rDNA gene, recombinase A (recA) gene, and DNA polymerase III subunits gamma and tau (dnaX) were amplified by PCR with the primers 27f/1492r (Weisburg et al. 1991), recF/recR (Waleron et al. 2002), and dnaXf/dnaXr (Sławiak et al. 2009), respectively. The PCR products were sequenced, then submitted to GenBank (GenBank MW332472, MW349833, MW349834, respectively). BLAST search showed that the sequences of 16S rDNA, recA, and dnaX respectively matched ≥99% with D. fangzhongdai strains DSM 101947 (CP025003), QZH3 (CP031507), and PA1 (CP020872). Pathogenicity tests were performed on 10 healthy, 3-month-old P. ternate plants. Five plants were injected with 20 μl of bacterial suspension (108 CFU/ml) of isolate ZG5, and other plants were injected with sterile water as a negative control. All tested plants were incubated at 28 ℃ and individually covered with a plastic bag. After 24 h, soft rot symptoms all appeared on the pathogen-inoculated leaves, whereas no symptoms on the control leaves. The pathogenicity test was repeated three times and obtained same results. Koch's postulates were fulfilled by reisolating D. fangzhongdai from inoculated plants. Meanwhile, PCR were performed on the reisolated bacteria as above described, and the pathogen was identified and confirmed as D. fangzhongdai. Here we report that D. fangzhongdai causes soft rot of P. ternata in China. The disease progressed very rapidly, and reduced the yield and quality of tubers. Thus, more research is needed to implement effective strategies to manage this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-21-0030-PDNDOI Listing
April 2021

Occurrence of Stem Blight Caused by Pseudomonas extremorientalis on Pinellia ternata in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines , NO.253,College Road, Enshi, HuBei, China, 445000;

Pinellia ternata is a perennial herbaceous plant, which tubers can be used for anti-inflammatory and has a significant position in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Marki et al. 1987). In April 2020, bacterial stem blight first occurred on P. ternata in Jingmen City (30°32'N, 111°51'E), Hubei Province, China. In the follow-up investigation, the disease also appeared in plantations of P. ternata in Qianjiang City, Tianmen City. Initial symptoms showed orange-red streak on the stem, then progressed into chlorotic and water-soaked lesions, which caused roots to be necrotic and leaves to stunting, fading, and wilting. In the end, the leaves withered, the stems rotted completely, and the incidence of plant collapse reached 20~30%. To isolate the plant pathogenic bacteria, twenty P. ternata plant samples with distinct chlorotic stem symptoms were obtained from two fields in Jingmen City. Symptomatic samples were cut to 1-cm-long pieces by sterile scalpel, then were streaked onto nutrient agar medium and grow at 28℃ for 48 h. Four pure typical aerobic, gram-negative bacteria were isolated by characterized with transparent, smooth, round, convex surfaces. The isolated colonies did not produce fluorescent pigments on King's B medium. In addition, the isolates were positive for nitrate reduction, arabinose, mannitol, D-ribose, sucrose, D-sorbitol, and were negative for gelatin liquefaction, rhamnose, D-glucose, D-melibiose. These characteristics were identified as Pseudomonas extremorientalis (Ivanova et al. 2002). One representative colony ZJH1 was selected randomly for further verification. The 16s rRNA, gyrB, and rpoD regions were obtained with primers 27F/1492R (Weisburg et al. 1991), gyrB-Fps/ gyrB-Rps, and rpoD-Fps/ rpoD-Rps, respectively (Sarkar and Guttman. 2004). These sequences were deposited in GenBank as accession nos. MT459234.1, MT469887.1 and MT469886.1, which revealed 99% homology with P. extremorientalis strain BS2774 (accession nos. LT629708.1). The pathogenicity of P. extremorientalis strain ZJH1 was confirmed by using 3-month-old, healthy, greenhouse-grown P. ternata plants. The stems were stabbed and inoculated 10 μL of the bacterial suspension (108 CFU / ml), inoculating the same amount of sterile water as a control, repeated 5 times for each treatment. The plants were cultivated in a greenhouse at 28 °C and a humidity of 80%. Three days later, the stems showed necrosis, followed by the withered leaves and died plants, whereas the control had no symptoms. P. extremorientalis were reisolated and verified again from symptomatic plants, which was consistent with Koch's postulates. This experiment was repeated thrice to get the same result. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacterial stem blight caused by P. extremorientalis on P. ternata in China. Stem blight caused by P. extremorientalis poses a significant threat to yield and marketability of P. ternata. Further research on selecting resistant variety and effective chemical control is needed. References: Ivanova, E. P., et al. 2002. Int J Syst Evol Micr. 2113:2120. https://doi.org/10.1099/00207713-52-6-2113 Marki, T., et al. 1987. Planta Med. 53:412. Sarkar, S. F., Guttman, D. S. 2004. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:1999. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.70.4.1999-2012.2004 Weisburg, W. G., et al. 1991. J. Bacteriol. 173:697. https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.173.2.697-703.1991 F. F. Wang and Y. J. You contributed equally to this work. The author(s) declare no conflict of interest. Funding: National Modern Agricultural Industrial Technology System (grant no. CARS-21), Technology R&D Program of Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (grant no. D20190015), Science Funds for Young Scholar of Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences (grant no. 2019ZYCJJ01), Key R&D Program of Hubei Province (grant no. 2020BCA059), Key Technology R&D Projects of Hubei Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Center (grant no. 2020-620-000-002-04).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-20-2244-PDNDOI Listing
January 2021

Fusarium acuminatum Associated with Root Rot of Ophiopogon japonicus (Linn. f.) in China.

Plant Dis 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines , NO.253,College Road, Enshi, HuBei, China, 445000;

Ophiopogon japonicus (Linn. f.) is a perennial evergreen in the Liliaceae family that is cultivated in many provinces of China due to its high medicinal and economic value . In April 2019, an unknown root rot disease was observed on the rhizomes of O. japonicus in a commercial production field in Xiangyang City (30.83° N, 112.53° E), Hubei Province. Disease incidence was approximately 10-20%. Symptoms included chlorosis, drooping and rolling of the leaves followed by rapid death of entire plant. Infected roots appeared to be softened, necrotic, and shriveled with reddish fungal growth. Infected tissues were disinfested on surface with 75% ethanol for 30 s and 0.1% HgCl2 for 1 min, rinsed with sterile distilled water, and dried. Small pieces (2 mm × 2 mm) were then excised from disinfested tissue and incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium at 25 ℃ in the dark. After 3 days of incubation, six isolates with 75% of isolation rate and same colony morphology were sub-cultured and purified by hyphal tip isolation. Purified cultures grew rapidly and media plates (70×70 mm ) were covered with hyphae after 3 to 4 days. Cultures were initially white and became pink or red over 5 days. Microconidia were not observed. Macroconidia were produced from monophialides on branched conidiophores, which were slender, equilaterally curved, and measured 32.5 to 53.5 μm in length and 3.5 to 5.1 μm in width, with three to five septa. All strains were preliminarily identified as Fusarium acuminatum (Eslie and Summerell 2006) on the basis of morphology. To confirm the identity of the pathogen, molecular identification was performed with strain MD1. Following DNA extraction, PCR was performed using the TSINGKE 2×T5 Direct PCR Mix kit. Target areas of amplification were internal transcribed spacer (ITS), RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2) and beta-tubulin gene (TUB2) regions of rDNA, using ITS1,4 (Yin et al. 1990) , RPB2-5f2/7cr (O'Donnell et al. 2010)and Btu-F-F01, Btu-F-R01 primers(Wang et al. 2014), respectively. Nucleotide sequences were deposited in NCBI (GenBank MT525360.1; MW164629; MT588110.1). BLAST analysis of the ITS sequence had 100% similarity to a 517 bp portion of F. acuminatum sequence in GenBank (MK764994.1) ;RPB2 sequence had 100% similarity to a 687 bp portion of F. acuminatum sequence in GenBank (HM068330.1) and TUB2 sequence had 99% similarity to a 964 bp portion of F. acuminatum sequence in GenBank (KT965741.1). A pathogenicity test was performed in laboratory on O. japonicus roots with isolate MD1. Mycelial plugs (5 mm) were excised from the margin of colony cultured for 5 days, and placed on three-years-old tuberous roots covered with wet sterile cotton and kept at 25℃, under 80% relative humidity. Controls were inoculated with non-colonized PDA plugs (5 mm). All treatments had three replicate plants. On incolated plants, white hyphae covered on O. japonicus roots 3 DPI became pink and by 5 DPI, roots had rot symptoms. By comparision, the control plants had no symptoms. The pathogen was reisolated from the inoculated roots and exhibited same morphological characteristics and ITS sequence as those of F. acuminatum. F. acuminatum was reported to cause fruit rot on postharvest pumpkin and Vaccinium corymbosum in China (Li et al. 2019; Wang et al. 2016).To our knowledge, this is the first report of root rot caused by F. acuminatum on O. japonicus in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-20-2344-PDNDOI Listing
December 2020

Traditional Chinese exercise for COVID-19: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Nov;99(45):e23044

Guang 'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Background: A new type of coronavirus (COVID-19), is spreading all over the world. Under the background of the comprehensive medical treatment and strict prevention and control in China, the number of discharged patients increased substantially. By the end of July, more than 80,000 patients had been cured and discharged from hospital in China. In order to effectively promote the full recovery of the patient's physical and mental functions and quality of life, gradually shift the emphasis of clinical work to convalescence therapy is very important, thus Chinese experts draw up Expert Consensus on Rehabilitation of Chinese Medicine for COVID-19. This systematic review and meta-analysis will assess studies of the effects of traditional Chinese exercise (TCE) for COVID-19 patients.

Methods And Analysis: We will search 6 English and 4 Chinese databases by 01, December 2020. After a series of screening, Randomized Clinic Trials (RCTs) will be included related to TCE for COVID-19. Two assessors will use the Cochrane bias risk assessment tool to assess the RCTs. Finally, the evidence grade of the results will be evaluated.

Results: This study will provide a reliable evidence for the selection of TCE therapies for COVID-19.

Conclusion: The results of this study will provide references for the selection of TCE treatment for COVID-19, and provide decision making references for clinical research.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42020179095.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7647539PMC
November 2020

Effects of foliar selenium application on growth and rhizospheric soil micro-ecological environment of Koidz.

S Afr J Bot 2021 Mar 22;137:98-109. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Enshi 445000, Hubei, China.

(), a famous medicinal herb in China, is widely cultivated and consumed in China with various beneficial effects. Numerous studies have shown that selenium (Se) plays an important role in promoting plant growth, although Se has not been considered an essential element for higher plants. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of foliar Se application (0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg m Se in sodium selenite, sprayed monthly from May to August) on the growth and rhizospheric soil micro-ecological environment of , and explore the possible mechanisms underlying plant response to foliar Se application through a field experiment. The results were: The foliar application of 5.0 mg m Se significantly increased the survival rate of compared to the control. The yield of was increased when the Se level maintained belowed 10.0 mg m but decreased when Se level reached 20.0 mg m. The Se content in the rhizome of showed a significant positive correlation with the Se level, while the insect attack rate was significantly negatively correlated with the Se level. However, foliar Se application hardly affected the concentration of bioactive compound atractylenolide in the rhizome of Notably, the application of foliar Se changed the content of partial soil nutrients, microbial diversity and composition in the rhizosphere soil of . Bacterial diversity was positively correlated with growth whereas fungal diversity was negatively correlated, suggesting that microbial diversity in the rhizosphere soils is closely related to plant growth. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that available potassium, and in rhizospheric soil might be critical factors for promoting the growth of . Overall, the foliar application of Se at moderate concentration was beneficial for the growth of and 5.0-10.0 mg m Se level was the optimum. Our findings revealed novel insights into the response of to foliar Se application from plant growth, rhizospheric soil nutrient and microbial community composition .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2020.09.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7578779PMC
March 2021

A Pilot Study on High Wavenumber Raman Analysis of Human Dental Tissues.

J Raman Spectrosc 2020 Apr 25;51(4):630-634. Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Department of Chemistry, Physics and Atmospheric Science, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA.

Water plays a critical role in dental tissues including enamel and dentin. The characterization of water structure analysis was primarily conducted by nuclear magnetic resonance. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytic technology with capability for structure analysis in materials. However, acquiring high wavenumber Raman signals from dental tissues was challenging due to either the fluorescence interference under laser illumination or reduced sensitivity of CCD detectors. In this study, we demonstrate a pilot research on high wavenumber Raman analysis in dental tissues using a customized Raman spectrometer based on an InGaAs detector. A signal located at 3570 cm is found dominating the O-H region Raman spectra of enamel but is barely detectable from dentin. The profiles of the high wavenumber region Raman spectra changes with the locations in enamel, as well as the polarization of the excitation laser beam. The results suggest that the size or crystallinity differences of hydroxyapatite crystals are the main cause of the spectral variation from dentin to enamel, and could be partially responsible for the variation among different locations in enamel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jrs.5812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7546550PMC
April 2020

Development of Generic Equivalence Margins for Early-Stage Implementation of Equivalence Testing for Potency Assays.

PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 2021 Mar-Apr;75(2):173-187. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Data and Statistical Sciences, AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Relative potency assays for biological therapeutics require statistical evaluation to demonstrate similarity between the dose-response curves of a reference standard and the test samples. We developed an equivalence testing approach that can be utilized for the complete potency assay life cycle, from early development until commercialization. This approach was based on the use of generic equivalence margins to enable equivalence testing at the beginning of assay development, when the body of assay-specific data is still very limited. Generic equivalence margins for equivalence testing of four-parameter logistic curve fits were established for bioassays and binding assays spanning a variety of designs, formats, and read-outs. We also established that equivalence testing using ratios of the reference standard and test sample was superior to equivalence testing using absolute differences. Based on a large body of historical data, generic equivalence margins were determined for the curve upper asymptote, slope, and dynamic range. Furthermore, we developed a road map to guide the implementation of generic or assay-specific margins to ensure the appropriate data analysis approach is being applied during the assay life cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5731/pdajpst.2020.012096DOI Listing
September 2020

First report of Sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Pinellia ternata in China.

Plant Dis 2020 Sep 23. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines , NO.253,College Road, Enshi, HuBei, China, 445000;

Pinellia ternata is a perennial herb that belongs to the Araceae Family. The tuber of the P. ternata plant contains active ingredients such as alkaloids and pinellia starch, and can be used as a Chinese medicine for antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory disorders in humans (Marki et al. 1987). In April 2019, lesions with rotting were observed during the flowering phase on spathes of P. ternata in a field in Qianjiang City (30°50'N, 112°92'E), Hubei Province, which is one of the main production areas of P. ternata in China. Approximately 10% of P. ternata plants were symptomatic. The initial symptoms of infection were reddish-brown lesions, followed by the appearance of white cottony mycelia. Subsequently, lesions became gray-brown, and rotted with white mycelium that eventually formed on the lesions after 2 to 3 days. In the later phases, spathes were completely rotted and mycelia began to spread to the stems, until the plant wilted and died. Ten spathes at the initial stage of infection were collected in Zhugentan Town, Qianjiang City disinfested with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite for 1 min and 75% alcohol for 20 sec, then washed with sterile distilled water three times, dried, and placed on Petri plates with potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 22℃ for two days. Six fungal isolates were obtained and purified by hyphal tip isolation in fresh culture, respectively. Culture media was covered with white hyphae after 3 to 4 days of incubation, and dark-gray, rough, irregular sclerotia (1.5 to 5.5 mm in length × 1.0 to 3.5 mm in width) formed on the margins of the media, followed by the melanization as the culture aged. Eventually, black sclerotia were formed and wrapped by white hyphae. All isolates were preliminarily identified as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lazarovits et al. 2000). To further identify the pathogens, molecular identification was performed with one of the six isolates (BXH1). Polymerase chain reaction was performed with primers ITS1/ITS4 for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (White et al. 1990) and primers SSasprF/SSasprR for the aspartyl protease gene (Abd-Elmagid et al. 2013). BLAST search analysis revealed that the 456-bp ITS sequence (GenBank MT436756.1) was ≥99% similar to S. sclerotiorum (MT177216.1, MN105884.1, MG931017.1, etc.), and the 173-bp aspartyl protease gene sequence (GenBank MT584031.1) was too (MK028159.1, MK028161.1, AF271387.1, etc.). Pathogenicity tests were carried out by inoculating disease-free, surface-disinfested spathes of thirty 30-day-old P. ternata plants in plastic pots with a sterilized mixture of peat moss and vermiculite (3:1). Five mycelial plugs (6 mm) were excised from the margin of a colony cultured for 5 days. The plugs were placed on five spathes covered with wet sterile cotton at 22±1℃, and 80% relative humidity, with a 12-h photoperiod. Five control plants were inoculated with noncolonized PDA plugs. Lesions formed on the second day, then rot and white hyphae began to appear on the third day, while the controls had no symptoms. Similar results were obtained in three repeated experiments with S. sclerotiorum being re-isolated from all diseased plants, in accordance with Koch's postulates. This disease is an emerging problem in P. ternata fields in Qianjiang, leading to extensive yield reduction and significant economic losses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Sclerotinia blight on P. ternata in China. References: Abd-Elmagid, A., et al. 2013. J. Microbiol. Methods 92:293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2012.12.020 Marki, T., et al. 1987. Planta Med. 53:412. Lazarovits, G., et al. 2000. Pestic Biochem Phys. 54:62. https://doi.org/10.1006/pest.2000.2474 White, T. J., et al. 1990. Page 315 in: PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-372180-8.50042-1 Funding: National Modern Agricultural Industrial Technology System (grant no. CARS-21), Technology R&D Program of Enshi (grant no. D20190015), Science Funds for Young Scholar of Institute of Chinese Herbal Medicines, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences (grant no. 2019ZYCJJ01), Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crops of Central China, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R.China / Hubei Key Laboratory of Crop Disease, Insect Pests and Weeds Control (grant no.2019ZTSJJ6).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-20-1671-PDNDOI Listing
September 2020

Biomechanical Modeling of Connecting Intermetacarpal K-Wires in the Treatment of Metacarpal Shaft Fractures.

Hand (N Y) 2020 Aug 10:1558944720946485. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.

Background: Clinical series have been published using the configuration of 2 intercarpal Kirschner wires (K-wires) adjacent to the fracture being connected, but biomechanical analysis is lacking. The objective of this pilot biomechanical study was to model and compare the effects of externally connecting 2 intermetacarpal K-wires for the stabilization of transverse metacarpal shaft fractures. Our research hypothesis was that the connected constructs would be stiffer than the unconnected K-wires.

Methods: A 3-dimensional computer-based model of small finger transverse metacarpal fracture stabilization was designed with 3 transverse 1.1 mm K-wires being anchored to the adjacent metacarpal. Three arrangements were tested: all 3 K-wires in parallel, the middle K-wire angled toward the proximal wire, and the middle angled K-wire being rigidly fixed to the proximal K-wire. The proximal wire was proximal to the fracture. A finite element analysis was performed by applying a cantilever force of 100 N at the head of the metacarpal. The metacarpal was considered to be uniform in composition with parameters typical for human bone. Kirschner wire parameters for stainless steel were used. Force (N) versus displacement was measured.

Results: The configuration with the middle angled K-wire being rigidly fixed to the proximal K-wire showed greater stiffness (12 N/mm) than nonattached constructs. The connected construct was 2.3 times more stiff than the unattached parallel construct and 2.5 times more stiff than angling the middle K-wire without attachment.

Conclusions: In a computer model simulation, our results show that attaching 2 K-wires adjacent to the fracture provides more than twice the stiffness of unconnected K-wires.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1558944720946485DOI Listing
August 2020

Prevalence and related influencing factors of depression symptoms among empty-nest older adults in China.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2020 Jul 21;91:104183. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Institute of Population Research, Peking University, Peking University, 5thYiheyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100871 China. Electronic address:

Background: The phenomenon of empty-nest older adults has raised growing concerns in contemporary Chinese society. In this study, we examined the prevalence and related influencing factors of depression symptoms among empty-nest older adults in China at a national level.

Methods: The database of the 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (N = 8549, aged ≥ 60) was used. The 10-item version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was employed to measure depression symptoms.

Results: The prevalence of depression symptoms was 34.7 % for empty-nest respondents, 32.2 % for respondents living with a spouse only and 43.4 % for those living alone. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that, compared with the non-empty-nest respondents, older adults living alone were more susceptible to depression symptoms (OR 1.194, 95 %CI 1.016-1.405) whereas older adults living with a spouse only were not exposed to an elevated probability of being depressed (OR 0.945, 95 %CI 0.847-1.055). Multivariable logistic regression also suggested that empty nesters who were female, lived in rural areas, had a lower frequency of children's visits, had lower socioeconomic status and had worse physical health conditions were more vulnerable to depression symptoms.

Conclusions: The association between empty-nest status and later-life depression is mixed. More concerns should be raised about the mental health of empty nesters living alone. Increased attention should also be paid to empty nesters who are female, rural residents and have low contact frequency with their children, disadvantaged socioeconomic status and poor physical health conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2020.104183DOI Listing
July 2020

CFTR is a negative regulator of γδ T cell IFN-γ production and antitumor immunity.

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 Aug 15;18(8):1934-1944. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Zhuhai Precision Medical Center, Zhuhai People's Hospital (Zhuhai Hospital Affiliated with Jinan University), Jinan University, Zhuhai, 519000, Guangdong, China.

CFTR, a chloride channel and ion channel regulator studied mostly in epithelial cells, has been reported to participate in immune regulation and likely affect the risk of cancer development. However, little is known about the effects of CFTR on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. In this study, we observed that CFTR was functionally expressed on the cell surface of γδ T cells. Genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of CFTR both increased IFN-γ release by peripheral γδ T cells and potentiated the cytolytic activity of these cells against tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of γδ T cell IFN-γ production by CFTR were either TCR dependent or related to Ca influx. CFTR was recruited to TCR immunological synapses and attenuated Lck-P38 MAPK-c-Jun signaling. In addition, CFTR was found to modulate TCR-induced Ca influx and membrane potential (V)-induced Ca influx and subsequently regulate the calcineurin-NFATc1 signaling pathway in γδ T cells. Thus, CFTR serves as a negative regulator of IFN-γ production in γδ T cells and the function of these cells in antitumor immunity. Our investigation suggests that modification of the CFTR activity of γδ T cells may be a potential immunotherapeutic strategy for cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0499-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322328PMC
August 2021

and 51 as diagnostic biomarkers for papillary thyroid carcinoma in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

Pharmazie 2020 06;75(6):266-270

Department of Endocrinology, the Affiliated People's Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, P. R. China;, Email:

and are important members of the small RNA family, which have been shown to be significantly downregulated in various human tumors and play a key role in the occurrence and development of tumors. However, little is known about their role in endocrine malignancies. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of and levels in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients, as well as the relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and the two miRNAs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression levels of and in 101 PTC tissues and in 40 nodular goiter tissues (controls). and levels were significantly downregulated in PTC patients compared with controls ( < 0.001). expression was further downregulated in tumors with larger diameter and advanced tumor stages (all < 0.05). Moreover, the two miRNAs showed great capability of discriminating PTC patients from controls with 89.5% and 76.8% () diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, according to univariable/multivariate logistic regression, was significantly associated with PTC ( < 0.001). In conclusion, and may be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers for identification and validation of PTC patients. Moreover, appears to be associated with the aggressiveness of PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1691/ph.2020.0335DOI Listing
June 2020

What do we learn from dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, nails only? Idiopathic nail dystrophy may harbor a COL7A1 mutation as the underlying cause.

J Dermatol 2020 Jul 12;47(7):782-786. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a genodermatosis caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene. DEB, nails only (DEB-na), is a rare type of DEB. Patients with DEB-na can be overlooked, and genetic testing is helpful to determine the correct diagnosis. We collected two families with DEB-na. Clinical information was analyzed. Ultrastructural analysis of the skin tissue was performed. Blood samples were obtained. Next-generation sequencing was performed and the results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. A genetic study revealed two novel heterozygous mutations: COL7A1:c.6742G>A (p.G2248R) in patient 1 and c.7181C>G (p.P2394R) in patient 2. Precise diagnosis was made for every patient based on clinical findings and genetic studies. We summarized the phenotype and COL7A1 mutations related to DEB-na. We report a new phenotype of DEB-na and two novel mutations in COL7A1. In addition, we emphasize the importance of careful clinical examination and genetic testing in the diagnosis of DEB-na.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.15372DOI Listing
July 2020

Identification of a novel DDB2 mutation in a Chinese Han family with Xeroderma pigmentosum group E:a case report and literature review.

BMC Med Genet 2020 03 30;21(1):67. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Dermatology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University, School of Medicine, Nanjing, 210002, China.

Background: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis. There are eight complementation groups of XP (XP-A to G and a variant form). XP-E is one of the least common forms, and XP-E patients are generally not diagnosed until they are adults due to a later onset of skin alterations.

Case Presentation: We report a case of a 28-year-old Chinese woman with freckle-like hyperpigmented macules in a sun-exposed area who is prone to develop basal cell carcinomas. A genetic study revealed a novel homozygous c.111_112del deletion in exon 1 of the DDB2 gene. Western blotting analysis revealed that the patient lacked the expression of the wild-type mature DDB2 protein. The proband was first diagnosed with XPE on the basis of clinical findings and genetic testing. Sun protection was recommended, and the patient did not develop any skin cancers during the one-year follow-up.

Conclusions: We identified a novel homozygous deletion in DDB2 gene in Chinese XP-E patients having unique clinical features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-020-00997-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7106656PMC
March 2020

A Randomized Pilot Clinical Assessment Of Three Skincare Regimens On Skin Conditions In Infants.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2019 16;12:895-909. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Dermatology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, MOE Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Few data are available on the comparison between the effects on infant skin of skin care products and those of water alone.

Patients And Methods: In this single-center, evaluator-blind, parallel-group pilot study, healthy infants were randomized to near-daily washing for 12 weeks (starting in the summer and finishing in the winter months) with a mild liquid baby wash followed by use of baby lotion (wash+lotion), water followed by baby lotion (water+lotion), or water alone. Clinical and instrumental assessments of skin moisturization and barrier function were made.

Results: As expected the skin condition in all groups was affected by the change of the season. The skin of infants in all groups was mildly deteriorated (clinical grading) and with reduced moisture levels and increased barrier function. Instrumental measurements indicated that skin moisture and barrier function were better maintained in the wash+lotion and water+lotion groups than in the water-only group at week 12. Clinical assessment scores increased slightly over 12 weeks in all groups (<0.05). At week 12, the wash+lotion group (n = 44) had significantly less change from baseline in overall skin condition and softness (lower scores) than did the water+lotion (n = 43) or water-only (n = 43) groups. The wash+lotion regimen maintained stable erythema and rash scores with lower mean values over time than in the other groups.

Conclusion: A regimen of a liquid baby wash and a baby skin lotion for 12 weeks resulted in less detrimental changes in instrumental and clinical measures of skin than using water and lotion or water alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S204216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6930520PMC
December 2019

Molecular Dynamics Analysis on the Wetting Properties of R32, R1234yf, and Their Mixture on Pillar-Type Nanostructured Substrates.

Langmuir 2020 Jan 6;36(1):55-63. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology , Tsinghua University , Beijing 100084 , China.

Understanding the wetting characteristics of a droplet on a solid surface is an important topic in basic research and various engineering applications. The further understanding of wetting characteristics of working fluid is very valuable for revealing the mechanism of phase change heat transfer, especially for understanding the complex phenomena of phase change heat transfer of mixtures. In this study, the wetting behaviors of R32, R1234yf, and R32/R1234yf nanodroplets on square pillar-type substrates were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The influences of structure size, droplet composition, and droplet size on the position of the critical line were investigated in particular. The results show that the droplet tends to be the Cassie state with higher pillar and shorter spacing. The influence of droplet composition on wetting state conversion is approximately linear with concentration. The influence of droplet size is relatively small. The results are reasonably explained by the force analysis method proposed in this paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b03182DOI Listing
January 2020

Early integration of Design of Experiment (DOE) and multivariate statistics identifies feeding regimens suitable for CHO cell line development and screening.

Cytotechnology 2019 Dec 9;71(6):1137-1153. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Francis College of Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA.

In Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines, the establishment of the ideal fed-batch regimen promotes metabolic conditions advantageous for the bioproduction of therapeutic molecules. A tailored, cell line-specific feeding scheme is typically defined during process development (PD) activities, through the incorporation of Design of Experiment (DOE) and late stage cell culture approaches. The feeding during early stage cell line development (CLD) was a simplified "one-fits-all" design, inherited from PD lab, that didn't account for CLD needs of throughput and streamlined workflow. The "one-fits-all" efficiency was not routinely verified when novel technologies were incorporated in CLD and sub-optimal feeding carried the risk of not selecting the most desirable cell lines amenable to late stage PD. In our work we developed the DOE-feed method; a streamlined, three-stages framework for identifying efficient feeding schemes as the CLD technologies evolved. We combined early stage cell culture input data with late-stage techniques, such as statistical modelling, principal component analysis (PCA), DOE and Prediction Profiler. Novel in our DOE-feed work, we deliberately anticipated the application of statistics and approached the method development as an early-stage, continuously updated process, by building iterative datasets and statistically interpreting their responses. We capitalized on the statistical models defined by the DOE-feed methodology to study the influence of feeds on daily productivity and growth and to extrapolate feeding-schemes that improved the cell line screening. The DOE-feed became a methodology suited for CLD needs at AbbVie, and optimized the early stage screening, reduced the operational hands-on time and improved the overall workstream efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10616-019-00350-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874634PMC
December 2019

[Risk factors and prognosis of acute kidney injury in children with sepsis in pediatric intensive care unit].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2019 Aug;31(8):1004-1007

Department of Pediatrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022, Anhui, China.

Objective: To investigate the risk factors and prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in children with sepsis in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical data of PICU sepsis children in Anhui Children's Hospital from May 2015 to May 2018 was performed. The children were divided into AKI group and non-AKI group according to whether AKI occurred within 48 hours of PICU [referring to the diagnostic criteria for Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)]. The general data, physiological data and clinical outcomes of the two groups were compared; Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors of AKI in children with sepsis and the prognostic factors.

Results: AKI occurred in 55 of 127 children with sepsis, the incidence of AKI was 43.3%, and the overall mortality was 28.3% (36/127), with 41.8% (23/55) in AKI group and 18.1% (13/72) in non-AKI group. (1) Compared with non-AKI group, oxygenation index, albumin, the pediatric critical illness case score (PCIS) and urine volume in AKI group were significantly decreased, while cystatin C, procalcitonin (PCT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), pediatric multiple organ dysfunction score (P-MODS), the proportions of mechanical ventilation, vasoactive drug use, shock, septic shock and mortality were significantly increased, while there was no difference in age, gender, mean arterial pressure (MAP), white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) between the two groups. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that low serum albumin [odds ratio (OR) = 0.627, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 0.495-0.794, P = 0.000] and homocystatin C (OR = 2.641, 95%CI = 1.157-6.032, P = 0.021) were risk factors for AKI in children with sepsis. (2) Compared with the survival group of children with sepsis AKI, the proportion of mechanical ventilation, septic shock, vasoactive drug use, positive balance ratio of liquid for 72 hours, 6-hour lactate clearance rate < 10%, and AKI 3-stage patients in the death group of children with sepsis AKI were significantly increased. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that 72-hour positive liquid balance (OR = 8.542, 95%CI = 1.956-37.307, P = 0.004) and 6-hour lactate clearance rate < 10% (OR = 5.980, 95%CI = 1.393-25.676, P = 0.016) were risk factors for the death of children with sepsis AKI.

Conclusions: Serum albumin and cystatin C should be closely monitored in children with sepsis. Early detection and intervention of positive fluid balance and low lactate clearance rate can reduce the mortality of AKI in children with sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2019.08.018DOI Listing
August 2019

The Cyclopropane Fatty Acid Synthase Mediates Antibiotic Resistance and Gastric Colonization of Helicobacter pylori.

J Bacteriol 2019 10 20;201(20). Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Department of Pathogen Biology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Pathogen Biology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

Cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) are synthetized by the addition of a methylene group from -adenosyl-l-methionine across the carbon-carbon double bonds of unsaturated fatty acid chains of membrane phospholipids. This fatty acid cyclopropanation, catalyzed by the CFA synthase (CfaS) enzyme, occurs in many bacteria, including the human pathogen Although the cyclopropane modification was reported to play a key role in the adaptation in response to environmental stress, its role in remains unknown. In this study, we showed that HP0416 encodes a functional CfaS. The enzyme was demonstrated to be required for acid resistance, antibiotic resistance, intracellular survival and mouse gastric colonization, and cell membrane integrity. Moreover, the tool compound dioctylamine, which acts as a substrate mimic, directly inhibits the CfaS function of , resulting into sensitivity to acid stress, increased antibiotic susceptibility, and attenuated abilities to avoid macrophage killing and to colonize mouse stomachs. These results validate CfaS as a promising antibiotic target and provide new potentials for this recognized target in future anti- drug discovery efforts. The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has created an urgent need for alternative therapeutic regimens that complement the current antibiotic treatment strategies for eradication; however, this is greatly hampered due to a lack of "druggable" targets. Although the CFAs are present in cytoplasmic membranes at high levels, their physiological role has not been established. In this report, deletion of the CFA synthase CfaS was shown to attenuate acid and drug resistance, immune escape, and gastric colonization of These findings were validated by inhibition of the CfaS activity with the tool compound dioctylamine. These studies identify this enzyme as an attractive target for further drug discovery efforts against .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00374-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6755722PMC
October 2019

Full-scale Raman imaging for dental caries detection.

Biomed Opt Express 2018 Dec 7;9(12):6009-6016. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Chemistry, Physics and Atmospheric Science, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA.

Early detection of dental caries is critical for avoiding more invasive and advanced treatment at a later stage. However, currently available techniques are unsatisfactory for early detection. Raman spectroscopy is known to have both high sensitivity and specificity in the analysis of mineral content in a tooth; but translating Raman spectroscopy to clinical caries detection remains a challenge. In this study, we report a full-scale Raman imaging system that can provide fast full-scale (~7 mm in diameter) tooth mineral analysis which could be feasible for clinical application. The results show that the Raman imaging system could not only confirm carious lesions that are obvious to the naked eye but also identify those which are not conclusive to traditional visual examination and probing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.9.006009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6490986PMC
December 2018

Effect of Moving Contact Line's Curvature on Dynamic Wetting of non-Newtonian Fluids.

Langmuir 2018 12 30;34(50):15612-15620. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

The curvature of the contact line is always changing with the dynamic wetting condition. Using a modified Wilhelmy plate method and the sessile drop method, this study experimentally investigated the dynamic wetting process of several kinds of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The results show that the curvature of the moving contact line strongly affects the relationship θ = f( U) for non-Newtonian fluids but has no effect on Newtonian fluids. The effect is more obvious with the stronger non-Newtonian fluids. The theoretical relationship derived from the Navier-Stokes equations established for spontaneous spreading indicates that the moving contact line curvature affects the relationship θ = f( U) for shear-thinning fluids and shear-thickening fluids in a different way, which agrees with the forced wetting experimental results for shear-thinning fluids in both this work and the previous one on the fluid showing shear-thickening rheology. A force balance relation of the braking force and driving force for the moving contact line is used to explain the internal mechanism about how the curvature of the contact line affects θ during wetting process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b03534DOI Listing
December 2018

[Etiology and prognosis of thrombocytopenia in children: a case analysis in 683 children within 10 years of pediatric intensive care unit].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2018 Oct;30(10):968-972

Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital, Hefei 230051, Anhui, China. Corresponding author: Jin Danqun, Email:

Objective: To analyze the etiology and prognosis of children with thrombocytopenia (TP) in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

Methods: The data of children with TP (exclusion of congenital and unknown TP) admitted to PICU of Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital from January 2008 to December 2017 was analyzed retrospectively. According to the age of onset, the children were divided into infantile group (29 days to less than 1 year), early childhood group (1 to less than 3 years), preschool group (3 to less than 6 years), school age group (6 to less than 10 years) and puberty group (more than 10 years). Moreover, according to the lowest platelet count (PLT), the children were divided into PLT ≤ 20×10/L group, PLT (21-50)×10/L group and PLT > (50-100) ×10/L group. The distribution and mortality of TP were analyzed, and the relationship between age, PLT decrease and prognosis were analyzed by Pearson method.

Results: Among 6 725 children admitted to PICU in our hospital from January 2008 to December 2017, there were 683 children with TP, with the incidence of 10.2%. Among 683 children with TP, there were 387 males and 296 females, with the median age of 2.72 (0.61, 3.08) years, and 92 children died, with a total mortality of 13.5%. Analysis of primary disease showed that TP caused by non-hematological malignant tumor disease accounted for 73.9%, with the mortality of 11.1% (56/505). TP induced by hematological malignant tumor disease accounted for 21.4%, with the mortality of 24.7% (36/146). Pseudothrombocytopenia accounted for 0.6%, with the mortality of 0% (0/4). Other children who gave up treatment accounted for 4.1%. It was shown by further analysis that multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) caused by TP associated with non-hematological malignant tumor disease accounted for 26.9%, with the mortality of 15.4% (21/136). Sepsis, severe trauma, pneumonia, central nervous system infection and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) accounted for 17.4%, 16.6%, 12.7%, 11.7% and 11.5%; with the mortality of 8.0% (7/88), 2.4% (2/84), 0% (0/64), 20.3% (12/59) and 24.1% (14/58), respectively. The main causes of TP associated with hematological malignant tumor disease were hemophagocytic syndrome [accounting for 27.4%, with the mortality of 32.5% (13/40)] and bone marrow inhibition [accounting for 21.2%, with the mortality of 25.8% (8/31)]. The younger were the children with TP, the higher would be the mortality. The mortality of infantile group was significantly higher than that of early childhood group, preschool group, school age group and puberty group [18.8% (53/282) vs. 14.0% (28/200), 6.7% (7/104), 4.3% (4/92), 0% (0/5), all P < 0.01]. The lower was the PLT, the higher would be the mortality. The mortality of PLT ≤ 20×10/L group was significantly higher than that of PLT (21-50)×10/L group and PLT > (50-100)×10/L group [18.1% (39/215) vs. 13.0% (32/247), 9.5% (21/221), both P < 0.05]. It was shown by correlation analysis that there was no association between age and 28-day death time in children with TP (r = -0.037, P = 0.727), but PLT was positively correlated with 28-day death time in children with TP (r = 0.844, P = 0.010).

Conclusions: MODS, infection, sepsis, severe trauma and DIC are the common causes of TP in PICU. The younger are the children with TP, the lower is the PLT, and the worse would be the prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2018.010.013DOI Listing
October 2018
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