Publications by authors named "Yuan-Yuan Cai"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Bone Metastases of Glioblastoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:705455. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Weifang People's Hospital, Weifang, China.

Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary intracranial tumor and originates from the small pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of brain tumors, gliomas are classified into grades I-IV, and GBM is defined as the highest grade (IV). GBM can be disseminated by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but extracranial metastasis is rare. Additionally, the pathway and mechanism involved remain unclear.

Case Presentation: We report a rare case of left temporal lobe GBM with multiple bone metastases and soft tissue metastasis. This 49-year-old right-handed man who was diagnosed with GBM underwent surgery on May 9, 2017, followed by radiochemotherapy in June 2017. On August 13, 2019, local relapse was found. Then, the patient received a second surgery but not radiochemotherapy. In November 2019, the patient was reported to be suffering from low back pain for nearly 1 month. On December 6, 2019, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracolumbar vertebrae and abdominal computed tomography (CT) confirmed metastases on the ninth posterior rib on the right, the third anterior rib on the left, and the T7 and T10 vertebrae and their appendages. CT-guided rib space-occupying puncture biopsy was performed, and GBM was identified by pathology.

Conclusion: We should pay attention to extracranial metastasis of GBM. Timely detection and early treatment improve overall quality of patients' life. The extracranial metastasis in this patient may have occurred through the spinal nerve root or intercostal nerve. Further clinical observations are required to clarify the pathway and mechanism involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.705455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504694PMC
September 2021

Minimally invasive co-injection of modular micro-muscular and micro-vascular tissues improves in situ skeletal muscle regeneration.

Biomaterials 2021 10 20;277:121072. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Institute of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, 361021, PR China; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Biochemical Technology (Huaqiao University), Xiamen, 361021, PR China. Electronic address:

Various conventional treatment strategies for volumetric muscle loss (VML) are often hampered by the extreme donor site morbidity, the limited availability of quality muscle flaps, and complicated, as well as invasive surgical procedures. The conventional biomaterial-based scaffolding systems carrying myoblasts have been extensively investigated towards improving the regeneration of the injured muscle tissues, as well as their injectable forms. However, the applicability of such designed systems has been restricted due to the lack of available vascular networks. Considering these facts, here we present the development of a unique set of two minimally invasively injectable modular microtissues, consisting of mouse myoblast (C2C12)-laden poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) porous microspheres (PLGA PMs), or the micro-muscles, and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)-laden poly(ethylene glycol) hollow microrods (PEG HMs), or the microvessels. Besides systematic in vitro investigations, the myogenic performance of these modular composite microtissues, when co-injected, was explored in vivo using a mouse VML model, which confirmed improved in situ muscle regeneration and remolding. Together, we believe that the construction of these injectable modular microtissues and their combination for minimally invasive therapy provides a promising method for in situ tissue healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.121072DOI Listing
October 2021

Neuraminidase 1 is a driver of experimental cardiac hypertrophy.

Eur Heart J 2021 09;42(36):3770-3782

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, No. 24 Tongjia Lane, Nanjing 210009, China.

Aims: Despite considerable therapeutic advances, there is still a dearth of evidence on the molecular determinants of cardiac hypertrophy that culminate in heart failure. Neuraminidases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of terminal sialic acids from glycoproteins or glycolipids. This study sought to characterize the role of neuraminidases in pathological cardiac hypertrophy and identify pharmacological inhibitors targeting mammalian neuraminidases.

Methods And Results: Neuraminidase 1 (NEU1) was highly expressed in hypertrophic hearts of mice and rats, and this elevation was confirmed in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 7) compared with healthy controls (n = 7). The increased NEU1 was mainly localized in cardiomyocytes by co-localization with cardiac troponin T. Cardiomyocyte-specific NEU1 deficiency alleviated hypertrophic phenotypes in response to transverse aortic constriction or isoproterenol hydrochloride infusion, while NEU1 overexpression exacerbated the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, co-immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and luciferase assays demonstrated that NEU1 translocated into the nucleus and interacted with GATA4, leading to Foetal gene (Nppa and Nppb) expression. Virtual screening and experimental validation identified a novel compound C-09 from millions of compounds that showed favourable binding affinity to human NEU1 (KD = 0.38 μM) and effectively prevented the development of cardiac remodelling in cellular and animal models. Interestingly, anti-influenza drugs zanamivir and oseltamivir effectively inhibited mammalian NEU1 and showed new indications of cardio-protection.

Conclusions: This work identifies NEU1 as a critical driver of cardiac hypertrophy and inhibition of NEU1 opens up an entirely new field of treatment for cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab347DOI Listing
September 2021

Serum-Urine Matched Metabolomics for Predicting Progression of Henoch-Schonlein Purpura Nephritis.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 12;8:657073. Epub 2021 May 12.

The Clinical Metabolomics Center, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) is a common glomerulonephritis secondary to Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) that affects systemic metabolism. Currently, there is a rarity of biomarkers to predict the progression of HSPN. This work sought to screen metabolic markers to predict the progression of HSPN via serum-urine matched metabolomics. A total of 90 HSPN patients were enrolled, including 46 HSPN (+) patients with severe kidney damage (persistent proteinuria >0.3 g/day) and 44 HSPN (-) patients without obvious symptoms (proteinuria < 0.3 g/day). Untargeted metabolomics was determined by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q/TOF-MS). A total of 38 and 50 differential metabolites were, respectively, identified in serum and urine from the comparison between HSPN (+) and HSPN (-) patients. Altered metabolic pathways in HSPN (+) mainly included glycerophospholipid metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, and citrate cycle. A panel of choline and -vaccenic acid gave areas under the curve of 92.69% in serum and 72.43% in urine for differential diagnosis between HSPN (+) and HSPN (-). In addition, the two metabolites showed a significant association with clinical indices of HSPN. These results suggest that serum-urine matched metabolomics comprehensively characterized the metabolic differences between HSPN (+) and HSPN (-), and choline and -vaccenic acid could serve as biomarkers to predict HSPN progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.657073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149729PMC
May 2021

Two-dimensional metal-organic framework-graphene oxide hybrid nanocomposite proton exchange membranes with enhanced proton conduction.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 18;594:593-603. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, PR China.

A novel two-dimensional (2D) zeolitic imidazolate framework-graphene oxide hybrid nanocomposite ([email protected]) is designed as an inorganic filler in sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK). ZIF-L with unique leaf-like morphology is grown in-situ on the GO sheet in aqueous media at room temperature. The terminal imidazole linker in [email protected] and the -SOH in SPEEK can form acid-base pairs in the membrane interface to produce low energy proton conduction highway. Benefiting from the unique structural advantage, the hybrid [email protected] membranes displayed promoted physicochemical and electrochemical performances over the pure SPEEK. The [email protected] achieved a proton conductivity of 0.265 and 0.0364 S cm at 70 °C-100% RH and 90 °C-40% RH, 1.76- and 6.24-fold higher than pure SPEEK, respectively. Meanwhile, a single cell based on [email protected] had an output power up to 652.82 mW cm at 60 °C, 1.45 times higher than the pure SPEEK. In addition, the durability test was performed by holding open circuit voltage (OCV) for 24 h. The [email protected] provided better long-term stability than the pure SPEEK. These superior performance suggests a promising application in PEMFC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.03.070DOI Listing
July 2021

Untargeted metabolomics and lipidomics uncovering the cardioprotective effects of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction on pathological cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 29;270:113646. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; The Clinical Metabolomics Center, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: As a classic herbal prescription, Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HLJDD) exhibits positive effects against cardiac dysfunction. However, its cardioprotective effects and potential mechanism(s) of action still need to be systematically investigated.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to reveal the underlying therapeutic mechanism of HLJDD on transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling.

Materials And Methods: TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling mice model was established to evaluate the therapeutic effects of HLJDD. Serum untargeted metabolomics and lipidomic profiling were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate statistical analyses.

Results: Oral administration of HLJDD (2.5 g/kg/day, 5.0 g/kg/day) significantly improved the heart morphology, enhanced the heart function, and alleviated the accumulation of fibrosis in the interstitial space and the infiltration of inflammatory cells in TAC-stimulated mice. Serum untargeted metabolomics analysis showed that significant alterations were observed in metabolic signatures between the TAC-model and sham group. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis screened 59 differential metabolic features and 13 metabolites were identified. The disturbed metabolic pathways in TAC group mainly related to lipid metabolism. Further serum lipidomic profiling showed that most lipids including cholesterol esters, ceramides, glycerides, fatty acids and phospholipids were decreased in TAC group and these alterations were reversed after HLJDD intervention.

Conclusion: HLJDD alleviates TAC-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, and its potential therapeutic mechanism involves the regulation of lipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113646DOI Listing
April 2021

Multiple Enhancement Effects of Crown Ether in Tröger's Base Polymers on the Performance of Anion Exchange Membranes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jun 22;12(22):24806-24816. Epub 2020 May 22.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, The College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, P. R. China.

The development of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) is hindered by the trade-off of ionic conductivity, alkaline stability, and mechanical properties. Tröger's base polymers (Tb-polymers) are recognized as promising membrane materials to overcome these obstacles. Herein, the AEMs made from Tb-poly(crown ether)s (Tb-PCEs) show good comprehensive performance. The influence of crown ether on the conductivity and alkaline stability of AEMs has been investigated in detail. The formation of hydronium ion-crown ether complexes and an obvious microphase-separated structure formed by the existence of crown ether can enhance the conductivity of the AEMs. The maximum OH conductivity of 141.5 mS cm is achieved from the Tb-PCEs based AEM (Tb-PCE-1) at 80 °C in ultrapure water. The ion-dipole interaction of the Na with crown ether can protect the quaternary ammonium from the attack of OH to improve the alkaline stability of AEMs. After 675 h of alkaline treatment, the OH conductivity of Tb-PCE-1 decreases by only 6%. The Tb-PCE-1-based single cell shows a peak power density of 0.202 W cm at 80 °C. The prominent physicochemical properties are attributed to the well-developed microstructure of the Tb-PCEs, as revealed by TEM, AFM, and SAXS observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c05411DOI Listing
June 2020

Citrus polymethoxyflavones attenuate metabolic syndrome by regulating gut microbiome and amino acid metabolism.

Sci Adv 2020 01 3;6(1):eaax6208. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University, No. 24 Tongjia Lane, Nanjing, China.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is intricately linked to dysregulation of gut microbiota and host metabolomes. Here, we first find that a purified citrus polymethoxyflavone-rich extract (PMFE) potently ameliorates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS, alleviates gut dysbiosis, and regulates branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism using 16 rDNA amplicon sequencing and metabolomic profiling. The metabolic protective effects of PMFE are gut microbiota dependent, as demonstrated by antibiotic treatment and fecal microbiome transplantation (FMT). The modulation of gut microbiota altered BCAA levels in the host serum and feces, which were significantly associated with metabolic features and actively responsive to therapeutic interventions with PMFE. Notably, PMFE greatly enriched the commensal bacterium , and gavage with reduced BCAA concentrations and alleviated MetS in HFD mice. PMFE may be used as a prebiotic agent to attenuate MetS, and target-specific microbial species may have unique therapeutic promise for metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax6208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941918PMC
January 2020

American Ginseng and Asian Ginseng Intervention in Diet-Induced Obese Mice: Metabolomics Reveals Distinct Metabolic Profiles.

Am J Chin Med 2019 15;47(4):787-801. Epub 2019 May 15.

* State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, P. R. China.

American ginseng and Asian ginseng, which occupy prominent positions in the list of best-selling natural products in the West and East, are suitable for different indications in the traditional pharmacological uses. Currently, the effects of American ginseng and Asian ginseng in the protection against metabolic dysfunction and the differences between them are still unknown. Herein, an untargeted metabolomics based on liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) was determined. The serum metabolomics and dynamic feces metabolomics revealed significant metabolic distinction between American ginseng and Asian ginseng in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. The results show that American ginseng and Asian ginseng alleviate glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in DIO mice. A total of 45 differential metabolites were confirmed between the drug-naïve and American ginseng group, and 32 metabolites were confirmed between the drug-naïve and Asian ginseng group. Metabolic pathways analysis shows that these two ginsengs treatment dynamic rectifies metabolic disorder in DIO mice mainly via regulating linoleic acids metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid. Moreover, American ginseng's specific function in monitoring the carnitines and taurine/hypotaurine metabolism might make it more effective in meliorating lipids metabolism disorder than Asian ginseng.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X19500411DOI Listing
October 2019

Functional Metabolomics Characterizes a Key Role for -Acetylneuraminic Acid in Coronary Artery Diseases.

Circulation 2018 03 6;137(13):1374-1390. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (L.Z., T.-T.W., Y.F., F.-Q.H., J.-F.L., Q.-Q.C., S.-L.W., R.N.A., P.L., L.-W.Q.)

Background: As new biomarkers of coronary artery diseases (CAD) emerge via metabolomics, the underlying functional mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Functional metabolomics aims to translate metabolomics-derived biomarkers to disease mechanisms.

Methods: A cohort of 2324 patients who underwent coronary angiography from 4 independent centers was studied. A combination of ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode was used for untargeted analysis of metabolites in plasma. Significant differential metabolites were identified by cross-comparisons with and within CAD types, including normal coronary artery, nonobstructvie coronary atherosclerosis, stable angina, unstable angina, and acute myocardial infarction. A tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based approach using isotope-labeled standard addition was subsequently performed for targeted analysis of the metabolic marker -acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). A functional metabolomics strategy was proposed to investigate the role of Neu5Ac in the progression of CAD by using in vitro and in vivo models.

Results: We identified a total of 36 differential metabolites, 35 of which were confirmed with reference compounds. Elevation of Neu5Ac was observed in plasma during CAD progression in center 1 (=4.0e-64, n=2019) and replicated in 3 independent centers (n=305). The increased level of Neu5Ac in plasma was confirmed by accurate targeted quantification. Mechanistically, Neu5Ac was able to trigger myocardial injury in vitro and in vivo by activation of the Rho/Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase signaling pathway through binding to RhoA and Cdc42, but not Rac1. Silencing neuraminidase-1, the enzyme that regulates Neu5Ac generation, ameliorated oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury in cardiomyocytes and ligation/isoprenaline-induced myocardial ischemia injury in rats. Pharmacological inhibition of neuraminidase by anti-influenza drugs, oseltamivir and zanamivir, also protected cardiomyocytes and the heart from myocardial injury.

Conclusions: Functional metabolomics identified a key role for Neu5Ac in acute myocardial infarction, and targeting neuraminidase-1 may represent an unrecognized therapeutic intervention for CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.031139DOI Listing
March 2018

The Association of Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood Cells with Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2017 09 15;26(9):1381-1390. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The association between telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood cells and cancer risk remains inconclusive. We carried out a meta-analysis on prospective studies. The study-specific RR estimates were first transformed to a common comparable scale and then were pooled by a random-effects model. The dataset was composed of 13,894 cases and 71,672 controls from 28 studies in 25 articles. In the comparison of the longest versus shortest third of TL, we observed a marginally positive association between longer TL and higher risk of total cancers [OR = 1.086; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.952-1.238]. Subgroup analyses showed that the association was stronger in lung cancer ( = 3; OR = 1.690; 95% CI, 1.253-2.280), in men ( = 6; OR = 1.302; 95% CI, 1.120-1.514) and in studies with more precise methods for DNA extraction (phenol-chloroform, salting-out or magnetic bead, = 6, OR = 1.618; 95% CI, 1.320-1.985) and TL measurement (multiplex Q-PCR, = 8; OR = 1.439; 95% CI, 1.118-1.852). Our meta-analysis suggested longer TL in peripheral blood cells is a likely risk factor for lung cancer or cancers in men. Accurate DNA extraction and TL measurement methods make it more liable to find significant associations between TL and cancer risk and thus should be taken into consideration in future epidemiologic studies. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0968DOI Listing
September 2017

Increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) levels in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM): A meta-analysis.

J Diabetes Complications 2015 Jul 6;29(5):724-30. Epub 2015 Apr 6.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Aim: To derive a more precise estimation of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) levels in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) by meta-analysis.

Methods: PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify all available studies comparing CIMT levels between T1DM group and control group. Meta-analysis was performed to compare the difference of overall mean CIMT levels between the two groups. Publication bias was evaluated by funnel plot, Begg' test and Egger' test. Meta-regression analysis was conducted to investigate the influential factors on CIMT difference. The meta-analysis was conducted by STATA 12.0 software.

Results: A total of 1840 articles were obtained after searching databases; 47 studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. Significant heterogeneity was observed among these studies (Q = 768.75, P < 0.001, I(2) = 94.0%). Compared with the control group, the T1DM group had significantly higher CIMT levels (standardized mean difference: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.75-1.28; P < 0.001). A likely source of heterogeneity was Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) scores and sample size ratio of patents and controls. The funnel plot did not show a skewed or asymmetrical shape, and the result of Begg' test and Egger' test was P = 0.178 and P = 0.145 respectively. Accordingly, it could be assumed that publication bias was not present.

Conclusion: T1DM patients have significantly increased CIMT levels compared to control subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2015.03.018DOI Listing
July 2015

[Expression and purification of recombinant Trail protein in E.coli and the optimal conditions for Trail purification].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2012 Jun;28(6):596-600

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou, China.

Aim: To construct the expression vector pET-28α-Trail(114-281); and find the optimal conditions for target gene expression, host bacteria lysis, and protein purification, and to detect the apoptosis function of the recombinant protein.

Methods: The functional domain of Trail(114-281); was amplified by PCR and cloned into the expression vector pET-28α(+). After confirmed by DNA sequencing, the Trail(114-281); was expressed in E.coli BL21 under the condition of different A(600);, IPTG concentration and temperature. Host bacteria were lysed using three different ways, including ultrasonication, osmotic shock and IP lysis, and the target protein was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography or cutting-gel purification. The advantages and shortcomings of these methods were compared to find the most efficient ways for expression and purification of the recombinant protein. The immunocompetence of Trail protein from cutting-gel purification was analyzed by Western blotting, A549 cell apoptosis induced by purified protein from Ni-NTA chromatography was detected by flow cytometry.

Results: The 516 bp Trail(114-281); gene was cloned, and expressed in E.coli BL21. When A(600);=0.6, recombinant host bacteria were induced by 1.0 mmol/L IPTG at 37 DegreesCelsius for 4 h, which was the optimal condition for the expression of inclusion body, and the soluble protein was expressed stably on the condition of 25 DegreesCelsius, A(600);=1.0, IPTG1.0 mmol/L. Ultrasonication could get maximal protein compared to the other methods. The two purification ways both could purify taget protein successfully. Western blot analysis showed that the protein purified by cutting-gel has a good immunologic activity. Protein from Ni-NTA affinity chromatography caused cell apoptosis.

Conclusion: The expression vector pET-28α-Trail(114-281); can be constructed and expressed in E.coli BL21 successfully. Temperature is a more important effect factor of Trail(114-281); expression in host bacteria compared with other factors. Cutting-gel protein has immunogenicity, and Ni-NTA protein could keep its function. These results provide a basis for the further functional research and application of Trail.
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June 2012

[Health care status of female workers exposed to occupational hazards in Haidian district of Beijing].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2009 Oct;43(10):880-4

The Bureau for Health Inspection and Supervision of Haidian District, Beijing, China.

Objective: To investigate the health care status of female workers exposed to occupational hazards in Haidian district of Beijing and improve the labor protection of female workers.

Methods: A questionnaire provided by National Center for Women and Children's Health of Chinese CDC was used in the survey conducted to collect information about health care status of female workers in 141 factories with occupational hazards including chemical poisons and physical factors (noise, libration, microwave, high frequency and low temperature).

Results: 141 factories were investigated, including 53 state-owned enterprises, 21 collective enterprises, 46 joint-stock enterprises, and 21 non-public enterprises. 12 251 female workers were surveyed, 10.19% (1249/12 251) of whom were exposed to occupational hazards. Of 141 factories studied, 16.31% (23/141) had no labor protection management organization.27.66% (39/141) did not provide pre-employment physical examination service to female workers.48.94% (69/141) didn't establish labor protection system for female workers in menstrual period. While, 21.28% (30/141) of the studied institutes deducted some salaries in the pregnancy, and 32.62% (46/141) deducted their wages during the puerperal period. 2.13% (3/141) arranged female workers in the posts which are forbidden by law (continuous heavy work load operation).9.93% (14/141) arranged pregnant female workers on the post forbidden by law.31.91% (45/141) and 33.33% (47/141) would deduct the time of prenatal medical examination and lactation from their working hours, respectively.39.01% (55/141) didn't afford the cost of fertility. 68.09% (96/141) had annual gynecological examination.45 factories were collected occupational examination reports, accounted for 31.91% (45/141). No female workers were found suffering from occupational disease. Of the 1865 occupational hazard factor monitoring points in 34 factories, there were 155 monitoring points, which were all noise monitoring points, did not meet the standard.

Conclusion: The current health-care status of female workers is not optimistic. It is necessary to consistently improve health care legislations, establish coordinated management mechanism and strengthen the publicity of policy to protect female workers.
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October 2009
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