Publications by authors named "Yuan Zhang"

3,485 Publications

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Population genetic structure of Neoschongastia gallinarum in South China based on mitochondrial DNA markers.

Parasitol Res 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510642, People's Republic of China.

The genetic diversity and differentiation of four geographic populations of Neoschongastia gallinarum were evaluated using concatenated mitochondrial gene sequences (pCOI, pCOII, and pND5). Based on the results, the N. gallinarum populations had high genetic diversity and strong ecological adaptability. Genetic differentiation among paired populations calculated using concatenated mitochondrial gene sequences revealed that geographic isolation resulted in genetic differentiation among the populations of N. gallinarum, and gene flow between populations associated with human trade activities. Systematic development and molecular variance based on haplotypes revealed that genetic variation existed in different haplotypes; however, no clear rule related to geographic region was found. Further, genetic variation was mainly derived from individuals within the population. A neutral test based on concatenated mitochondrial gene sequences and nucleotide pair differences revealed that N. gallinarum did not experience an obvious population expansion in recent historical periods. Accordingly, the population size was relatively stable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-022-07605-5DOI Listing
August 2022

The efficacy and safety of fractional lasers for alopecia in mono- and adjunctive therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Dermatology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: Hair loss is affecting over half of the population worldwide, leading to noticeable psychotic disorders in a considerable proportion of patients. The current treatments remain unpredictable and disappointing.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fractional lasers compared to other conventional treatments as either mono or combined therapy in the treatment of alopecia.

Methods: We have conducted a thorough literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane library, and China national knowledge infrastructure databases (from inception to February 9th, 2022). Relevant clinical trials, mainly randomized controlled trials, were included, regardless of their comparisons. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment was used for quality appraisal. Outcomes were evaluated by efficiency rate, hair density, etc. RESULTS: Thirteen controlled clinical trials, including nine randomized controlled trials, with 606 patients were retrieved. As an individual therapy, the fractional laser is superior to any other therapy in total efficiency (RR=1.58, 95%CI: 1.16 to 2.14, P=0.003). When the fractional laser was applied in combined treatments, the result showed a significant difference (RR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.49, P=0.03) compared to other treatments. Although both mono and adjunctive groups were confirmed to be efficient, there were no statistical differences between the two of them (RR=1.24, 95%CI: 0.87 to 1.77, P=0.24).

Conclusion: Our results showed that the fractional laser has a significant efficacy as either mono- or adjuvant therapy. Further research and exploration of fractional lasers with larger sample sizes are required to confirm the efficiency and safety of this treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.15293DOI Listing
August 2022

Enhanced thrombolysis by endovascular low-frequency ultrasound with bifunctional microbubbles in venous thrombosis: and study.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 22;10:965769. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

There is a need to improve the efficacy and safety of endovascular techniques in venous thrombotic diseases, and microbubble enhanced sonothrombolysis is a promising approach. However, whether endovascular low-frequency ultrasound (LFUS) can be utilized in microbubble enhanced sonothrombolysis is unclear. Here, we present a catheter-based thrombolytic system that combines unfocused low-frequency low-intensity ultrasound with novel fibrin-targeted drug-loaded bifunctional microbubbles. We develop an flow model and an rabbit inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis model to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the thrombolytic system. The results indicate that microbubble enhanced sonothrombolysis with endovascular LFUS treatment for 30 min is equally effective compared to pure pharmacologic treatment. Furthermore, the thrombolytic efficacy of this system is safely and substantially improved by the introduction of a fibrin-targeted drug-loaded bifunctional microbubble with a reduction of the fibrinolytic agent dosage by 60%. The microbubble enhanced endovascular LFUS sonothrombolysis system with excellent thrombolytic efficacy may serve as a new therapeutic approach for venous thrombotic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.965769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9356075PMC
July 2022

Quality of Life Outcomes and Associated Symptoms Reported by Lung Transplant Recipients Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic: Applying a Novel Assessment Tool.

Transplant Proc 2022 Jul 11. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY.

Background: There are 2 main aims of lung transplantation for people with end-stage lung disease: (1) to extend life and (2) to improve its quality. Much consideration is given to how to support the longevity and functioning of the allograft, though less robust studies have been done on the quality of the recipients' lives. With an interest in providing compassionate and holistic patient-centered care, it is vital that the treatment providers accurately understand their patients' lived experience. This study aimed to describe the health-related quality of life experiences of lung transplant recipients. An interest was held for where patients may struggle, thus informing where support might be needed to achieve the best possible outcomes.

Methods: This single-center study used a validated Lung Transplant Quality of Life questionnaire, which was sent in autumn of 2020 to all of the lung transplant recipients (n = 581) under the care of Columbia University Irving Medical Center (New York, NY).

Results: "Anxiety/Depression" had the highest concentration of struggle responses, followed closely by "Pulmonary Symptoms" and "Neuromuscular Symptoms." "Neuromuscular Problems" and "Sexual Problems" had the highest percentage of struggle responses. As the struggles increased, the overall quality of life rating dropped proportionately. There was no correlation between the overall quality of life and graft dysfunction, age, or time out from transplant date. All of the domains held an average rating of "Satisfactory," except "Treatment Burden," which was rated as "Favorable." Those ratings dropped for the cohort of patients who died during the study period.

Conclusions: With the goal of providing comprehensive care at the forefront of transplant priorities, we found the newly developed questionnaire invaluable in targeting areas for quality improvements, mostly notably respecting recipient mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2022.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9271457PMC
July 2022

Prognostic Analysis of Individualized Treatments of Malignant Tumors Primary From Maxillary Sinus.

Ear Nose Throat J 2022 Aug 6:1455613221115134. Epub 2022 Aug 6.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 117902Beijing TongRen Hospital, Capital Medical University, China.

Objectives: To investigate the prognosis and quality of life for primary malignant maxillary sinus tumors.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis. 164 patients diagnosed with primary malignant maxillary sinus tumors between 2005 and 2018 were recruited. Patients were treated according to the pathological type and the lesion range. Prognostic differences of different pathological types, surgical resection methods, repair methods, treatment methods, and different local recurrence sites were analyzed. Survival analysis and prognostic factors analysis were performed.

Results: Overall survival (OS) rate was 74.7% at 3 years, 60.5% at 5 years, and 45.8% at 10 years. Disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 67.2% at 3 years, 45.6% at 5 years, and 30.8% at 10 years. There was significant difference in OS rate among different pathological types (χ = 14.18, P < 0.05). The order of 5-year OS rate was as follows: malignant transformation of inverted Papilloma (77.7%) > adenoid cystic carcinoma (74.1%) > squamous cell carcinoma (48.4%) > sarcoma (22.1%). The order of disease-free survival was as follows: total maxillary resection > subtotal maxillary resection > endoscopic nasal tumor resection ≥enlarged maxillary resection, the 5-year DFS rate were 68.6%, 53.5%, 46.2%, and 42.9%, respectively. The OS of postoperative radiotherapy was significantly better than that of preoperative radiotherapy (χ = 7.16, P < 0.05). There was significant difference in OS between recurrent and non-recurrent patients (χ = 68.57, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The pathological type and the timing of radiotherapy are independent prognostic factors for primary malignant tumor of maxillary sinus. In addition, different local surgical resection methods are independent factors affecting the recurrence rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01455613221115134DOI Listing
August 2022

Potential Diagnostic Applications of Multi-Delay Arterial Spin Labeling in Early Alzheimer's Disease: The Chinese Imaging, Biomarkers, and Lifestyle Study.

Front Neurosci 2022 22;16:934471. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations are involved in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can be a potential biomarker. However, CBF measured by single-delay arterial spin labeling (ASL) for discrimination of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, an early stage of AD) was lack of accuracy. Multi-delay ASL can not only provide CBF quantification but also provide arterial transit time (ATT). Unfortunately, the technique was scarcely applied to the diagnosis of AD. Here, we detected the utility of ASL with 1-delay and 7-delay in ten regions of interest (ROIs) to identify MCI and AD.

Materials And Methods: Pseudocontinuous ASL (pCASL) MRI was acquired on a 3T GE scanner in adults from the Chinese Imaging, Biomarkers, and Lifestyle (CIBL) Study of AD cohort, including 26 normal cognition (NC), 37 MCI, and 39 AD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses with 1-delay and 7-delay ASL were performed for the identification of MCI and AD. The DeLong test was used to compare ROC curves.

Results: For CBF of 1-delay or 7-delay the AUCs showed moderate-high performance for the AD/NC and AD/MCI comparisons (AUC = 0.83∼0.96) ( < 0.001). CBF of 1-delay performed poorly in MCI/NC comparison (AUC = 0.69) ( < 0.001), but CBF of 7-delay fared well with an AUC of 0.79 ( < 0.001). The combination of CBF and ATT of 7-delay showed higher performance for AD/NC, AD/MCI, and MCI/NC comparisons with AUCs of 0.96, 0.89, and 0.89, respectively ( < 0.001). Furthermore, combination of CBF, ATT, sex, age, ε4, and education improved further the accuracy ( < 0.001). In subgroups analyses, there were no significant differences in CBF of 7-delay ASL for identification of AD or MCI between age subgroups ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: The combination of CBF and ATT with 7-delay ASL showed higher performance for identification of MCI than CBF of 1-delay, when adding to sex, age, ε4 carrier status, and education years, the diagnostic performance was further increased, presenting a potential imaging biomarker in early AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.934471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353523PMC
July 2022

Efficacy of flavonoids-containing supplements on insulin resistance and associated metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 randomized controlled trials.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 22;13:917692. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Endocrinology, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Obesity is becoming a global epidemic. Flavonoids, with anti-inflammatory and antioxidative functions, are proposed to treat insulin resistance (IR) in obese subjects. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of flavonoids-containing supplements on IR and associated metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese participants.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving flavonoids-containing supplements used to treat overweight and obese subjects with results of IR, other associated metabolic risk factors, and adverse effects published were retrieved from 5 electronic databases from the year of inception to January 2, 2022.

Results: Twenty-five RCTs (n = 1950) were included. Pooled results demonstrated that HOMA-IR in the group receiving flavonoids-containing supplements significantly decreased versus the control group (WMD = -0.132, 95% CI: -0.236 to -0.027, = 0.013). Subgroup analyses showed that HOMA-IR in the subgroup receiving flavonoid-containing mixtures significantly decreased (WMD = -0.25, 95% CI: -0.43 to -0.06, = 0.008), whereas such result was not found in the singly-used flavonoids subgroup (WMD = -0.08, 95% CI: -0.20 to 0.05, = 0.240). In addition, QUICKI in the experimental group had an increasing trend compared to that in the control group (WMD = 0.01, 95% CI: -0.00 to 0.02, = 0.065). For secondary outcomes, FBG, FBI, TC, TG, SBP, weight, BMI, and WHR in the group receiving flavonoids-containing supplements dropped significantly compared to those in the controls (WMD = -0.05, 95% CI: -0.08 to -0.02, = 0.002; WMD = -0.58, 95% CI: -1.04 to -0.12, = 0.014; WMD = -0.04, 95% CI: -0.06 to -0.03, < 0.001; WMD = -0.04, 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.03, < 0.001; WMD = -2.01, 95% CI: -3.17 to -0.86, = 0.001; WMD = -0.29, 95% CI: -0.49 to -0.09, = 0.004; WMD = -0.10 95% CI: -0.17 to -0.04, = 0.003; WMD = -0.10, 95% CI: -0.01 to -0.00, = 0.015; respectively). Adverse reactions did not differ between the group receiving flavonoids-containing supplements and the control group (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.52, = 0.905).

Conclusion: This study showed that flavonoids-containing supplements may be efficacious and safe in improving IR and associated metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese participants. Nevertheless, doubt over the findings remains because limited RCTs per type of flavonoids-containing supplement were investigated, and many of the RCTs had a small sample size. Therefore, the findings must be validated in future research.

Systematic Review Registration: https://inplasy.com/inplasy-2022-2-0011/, identifier INPLASY202220011.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.917692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355558PMC
August 2022

Corrigendum: as a model to study the mechanism of nociception.

Front Physiol 2022 22;13:956551. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Provincial-Level Key Laboratory for Molecular Medicine of Major Diseases and the Prevention and Treatment With Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in Gansu Colleges and University, Gansu University of Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2022.854124.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.956551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355665PMC
July 2022

2H-MoS/CoO nanohybrid with type I nitroreductase-mimicking activity for the electrochemical assays of nitroaromatic compounds.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 Aug 23;1221:340078. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China. Electronic address:

A type I nitroreductase-mimicking nanocatalyst based on 2H-MoS/CoO nanohybrids for trace nitroaromatic compounds detection is reported in this work. For the preparation of nanocatalyst, ultrathin CoO nanoflakes array was in-situ grown onto 2H-MoS nanosheets forming three-dimensional (3D) nanohybrid with large specific surface area as well as abundant active sites. The as-prepared nanocatalyst shows a specific affinity as well as high catalytic activity towards nitroaromatic compounds. Given the favorable nitroreductase-mimicking catalytic activity of 2H-MoS/CoO nanohybrid, a sensitive and efficient electrochemical microsensor has been constructed for the detection of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Under optimized conditions, the microsensor displayed sensitive response from μM to pM levels with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1 pM. We further employed photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method to identify the nitroreductase-mimicking mechanism of 2H-MoS/CoO nanohybrids towards 2, 4, 6- TNT. It was found that the abundant oxygen vacancies in ultrathin CoO nanoflakes played an essential role in determining its catalytic performance. Moreover, the developed MoS/CoO nanozyme has a lower Michaelis-Menten constant (k) than that of nature nitroreductase demonstrating a good enzymatic affinity towards its substrates, and further generating a high catalytic activity. This research not only proposed a new type of nanozyme, but also developed a portable electrochemical microsensor for the detection of 2, 4, 6-TNT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2022.340078DOI Listing
August 2022

Efficient delivery of the Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide G3139 via nucleus-targeted aCD33-NKSN nanoparticles.

Int J Pharm 2022 Aug 4;625:122074. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA.

G3139 is an antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) developed as a Bcl-2 down-regulating agent for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, the clinical efficacy of G3139 has been shown to be limited due to its rapid plasma clearance and low permeability. To enhance the effective delivery of G3139, this work prepared a novel nano gene delivery vector (aCD33-NKSN) consisting of a CD33 antigbody (aCD33), a nuclear localization signal (NLS), gene fusion peptides (KALA), and stearic acid (SA) for CD33 antigen targeting and nuclear localization. The aCD33-NKSN/G3139 nanoparticles were spherical and uniformly sized with a positive charge and sustained release. They had an excellent G3139 loading capacity and colloidal stability. The aCD33-NKSN/G3139 delivered G3139 into the nucleus of Kasumi-1 cells and aCD33-NKSN/G3139 could more effectively inhibited Bcl-2 expression and induced apoptosis in Kasumi-1 cells versus free G3139. The aCD33-NKSN/G3139 administration was more effective at inhibiting tumor growth, and significantly prolonged the survival time of mice in contrast to free G3139. The results illustrate that aCD33-NKSN/G3139 nanoparticles could improve the antitumor activity of encapsulated G3139 due to aCD33 targeting and the ability to perform nuclear localization, The results offer a promising clinical application potential for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.122074DOI Listing
August 2022

Correlation of obesity, dietary patterns, and blood pressure with uric acid: data from the NHANES 2017-2018.

BMC Endocr Disord 2022 Aug 5;22(1):196. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Endocrinology, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, 111 Dade Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, 510120, China.

Background: Prevalence rates of hyperuricemia and gout are increasing. Clinical investigations of hyperuricemia-related risk factors aid in the early detection, prevention, and management of hyperuricemia and gout. Ongoing research is examining the association of obesity, dietary patterns, and blood pressure (BP) with serum uric acid (sUA).

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The exposures included body mass index (BMI), dietary patterns, and BP. The outcome variable was sUA level. The weighted multivariate linear regression models and smooth curve fittings were used to assess the association of BMI, dietary patterns, and BP with sUA.

Results: There was a significantly positive correlation between BMI and sUA (β = 0.059, 95% CI: 0.054 to 0.064, P < 0.00001). Overweight and obese individuals had higher sUA levels than those with the normal BMI (β = 0.451, 95% CI: 0.357 to 0.546, P < 0.00001; β = 0.853, 95% CI: 0.760 to 0.946, P < 0.00001; respectively). Dietary energy intake was positively correlated with sUA (β = 0.000, 95% CI: 0.000 to 0.000, P = 0.01057). Dietary intake of carbohydrate and fiber were negatively correlated with sUA (β = - 0.001, 95% CI: - 0.002 to - 0.000, P < 0.00001; β = - 0.008, 95% CI: - 0.011 to - 0.004, P = 0.00001; respectively). Moreover, systolic BP was positively correlated with sUA (β = 0.006, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.009, P = 0.00002). However, no statistical differences were found about the associations of dietary intake of total sugars, protein, total fat, cholesterol, and diastolic BP with sUA.

Conclusions: The current cross-sectional investigation of a nationally representative sample of US participants showed that BMI, dietary energy intake, and systolic BP were positively correlated with sUA levels; dietary carbohydrate and fiber intake were negatively correlated with sUA levels. The findings might be helpful for the management and treatment of hyperuricemia and gout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-022-01112-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354319PMC
August 2022

Metagenomic insights into microbial nitrogen metabolism in two-stage anoxic/oxic-moving bed biofilm reactor system with multiple chambers for municipal wastewater treatment.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Aug 2;361:127729. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Jialingjiang Road 777, Qingdao 266520, China.

To explore the microbial nitrogen metabolism of a two-stage anoxic/oxic (A/O)-moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), biofilms of the system's chambers were analyzed using metagenomic sequencing. Significant differences in microbial populations were found among the pre-anoxic, oxic and post-anoxic MBBRs (P < 0.01). Nitrospira and Nitrosomonas had positive correlations with ammonia nitrogen (NH-N) removal, and were also predominant in oxic MBBRs. These organisms were the hosts of functional genes for nitrification. The denitrifying genera were predominant in anoxic MBBRs, including Thiobacillus and Sulfurisoma in pre-anoxic MBBRs and Dechloromonas and Thauera in post-anoxic MBBRs. The four genera had positive correlations with total nitrate and nitrite nitrogen (NO-N) removal and were the hosts of functional genes for denitrification. Specific functional biofilms with different microbial nitrogen metabolisms were formed in each chamber of this system. This work provides a microbial theoretical support for the two-stage A/O-MBBR system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127729DOI Listing
August 2022

Efficacy of CPAP duration and adherence for cognitive improvement in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Sleep Breath 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can impair cognition. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a recommended treatment for OSA but its effectiveness on cognitive improvement is uncertain, a finding which may be biased by various durations and adherence to treatment with CPAP. In a meta-analysis assessing high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we estimated whether or not CPAP benefits cognition in patients with OSA.

Methods: PRISMA criteria were followed in the performance of this meta-analysis. The weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of six neuropsychological scores covering eight cognitive domains were used to evaluate the benefit between CPAP and non-CPAP interventions. Subgroups of different therapeutic durations and adherence, which were divided into short-term (< 8 weeks) and long-term (≥ 12 weeks) durations, and poor (nighttime < 4 h/night) and good (nighttime ≥ 4 h/night) adherence were also analyzed.

Results: Among 16 RCTs, 1529 participants with OSA were included. Comparing the CPAP group and the control group for all treatment durations and adherence, a mild improvement for digit span forward which reflected short-term memory was observed (WMD[95%CI] = 0.67[0.03,1.31], p = 0.04). Trail making test-part B, which reflected executive function was improved for participants with OSA who had good adherence to CPAP (WMD[95%CI] =  - 6.24[- 12.60,0.12], p = 0.05). Patients with OSA who received short-term CPAP treatment (WMD[95%CI] =  - 7.20[- 12.57, - 1.82], p = 0.009) had a significant improvement in executive function when compared with controls. There was no statistical difference for all scales between long-term (≥ 12 weeks) CPAP treatment group and control group.

Conclusion: The effectiveness of CPAP on cognitive improvement in patients with OSA is limited, although good adherence to CPAP can mildly benefit executive function with short-term effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-022-02687-yDOI Listing
August 2022

Synergistic effect of self-efficacy and social support on regular participation in leisure-time physical activity among nursing staff.

Int J Nurs Pract 2022 Aug 4:e13087. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Division of Patient Care Services, Nursing Education Department, Lowell General Hospital, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA.

Aims: This exploratory study, using mixed methods research, aimed to (1) examine the associations among self-efficacy, social support and regular leisure-time physical activity of nursing staff, and (2) identify motivators and barriers to leisure-time physical activity.

Background: It is important to engage nursing staff in regular leisure-time physical activity as a countermeasure against high occupational stress and poor health. Limited research has examined nursing staff's participation in leisure-time physical activity and associated factors.

Methods: Nursing staff employed at a community hospital in the northeastern United States were invited to participate in this cross-sectional survey with close- and open-ended questions in March 2016.

Results: A total of 363 nurses and nursing assistants responded, among whom, 59.8% reported regular leisure-time physical activity. Poisson regression models suggested that self-efficacy and social support had an interactive association with increased prevalence of regular leisure-time physical activity.

Conclusion: Self-efficacy and social support have an important synergistic association with regular leisure-time physical activity of nursing staff. Effective interventions intending to facilitate nursing staff's leisure-time physical activity should consider improving their self-efficacy and social support. Qualitative comments suggested that work-out areas in the workplace with release time and organized activity may promote regular leisure-time physical activity of nursing staff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijn.13087DOI Listing
August 2022

A Linarin Derivative Protects against Ischemia-Induced Neuronal Injury in Mice by Promoting Cerebral Blood Flow Recovery via KDELR-Dependent CSPG4 Activation.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 26;2022:6434086. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shenzhen University First Affiliated Hospital, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, Graduate School of Guangzhou Medical University, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518035, China.

The cerebral ischemic microvascular response and collateral circulation compensatory capacity are important for the outcome of ischemic stroke. Here, we sought to evaluate the effect of a linarin derivate 4'-benzylapigenin-7--rutinoside (BLR) on neurological function and cerebral blood flow restoration in ischemic stroke. A mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (30 min) with reperfusion (24 h) was used to mimic ischemic stroke , and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays, and immunofluorescence microscopy were used to assess the protective effects of BLR on infarct volume, neurological function, neuronal apoptosis, and inflammatory damage. Cerebral blood flow was assayed by laser speckle contrast imaging. Double immunostaining of GFAP-collagen IV and brain lucidification were performed to determine the protective effects of BLR on the disruption of brain vasculature. Differential gene expression was assessed by RNA sequencing. Coimmunoprecipitation and western blotting were used to explore the mechanism of BLR-induced neuroprotection. The results of experiments showed that BLR administration after reperfusion onset reduced infarct volume, improved neurological function, and decreased the neural cell apoptosis and inflammatory response in the ischemic brain, which was accompanied by increased cerebral blood flow and reduced detachment of astrocyte endfeet from the capillary basement membrane. The RNA sequencing data showed that BLR promoted the upregulation of extracellular matrix and angiogenesis pathway-related genes; in particular, BLR significantly increased the expression of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) gene, enhanced the membrane location of CSPG4, and promoted its downstream signaling protein expression, which is associated with KDEL receptor (KDELR) activation. In addition, activated KDELR further increased the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases after BLR treatment. Taken together, our data showed that BLR could protect against ischemic brain injury and may serve as a new promising therapeutic candidate drug for ischemic stroke, and that KDELR might act as both a sensor and effector to activate CSPG4 to increase cerebral blood flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6434086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9345725PMC
August 2022

Subversion of GBP-mediated host defense by E3 ligases acquired during Yersinia pestis evolution.

Nat Commun 2022 Aug 4;13(1):4526. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, 100071, Beijing, China.

Plague has caused three worldwide pandemics in history, including the Black Death in medieval ages. Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, has evolved a powerful arsenal to disrupt host immune defenses during evolution from enteropathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis. Here, we find that two functionally redundant E3 ligase of Y. pestis, YspE1 and YspE2, can be delivered via type III secretion injectisome into host cytosol where they ubiquitinate multiple guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) for proteasomal degradation. However, Y. pseudotuberculosis has no such capability due to lacking functional YspE1/2 homologs. YspE1/2-mediated GBP degradations significantly promote the survival of Y. pestis in macrophages and strongly inhibit inflammasome activation. By contrast, Gbp macrophages exhibit much lowered inflammasome activation independent of YspE1/2, accompanied with an enhanced replication of Y. pestis. Accordingly, Gbp mice are more susceptible to Y. pestis. We demonstrate that Y. pestis utilizes E3 ligases to subvert GBP-mediated host defense, which appears to be newly acquired by Y. pestis during evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32218-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9352726PMC
August 2022

The circRNA-miRNA/RBP regulatory network in myocardial infarction.

Front Pharmacol 2022 18;13:941123. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Institute for Translational Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a serious heart disease that causes high mortality rate worldwide. Noncoding RNAs are widely involved in the pathogenesis of MI. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are recently validated to be crucial modulators of MI. CircRNAs are circularized RNAs with covalently closed loops, which make them stable under various conditions. CircRNAs can function by different mechanisms, such as serving as sponges of microRNAs (miRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), regulating mRNA transcription, and encoding peptides. Among these mechanisms, sponging miRNAs/RBPs is the main pathway. In this paper, we systematically review the current knowledge on the properties and action modes of circRNAs, elaborate on the roles of the circRNA-miRNA/RBP network in MI, and explore the value of circRNAs in MI diagnosis and clinical therapies. CircRNAs are widely involved in MI. CircRNAs have many advantages, such as stability, specificity, and wide distribution, which imply that circRNAs have a great potential to act as biomarkers for MI diagnosis and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.941123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9340152PMC
July 2022

Circular RNA circLRCH3 promotes oxaliplatin resistance in gastric cancer through the modulation of the miR-383-5p/FGF7 axis.

Histol Histopathol 2022 Aug 3:18506. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Soochow University Affiliated Taicang Hospital (The First People's Hospital of Taicang), Taicang, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is a common malignant tumor of the digestive system. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a vital role in tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. The current study aimed to explore the possible role and mechanism of circRNA leucine rich repeats and calponin homology domain containing 3 (circLRCH3) in GC chemoresistance.

Methods: The levels of circLRCH3, microRNA-383-5p (miR-383-5p) and fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR or Western blot. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was utilized to evaluate cell survival rate and proliferation ability. Colony formation, transwell and flow cytometry assays were used to assess cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. The expression of multidrug resistance proteins was detected by Western blot. The binding relationship between miR-383-5p and circLRCH3/FGF7 was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay or RNA immunoprecipitation assay. Xenograft assay was conducted to analyze the role of circLRCH3 in OXA resistance in vivo.

Results: CircLRCH3 and FGF7 levels were up-regulated, while miR-383-5p level was reduced in OXA-resistant GC tissues and cells. Depletion of circLRCH3 attenuated the resistance of OXA-resistant cells to OXA. CircLRCH3 silence reduced OXA resistance by regulating miR-383-5p. Besides, miR-383-5p elevated OXA sensitivity of GC cells by repressing FGF7. Moreover, the deletion of circLRCH3 increased OXA sensitivity in vivo.

Conclusions: Knockdown of circLRCH3 alleviated OXA resistance of GC by modulating the miR-383-5p/FGF7 axis, which provided a promising therapeutic target for GC chemoresistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14670/HH-18-506DOI Listing
August 2022

Protective effects of ZIP8 on Toxoplasma gondii-induced acute hepatocyte injury in mice.

Acta Trop 2022 Jul 29;234:106629. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Health Inspection and Quarantine, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China; Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, the Provincial Laboratory of Pathogen Biology of Anhui, and the Key Laboratory of Zoonoses of Anhui, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), as an intracellular protozoan parasite, has the potential to disturb the homeostasis of trace metal elements in host cells. Zinc (Zn) is one of those essential metals that is required for combating infection. Zinc cellular homeostasis is controlled by zinc membrane transporters, including efflux and influx transporters. One of the Zrt-Irt-like protein (ZIP) transporters, ZIP8, facilitates zinc influx into the cytosol. It was recently reported to play significant roles in facilitating Zn uptakes during infection. Here, we investigated the function of ZIP8 in host defense against T. gondii infection in cultured alpha mouse liver 12 (AML12) hepatocytes and mice, with loss of ZIP8 function. Herein, C57BL/6 J female wild-type (WT) and ZIP8-KD mice (Slc39a8 knockdown mice), that were infected with tachyzoites of ToxoDB#9(TgCtwh3), were used as a model of acute toxoplasmosis. AML12 hepatocytes were transfected with lentivirus (LV), with silenced ZIP8 expression. Finally, we observed the function of hepatocytes pretreated with ZnCl before TgCtwh3 infection in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, the levels of zinc ions and ZIP8 protein were upregulated after TgCtwh3 infection. ZIP8 knockdown exacerbated liver damage, further decreased antioxidant enzyme activity, promoted inflammatory mediator expression, and upregulated the rate of apoptosis. ZnCl pretreatment before TgCtwh3 infection improved liver injury, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, restrained the expression of inflammatory mediators, and decreased the rate of apoptosis. The results in vitro were almost the same as those in vivo. This study defines the function of ZIP8-dependent zinc in hepatocyte damage during intracellular pathogen infection. Reagents that regulate ZIP8 activity might be developed as therapeutics to protect the liver function of toxoplasmosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2022.106629DOI Listing
July 2022

Biliary Drainage Reduces Intestinal Barrier Damage in Obstructive Jaundice by Regulating Autophagy.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 15;2022:3301330. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou Huadu District People's Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

This study aims to investigate the mechanism by which biliary drainage reduces intestinal barrier damage in obstructive jaundice (OJ). A biliary drainage model was established in rats with OJ to detect changes in inflammatory factors and diamine oxidase (DAO), a marker of intestinal mucosal damage. The expression of autophagy-related genes in the intestinal mucosa after biliary drainage was detected using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The rats were separated into two groups that received the autophagy activator rapamycin (RAPA) or the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) to further investigate whether biliary drainage could alleviate the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, mitochondrial complex IV damage, and thus barrier damage in rats with OJ. The expression levels of inflammatory factors and the serum DAO content were increased in rats with OJ ( < 0.05). Biliary drainage further induced autophagy, reduced the expression levels of inflammatory factors, decreased the serum DAO content ( < 0.05), and improved intestinal mucosal damage. Administration of RAPA to OJ rats with biliary drainage increased autophagy ( < 0.05); decreased inflammatory factor secretion ( < 0.05), the serum DAO content ( < 0.05), oxidative stress ( < 0.05), and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV damage ( < 0.05); and ameliorated intestinal mucosal injury in OJ rats. When OJ rats were treated with 3-MA, intestinal mucosal injury, intestinal mitochondrial injury, and oxidative stress were all aggravated ( < 0.05). Biliary drainage can reduce the expression of inflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial injury by inducing intestinal mucosal autophagy in OJ rats, thus suggesting its role in the alleviation of intestinal mucosal injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/3301330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9307405PMC
August 2022

Elevated fasting insulin results in snoring: A view emerged from causal evaluation of glycemic traits and snoring.

Eur J Clin Invest 2022 Jul 31:e13852. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Snoring and impaired glucose metabolism are common clinical manifestations and associated. The purpose of our study is to estimate the causal associations between snoring and glycemic traits.

Methods: We compared the weighted mean differences (WMD) for fasting insulin (FINS), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 2 h-glucose post-challenge (2hGlu) levels between snorers and non-snorers by meta-analysis. Then, we obtained summary statistics from published GWAS of snoring and glycemic traits to perform bidirectional two-sample MR. Inverse variance weighting (IVW) method was applied as major estimate while MR Egger, Weighted median and MR-Robust Adjusted Profile Score (RAPS) played a subsidiary role.

Results: Snoring participants had higher FBG (WMD = 0.14 mmol/L, 95%CI = [0.10,0.19]), HbA1c (WMD = 0.10%, 95%CI = [0.07,0.13]), FINS (WMD = 0.92μIU/mL, 95%CI = [0.59,1.26]) and 2hGlu (WMD = 0.30 mmol/L, 95%CI = [0.06,0.55]) levels than non-snorers. Further, elevated FINS levels shown robust causal effect on snoring (IVW: OR = 1.07, 95%CI = [1.02,1.12], p = 2.2 × 10 ), which was consistent by complementary methods of MR Egger (OR = 1.14, 95%CI = [1.01-1.30], p = 4.72 × 10 ), Weighted median (OR = 1.11, 95%CI = [1.07,1.15], p = 1.53 × 10 ) and MR RAPS (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = [1.05,1.10], p = 2.81 × 10 ). Such causal situation was stable after identifying and removing the outliers in sensitivity analysis. However, there was no causality of snoring on increasing FINS levels. Additionally, there were no causal associations between snoring and other three traits of FBG, HbA1c and 2hGlu levels from either direction.

Conclusions: Snorers are subjected to higher FBG, HbA1c, FINS and 2hGlu levels, and elevated FINS levels further provides robust causality on snoring, suggesting that behind common snoring may lie hyperinsulinemia or insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13852DOI Listing
July 2022

Asia Pacific perspectives on the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic: A follow-up survey.

Clin Exp Allergy 2022 Aug;52(8):965-973

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing TongRen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently in its third year. This follow-up survey was commissioned by the Asia Pacific Association of Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology (APAAACI) Task Force on COVID-19 to compare and contrast changes in the epidemiology, clinical profile, therapeutics and public health measures of the pandemic in the Asia Pacific region.

Methods: A questionnaire-based survey comprising 32 questions was electronically sent out to all 15 member countries of APAAACI using Survey Monkey® from 1 December 2021 to 28 February 2022.

Results: Seventeen responses were received from 14/15 (93.4%) member countries and 3 individual members. Mild-to-moderate COVID-19 predominated over severe infection, largely contributed by COVID-19 vaccination programmes in the region. The incidence of vaccine adverse reactions in particular anaphylaxis from messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines was no longer as high as initially anticipated, although perimyocarditis remains a concern in younger males. Novel therapeutics for mild-to-moderate disease including neutralizing antibodies casirivimab/imdevimab (REGEN-COV®) and sotrovimab (Xevudy®), anti-virals Paxlovid® (nirmatrelvir and ritonavir) and Molnupiravir pre-exposure prophylaxis for high-risk persons with Tixagevimab and Cilgavimab (Evusheld) are now also available to complement established therapeutics (e.g., remdesivir, dexamethasone and baricitinib) for severe disease. In the transition to endemicity, public health measures are also evolving away from containment/elimination strategies.

Conclusions: With access to internationally recommended standards of care including public health preventive measures, therapeutics and vaccines among most APAAACI member countries, much progress has been made over the 2-year period in minimizing the morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cea.14191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353384PMC
August 2022

The Role of Amnioreduction in Emergency Cervical Cerclage with Bulging Membranes: A Retrospective Comparative Study.

Front Surg 2022 12;9:928322. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of amnioreduction in patients who underwent emergency cervical cerclage (ECC) with bulging membranes during the second trimester. This retrospective comparative study included 46 singleton pregnant women who had cervical dilation at least 1 cm with bulging membranes beyond the external cervical os and underwent ECC at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between December 2016 and December 2021. Cases were categorized as amnioreduction group ( = 16) and non-amnioreduction group ( = 30) according to whether amnioreduction was performed prior to ECC. The gestational age and cervical dilation at cerclage, operative time, prolongation of pregnancy, and outcomes of pregnancy were compared between the two groups. All 46 patients underwent successful ECC excepted one case with intraoperative rupture of membrane in non-amnioreduction group. In the amnioreduction group, the cervical dilation at cerclage was larger than that in the non-amnioreduction group (4.5 ± 2.2 vs. 2.2 ± 1.2 cm,  < 0.001), and had more patients with cervical dilation ≥4 cm (50.0% vs. 10.0%,  = 0.004). However, the gestational age at cerclage, operative time, prolongation of pregnancy, gestational age at delivery were not significantly different between the two groups (22.9 ± 2.8 vs. 22.9 ± 3.2 weeks, 31.1 ± 9.2 vs. 27.9 ± 11.4 min, 21.3 ± 21.5 vs. 38.7 ± 40.2 days, 25.9 ± 4.5 vs. 28.4 ± 6.1 weeks;  > 0.05). The rates of delivery ≥28 weeks, ≥32 weeks, and live birth were 20.0% vs. 80.0%, 12.5% vs. 26.7%, 56.3% vs. 66.7% ( > 0.05) in amnioreduction group and non-amnioreduction group, respectively. In conclusion, even in cases with larger cervical dilation, the application of amnioreduction with ECC is possible to get the acceptable pregnancy outcomes. These findings suggested that amnioreduction may be a safe and feasible option to be applied before ECC, especially for those with advanced cervical dilation and bulging membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2022.928322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9314748PMC
July 2022

Glutathione Pulse Therapy: Promote Spatiotemporal Delivery of Reduction-Sensitive Nanoparticles at the "Cellular Level" and Synergize PD-1 Blockade Therapy.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2022 Jul 27:e2202744. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Wuya College of Innovation, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, China.

Spatiotemporal delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) at the "cellular level" is critical for nanomedicine, which is expected to deliver as much cytotoxic drug into cancer cells as possible when NPs accumulate in tumors. However, macrophages and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that are present within tumors limit the efficiency of spatiotemporal delivery. To overcome this limitation, glutathion pulse therapy is designed to promote reduction-sensitive Larotaxel (LTX) prodrug NPs to escape the phagocytosis of macrophages and penetrate through the stromal barrier established by CAFs in the murine triple negative breast cancer model. This therapy improves the penetration of NPs in tumor tissues as well as the accumulation of LTX in cancer cells, and remodels the immunosuppressive microenvironment to synergize PD-1 blockade therapy. More importantly, a method is established that can directly observe the biodistribution of NPs between different cells in vivo to accurately quantify the target drugs accumulated in these cells, thereby advancing the spatiotemporal delivery research of NPs at the "cellular level."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202202744DOI Listing
July 2022

Association of Ultraprocessed Food Consumption With Risk of Dementia: A Prospective Cohort.

Neurology 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

From the School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China (H.L., H.Y,, Y.Z,, S.Z., Y.M., Y.H., X.Z., K.N., Y.W.), School of Management, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China (S.L.), and Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden (Y.B.).

Background: There has been a growing body of evidence associating consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with adverse health outcomes including depression, cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality. However, whether UPF are associated with dementia is unknown. The authors investigated the associations between UPF and dementia incidence in UK biobank.

Methods: We included 72,083 participants (55 years or older) who were free from dementia at baseline and provided at least two times 24-h dietary assessments from the UK Biobank study. Follow-up occurred through March 2021. UPF were defined according to the NOVA classification. Incident all-cause dementia comprising Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia was ascertained through electronic linkages to hospital and mortality records. Cox proportional hazards were used to estimate the association between the proportion (%) of UPF in the diet and the subsequent risk of dementia. In addition, substitution analysis was used to estimate the risk of dementia when substituting UPF with an equivalent proportion of unprocessed or minimally processed foods.

Results: During a total of 717,333 person-years of follow-up (median 10.0 years), 518 participants developed dementia, of which 287 developed Alzheimer's disease and 119 developed vascular dementia. In the fully adjusted model, consumption of UPF was associated with higher risk of dementia (hazard ratio (HR) for 10% increase in UPF: 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.37), Alzheimer's disease (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.30) and vascular dementia (HR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.55), respectively. In addition, replacing 10% of UPF weight in diet with an equivalent proportion of unprocessed or minimally processed foods was estimated to be associated with a 19% lower risk of dementia (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89).

Conclusions: In this prospective cohort study, higher consumption of UPF was associated with higher risk of dementia, while substituting unpr2ocessed or minimally processed foods for UPF was associated lower risk of dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000200871DOI Listing
July 2022

Parylene C as an Insulating Polymer for Implantable Neural Interfaces: Acute Electrochemical Impedance Behaviors in Saline and Pig Brain In Vitro.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Jul 27;14(15). Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Laboratory for Neural Interface and Brain Computer Interface, Engineering Research Center of AI & Robotics, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of AI & Robotics, MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institute of AI and Robotics, Academy for Engineering & Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Parylene is used as encapsulating material for medical devices due to its excellent biocompatibility and insulativity. Its performance as the insulating polymer of implantable neural interfaces has been studied in electrolyte solutions and in vivo. Biological tissue in vitro, as a potential environment for characterization and application, is convenient to access in the fabrication lab of polymer and neural electrodes, but there has been little study investigating the behaviors of Parylene in the tissue in vitro. Here, we investigated the electrochemical impedance behaviors of Parylene C polymer coating both in normal saline and in a chilled pig brain in vitro by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements of platinum (Pt) wire neural electrodes. The electrochemical impedance at the representative frequencies is discussed, which helps to construct the equivalent circuit model. Statistical analysis of fitted parameters of the equivalent circuit model showed good reliability of Parylene C as an insulating polymer in both electrolyte models. The electrochemical impedance measured in pig brain in vitro shows marked differences from that of saline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14153033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332801PMC
July 2022

Gut Microbially Produced Indole-3-Propionic Acid Inhibits Atherosclerosis by Promoting Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Its Deficiency Is Causally Related to Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease.

Circ Res 2022 Jul 27:101161CIRCRESAHA122321253. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University (Northern Campus), Guangzhou, China (H.X., Y.Y., W.L.).

Background: Accumulating evidence has shown that disorders in the gut microbiota and derived metabolites affect the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, which and how specific gut microbial metabolites contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis and the clinical relevance of their alterations remain unclear.

Methods: We performed integrated microbiome-metabolome analysis of 30 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to identify CAD-associated microbial metabolites, which were then assessed in an independent population of patients with ASCVD and controls (n=256). We further investigate the effect of CAD-associated microbial metabolites on atherosclerosis and the mechanisms of the action.

Results: Indole-3-propionic acid (IPA), a solely microbially derived tryptophan metabolite, was the most downregulated metabolite in patients with CAD. Circulating IPA was then shown in an independent population to be associated with risk of prevalent ASCVD and correlated with the ASCVD severity. Dietary IPA supplementation alleviates atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE mice. In murine- and human-derived macrophages, administration of IPA promoted cholesterol efflux from macrophages to ApoA-I through an undescribed miR-142-5p/ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) signaling pathway. Further in vivo studies demonstrated that IPA facilitates macrophage reverse cholesterol transport, correlating with the regulation of miR-142-5p/ABCA1 pathway, whereas reduced IPA production contributed to the aberrant overexpression of miR-142-5p in macrophages and accelerated the progression of atherosclerosis. Moreover, the miR-142-5p/ABCA1/reverse cholesterol transport axis in macrophages were dysregulated in patients with CAD, and correlated with the changes in circulating IPA levels.

Conclusions: Our study identify a previously unknown link between specific gut microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolite and ASCVD. The microbial metabolite IPA/miR-142-5p/ABCA1 pathway may represent a promising therapeutic target for ASCVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.122.321253DOI Listing
July 2022

Update on pathomechanisms and treatments in allergic rhinitis.

Allergy 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Allergy, Beijing TongRen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a global health problem with increasing prevalence and association with an enormous medical and socioeconomic burden. New recognition of immune cells such as type 2 innate lymphocytes (ILC2s), T helper (Th2) 2 cells, follicular helper T cells, follicular regulatory T cells, regulatory T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, and epithelial cells in AR pathogenesis has been updated in this review paper. An in-depth understanding of the mechanisms underlying AR will aid the identification of biomarkers associated with disease and ultimately provide valuable parameters critical to guide personalized targeted therapy. As the only etiological treatment option for AR, allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has attracted increasing attention, with evidence for effectiveness of AIT recently demonstrated in several randomized controlled trials and long-term real-life studies. The exploration of biologics as therapeutic options has only involved anti-IgE and anti-type 2 inflammatory agents; however, the cost-effectiveness of these agents remains to be elucidated precisely. In the midst of the currently on-going COVID-19 pandemic, a global life-threatening disease, although some studies have indicated that AR is not a risk factor for severity and mortality of COVID-19, this needs to be confirmed in multi-centre, real-life studies of AR patients from different parts of the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.15454DOI Listing
July 2022

A Dual-Band High-Sensitivity THz Metamaterial Sensor Based on Split Metal Stacking Ring.

Biosensors (Basel) 2022 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2022 Jun 29.

College of Information Science and Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Terahertz (THz)-detection technology has been proven to be an effective and rapid non-destructive detection approach in biomedicine, quality control, and safety inspection, among other applications. However, the sensitivity of such a detection method is limited due to the insufficient power of the terahertz source and the low content, or ambiguous characteristics, of the analytes to be measured. Metamaterial (MM) is an artificial structure in which periodic sub-wavelength units are arranged in a regular manner, resulting in extraordinary characteristics beyond those possessed by natural materials. It is an effective method to improve the ability of terahertz spectroscopy detection by utilizing the metamaterial as a sensor. In this paper, a dual-band, high-sensitivity THz MM sensor based on the split metal stacking ring resonator (SMSRR) is proposed. The appliance exhibited two resonances at 0.97 and 2.88 THz in the range of 0.1 to 3 THz, realizing multi-point matching between the resonance frequency and the characteristic frequency of the analytes, which was able to improve the reliability and detection sensitivity of the system. The proposed sensor has good sensing performance at both resonant frequencies and can achieve highest sensitivities of 304 GHz/RIU and 912 GHz/RIU with an appropriate thickness of the analyte. Meanwhile, the advantage of multi-point matching of the proposed sensor has been validated by distinguishing four edible oils based on their different refractive indices and demonstrating that the characteristics obtained in different resonant frequency bands are consistent. This work serves as a foundation for future research on band extension and multi-point feature matching in terahertz detection, potentially paving the way for the development of high-sensitivity THz MM sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios12070471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9313385PMC
June 2022

Developments of Conventional and Microfluidic Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Characterization of Single Cells.

Biosensors (Basel) 2022 Jun 23;12(7). Epub 2022 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

This article first reviews scientific meanings of single-cell analysis by highlighting two key scientific problems: landscape reconstruction of cellular identities during dynamic immune processes and mechanisms of tumor origin and evolution. Secondly, the article reviews clinical demands of single-cell analysis, which are complete blood counting enabled by optoelectronic flow cytometry and diagnosis of hematologic malignancies enabled by multicolor fluorescent flow cytometry. Then, this article focuses on the developments of optoelectronic flow cytometry for the complete blood counting by comparing conventional counterparts of hematology analyzers (e.g., DxH 900 of Beckman Coulter, XN-1000 of Sysmex, ADVIA 2120i of Siemens, and CELL-DYN Ruby of Abbott) and microfluidic counterparts (e.g., microfluidic impedance and imaging flow cytometry). Future directions of optoelectronic flow cytometry are indicated where intrinsic rather than dependent biophysical parameters of blood cells must be measured, and they can replace blood smears as the gold standard of blood analysis in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios12070443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9313373PMC
June 2022
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