Publications by authors named "Yuan Yao"

798 Publications

In Vivo Biodistribution, Clearance, and Biocompatibility of Multiple Carbon Dots Containing Nanoparticles for Biomedical Application.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Nov 5;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Current research on the use of carbon dots for various biological systems mainly focuses on the single carbon dots, while particles that contain multiple carbon dots have scarcely been investigated. Here, we assessed multiple carbon dots-crosslinked polyethyleneimine nanoparticles ([email protected]) for their in vivo biodistribution, clearance, biocompatibility, and cellular uptake. The in vivo studies demonstrate three unique features of the [email protected] nanoparticles: (1) the nanoparticles possess tumor-targeting ability with steady and prolonged retention time in the tumor region. (2) The nanoparticles show hepatobiliary excretion and are clear from the intestine in feces. (3) The nanoparticles have much better biocompatibility than the polyethyleneimine passivated single carbon dots (PEI-CD). We also found that pegylated [email protected] nanoparticles can be effectively taken up by the cells, which the confocal laser scanning microscope can image under different excitation wavelengths (at 405, 488, and 800 nm). These prior studies provide invaluable information and new opportunities for this new type of intrinsic photoluminescence nanoparticles in carbon dot-based biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13111872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8623098PMC
November 2021

Cross-regional scale pollution of freshwater biofilms unveiled by antibiotic resistance genes.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 22:151835. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; The University Hong Kong Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation (HKU-SIRI), Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

A comprehensive global profile of the distribution of ARGs in freshwater biofilms is lacking. We utilized metagenomic approaches to reveal the diversity, abundance, transferability and hosts of ARGs in 96 freshwater biofilm samples from 38 sampling sites across four countries. The abundant ARGs were associated with bacitracin, multidrug, polymyxin macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) aminoglycoside, β-lactam, chloramphenicol, sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance, consistent with the spectrum of antibiotics commonly used in human or veterinary medicine. As expected, the resistome in freshwater biofilm habitats was significantly influenced by geographical location and human footprint. Based on the co-occurrence pattern revealed by network analysis, mdtC, kdpE, and emrB were proposed as ARG indicators in freshwater biofilms that can be used to evaluate the abundance of 46 other co-occurring ARG subtypes quantitatively. Metagenomic assembly analysis revealed that the identified ARGs were hosted by more than 46 bacterial phyla, including various pathogens, which greatly expands the knowledge of resistome diversity in freshwater biofilms. Our study points to the central roles of biofilms in harbouring ARGs. The results could enhance understanding the distribution of ARGs in freshwater habitats, thereby strengthening the global environmental risk assessment and management of ARGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151835DOI Listing
November 2021

Effects of Continuous Catheterization on Reducing Postoperative Urinary Tract Infection in Cervical Cancer Patients with Double J Stent Placement.

J Healthc Eng 2021 9;2021:9299001. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China.

This study aims at exploring the effect of continuous catheterization on reducing postoperative urinary tract infection in cervical cancer patients with double J tube placement. To be specific, a retrospective analysis was performed on 120 cases of cervical cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic or open radical hysterectomy in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from January to December 2019. They were divided into a persistent group ( = 70) and a short-term group ( = 50) according to indwelling catheter time. The incidence of postoperative complications and the positive rate of bacterial culture in bladder urine and double J tube bacterial culture were compared between the two groups. As a result, it was found that the incidence of postoperative fever and urinary tract infection in the short-term group was significantly higher than that in the persistent group ( < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative hematuria, bladder stimulation, and urinary system injury between the two groups. The positive rate of double J tube bacterial culture in both groups was also proved to be higher than that in bladder culture, and the difference was statistically significant ( < 0.05). And in the short-term group ( < 0.05), the difference in the positive rate of bladder culture between the two groups was not statistically significant. To conclude, we found that continuous catheterization can reduce the incidence of postoperative urinary tract infection in cervical cancer patients with double J tube placement, which might be helpful for the treatment of cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9299001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8594985PMC
November 2021

Mining Temporal Dynamics With Support Vector Machine for Predicting the Neural Fate of Target in Attentional Blink.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 29;15:734660. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Bio-X Laboratory, Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Our brains do not mechanically process incoming stimuli; in contrast, the physiological state of the brain preceding stimuli has substantial consequences for subsequent behavior and neural processing. Although previous studies have acknowledged the importance of this top-down process, it was only recently that a growing interest was gained in exploring the underlying neural mechanism quantitatively. By utilizing the attentional blink (AB) effect, this study is aimed to identify the neural mechanism of brain states preceding T2 and predict its behavioral performance. Interarea phase synchronization and its role in prediction were explored using the phase-locking value and support vector machine classifiers. Our results showed that the phase coupling in alpha and beta frequency bands pre-T1 and during the T1-T2 interval could predict the detection of T2 in lag 3 with high accuracy. These findings indicated the important role of brain state before stimuli appear in predicting the behavioral performance in AB, thus, supporting the attention control theories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2021.734660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8589014PMC
October 2021

The effects of TNF-α/TNFR2 in regulatory T cells on the microenvironment and progression of gastric cancer.

Int J Cancer 2021 Nov 11. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Gastrointestinal Cancer Biology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China.

TNFR2 regulatory T cells preferentially accumulate in the tumor microenvironment, express high levels of immunosuppressive molecules and possess strong suppressive activity. Our study aimed to explore the characteristics and role of TNFR2 Tregs in the microenvironment and progression of gastric cancer via polychromatic immunofluorescence, single-cell RNA sequencing and flow cytometry assays. The TNFR2 Treg infiltration level in the tumor microenvironment increased significantly as gastric cancer progressed and was demonstrated to be a prognostic marker. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed high levels of TNFR2 in tumor-infiltrating Tregs. The TNF-α/TNFR2 signaling pathway was activated, accompanied by the upregulation of costimulatory molecules. Unlike blood Tregs, tumor-infiltrating Tregs existed in activated and effector states. In addition to expressing costimulatory molecules such as TNFR2, 4-1BB, OX40 and GITR, tumor-infiltrating Tregs were also characterized by high expression levels of immune checkpoints such as CTLA-4 and TIGIT and chemokines such as CCR6. In vitro studies showed that the TNF-α/TNFR2 pathway increased the Foxp3 expression in CD4 CD25 T cells and the latent TGF-β production in Tregs as well as enhanced the immunosuppressive function of Tregs. In summary, our study revealed high infiltration levels of TNFR2 Tregs that were in activated and effector states in the tumor microenvironment. The infiltration level of TNFR2 Tregs is a prognostic marker and an independent risk factor for gastric cancer. Activation of the TNF-α/TNFR2 pathway promotes the immunosuppressive phenotype and function of Tregs. Our study provides a new theoretical basis for TNFR2 Tregs as a therapeutic target in gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33873DOI Listing
November 2021

Associations between differences in anemia-related blood cell parameters and short-term exposure to ambient particle pollutants in middle-aged and elderly residents in Beijing, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 9:151520. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

SKL-ESPC and BIC-ESAT, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Anemia is a highly prevalent disease among older populations, with multiple adverse health outcomes, and particles exposure is a potential risk factor for anemia. However, evidence on associations of exposure to particles with small size with anemia-related blood cell parameters levels in the elderly is limited, and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Based on a panel study in Beijing, we found that in 135 elderly participants, mass concentrations of particle with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM), black/elemental carbon (BC/EC, particle size range: 0-2.5 μm), and number concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs, particle size range: 5.6-93.1 nm) and accumulated mode particles (Acc, size range: 93.1-560 nm) were significantly associated with levels of red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The mean ± SD for PM, UFPs, Acc, BC, OC, and EC were 69.7 ± 61.1 μg/m, 12.5 ± 4.3 × 10/cm, 1.6 ± 1.2 × 10/cm, 3.0 ± 2.0 μg/m, 8.7 ± 6.7 μg/m, and 2.1 ± 1.6 μg/m, respectively. Cotinine (higher than 50 ng/mL) is used as an indicator of smoking exposure. The association between MCHC difference and per interquartile range (IQR) increase in average UFPs concentration 14 d before clinical visits was -0.7% (95% CI: -1.1% to -0.3%). Significant associations of UFPs and Acc exposure with MCHC and MCH levels remain robust after adjustment for other pollutants. Furthermore, 25.2% (95% CI: 7.4% to 64.8%) and 29.8% (95% CI: 5.3% to 214.4%) of the difference in MCHC associated with average UFPs and Acc concentrations 14 d before clinical visits were mediated by the level of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α), a biomarker of systemic inflammation. Our findings for the first time provide the evidence that short-term UFPs and Acc exposure contributed to the damage of anemia-related blood cell in the elderly, and systemic inflammation was a potential internal mediator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151520DOI Listing
November 2021

Evaluation of Maize Hybrids for Identifying Resistance to Northern Corn Leaf Blight in Northeast China.

Plant Dis 2021 Nov 4. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Shenyang Agricultural University, 98428, Plant Protection College, Shenyang, Liaoning, China;

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) caused by Setosphaeria turcica is one of the most devastating foliar diseases in maize (Zea mays), resulting in great economic losses worldwide. The mutation of the pathogen exacerbates the occurrence and harmfulness of NCLB in China. Therefore, there is an urgent need for evaluating and cultivating resistant hybrids. Here, the response of 239 maize hybrids approved in Northeast China to NCLB was evaluated during 2019 and 2020. The results showed that 92 (38.49%) and 75 (31.38%) hybrids were rated as moderately resistant and resistant, respectively, which together constituted the predominant resistant categories. We observed that maize hybrids from different certified sources had different levels of resistance to NCLB, whose disease parameter values varied significantly (P <0.05) among 52 main cultivated hybrids. In 2019 and 2020, the average size of the lesions increased from 21.02 to 21.06 cm2, the average lesion density decreased from 1.36 to 1.33 lesions/100 cm2, and more than 30% of the hybrids registered final disease severity scores between 10% and 30%. The area under the disease progress curve of the main cultivated hybrids ranged from 57.96 to 986.86 cm2 in 2019 and from 50.75 to 1028.65 cm2 in 2020. Correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship (P <0.0001) among four disease parameters. Current research has shown that many maize hybrids in Northeast China are resistant to NCLB. This study should assist growers in purposefully selecting resistant commercial hybrids to contribute to the management of NCLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-21-1914-REDOI Listing
November 2021

EATA Reaction Catalyzed by Copper Halides of Mixed Oxidation States and Its Application to Total Synthesis of Scorodonin.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Nov 3. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

SIOC/Zhejiang University, SKLOMC, 345 Lingling Lu, 200032, Shanghai, CHINA.

Naturally occurring conjugated allenynes are of general interest to the scientific community for their potent and various biological activities. The 1,5-H transfer of alka-1,4-diyn-3-yl amines would be one of the most straightforward yet challenging approach to this class of compounds since it may, in principle, form two regioisomeric products involving two different C-C triple bonds. Herein, a catalytic recipe of copper halides with mixed oxidation states, i.e., CuCl/CuBr 2 , has been identified to address the issues of the side reaction of conjugate addition and the selectivity of 1,5-H transfer of the key intermediate, alka-1,4-diyn-3-yl amines, in EATA (Enantioselective Allenation of Terminal Alkynes) reaction involving the conjugated 2-alkynals. This protocol could accommodate a wide range of functional groups providing a series of allenynes with a very high enantioselectivity (up to >99% ee). In addition, the enantioenriched allenynes can be readily transformed into various building blocks and applied to the highly enantioselective total synthesis of linear allenic natural product scorodonin for the first time. Mechanistic studies and DFT calculations elucidated the high regioselectivity for observed 1,5-H transfer within the intermediate of 1,4-diyn-3-yl amines. The calculated energy difference between two of the most stable transition states of 3.4 kcal/mol accounts for a selectivity of over 99:1, which is in perfect agreement with the experimental results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202112427DOI Listing
November 2021

Comprehensive geriatric assessment in newly diagnosed older myeloma patients: a multicentre, prospective, non-interventional study.

Age Ageing 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Hematology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College.

Background: Multiple myeloma is a disease of the older people, whose prognoses are highly heterogeneous. The International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) proposed a geriatric assessment (GA) based on age, functional status and comorbidities to discriminate between fit and frail patients. Given the multidimensional nature of frailty and the relatively recent exploration of frailty in the field of MM, reaching a consensus on the measurement of frailty in MM patients remains challenging.

Objective: We sought to assess the feasibility of performing a comprehensive GA (CGA) in older MM patients in a real-world and multicentre setting and to evaluate their baseline CGA profiles.

Results: We studied 349 older patients with newly diagnosed MM (age range, 65-86 years). Our results showed that a CGA is feasible for older MM patients. Using the IMWG-GA criteria, we identified significantly more frail patients in our cohort comparing to in the IMWG cohort (43% vs 30%, P = 0.002). In the IMWG-GA 'fit' group, risk of malnutrition, depression and cognitive impairment remains. The median follow-up time was 26 months (range 1-38). The median overall survival (OS) was 34.7 months, and the estimated 3-year OS rate was 50%. A high MNA-SF score (MNA-SF ≥ 12), low GDS score (GDS ≤ 5) and high CCI score (CCI ≥ 2) can be used to predict the OS of older patients with newly diagnosed MM. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03122327).

Conclusions: Our study justifies the need for a CGA in older patients with newly diagnosed MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afab211DOI Listing
October 2021

[Comparison and application of calculation methods for water consumption of tree transpiration].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Aug;32(8):2989-2998

College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

In this study, the concept, research value, and research advances of tree transpiration were concisely narrated. From the perspective of measurement and estimation, we summarized the main calculation methods for water consumption of tree transpiration. By comparing the advantages, disadvantages, applicability, limitations, application status, and applicable scale of different methods, we showed that the measurement methods could be applied to the measurement of water consumption at multiple spatial scales, and that the estimation methods were often applied to the measurement of evapotranspiration at large spatial scales. As the measurement method was the basis of the estimation method, it is necessary to carry out reasonable quality control and evaluation of the measured results of measurement methods, in order to provide data basis for the estimation results of the correction estimation method. Whether it was at a particular large spatial scale or at different spatial scales, the combination of measurement methods and estimation methods could improve the accuracy of evapotranspiration measurement. Improving the accuracy of calculating the dispersion of trees at a large spatial scale in complex underlying surface and harsh climate environments would become a research hotspot but may also be a difficulty in the future. With the continuous progress of science and technology, both measurement devices and methods would be improved, and new methods for accurately measuring the water consumption of forest transpiration would be available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202108.008DOI Listing
August 2021

Corrigendum: Proactive Control Mediates the Relationship Between Working Memory and Math Ability in Early Childhood.

Front Psychol 2021 30;12:775003. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Psychology, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.611429.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.775003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8515194PMC
September 2021

I seeds inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma cells by regulating the AGR2-mediated p38 MAPK pathway.

Cancer Lett 2022 Jan 14;524:29-41. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

I seeds can effectively inhibit the growth of a variety of cancer cells. It has been used in the treatment of a variety of cancers, and has achieved certain curative effect. However, to the best of our knowledge, no report has described the effects of I seeds on the biological functions of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and the mechanisms underlying the effects of the seeds on this cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that I seeds could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of CCA cells, as well as promoting apoptosis and blocking the cell cycle in these cells. Moreover, I seeds inhibited the growth of CCA xenografts and promoted the apoptosis of CCA cells in vivo. Furthermore, transcriptome sequencing showed that I seeds could inhibit the growth of CCA by inhibiting the expression of AGR2 and regulating p38 MAPK pathway. Finally, this finding indicated that I seeds can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in CCA cells by inhibiting the expression of AGR2 and DUSP1 and increasing the expression of p-p38 MAPK and p-p53. This study provides a new research direction for studies investigating the mechanisms underlying the effects of I seeds on CCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.10.014DOI Listing
January 2022

6-Gingerol Alleviates Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Cerebral and White Matter Injury and Contributes to Functional Recovery.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:707772. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Shandong Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Key Laboratory of Birth Regulation and Control Technology of National Health Commission of China, Department of Anatomy and Histoembryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one main cause of neonatal death and disability, causing substantial injury to white and gray matter, which can lead to severe neurobehavioral dysfunction, including intellectual disability and dyskinesia. Inflammation, nerve cell death, and white matter injury are important factors in the pathological process of HIE. 6-Gingerol is a ginger extract, which reduces inflammatory response and cell death. However, the role of 6-Gingerol in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) remains unknown. In this study, we constructed a mouse HIBI model and analyzed the protective effect of 6-Gingerol on HIBI by using behavioral tests, histological staining, qPCR and western blot. Here, we found that 6-Gingerol treatment could alleviate HIBI and improve short-term reflex performance, which is closely related to cell death and neuroinflammation. Additionally, 6-Gingerol reduced neuronal apoptosis, pro-inflammatory factor release, as well as microglial activation. Furthermore, 6-Gingerol significantly improved motor disability, which is associated with white matter damage. Thus, our results showed that 6-Gingerol could reduce the loss of myelin sheaths, alleviate cell death of oligodendrocytes, and stimulate the maturation of oligodendrocytes. In terms of mechanism, we found that 6-Gingerol decreased histone H3K27me3 levels, activated AKT pathway and inhibited the activation of ERK and NF-κB pathway at 3 days post-HIBI. Taken together, our data clearly indicate that 6-Gingerol plays a neuroprotective role against HIBI by epigenetic modification and regulation of AKT, ERK, and NF-κB pathways, inhibiting inflammatory responses and reducing cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.707772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492979PMC
September 2021

The Clinical Significance of Mesenteric Lymphocytes in Human Colorectal Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:685577. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: The mesentery is a potential site of residual tumor in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mesenteric immune microenvironment remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the immune landscape of the mesentery, particularly the role of lymphocytes and its association with the clinicopathological characteristics of CRC.

Methods: Flow cytometry was used to detect lymphocytes in the paired mesenteric tissue specimens adjacent to the colorectal tumors and normal mesenteric tissue specimens 10 cm away from the colorectal tumor edge and preoperative peripheral blood samples obtained from patients with CRC who underwent surgery. T-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding was utilized to analyze multiparameter flow cytometry data. Multiplex immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate T cells subsets in the paired mesentery adjacent to the colorectal tumors and normal mesentery. The Fisher's exact test and non-parametric Wilcoxon's matched-pairs tests were used for statistical analysis. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine associations between percentage data and clinical parameters of patients with CRC.

Results: We found that immune cells in the normal mesentery were mainly of lymphoid lineage. Compared with peripheral blood, the normal mesentery showed decreased NK cells and the CD4/CD8 ratio and increased CD3 CD56, memory CD4 T, memory CD8 T, CD4 tissue-resident memory T (TRM), and CD8 TRM cells. Compared with the normal mesentery, the mesentery adjacent to the colorectal tumor showed increased B and regulatory T cells and decreased NK, CD3 CD56, CD4 TRM, and CD8 TRM cells. Moreover, memory CD8 T cells and plasmablasts are negatively correlated with the depth of invasion of CRC. Increased memory CD4 T cells are associated with distant metastasis of CRC and high preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels.

Conclusion: The mesentery shows a specific immune microenvironment, which differs from that observed in peripheral blood. CRC can alter the mesenteric immune response to promote tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.685577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481834PMC
September 2021

Long-time measurements of line-integrated plasma electron density using a two-color homodyne optical fiber interferometer.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Sep;92(9):093506

Department of Plasma Physics and Fusion Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

A two-color homodyne Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) optical fiber interferometer with wavelengths of 1.55 and 1.31 µm was developed for long-time measurement of line-integrated plasma electron density. A novel phase difference demodulation algorithm based on a single 3 × 3 optical coupler was implemented in a two-color optical fiber interferometer scheme for the first time. Our laboratory tests showed that this new optical fiber interferometer could determine the phase shift due to the low-frequency ambient vibration and could maintain high phase resolution measurement. The resolution of the new interferometer was less than 0.04 rad in 1000 s, corresponding to a line-averaged electron density of less than 1.0 × 10 m. Actual plasma discharge experiments performed on KTX-CTI, which is a new compact torus injector (CTI) constructed at the Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX), showed that this interferometer has excellent several-second stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0055570DOI Listing
September 2021

Vascular Imaging in Small Animals Using Clinical Ultrasound Scanners.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2375:191-201

Regenerative Nanomedicine Lab, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

Conventional ultrasound with frequency (2-15 MHz) has been a global diagnostic and therapeutic tool in clinical medicine, and high-frequency ultrasound (>30 MHz) has been a powerful investigative device for preclinical studies such as cardiovascular research. In this chapter, we describe the use of conventional ultrasound with a 2.5-10 MHz transducer as an investigative device for the measurement/detection of blood flow in rabbit model. The chapter will describe the procedures for the preparation of sonographer, imaging locations, and the details of the rabbits used as well as detailed imaging steps for the preoperative, immediately after operation, and postoperative follow-up ultrasound for vascular surgery, using a vascular graft implantation as an example. We also provide useful notes to avoid pitfalls for successful imaging. The overall goal of this chapter is to deliver the steps in using low-cost, non-invasive, and highly versatile clinical ultrasound imaging in preclinical small animal testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1708-3_16DOI Listing
January 2022

Rabbit Surgery Protocol for End-to-End and End-to-Side Vascular Graft Anastomosis.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2375:177-189

Regenerative Nanomedicine Lab, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

Preclinical testing in animal model is a required stage of vascular device development. Among small animal models, rabbits provide vasculature with relative larger caliber for anastomotic implantation of vascular grafts as preclinical testing before conducting large animal studies. Rabbits have similar hemostatic mechanism with human and can accommodate vascular grafts with various diameters at different locations, and thus provide a valid model to assess small-diameter vascular grafts. This chapter will describe the procedures and materials required to conduct survival surgery in rabbit carotid artery models for implantation of small-diameter tubular grafts with an end-to-side and end-to-end anastomotic technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1708-3_15DOI Listing
January 2022

Dynamic life-cycle carbon analysis for fast pyrolysis biofuel produced from pine residues: implications of carbon temporal effects.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Sep 29;14(1):191. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University, 2820 Faucette Drive, Raleigh, NC, 27606, USA.

Background: Woody biomass has been considered as a promising feedstock for biofuel production via thermochemical conversion technologies such as fast pyrolysis. Extensive Life Cycle Assessment studies have been completed to evaluate the carbon intensity of woody biomass-derived biofuels via fast pyrolysis. However, most studies assumed that woody biomass such as forest residues is a carbon-neutral feedstock like annual crops, despite a distinctive timeframe it takes to grow woody biomass. Besides, few studies have investigated the impacts of forest dynamics and the temporal effects of carbon on the overall carbon intensity of woody-derived biofuels. This study addressed such gaps by developing a life-cycle carbon analysis framework integrating dynamic modeling for forest and biorefinery systems with a time-based discounted Global Warming Potential (GWP) method developed in this work. The framework analyzed dynamic carbon and energy flows of a supply chain for biofuel production from pine residues via fast pyrolysis.

Results: The mean carbon intensity of biofuel given by Monte Carlo simulation across three pine growth cases ranges from 40.8-41.2 g COe MJ (static method) to 51.0-65.2 g COe MJ (using the time-based discounted GWP method) when combusting biochar for energy recovery. If biochar is utilized as soil amendment, the carbon intensity reduces to 19.0-19.7 g COe MJ (static method) and 29.6-43.4 g COe MJ in the time-based method. Forest growth and yields (controlled by forest management strategies) show more significant impacts on biofuel carbon intensity when the temporal effect of carbon is taken into consideration. Variation in forest operations and management (e.g., energy consumption of thinning and harvesting), on the other hand, has little impact on the biofuel carbon intensity.

Conclusions: The carbon temporal effect, particularly the time lag of carbon sequestration during pine growth, has direct impacts on the carbon intensity of biofuels produced from pine residues from a stand-level pine growth and management point of view. The carbon implications are also significantly impacted by the assumptions of biochar end-of-life cases and forest management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-021-02027-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8482607PMC
September 2021

Carbon nanotube filter functionalized with MIL-101(Fe) for enhanced flow-through electro-Fenton.

Environ Res 2021 Sep 24;204(Pt B):112117. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai, 201620, China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai, 200092, China. Electronic address:

Herein, an electrochemical carbon nanotubes (CNT) filter modified with MIL-101(Fe) has been designed for the electro-Fenton applications by serving as a functional flow-through electrode. Under an electric field, the hybrid filter enabled the in situ generation of HOvia the two-electron oxygen reduction reaction, which promoted the production of HO by the accelerated Fe/Fe cycling of MIL-101(Fe). It was observed that 93.2 ± 1.2% tetracycline and 69.0 ± 0.8% total organic carbon (TOC) were removed in 2 h under the optimized conditions. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis and radical scavenging experiments revealed that HO predominated the tetracycline degradation. As compared to the batch reactor, the performance of the proposed system was improved by 5.6 times owing to the convection-enhanced mass transport. The plausible working mechanism and degradation pathway were also subsequently proposed. The findings reported in this study provide a promising insight for the environmental remediation by integrating nanotechnology and Fenton chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.112117DOI Listing
September 2021

Investigation of a complete squeeze-film damping model for MEMS devices.

Microsyst Nanoeng 2021 22;7:54. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Ningbo Institute of Northwestern Polytechnical University, Frontiers Science Center for Flexible Electronics (FSCFE), MIIT Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLoFE), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLoFE), Institute of Flexible Electronics (IFE), Northwestern Polytechnical University, 710072 Xi'an, Shaanxi China.

Dynamic performance has long been critical for micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) devices and is significantly affected by damping. Different structural vibration conditions lead to different damping effects, including border and amplitude effects, which represent the effect of gas flowing around a complicated boundary of a moving plate and the effect of a large vibration amplitude, respectively. Conventional models still lack a complete understanding of damping and cannot offer a reasonably good estimate of the damping coefficient for a case with both effects. Expensive efforts have been undertaken to consider these two effects, yet a complete model has remained elusive. This paper investigates the dynamic performance of vibrated structures via theoretical and numerical methods simultaneously, establishing a complete model in consideration of both effects in which the analytical expression is given, and demonstrates a deviation of at least threefold lower than current studies by simulation and experimental results. This complete model is proven to successfully characterize the squeeze-film damping and dynamic performance of oscillators under comprehensive conditions. Moreover, a series of simulation models with different dimensions and vibration statuses are introduced to obtain a quick-calculating factor of the damping coefficient, thus offering a previously unattainable damping design guide for MEMS devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41378-021-00279-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433295PMC
July 2021

Effect of platelet-rich plasma injection combined with individualised comprehensive physical therapy on temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis: A prospective cohort study.

J Oral Rehabil 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Medical College of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection combined with physical therapy for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) has not been studied.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of PRP injection combined with individualised comprehensive physical therapy for the treatment of TMJ-OA.

Methods: This prospective cohort study included 40 patients with TMJ-OA who received PRP injection or PRP injection combined with individualised comprehensive physical therapy. Pain intensity, maximum mouth opening, temporomandibular joint sounds, and the Jaw Functional Limitation Scale (JFLS) scores and imaging findings were compared before treatment and during follow-up.

Results: The pain intensity, maximum mouth opening, and temporomandibular joint sounds of the two groups significantly improved with an increase in treatment time (p < .05). The pain improvement in the combined treatment group was greater than that in the PRP injection group at 3 and 6 months (p < .05). The improvement of mouth opening was better in the combined treatment group, whereas the improvement of joint sounds was better in the PRP injection group. The improvement in JFLS scores in the combined treatment group was greater than that in the PRP injection group at 6 months (p < .05). The imaging improvement rates of the two groups were similar.

Conclusions: Platelet-rich plasma injection can significantly improve pain, mouth opening, abnormal joint sound, and mandibular function in patients with TMJ-OA and has good repair effect on condylar bone defects. PRP injection combined with individualised comprehensive physical therapy can effectively control the medium- and long-term pain of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joor.13261DOI Listing
September 2021

CoMoN-An efficient multifunctional electrocatalyst.

Innovation (N Y) 2021 May 17;2(2):100096. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201, China.

Efficient catalysts are required for both oxidative and reductive reactions of hydrogen and oxygen in sustainable energy conversion devices. However, current precious metal-based electrocatalysts do not perform well across the full range of reactions and reported multifunctional catalysts are all complex hybrids. Here, we show that single-phase porous CoMoN prepared via a facile method is an efficient and reliable electrocatalyst for three essential energy conversion reactions; oxygen evolution reaction (OER), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline solutions. CoMoN presents outstanding OER, ORR, and HER activity with high durability, comparable with the commercial catalysts RuO for OER and Pt/C for ORR and HER. In practical demonstrations, CoMoN gives high specific capacity (850 mA h g at 10 mA cm) as the cathode in a zinc-air battery, and a low potential (1.63 V at 10 mA cm) used in a water-splitting electrolyzer. Availability of Co and Mo d-states appear to result in high ORR and HER performance, while the OER properties result from a cobalt oxide-rich activation surface layer. Our findings will inspire further development of bimetallic nitrides as cost-effective and versatile multifunctional catalysts that will enable scalable usage of electrochemical energy devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xinn.2021.100096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8454690PMC
May 2021

Study on the effect of digital economy on high-quality economic development in China.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(9):e0257365. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Economics and Management, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, China.

At present, the digital economy, which takes information technology and data as the key elements, is booming and has become an important force in promoting the economic growth of various countries. In order to explore the current dynamic trend of China's digital economy development and the impact of the digital economy on the high-quality economic development, this paper measures the digital economic development index of 30 cities in China from the three dimensions of digital infrastructure, digital industry, and digital integration, uses panel data of 30 cities in China from 2015 to 2019 to construct an econometric model for empirical analysis, and verifies the mediating effect of technological progress between the digital economy and high-quality economic development. The results show that (1) The development level of China's digital economy is increasing year by year, that the growth of digital infrastructure is obvious, and that the development of the digital industry is relatively slow. (2) Digital infrastructure, digital industry and digital integration all have significant positive effects on regional total factor productivity, and the influence coefficients are 0.2452, 0.0773 and 0.3458 respectively. (3) Regarding the transmission mechanism from the digital economy to the high-quality economic development, the study finds that the mediating effect of technological progress is 0.1527, of which the mediating effect of technological progress in the eastern, northeast, central and western regions is 1.70%, 9.25%, 28.89% and 21.22% respectively. (4) From the perspective of spatial distribution, the development level of the digital economy in the eastern region is much higher than that in other non-eastern regions, and the development of digital economy in the eastern region has a higher marginal contribution rate to the improvement of the total factor productivity. This study can provide a theoretical basis and practical support for the government to formulate policies for the development of the digital economy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0257365PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8454970PMC
September 2021

Identification of diagnostic and prognostic signatures derived from preoperative blood parameters for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Aug;9(15):1220

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Oral Disease, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: We aimed to develop novel diagnostic and prognostic signatures based on preoperative inflammatory, immunological, and nutritional parameters in blood (PIINPBs) by machine learning algorithms for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

Methods: A total of 486 OSCC patients and 200 age and gender-matched non-OSCC patients who were diagnosed and treated at our institution for noninfectious, nontumor diseases were retrospectively enrolled and divided into training and validation cohorts. Based on PIINPB, 6 machine learning classifiers including random forest, support vector machine, extreme gradient boosting, naive Bayes, neural network, and logistic regression were used to derive diagnostic models, while least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analyses were employed to construct prognostic signatures. A novel prognostic nomogram integrating a PIINPB-derived prognostic signature and selected clinicopathological parameters was further developed. Performances of these signatures were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, calibrating curves, and decision tree.

Results: Diagnostic models developed by machine learning algorithms from 13 PIINPBs, which included counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (N), monocytes (M), lymphocytes (L), platelets (P), albumin (ALB), and hemoglobin (Hb), along with albumin-globulin ratio (A/G), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), displayed satisfactory discriminating capabilities in patients with or without OSCC, and among OSCC patients with diverse pathological grades and clinical stages. A prognostic signature based on 6 survival-associated PIINPBs (L, P, PNI, LMR, SII, A/G) served as an independent factor to predict patient survival. Moreover, a novel nomogram integrating prognostic signature and tumor size, pathological grade, cervical node metastasis, and clinical stage significantly enhanced prognostic power [3-year area under the curve (AUC) =0.825; 5-year AUC =0.845].

Conclusions: Our results generated novel and robust diagnostic and prognostic signatures derived from PIINPBs by machine learning for OSCC. Performance of these signatures suggest the potential for PIINPBs to supplement current regimens and provide better patient stratification and prognostic prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421978PMC
August 2021

A mechanism for Rad53 to couple leading- and lagging-strand DNA synthesis under replication stress in budding yeast.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(38)

Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032;

In response to DNA replication stress, DNA replication checkpoint kinase Mec1 phosphorylates Mrc1, which in turn activates Rad53 to prevent the generation of deleterious single-stranded DNA, a process that remains poorly understood. We previously reported that lagging-strand DNA synthesis proceeds farther than leading strand in mutant cells defective in replication checkpoint under replication stress, resulting in the exposure of long stretches of the leading-strand templates. Here, we show that asymmetric DNA synthesis is also observed in and cells defective in replication checkpoint but, surprisingly, not in cells in which both DNA replication and checkpoint functions of Mrc1 are missing. Furthermore, depletion of either Mrc1 or its partner, Tof1, suppresses the asymmetric DNA synthesis in mutant cells. Thus, the DNA replication checkpoint pathway couples leading- and lagging-strand DNA synthesis by attenuating the replication function of Mrc1-Tof1 under replication stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2109334118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8463864PMC
September 2021

Peroxymonosulfate activation by FeO-MnO/CNT nanohybrid electroactive filter towards ultrafast micropollutants decontamination: Performance and mechanism.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Feb 2;423(Pt A):127111. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Textile Pollution Controlling Engineering Center of Ministry of Environmental Protection, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Electrocatalytic peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation is a promising advanced oxidation process for the degradation of micropollutants. Herein, we developed an electroactive carbon nanotube (CNT) filter functionalized with FeO-MnO hybrid (FeO-MnO/CNT) to activate PMS towards ultrafast degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). SMX was completely degraded via a single-pass through the nanohybrid filter (τ < 2 s). The ultrafast degradation kinetics were maintained across a wide pH range (from 3.0 to 8.0), in complicated matrices (e.g., tap water, lake water, WWTP effluent and pharmaceutical wastewater), and for the degradation of various persistent micropollutants. Compared with a conventional batch reactor, the flow-through operation provides an 9.2-fold higher SMX degradation kinetics by virtue of the convection-enhanced mass transport (1.47 vs. 0.16 min). The efficient redox cycle of Fe/Fe and Mn/Mn facilitate the PMS activation to generate SO under electric field. Meanwhile, the ketonic groups on the CNT provide active sites for the generation of O. Both experimental and theoretical results revealed the superior activity of nanohybrid filter associated with the synergistic effects among Fe, Mn, CNT and electric field. Therefore, the electrocatalytic filter based PMS activation system provides a green strategy for the remediation of micropollutants in a sustainable manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127111DOI Listing
February 2022

Kallikrein 5 Inhibition by the Lympho-Epithelial Kazal-Type Related Inhibitor Hinders Matriptase-Dependent Carcinogenesis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 31;13(17). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Pathogenic Bioagents, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirao Preto 14049-900, SP, Brazil.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma remains challenging to treat with no improvement in survival rates over the past 50 years. Thus, there is an urgent need to discover more reliable therapeutic targets and biomarkers for HNSCC. Matriptase, a type-II transmembrane serine protease, induces malignant transformation in epithelial stem cells through proteolytic activation of pro-HGF and PAR-2, triggering PI3K-AKT-mTOR and NFKB signaling. The serine protease inhibitor lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI) inhibits the matriptase-driven proteolytic pathway, directly blocking kallikreins in epithelial differentiation. Hence, we hypothesized LEKTI could inhibit matriptase-dependent squamous cell carcinogenesis, thus implicating kallikreins in this process. Double-transgenic mice with simultaneous expression of matriptase and LEKTI under the keratin-5 promoter showed a prominent rescue of K5-Matriptase premalignant phenotype. Notably, in DMBA-induced SCC, heterotopic co-expression of LEKTI and matriptase delayed matriptase-driven tumor incidence and progression. Co-expression of LEKTI reverted altered Kallikrein-5 expression observed in the skin of K5-Matriptase mice, indicating that matriptase-dependent proteolytic pathway inhibition by LEKTI occurs through kallikreins. Moreover, we showed that Kallikrein-5 is necessary for PAR-2-mediated IL-8 release, YAP1-TAZ/TEAD activation, and matriptase-mediated oral squamous cell carcinoma migration. Collectively, our data identify a third signaling pathway for matriptase-dependent carcinogenesis in vivo. These findings are critical for the identification of more reliable biomarkers and effective therapeutic targets in Head and Neck cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8431081PMC
August 2021

An unparalleled H-bonding and ion-bonding crosslinked waterborne polyurethane with super toughness and unprecedented fracture energy.

Mater Horiz 2021 Oct 4;8(10):2742-2749. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China.

Self-healing polyurethane elastomers have been extensively studied; however, developing an eco-friendly self-healable waterborne polyurethane (WPU) with exceptional mechanical properties remains a great challenge. Herein, we report healable, and highly tough WPU elastomers with unprecedented crack tolerance by introducing the concerted interactions of strong multiple H-bonds and ionic bonds in the network. The WPU elastomer demonstrated that the microphase separation structure contributes to an ultrahigh tensile strength (≈58 MPa), super toughness (≈456 MJ m), and unprecedented record fracture energy (≈320 kJ m). Due to the dynamic reconstruction of reversible H-bonds and ionic bonds, the WPU elastomer demonstrates a robust self-healability at 50 °C, allowing complete recovery of mechanical properties. Importantly, the thermoplasticity and reprocessability of WPUs enable direct 3D printing of different objects and electrospinning of tubes, showing great potential for expanding their application scope in soft robots and artificial stents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1mh01217gDOI Listing
October 2021
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