Publications by authors named "Yuan Yang"

1,371 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Short-term and long-term safety and efficacy of tenofovir alafenamide, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and entecavir treatment of acute-on-chronic liver failure associated with hepatitis B.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 14;21(1):567. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Teaching Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Yanta Road (w), No. 277, Xi'an City, 710061, Shaanxi Province, China.

Background & Aims: There is limited evidence on the efficacy and safety of nucleos(t) ide analogues (NAs) in the treatment of HBV-ACLF. Our objective was to evaluate the outcomes among TAF, TDF and ETV, three first-line antivirals against chronic hepatitis B, in patients with HBV-ACLF.

Methods: Patients with HBV-related ACLF were recruited and received daily TAF (25 mg/d), TDF (300 mg/d) and ETV (0.5 mg/d). They were prospectively followed-up. The primary endpoint was overall survival at week 12 and week 48, the secondary endpoints were virological response and biochemical response.

Results: Forty gender and age matched eligible subjects were recruited and divided into three groups: TAF group, TDF group and ETV group. By week 48, 8 (80%) patients in TAF group, 6 (60%) patients in TDF group and 17 (85%) patients in ETV group survived without liver transplantation (P = 0.251). After 4 weeks of NAs treatment, all three groups showed paralleling reduction of HBV DNA levels. All three groups presented similar biochemical responses at week 4, patients treated with TAF showed a priority in total bilirubin reduction, albumin and cholesterol maintenance. Additionally, although there was no significant difference in changes of serum urea, serum creatinine, serum cystatin C and estimated GFR among the three groups by treatment week 4, TDF showed unfavorable renal safety even in short -term treatment. The treatment using NAs was well-tolerated and there was no serious drug-related adverse event reported.

Conclusions: TAF, TDF and ETV are of similar efficacy and safety in short-term and long-term treatment of HBV-ACLF.

Trial Registration: This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03640728 (05/02/2019).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06237-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201741PMC
June 2021

Genetic control of Fusarium head blight resistance in two Yangmai 158-derived recombinant inbred line populations.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Crop Genomics and Bioinformatics Center and National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu, China.

Key Message: Stably expressed type I and type II resistance QTL were identified using two Yangmai 158-derived RIL populations, and plant-height and flowering-time QTL intervals detected did not contribute to the FHB resistance variations. Yangmai 158 (Y158) is an elite wheat cultivar widely grown in China with stable Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance. To enrich the genetic basis underlying FHB resistance, QTL mapping was conducted using two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses of Y158 with susceptible lines Annong 8455 and Veery. Survey with makers linked to Fhb1, Fhb2, Fhb4 and Fhb5 in resistance cultivar Wangshuibai indicated that both Y158 and the susceptible lines do not contain these QTL. The RIL populations were surveyed with 65 PCR markers and 55 K chip, which generated 23,159 valid marker data, to produce genetic maps for whole genome scanning of quantitative trait loci (QTL). A total of six QTL, all with the Y158 alleles for better resistance and including one stably expressed QTL for type I resistance (Qfhi.nau-2D) and one stably expressed QTL for type II resistance (Qfhs.nau-2A), were identified. Moreover, taking advantage of the great genetic variations in plant height and flowering time, QTL conditioning these two traits were determined. Of six plant-height QTL and three flowering-time QTL intervals detected, none were associated with FHB resistance. The FHB resistance QTL in Y158 were shown to be useful alternatives in FHB resistance breeding programs. The SNP markers flanking Qfhs.nau-2A and Qfhi.nau-2D have been converted to breeder-friendly PCR-based markers to facilitate their applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03876-1DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Injections for Elderly Patients With pneumonia-A Bayesian Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Control Trials.

Front Pharmacol 2021 21;12:610745. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Pneumonia is a prevalent and complicated disease among adults, elderly people in particular, and the debate on the optimal Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) is ongoing. Our objective is to investigate the comparative effectiveness of various CHIs strategies for elderly patients with pneumonia. A comprehensive search strategy was executed to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by browsing through several databases from their inception to first, Feb 2020; All of the direct and indirect evidence included was rated by Network meta-analysis under a Bayesian framework. We ultimately identified 34 eligible randomized controlled trials that involved 3,111 elderly participants and investigated 4 CHIs combined with Western medicine (WM) (Xiyanping injection [XYP]+WM, Yanhuning injection [YHN]+WM, Tanreqing injection [TRQ]+WM, Reduning injection [RDN]+WM), contributing 34 direct comparisons between CHIs. Seen from the outcome of Clinical effective rate and time for defervescence, patients taking medicine added with CHIs [Clinical effective rate, XYP + WM(Odd ratio (OR): 0.74, 95%Credible intervals (CrIs):0.55-0.98), YHN + WM(OR: 0.66, 95%CrI: 0.45-0.95), TRQ + WM(OR: 0.65, 95%CrI: 0.50-0.83), RDN + WM(OR: 0.60, 95%CrI: 0.40-0.89); Time for defervescence, YHN + WM(Mean difference (MD): -2.11, 95%CrI: -3.26 to -0.98), XYP + WM(MD: -2.06, 95%CrI: -3.08 to -1.09), RDN + WM(MD: -1.97, 95%CrI: -3.61 to -0.35), TRQ + WM(MD: -1.69, 95%CrI: -2.27 to -1.04)] showed statistically better effect compared with participants in the Control group (CG) who only took WM. Meanwhile, based on the time for disappearance of cough, 3 out of 4 CHIs [TRQ + WM(MD: -2.56, 95%CrI: -3.38 to -1.54), YHN + WM(MD: -2.36, 95%CrI: -3.86 to -1.00) and XYP + WM(MD: -2.21, 95%CrI: -3.72 to -1.10)] strategies indicated improvement of clinical symptoms. Only XYP + WM(MD -1.78, 95%CrI: -3.29 to -0.27) and TRQ + WM (MD: -1.71, 95%CrI: -2.71 to -0.73) could significantly shorten the time for disappearance of pulmonary rales. According to the statistical effect size (The surface under the cumulative ranking), we found that XYP + WM was presumably to be the preferable treatment for treating elderly patients with pneumonia compared with WM alone in terms of clinical effective rate. Our findings were based on very limited evidence and thus should be interpreted with caution. The application of the findings requires further research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.610745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176116PMC
May 2021

Semi-Automated Glycoproteomic Data Analysis of LC-MS Data Using GlycopeptideGraphMS in Process Development of Monoclonal Antibody Biologics.

Front Chem 2021 18;9:661406. Epub 2021 May 18.

Bioprocessing Technology Institute, Agency for Science Technology and Research (ASTAR), Queenstown, Singapore.

The glycosylation of antibody-based proteins is vital in translating the right therapeutic outcomes of the patient. Despite this, significant infrastructure is required to analyse biologic glycosylation in various unit operations from biologic development, process development to QA/QC in bio-manufacturing. Simplified mass spectrometers offer ease of operation as well as the portability of method development across various operations. Furthermore, data analysis would need to have a degree of automation to relay information back to the manufacturing line. We set out to investigate the applicability of using a semiautomated data analysis workflow to investigate glycosylation in different biologic development test cases. The workflow involves data acquisition using a BioAccord LC-MS system with a data-analytical tool called GlycopeptideGraphMS along with Progenesis QI to semi-automate glycoproteomic characterisation and quantitation with a LC-MS1 dataset of a glycopeptides and peptides. Data analysis which involved identifying glycopeptides and their quantitative glycosylation was performed in 30 min with minimal user intervention. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the antibody and biologic glycopeptide assignment in various scenarios akin to biologic development activities, we demonstrate the effectiveness in the filtering of IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses from human serum IgG as well as innovator drugs trastuzumab and adalimumab and glycoforms by virtue of their glycosylation pattern. We demonstrate a high correlation between conventional released glycan analysis with fluorescent tagging and glycopeptide assignment derived from GraphMS. GraphMS workflow was then used to monitor the glycoform of our in-house trastuzumab biosimilar produced in fed-batch cultures. The demonstrated utility of GraphMS to semi-automate quantitation and qualitative identification of glycopeptides proves to be an easy data analysis method that can complement emerging multi-attribute monitoring (MAM) analytical toolsets in bioprocess environments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.661406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167043PMC
May 2021

Aging and CNS myeloid cell depletion attenuate breast cancer brain metastasis.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Women's Malignancies Branch, National Cancer Institute

Purpose: Breast cancer diagnosed in young patients is often aggressive. Since primary breast tumors from young and older patients have similar mutational patterns, we hypothesized that the young host microenvironment promotes more aggressive metastatic disease.

Experimental Design: Triple-negative or luminal B breast cancer cell lines were injected into old and young mice side-by-side to quantify lung, liver and brain metastases. Old and young mouse brains, metastatic and naïve, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Immune populations were depleted using antibodies or a colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) inhibitor, and brain metastasis assays were conducted. Effects on myeloid populations, astrogliosis and the neuroinflammatory response was determined.

Results: Brain metastases were 2-4 fold higher in young as compared to old mouse hosts in four models of triple negative or luminal B breast cancer; no age effect was observed on liver or lung metastases. Aged brains, naïve or metastatic, contained fewer resident CNS myeloid cells. Use of a CSF-1R inhibitor to deplete myeloid cells, including both microglia and infiltrating macrophages, preferentially reduced brain metastasis burden in young mice. Downstream effects of CSF-1R inhibition in young mice resembled that of an aged brain in terms of myeloid numbers, induction of astrogliosis and the Semaphorin-3a secretion within the neuroinflammatory response.

Conclusions: Host microenvironmental factors contribute to the aggressiveness of triple-negative and luminal B breast cancer brain metastasis. CSF-1R inhibitors may hold promise for young brain metastasis patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-1549DOI Listing
June 2021

A review on percarbonate-based advanced oxidation processes for remediation of organic compounds in water.

Environ Res 2021 May 31;200:111371. Epub 2021 May 31.

Hunan International Scientific and Technological Cooperation Base of Agricultural Typical Pollution Remediation and Wetland Protection, College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410028, China. Electronic address:

Sodium percarbonate (SPC) is considered a potential alternative to liquid hydrogen peroxide (HO) in organic compounds contaminated water/soil remediation due to its regularly, transportable, economical, and eco-friendly features. The solid state of SPC makes it more suitable to remediate actual soil and water with a milder HO release rate. Apart from its good oxidative capacity, alkaline SPC can simultaneously remediate acidized solution and soil to the neutral condition. Conventionally, percarbonate-based advanced oxidation process (P-AOPs) system proceed through the catalysis under ultraviolet ray, transition metal ions (i.e., Fe, Fe, and V), and nanoscale zero-valent metals (iron, zinc, copper, and nickel). The hydroxyl radical (OH), superoxide radical (O), and carbonate radical anion (CO) generated from sodium percarbonate could attack the organic pollutant structure. In this review, we present the advances of P-AOPs in heterogeneous and homogeneous catalytic processes through a wide range of activation methods. This review aims to give an overview of the catalysis and application of P-AOPs for emerging contaminants degradation and act as a guideline of the field advances. Various activation methods of percarbonate are summarized, and the influence factors in the solution matrix such as pH, anions, and cations are thoroughly discussed. Moreover, this review helps to clarify the advantages and shortcomings of P-AOPs in current scientific progress and guide the future practical direction of P-AOPs in sustainable carbon catalysis and green chemistry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111371DOI Listing
May 2021

Increased Plasma Level of 24S-Hydroxycholesterol and Polymorphism of CYP46A1 SNP (rs754203) Are Associated With Mild Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 13;13:619916. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Abnormal cholesterol metabolism is common in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and causes dementia. Cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) converts cholesterol into 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24-OHC) and maintains cholesterol homeostasis in the brain.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the roles of 24-OHC and the CYP46A1 (rs754203) polymorphism in patients with T2DM and mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Methods: A total of 193 Chinese patients with T2DM were recruited into two groups according to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Demographic and clinical data were collected, and neuropsychological tests were conducted. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Seqnome method were used to detect the concentration of plasma 24-OHC and the CYP46A1 rs754203 genotype, respectively.

Results: Compared with 118 healthy cognition participants, patients with MCI ( = 75) displayed a higher plasma level of 24-OHC and total cholesterol concentration (all = 0.031), while no correlation was found between them. In the overall diabetes population, the plasma level of 24-OHC was negatively correlated with MoCA ( = -0.150, = 0.039), and it was further proved to be an independent risk factor of diabetic MCI (OR = 1.848, = 0.001). Additionally, patients with MCI and the CC genotype of CYP46A1 rs754203 showed the highest plasma level of 24-OHC even though the difference was not statistically significant, and they obtained low scores in both the verbal fluency test and Stroop color and word test A ( = 0.008 and = 0.029, respectively).

Conclusion: In patients with T2DM, high plasma level of 24-OHC and the CC genotype carrier of CYP46A1 rs754203 may portend a high risk of developing early cognitive impairment, including attention and executive deficits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.619916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155290PMC
May 2021

Efficacy of calcium dobesilate in treating Chinese patients with mild-to-moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (CALM-DR): protocol for a single-blind, multicentre, 24-armed cluster-randomised, controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2021 05 28;11(5):e045256. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Endocrinology, Zhongda Hospital, Institute of Diabetes, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China

Introduction: Calcium dobesilate (CaD) has been used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) due to its potential in protecting against retinal vascular damage. However, there is limited evidence exploring its efficacy in combating DR progression. This study is aimed at evaluating whether CaD could prevent DR progression into an advanced stage among Chinese patients with mild-to-moderate non-proliferative DR (NPDR).

Methods And Analysis: This study is a single-blind, multicentre, cluster-randomised, controlled superiority trial. A total of 1272 patients with mild-to-moderate NPDR will be enrolled and randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio into the control group (conventional treatment group) and the intervention group (conventional treatment plus CaD (500 mg three times per day) for 12 months). Patients will be followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after randomisation and receiving treatments, with the severity of DR assessed by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale. The primary endpoint is the progression of DR during follow-up, which is defined as an increase of two or more steps in the ETDRS scale. The secondary endpoints include the concomitant changes in visual acuity, presence, number, location and type of retinal lesions, and retinal blood vessel diameter as well as the arteriovenous ratio at different visits.

Ethics And Dissemination: Each local ethics committee (first Vote: Ethical Review Committees of Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University (2019ZDSYLL132-P01)) has approved the study. The results will be published in high impact peer-reviewed scientific journals aimed at the general reader.

Trial Registration Numbers: NCT04283162.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166613PMC
May 2021

Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced highly stretchable thermal-sensitive hydrogel with ultra-high drug loading.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Aug 27;266:118122. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Hydrogels often have poor mechanical properties which limit their application in load-bearing tissues such as muscle and cartilage. In this work, a near-infrared light-triggered stretchable thermal-sensitive hydrogel with ultra-high drug loading was developed by a combination of natural polymeric nanocrystals, a network of synthetic thermo-responsive polymer, and magnetic FeO nanoparticles. The hydrogels comprise cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) decorated with FeO nanoparticles (FeO/CNCs) dispersed homogeneously in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) networks. The composite hydrogels exhibit an extensibility of 2200%. Drug loading of vancomycin (VCM) reached a high value of 10.18 g g due to the dispersion of FeO/CNCs and the interactions between the CNCs and the PNIPAm network. Importantly, the hydrogels demonstrated a thermo-response triggered by NIR, with the temperature increasing from 26 to 41 °C within 60 s. The hydrogels have high biocompatibility evidenced by cell proliferation tests, illustrating that these hydrogels are promising as dressings for wound closure, and wound healing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118122DOI Listing
August 2021

A Scenario-Based Evaluation of COVID-19-Related Essential Clinical Resource Demands in China.

Engineering (Beijing) 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Population Medicine and Public Health, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences/Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global crisis, and medical systems in many countries are overwhelmed with supply shortages and increasing demands to treat patients due to the surge in cases and severe illnesses. This study aimed to assess COVID-19-related essential clinical resource demands in China, based on different scenarios involving COVID-19 outbreaks and interventions. We used a susceptible-exposed-infectious-hospitalized/isolated-removed (SEIHR) transmission dynamics model to estimate the number of COVID-19 infections and hospitalizations with corresponding essential healthcare resources needed. We found that, under strict non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) or mass vaccination of the population, China would be able to contain community transmission and local outbreaks rapidly. However, under scenarios involving a low intensity of implemented NPIs and a small proportion of the population vaccinated, the use of a peacetime-wartime transition model would be needed for medical source stockpiles and preparations to ensure a normal functioning healthcare system. The implementation of COVID-19 vaccines and NPIs in different periods can influence the transmission of COVID-19 and subsequently affect the demand for clinical diagnosis and treatment. An increased proportion of asymptomatic infections in simulations will not reduce the demand for medical resources; however, attention must be paid to the increasing difficulty in containing COVID-19 transmission due to asymptomatic cases. This study provides evidence for emergency preparations and the adjustment of prevention and control strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also provides guidance for essential healthcare investment and resource allocation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2021.03.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137347PMC
May 2021

Effects of two blood purification treatments combined with immunosuppressants on GM-CSF and CXCL16 levels in patients with lupus nephritis.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(4):3536-3542. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Nephrology, Tongxiang First People's Hospital Tongxiang, Zhejiang, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of two different blood purification treatments combined with immunosuppressants on patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and their effects affecting granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and CXC chemokine ligand-16 (CXCL16) levels.

Methods: Ninety patients with LN admitted to our hospital were enrolled and randomly assigned into groups A and B. Group A was treated with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) combined with conventional medical treatment (CMT, n = 40, including 23 females and 17 males), whereas group B was treated with intermittent hemodialysis combined with conventional medical treatment (n = 50, including 35 females and 15 males). Both groups received prednisone and cyclophosphamide.

Results: GM-CSF and CXCL16 levels in the two groups were significantly reduced after treatment ( < 0.05); and GM-CSF level in group A was significantly lower than that in group B ( < 0.05, -1.261 to -0.8395), and CXCL16 level in group A was significantly lower than that in group B ( < 0.05, -0.5745 to -0.4355). There was no significant difference in general data between the two groups ( > 0.05). After treatment, the SLEDAI scores were significantly decreased in both groups, and were significantly lower in group A than in group B ( < 0.05, -1.816 to -0.1241).

Conclusion: CVVH combined with conventional medical treatment is more effective than intermittent hemodialysis combined with conventional medical treatment, and is easier to remove GM-CSF and CXCL16.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129358PMC
April 2021

High Prevalence of Preexisting HBV Polymerase Mutations in Pregnant Women Does Not Limit the Antiviral Therapy Efficacy.

Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2021 19;2021:6653546. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Clinical Research Center, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China.

Background: HBV-resistant mutants in treatment-naïve patients may lead to antiviral treatment failure. It is not clear if HBV mutants are present in pregnant women and about the influence of the preexisting mutants on the short-term antiviral therapy during pregnancy.

Method: We enrolled 73 pregnant women with high HBV DNA load and telbivudine (TBV) treatment during pregnancy in this retrospective study. The UDPS was used to detect the HBV mutations before and after the TBV treatment.

Results: Before TBV treatment, the complexity of HBV quasispecies of all subjects was 0.40 ± 0.09; 41.1% (30/73) and 53.4% (39/73) subjects had rtM204I/V and rtN236 T/A detected, respectively; and 9.6% (7/73) patients had more than 20% frequency mutation of rtM204I/V, which was also similar with high frequency of rtN236 T/A mutation (41.1% vs. 53.4%, =0.136; frequencies >20%: 9.6% vs. 5.5%, =0.347). After TBV treatment, 71.2% (52/73) subjects had HBV DNA load ≥ 10 IU/mL at delivery. Among them, 75.0% of patients with rtM204I positive had HBV DNA load ≥10 IU/mL at delivery, which was comparable with the subjects without rtM204I (75.0% vs. 70.8%, =0.710). No changes were found in the frequencies and the complexity of HBV quasispecies of rtM204I mutation after the TVB treatment.

Conclusion: The prevalence of preexisting drug-resistant mutations among pregnant women was high using UPDS. However, the preexisting HBV mutation had limited influence on the efficacy of short-term TBV treatment, and TBV treatment during late pregnancy seemed not to increase the risk of emerging HBV-resistant mutants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6653546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079218PMC
April 2021

Significant contribution of spring northwest transport to volatile organic compounds in Beijing.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jun 18;104:169-181. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

High values of ozone (O) occur frequently in the dry spring season; thus, understanding the evolution characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in spring is of great significance for preventing O pollution. In this study, a total of 101 VOCs from April 16 to May 21, 2019, were quantified using an online gas chromatography mass spectrometer/flame ionization detector (GCMS/FID). The results indicated that the observed concentration of total VOCs (TVOCs) was 30.4 ± 17.0 ppbv, and it was dominated by alkanes (44.3%), followed by oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) (17.4%), halocarbons (12.7%), aromatics (9.5%), alkenes (8.2%), acetylene (5.3%) and carbon disulfide (2.5%). The average mixing ratio of VOCs showed obvious diurnal variation (high at night, low during daytime). We conducted a source apportionment study based on 32 major VOCs using positive matrix factorization (PMF), and coal + biomass burning (25.2%), diesel exhaust (16.0%), gasoline exhaust + evaporation (17.4%), secondary + long-lived species (16.7%), biogenic sources (4.3%), industrial emissions (9.3%) and solvent use (11.2%) were identified as major sources of VOCs. In addition to local emissions, most of the atmospheric VOCs were derived from long-distance air masses (65.7%), and the average mixing ratio of VOCs in the northwest direction was 29.4 ppbv. Combined with the results of the potential source contribution function (PSCF) indicate that research should focus on the local emissions of combustion, transportation sources and solvents usage to control atmospheric VOCs. Additionally, transmission of the northwest air mass is an important component that cannot be ignored during spring in Beijing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.11.023DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparisons Between Frontline Therapy and a Combination of Eltrombopag Plus Immunosuppression Therapy and Human Leukocyte Antigen-Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Severe Aplastic Anemia: A Systematic Review.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:614965. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Hematology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

This study aimed at comparing the efficacy and safety of eltrombopag (EPAG) plus immunosuppressive therapies (ISTs) and haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) in the frontline treatment for severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients. Four electronic databases and Clinicaltrials.gov were comprehensively searched from January 2010 to August 2020. Studies that aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of EPAG+IST or haplo-HSCT in SAA patients were included. One-/2-year overall survival (OS), complete response (CR), and overall response rates (ORRs) were indirectly compared between EPAG+IST and haplo-HSCT. A total of 447 patients involved in 10 cohort studies were found to be eligible for this study. A narrative synthesis was performed due to lack of data directly comparing the outcome of EPAG+IST and haplo-HSCT. Consistent with the analysis results in the whole population, subgroup analyses in the age-matched population showed that there was no significant difference in ORR between EPAG+IST and haplo-HSCT groups. However, the CR rate was lower in the EPAG+IST group when compared with the haplo-HSCT group. The incidence rate of clonal evolution/SAA relapse ranged at 8-14 and 19-31% in the EPAG+IST group but not reported in the haplo-HSCT group. The incidence rate for acute graft vs. host disease (aGVHD) and chronic graft vs. host disease (cGVHD) ranged at 52-57 and 12-67%, respectively, for the haplo-HSCT group. The main causes of deaths were infections in the EPAG+IST group, and GVHD and infections in the haplo-HSCT group. EPAG+IST has a comparable ORR and 1-/2-year OS but lower CR rate when indirectly compared with haplo-HSCT in the frontline treatment of patients with SAA. Patients treated with haplo-HSCT may exhibit a high incidence of GVHD, whereas patients treated with EPAG+IST may experience more relapses or clone evolution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.614965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107688PMC
April 2021

Bifunctional and Self-Supported NiFeP-Layer-Coated NiP Rods for Electrochemical Water Splitting in Alkaline Solution.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 11;13(20):23702-23713. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

Designing efficient and robust nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts for overall water electrolysis, which is mainly limited by the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), for hydrogen production remains a major challenge for the hydrogen economy. In this work, a bimetallic NiFeP catalyst is coated on nickel phosphide rods grown on nickel foam ([email protected]@NF). This self-supported and interfacially connected electrode structure is favorable for mass transfer and reducing electrical resistance during electrocatalysis. The preparation of [email protected]@NF is optimized in terms of (i) the coprecipitation time of the NiFe Prussian blue analogue layer that serves as phosphides precursor and (ii) the phosphidation temperature. The optimized sample exhibits excellent OER performance delivering current densities of 10 and 100 mA cm at low overpotentials of 227 and 252 mV in 1.0 M KOH, respectively, and maintaining 10 mA cm for more than 120 h without obvious degradation. Moreover, it can also be operated as a hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst, requiring an overpotential of 105 mV at 10 mA cm in the same medium. Thus, the as-prepared material was tentatively utilized as a bifunctional electrocatalyst in a symmetric electrolyzer, requiring a voltage bias of 1.57 V to afford 10 mA cm in 1.0 M KOH, while exhibiting outstanding stability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03089DOI Listing
May 2021

Analysis of diverse factors influencing the health status as well as medical and health service utilization in the floating elderly of China.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 May 8;21(1):438. Epub 2021 May 8.

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences-Peking Union Medical College, Institute of Medical Information, 3 Yabao Rd, Beijing, 100020, People's Republic of China.

Background: Based on the "China Migrants Dynamic Survey-Special investigation on Floating Elderly in 8 megacities in 2015", the health status and the utilization of medical and health services in floating elderly were described and analyzed.

Objective: Scientific basis and critical suggestions are provided for improving the utilization level of medical and health services in the floating elderly and designing targeted health policies to improve their well-being.

Methods: The rank-sum test and Pearson χ test were used to compare the health status of floating elderly with different characteristics. Thereafter based on Andersen model, floating characteristics were added and binary logistic regression was used to explore the influencing factors of medical and health service utilization in the floating elderly.

Results: About 94.7% of the floating elderly were self-assessed as healthy/basically healthy. About 24.2% had hypertension or diabetes as diagnosed by the qualified doctors. About 7% suffered from diseases that required hospitalization. Only 28.6% of the floating elderly with hypertension or diabetes had visited a doctor for follow-up. In the case of minor ailments, only 48.7% decided to visit the clinics. Approximately 70.7% of the floating elderly had used in-patient services when they suffered from diseases requiring hospitalization.

Conclusion: The floating elderly were observed to be generally in good health but a high prevalence of hypertension or diabetes was observed among them. The cultivation of health awareness was found to be of great significance contributing to the improvement of the overall health level among the floating elderly. The basic medical insurance coverage was low, and the medical and health services were found to be severely underutilized. Adequate social support can promote the health of the floating elderly and improve their utilization of medical and health services. The floating reasons, scope and years of the elderly significantly affected their health status and the utilization rate of the basic public health services.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06410-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106125PMC
May 2021

A rational design of g-CN-based ternary composite for highly efficient H generation and 2,4-DCP degradation.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Oct 20;599:484-496. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Engineering Research Center for Functional Ceramics of the Ministry of Education, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, PR China; Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, PR China. Electronic address:

In this work, g-CN based ternary composite (CeO/CN/NH-MIL-101(Fe)) has been fabricated via hydrothermal and wet-chemical methods. The composite showed superior photoactivities for HO reduction to produce H and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation. The amount of H evolved over the composite under visible and UV-visible irradiations is 147.4 µmol·g·h and 556.2 µmol·g·h, respectively. Further, the photocatalyst degraded 87% of 2,4-DCP in 2 hrs under visible light irradiations. The improved photoactivities are accredited to the synergistic-effects caused by the proper band alignment with close interfacial contact of the three components that significantly promoted charge transfer and separation. The 2,4-DCP degradation over the composite is dominated by OH radical rather than h and O as investigated by scavenger trapping experiments. This is further supported by the electron para-magnetic resonance (EPR) study. This work provides new directions for the development of g-CN based highly efficient ternary composite materials for clean energy generation and pollution control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.04.049DOI Listing
October 2021

The potential endocrine disruption mechanism of anthelmintic drug niclosamide by activating estrogen receptors and estrogen-related receptors.

Toxicology 2021 06 4;457:152805. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, PR China. Electronic address:

Niclosamide (NIC), a helminthic drug used widely for controlling schistosomiasis, can reportedly disrupt the endocrine system. However, its underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we revealed the potential endocrine disruption mechanism of NIC by activating estrogen receptors (ERs) and estrogen-related receptors (ERRs). The binding potency of NIC with ERα, ERβ and ERRγ were determined by fluorescence competitive binding assays, which shows an IC (the concentration of NIC needed to displace 50 % of the probe from the receptor) of 90 ± 4.1, 10 ± 1.7 nM and 0.59 ± 0.07 nM respectively. The IC for ERRγ is the lowest one among the three detected receptors, which is three orders of magnitude lower than the known agonist GSK4716.The transcriptional activities of NIC on ERs and ERRs were detected by MVLN cells (stably transfected with ERs reporter gene) and HeLa cells (transiently transfected with ERRs reporter gene)-based luciferase reporter gene assay. The lowest observable effective concentration (LOEC) ranked as follows: ERRγ (0.5 nM) < ERRα (10 nM) < ERs (100 nM). The maximum observed induction rate for ERRγ (294 %) was higher than that for ERRα (191 %). The maximum observed induction rate of NIC for ERs was 30 % relative to 17β-estradiol. In addition, we simulated the interactions of NIC with ERs and ERRs by molecular docking. NIC could dock into the ligand binding pockets of ERs and ERRs and form hydrogen bonds with different amino acids. The binding energy ranked as follows: ERRγ (-8.90 kcal/mol) < ERβ (-7.57 kcal/mol) < ERRα (-7.15 kcal/mol) < ERα (-6.53 kcal/mol), which implied that NIC bound to ERRγ with higher binding affinity than the other receptors. Overall, we clarify that ERRγ might be the dominant target for NIC in cells rather than ERRα and ERs. We reveal potential novel mechanisms for the endocrine disruption effects of NIC by activating both ERRs and ERs at environmentally-related nanomolar levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2021.152805DOI Listing
June 2021

Anxiety and prognosis of patients with myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis.

Clin Cardiol 2021 Jun 7;44(6):761-770. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Although anxiety is highly prevalent after myocardial infarction (MI), but the association between anxiety and MI is not well established. This study aimed to provide an updated and comprehensive evaluation of the association between anxiety and short-term and long-term prognoses in patients with MI. Anxiety is associated with poor short-term and long-term prognoses in patients with MI. We performed a systematic search in the PubMed and Cochrane databases (January 2000-October 2020). The study endpoints were complications, all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, and/or major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Pooled data were synthesized using Stata SE12.0 and expressed as risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We included 9373 patients with MI from 16 published studies. Pooled analyses indicated a correlation between high anxiety and poor clinical outcomes (RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.13-1.26, p < .001), poor short-term complications (RR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.09-1.38, p = .001), and poor long-term prognosis (RR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.13-1.44, p < .001). Anxiety was also specifically associated with long-term mortality (RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.33, p = .033) and long-term MACEs (RR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.26-1.90, p < .001). This study provided strong evidence that increased anxiety was associated with poor prognosis in patients with MI. Further analysis revealed that MI patients with anxiety had a 23% increased risk of short-term complications and a 27% increased risk of adverse long-term prognosis compared to those without anxiety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23605DOI Listing
June 2021

Protein analysis of extracellular vesicles to monitor and predict therapeutic response in metastatic breast cancer.

Nat Commun 2021 05 5;12(1):2536. Epub 2021 May 5.

Beijing Engineering Research Center for BioNanotechnology, CAS Key Laboratory of Standardization and Measurement for Nanotechnology, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, China.

Molecular profiling of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) provides a promising noninvasive means to diagnose, monitor, and predict the course of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, the analysis of EV protein markers has been confounded by the presence of soluble protein counterparts in peripheral blood. Here we use a rapid, sensitive, and low-cost thermophoretic aptasensor (TAS) to profile cancer-associated protein profiles of plasma EVs without the interference of soluble proteins. We show that the EV signature (a weighted sum of eight EV protein markers) has a high accuracy (91.1 %) for discrimination of MBC, non-metastatic breast cancer (NMBC), and healthy donors (HD). For MBC patients undergoing therapies, the EV signature can accurately monitor the treatment response across the training, validation, and prospective cohorts, and serve as an independent prognostic factor for progression free survival in MBC patients. Together, this work highlights the potential clinical utility of EVs in management of MBC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22913-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100127PMC
May 2021

The Landscape of Cell-Free HBV Integrations and Mutations in Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Berry Oncology Corporation. Beijing, PR China.

Purpose: Intratumoral hepatitis B virus (HBV) integrations and mutations are related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has shown itself as a powerful noninvasive biomarker for cancer. However, the HBV integration and mutation landscape on cfDNA remains unclear.

Experimental Design: A cSMART (Circulating Single-Molecule Amplification and Resequencing Technology)-based method (SIM) was developed to simultaneously investigate HBV integration and mutation landscapes on cfDNA with HBV-specific primers covering the whole HBV genome. Patients with HCC ( = 481) and liver cirrhosis (LC; = 517) were recruited in the study.

Results: A total of 6,861 integration breakpoints including and were discovered in HCC cfDNA, more than in LC. The concentration of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) was positively correlated with the detection rate of these integration hotspots and total HBV integration events in cfDNA. To track the origin of HBV integrations in cfDNA, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on their paired tumor tissues. The paired comparison of WGS data from tumor tissues and SIM data from cfDNA confirmed most recurrent integration events in cfDNA originated from tumor tissue. The mutational landscape across the whole HBV genome was first generated for both HBV genotype C and B. A region from nt1100 to nt1500 containing multiple HCC risk mutation sites (OR > 1) was identified as a potential HCC-related mutational hot zone.

Conclusions: Our study provides an in-depth delineation of HBV integration/mutation landscapes at cfDNA level and did a comparative analysis with their paired tissues. These findings shed light on the possibilities of noninvasive detection of virus insertion/mutation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0002DOI Listing
May 2021

Parameterized atmospheric oxidation capacity and speciated OH reactivity over a suburban site in the North China Plain: A comparative study between summer and winter.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 23;773:145264. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China. Electronic address:

The atmospheric oxidation capacity (AOC) and photochemical reactivity are of increasing concern owing to their roles in photochemical pollution. The AOC and OH reactivity were evaluated based on simultaneous measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), trace gases and photolysis frequency during summer and winter campaigns at a suburban site in Xianghe. The AOC exhibited well-defined seasonal and diurnal patterns, with higher intensities during the summertime and daytime than during the wintertime and nighttime, respectively. The major reductants contributing to the AOC during the summertime were CO (41%) and alkenes (41%), whereas CO (40%) and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) (30%) dominated the AOC during the wintertime. The dominant oxidant contributor to the AOC during the daytime was OH (≥93%), while the contributions of O and NO (≥75%) to the AOC increased during the nighttime. High values during the wintertime and an increase at night were features of the speciated OH reactivity. Inorganic compounds (NO and CO) dominated the speciated OH reactivity (76% and 85% during the summer and winter campaigns, respectively). Among VOCs, the dominant contributors were alkenes (12%) and OVOCs (7%) during the summer and winter campaigns, respectively. The ratio of NO- and VOC-attributed OH reactivity indicated that O formation occurred under a VOC-limited regime during the summertime and that aromatics had the largest potential to form O Isoprene and m/p-xylene were the most important contributors to the AOC, OH reactivity and O-forming among VOCs during the summertime, biogenic sources and secondary formation and industrial production were the main sources of these species. During the wintertime, hexanal and ethylene were the key VOC species contributing to the AOC and OH reactivity, and solvent usage and traffic-related emissions were the main contributing sources. We recommend that priority measures for the control of VOC species and sources should be taken when suitable. CAPSULE: This study focused on the similarities and differences in the AOC and speciated OH reactivity during summer and winter campaigns.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145264DOI Listing
June 2021

Workplace Violence Against Chinese Frontline Clinicians During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Its Associations With Demographic and Clinical Characteristics and Quality of Life: A Structural Equation Modeling Investigation.

Front Psychiatry 2021 15;12:649989. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Unit of Psychiatry, Department of Public Health and Medicinal Administration, Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Macau, Macao, China.

Workplace violence is a major concern for clinicians worldwide. There has been little data on the epidemiology of workplace violence against frontline clinicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the pattern of workplace violence and its association with quality of life (QOL) against frontline clinicians during the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic in China. A cross-sectional online study was conducted in China between March 15 and March 20, 2020. Frontline clinicians' experience with workplace violence was measured with six standardized questions derived from the Workplace Violence Scale, while anxiety, depressive, and insomnia symptoms, and QOL were measured using the General Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Insomnia Severity Index, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, respectively. Univariate analyses, multivariable logistic regression analyses, and structural equation modeling (SEM) were conducted. A total of 15,531 clinicians completed the assessment; 2,878 (18.5, 95% CI = 17.92-19.14%) reported workplace violence during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic (verbal violence: 16.1%; physical violence: 6.9%). According to multivariable models, key correlates of workplace violence were male gender, longer work experience, higher education level, smoking, working in the psychiatry or emergency department, working in tertiary hospitals, being involved in direct care of infected patients, having infected family/ friends/ colleagues, and frequently using social communication programs. Clinicians working in inpatient departments were less likely to report workplace violence compared to those working in outpatient departments. SEM analysis revealed that both violence and emotional disturbances (anxiety, depression, and insomnia) directly affected QOL (standardized direct effect = -0.031, and -0.566, respectively, < 0.05), while emotional disturbances partly mediated the association between work violence and QOL (standardized indirect effect = -0.184, < 0.05). Frontline clinicians were vulnerable to workplace violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the negative impact of workplace violence on quality of care and clinicians' QOL, health authorities and policymakers should take effective measures to reduce workplace violence against clinicians.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.649989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081975PMC
April 2021

Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis: Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Biosimilars, Biologics and JAK1 Inhibitors for Active Crohn Disease.

Front Pharmacol 2021 14;12:655865. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects quality of life. There are several drugs available for the treatment of CD, but their relative efficacy is unknown due to a lack of high-quality head-to-head randomized controlled trials. To perform a mixed comparison of the efficacy and safety of biosimilars, biologics and JAK1 inhibitors for CD. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, embase and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to Dec. 28, 2020. Only RCTs that compared the efficacy or safety of biosimilars, biologics and JAK1 inhibitors with placebo or another active agent for CD were included in the comparative analysis. Efficacy outcomes were the induction of remission, maintenance of remission and steroid-free remission, and safety outcomes were serious adverse events (AEs) and infections. The Bayesian method was utilized to compare the treatments. The registration number is CRD42020187807. Twenty-eight studies and 29 RCTs were identified in our systematic review. The network meta-analysis demonstrated that infliximab and adalimumab were superior to certolizumab pegol (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.35-4.97; OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.57-5.40, respectively) and tofacitinib (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.27-5.97; OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.47-6.52, respectively) and revealed the superiority of CT-P13 compared with placebo (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.31-7.59) for the induction of remission. Infliximab (OR 7.49, 95% CI 1.85-34.77), adalimumab (OR 10.76, 95% CI 2.61-52.35), certolizumab pegol (OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.10-21.08), vedolizumab (OR 4.99, 95% CI 1.19-25.54) and CT-P13 (OR 10.93, 95% CI 2.10-64.37) were superior to filgotinib for the maintenance of remission. Moreover, infliximab (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.49-10.23), adalimumab (OR 4.86, 95% CI 1.43-16.95), vedolizumab (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.21-6.52) and CT-P13 (OR 5.15, 95% CI 1.05-27.58) were superior to placebo for steroid-free remission. Among all treatments, adalimumab ranked highest for the induction of remission, and CT-P13 ranked highest for the maintenance of remission and steroid-free remission. CT-P13 was more efficacious than numerous biological agents and JAK1 inhibitors and should be recommended for the treatment of CD. Further head-to-head RCTs are warranted to compare these drugs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.655865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080031PMC
April 2021

High-efficiency degradation of p-arsanilic acid and arsenic immobilization with iron encapsulated B/N-doped carbon nanotubes at natural solution pH.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 17;785:147152. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China. Electronic address:

p-arsanilic acid (p-ASA) is still widely applied as feed additive in many countries. Accompanied with chemical reactions in the environment, p-ASA will release more toxic inorganic arsenic. In order to safely and efficiently treat p-ASA flow washing into the environment, iron encapsulated B/N-doped carbon nanotubes ([email protected]) were fabricated and used as the catalyst for the degradation of p-ASA. The calcination temperature and the dose of the iron salt have significant effects on the structure and properties of the catalysts. We have produced a series of catalysts of the same type to facilitate the degradation of p-ASA. Under optimal conditions of material ([email protected]) syntheses, both 95% degradation of p-ASA and 86% total arsenic immobilization can be obtained with oxidant (Peroxymonosulfate, PMS) and catalyst ([email protected]) treatment after 60 min. The effects of oxidant types (peroxydisulfate (PDS), PMS, hydrogen peroxide (HO)), amount, initial solution pH, inorganic anion, and other reaction conditions were studied in the p-ASA removal. In this Fenton-like reaction, the [email protected] exhibits high efficiency and excellent stability without complex preparation methods; besides, the advantages of short reaction time and natural reaction conditions in [email protected]/PMS system will promote the practical application of Fenton-like.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147152DOI Listing
September 2021

Microgel-Stabilized Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose and Dextran Water-in-Water Emulsion: Influence of pH, Ionic Strength, and Temperature.

Langmuir 2021 05 29;37(18):5617-5626. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Nutrition & Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.

A stable water-in-water (W/W) emulsion was formed by mixing dextran and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with addition of β-lactoglobulin (Blg) microgels. The microstructure and stability of the W/W emulsion were investigated under different conditions. The microgels accumulating at the liquid-liquid interface led to a stable emulsion at pH 3-5, where the microgels carried positive charges. When the pH was increased above the pI of microgels (∼pH 5), the emulsion was destabilized because the microgels tended to stay in the continuous phase (i.e., dextran) rather than at the interface. The HPMC-in-dextran emulsions were stable under ionic strength levels up to 300 mM. The HPMC-in-dextran emulsion stabilized by Blg microgels was thermally stable, and the heat treatment promoted partial Blg microgel particle-particle fusion on the surface of HPMC droplets at 90 °C. Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between dextran and HPMC phase were further investigated to understand the microgels' accumulation at the liquid-liquid interface.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00484DOI Listing
May 2021

Should people with severe mental illness be prioritized for the COVID-19 vaccination?

Int J Biol Sci 2021 10;17(6):1443-1445. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Unit of Psychiatry, Department of Public Health and Medicinal Administration, & Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China.

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread throughout the world, affecting many vulnerable populations including patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Recent studies have found that patients with SMI compared to the general population could have a greater risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 due to cognitive impairment, poor awareness of risk, and difficulties in complying with infection control measures. Although some researchers have suggested that patients with SMI should be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination to reduce the risk of infection, this issue remains controversial.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.57750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071759PMC
May 2021

Prevalence and Patterns of Comorbidity Among Middle-Aged and Elderly People in China: A Cross-Sectional Study Based on CHARLS Data.

Int J Gen Med 2021 21;14:1449-1455. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Public Health and Management, Research Center for Medicine and Social Development, Collaborative Innovation Center of Social Risks Governance in Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Under the background of the accelerated aging of the population, comorbidity in the elderly has gradually become a social problem. At present, the related studies on chronic diseases are mainly focused on a single disease. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of common chronic diseases, the conditions and patterns of comorbidity in middle-aged and elderly people in China.

Methods: We extracted the data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). A total of 14 diseases were included, and the prevalence was assessed by self-report. We calculate different disease combinations and perform descriptive statistics analysis of chronic disease and comorbidity status.

Results: Among the 6754 subjects, 2833 (42.0%) people had at least one chronic disease, and 1138 (17.0%) people had two or more diseases at the same time. The top three diseases of prevalence were hypertension (15.4%), arthritis or rheumatism (11.0%), and stomach or digestive diseases (9.3%). Common dual disease combinations were hypertension and dyslipidemia, hypertension and arthritis or rheumatism, arthritis or rheumatism and stomach or digestive diseases.

Conclusion: Comorbidity is common in the population, and the pattern of chronic disease comorbidity is complex. Hypertension exists in a variety of comorbidity patterns, and its screening and prevention should be strengthened.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S309783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071077PMC
April 2021

MYC-Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 Axis Defines the Tumorigenesis and Immune Response in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Hepatology 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally with poor outcome and limited therapeutic options. Although the MYC oncogene is frequently dysregulated in HCC, it is thought to be undruggable. Thus, the current study aimed to identify the critical downstream metabolic network of MYC and develop new therapies for MYC-driven HCC. Liver cancer was induced in mice with hepatocyte-specific disruption of Myc and control mice by administration of diethylnitrosoamine (DEN). Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analyses revealed that urinary dimethylarginine, especially symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), was increased in the HCC mouse model in a MYC-dependent manner. Analyses of human samples demonstrated a similar induction of SDMA in the urines from HCC patients. Mechanistically, Prmt5, encoding protein arginine methyltransferase 5, which catalyzes SDMA formation from arginine, was highly induced in HCC and identified as a direct MYC target gene. Moreover, GSK3326595, a PRMT5 inhibitor, suppressed the growth of liver tumors in human MYC-overexpressing transgenic mice that spontaneously develop HCC. Inhibition of PRMT5 exhibited anti-proliferative activity via upregulation of the tumor suppressor gene Cdkn1b/p27. In addition, GSK3326595 induced lymphocyte infiltration and MHC II expression, which might contribute to the enhanced anti-tumor immune response. Combination of GSK3326595 with anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) improved therapeutic efficacy in HCC. This study revealed that PRMT5 is an epigenetic executer of MYC leading to repression of the transcriptional regulation of downstream genes that promote hepatocellular carcinogenesis, highlights a mechanism-based therapeutic strategy for MYC-driven HCC via PRMT5 inhibition through synergistically suppressed proliferation and enhanced anti-tumor immunity, and finally provides an opportunity to mitigate the resistance of "immune-cold" tumor to ICT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31864DOI Listing
April 2021

In-site and solvent-free exfoliation of porous graphene oxide from pencil lead fiber for solid-phase microextraction of cadmium ion before GF-AAS determination.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 Apr 23;188(5):172. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry & Technology of MOE, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, Sichuan, China.

Graphene oxide (GO)-functionalized pencil lead fiber was prepared for the first time by in situ oxidation and exfoliation of graphite contained in pencil lead fiber to porous graphene oxide structure via a one-step solvent-free dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) microplasma treatment. This new fiber was demonstrated as a highly efficient and low-cost solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for the determination of toxic metal ions. The fiber extraction performance was evaluated by using cadmium as a model analyte in a direct immersing SPME mode. Unlike most commercially available and other lab-built fibers, the preparation of the graphene oxidized pencil lead fiber is environmentally friendly, low cost, and non-toxic without using any organic solvents. The fiber is robust due to its coating-free configuration. Furthermore, high extraction efficiency and high sensitivity for cadmium can be obtained due to the abundant oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the novel fiber. After extraction, the cadmium adsorbed on the fiber was desorbed to 150-μL solution. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) with low sample consumption was used to determine cadmium. The calibration curve for cadmium ions was linear in a range 0.04-0.26 μg L with a detection limit of 0.005 μg L. A relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 5) of 2.1% was obtained at 0.1 μg L of cadmium. The sensitivity enhancement factor (EF) value of the proposed SPME method was 25. The SPME fiber was successfully applied to determine cadmium in tap water, river water, and pond water with spike recoveries ranging from 94 to 105%. Pipe network water samples were also analyzed to evaluate the cadmium release to drinking water due to the corrosion of tubes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04823-zDOI Listing
April 2021