Publications by authors named "Yuan Shi"

376 Publications

Assessing economic, social and environmental impacts on housing prices in Hong Kong: a time-series study of 2006, 2011 and 2016.

J Hous Built Environ 2021 Sep 16:1-25. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Faculty of Architecture, University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.

Given Hong Kong's unique high-density urban environment and limited land resources, more and more general public has been concerned about the living quality. Based on three waves of census data (2006, 2011 and 2016), combined with our spatial-temporal urban environmental database consisting of three local datasets of urban climate and air quality, this paper assesses the impacts of social, economic and environmental factors on the logarithm of housing prices in Hong Kong through linear regression analysis. Specifically, both supply- and demand-side economic factors have significant impacts on housing prices. Demographic factors are not as significant as expected in affecting housing prices. Transportation factors have more significant effects in the short run than in the long run. Environmental factors, including the number of hot night hours, Annual Air Quality Index (AAQI) of nitrogen dioxide (NO) and particulates with particle sizes less than 10 microns (PM), significantly affect housing prices over time. The results have important implications: current policy instruments to prevent housing price escalation are focused on increasing property tax or land supply (economic factors), while little attention is paid to social or environmental factors, which are geographically heterogeneous. Our findings suggest that housing provision in the New Territories may be a feasible solution to alleviate the housing crisis as its demographic pattern, transportation connectivity and air quality are significantly different from Hong Kong Island or Kowloon Peninsula. In regard to urban environmental problems brought by the high-density development in Hong Kong despite land-use saving, intensified urban infrastructure and promotion of public transportation, our study contributes to the understanding of its housing price dynamics from a more holistic perspective by comparing the impacts of economic, social and environmental factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10901-021-09898-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8444176PMC
September 2021

Community planning for a "healthy built environment" via a human-environment nexus? A multifactorial assessment of environmental characteristics and age-specific stroke mortality in Hong Kong.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 27;287(Pt 3):132043. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

With the prevalence of stroke rising due to both aging societies and more people getting strokes at a younger age, a comprehensive investigation into the relationship between urban characteristics and age-specific stroke mortality for the development of a healthy built environment is necessary. Specifically, assessment of various dimensions of urban characteristics (e.g. short-term environmental change, long-term environmental conditions) is needed for healthy built environment designs and protocols. A multifactorial assessment was conducted to evaluate associations between environmental and sociodemographic characteristics with age-stroke mortality in Hong Kong. We found that short-term (and temporally varying) daily PM, older age and being female were more strongly associated with all types of stroke deaths compared to all-cause deaths in general. Colder days, being employed and being married were more strongly associated with hemorrhagic stroke deaths in general. Long-term (and spatially varying) regional-level air pollution were more strongly associated with non-hemorrhagic stroke deaths in general. These associations varied by age. Employment (manual workers) and low education were risk factors for stroke mortality at younger ages (age <65). Greenness and open space did not have a significant association with stroke mortality. Since a significant connection was expected, this leads to questions about the health-inducing efficacy of Hong Kong's compact open spaces (natural greenery being limited to steep slopes, and extensive impervious surfaces on public open spaces). In conclusion, urban plans and designs for stroke mortality prevention should implement age-specific health care to neighborhoods with particular population segments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132043DOI Listing
August 2021

A Cross-Sectional Nationwide Study on Accessibility and Availability of Neonatal care Resources in Hospitals of China: Current Situation, Mortality and Regional Differences: Neonatal Care Resources and Newborn Mortality in China.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Sep 21;14:100212. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Shanxi Province Children's Hospital.

Background: To investigate the current situation of neonatal care resources (NCR), newborn mortality rates (NMR), regional differences and existing challenges in China.

Methods: By using a self-designed questionnaire form and the cross-sectional method, we conducted a survey of all hospitals equipped with neonatal facilities in China from March 2019 to March 2020 with respect to the level and nature of these hospitals, the number of newborn beds and NICU beds, the number of neonatal pediatricians, and the development of therapeutic techniques. The data about the newborn births and deaths were retrieved from the annual statistics of the health commissions of the related provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities.

Finding: Included in this nationwide survey were 3,020 hospitals from all 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities directly under the Central Government of Mainland China, with a 100% response rate. They included 1,183 (39.2%) level-3 (L3) hospitals, 1629 (53.9%) L-2 hospitals and 208 (6.9%) L-1 hospitals. Geographically, 848 (31.4%) hospitals were distributed in Central China, 983 (32.5%) hospitals in East China, and 1,089 (36.1%) in West China. The 3,020 included hospitals were altogether equipped with 75,679 newborn beds, with a median of 20 (2-350) beds, of which 2,286 hospitals (75.7%) were equipped with neonatal intensive care units (NICU), totaling 28,076 NICU beds with a median of 5 (1-160) beds. There were altogether 27,698 neonatal pediatricians in these hospitals, with an overall doctor-bed ratio of 0.366. There were 48.18 newborn beds and 17.87 NICU beds per 10,000 new births in China. In East, Central and West China, the number of neonatal beds, NICU beds, neonatal pediatricians, and attending pediatricians or pediatricians with higher professional titles per 10,000 newborns was 42.57, 48.64 and 55.67; 17.07, 18.66 and 18.17; 16.26, 16.51 and 20.81; and 10.69, 10.81 and 11.29, respectively. However, when the population and area are taken into consideration and according to the health resources density index (HRDI), the number of newborn beds, NICU beds and neonatal pediatricians in West China was significantly lower than that in Central and East China. In addition, only 10.64% of the neonatal pediatricians in West China possessed the Master or higher degrees, 31.7% in East China and 20.14% in Central China. On the contrary, the number of neonatal pediatricians with a lower than Bachelor degree in West China was significantly higher than that in Central and East China (13.28% 7.36% and 4.28%). Technically, the application rate of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in L-1 hospitals of West China was lower than that in Central and East China. According to the statistics in 2018, the newborn mortality rate (NMR) in West China was significantly higher than that in Central and East China.

Interpretation: China has already possessed relatively good resources for neonatal care and treatment, which is the primary reason for the rapid decrease in the NMR in China. However, there are still substantial regional differences. The density of health resources, the level of technical development and educational background of neonatal pediatricians in West China still lag behind those in other regions of China and need to be further improved and upgraded.

Funding: This research work was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81671504) and United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (CHINA-UNICEF501MCH).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358159PMC
September 2021

Pre-therapeutic microglia activation and sex determine therapy effects of chronic immunomodulation.

Theranostics 2021 19;11(18):8964-8976. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Munich, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Modulation of the innate immune system is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, determinants of a beneficial therapeutic effect are ill-understood. Thus, we investigated the potential of 18 kDa translocator protein positron-emission-tomography (TSPO-PET) for assessment of microglial activation in mouse brain before and during chronic immunomodulation. Serial TSPO-PET was performed during five months of chronic microglia modulation by stimulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ with pioglitazone in two different mouse models of AD (PS2APP, ). Using mixed statistical models on longitudinal TSPO-PET data, we tested for effects of therapy and sex on treatment response. We tested correlations of baseline with longitudinal measures of TSPO-PET, and correlations between PET results with spatial learning performance and β-amyloid accumulation of individual mice. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the molecular source of the TSPO-PET signal. Pioglitazone-treated female PS2APP and mice showed attenuation of the longitudinal increases in TSPO-PET signal when compared to vehicle controls, whereas treated male mice showed the opposite effect. Baseline TSPO-PET strongly predicted changes in microglial activation in treated mice (R = -0.874, p < 0.0001) but not in vehicle controls (R = -0.356, p = 0.081). Reduced TSPO-PET signal upon pharmacological treatment was associated with better spatial learning despite higher fibrillar β-amyloid accumulation. Immunohistochemistry confirmed activated microglia to be the source of the TSPO-PET signal (R = 0.952, p < 0.0001). TSPO-PET represents a sensitive biomarker for monitoring of immunomodulation and closely reflects activated microglia. Sex and pre-therapeutic assessment of baseline microglial activation predict individual immunomodulation effects and may serve for responder stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.64022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419052PMC
August 2021

Clinical and Molecular Characterizations of Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Children and Young Adults: a Multicenter Retrospective Study.

Thyroid 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Affiliated Renji Hospital, 71140, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Shanghai, China;

Background Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a rare malignancy in children and young adults (CAYA). It often presents with aggressive disease patterns and advanced stages, which are clinically distinct from those in adult patients. Here, we sought to characterize and better understand the clinical variants of PTC in CAYA and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods CAYA patients (age ≤18 years) diagnosed with PTC between June 2006 and June 2018 were retrospectively recruited from five hospitals. Demographic information, pathological data, and follow-up status were recorded. Tumor samples obtained from 20 children (mean age 15.15 years) and 10 adults (mean age 38.80 years) underwent comprehensive whole transcriptome sequencing. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs), mutational landscape, and immune infiltration were analyzed. Results A total of 217 CAYA-PTC patients (162 females, 55 males) with an average age of 14.38±3.53 years (range 2-18) were included. Lymph node metastasis (LNM) was observed in 85.71%, of which 57.60% were in the lateral cervical compartment. Disease recurred in 28 of 217 (12.90%) patients with a median follow-up of 4.76 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age, bilateral disease, extrathyroidal extension, and coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis (co-HT) were independent risk factors for LNM, while co-HT was the only risk factor for recurrence. Using whole transcriptome sequencing of PTC tissues, we identified 301 DEGs. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses showed that differences in immune mediators played important roles, based on the distributions of mutation frequencies, types, and expression levels between CAYA and adult patients. Based on the integrated data sets, we identified significantly mutated immune genes, CD24, F12, F5, ITGA3, and RAET1L, which were then verified by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, resting mast cells, resting natural killer cells, plasma cells, and regulatory T cells were different in the CAYA-PTC group and correlated with the expression of immune checkpoints. Conclusions There are considerable variabilities that may contribute to the different clinical presentations between CAYA and adult PTC patients, among which the decrease in protective immune cells may be a factor. Collectively, our results add to the possible biological mechanisms involved in CAYA-PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2021.0003DOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes Until 2 Years of Age in Preterm Infants With Typical Chest Imaging Findings of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Propensity Score Analysis.

Front Pediatr 2021 23;9:712516. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The goal of the current study was to assess the associations of typical chest imaging findings of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants with clinical characteristics and outcomes until 2 years of age. This retrospective cohort study enrolled 256 preterm infants with BPD who were admitted between 2014 and 2018. A propensity score analysis was used to adjust for confounding factors. The primary outcomes were the severity of BPD, home oxygen therapy (HOT) at discharge and mortality between 28 days after birth and 2 years of age. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify related variables of mortality. Seventy-eight patients with typical chest imaging findings were enrolled, of which 50 (64.1%) were first found by CXR, while 28 (35.9%) were first found by CT. In addition, 85.9% (67/78) were discovered before 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (gestational age [GA] < 32 weeks) or before 56 days after birth (GA > 32 weeks). After propensity score matching, the matched groups consisted of 58 pairs of patients. Those with typical imaging findings had a remarkably higher mortality rate (29.3 vs. 12.1%, = 0.022, OR 3.021), higher proportion of severe BPD (32.8 vs. 12.1%, = 0.003, OR 4.669) and higher rate of HOT at discharge (74.1 vs. 46.6%, = 0.002, OR 3.291) than those without typical imaging findings. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that typical imaging findings ≤ 7 days and typical typical imaging findings >7 days were independent risk factors for mortality in preterm infants with BPD (OR 7.794, = 0.004; OR 4.533, = 0.001). More attention should be given to chest imaging findings of BPD, especially in the early stage (within 7 days). Early recognition of the development of BPD helps early individualized treatment of BPD. www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04163822.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.712516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8420714PMC
August 2021

Assessment of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Practices, Morbidity, and Mortality Among Very Preterm Infants in China.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Aug 2;4(8):e2118904. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Importance: The Chinese Neonatal Network was established in 2018 and maintains a standardized national clinical database of very preterm or very low-birth-weight infants in tertiary neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) throughout China. National-level data on outcomes and care practices of very preterm infants (VPIs) in China are lacking.

Objective: To assess the care practices in NICUs and outcomes among VPIs in China.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A cohort study was conducted comprising 57 tertiary hospitals from 25 provinces throughout China. All infants with gestational age (GA) less than 32 weeks who were admitted to the 57 NICUs between January 1 and December 31, 2019, were included.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Care practices, morbidities, and survival were the primary outcomes of the study. Major morbidities included bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe intraventricular hemorrhage (grade ≥3) and/or periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis (stage ≥2), sepsis, and severe retinopathy of prematurity (stage ≥3).

Results: A total of 9552 VPIs were included, with mean (SD) GA of 29.5 (1.7) weeks and mean (SD) birth weight of 1321 (321) g; 5404 infants (56.6%) were male. Antenatal corticosteroids were used in 75.6% (6505 of 8601) of VPIs, and 54.8% (5211 of 9503)were born through cesarean delivery. In the delivery room, 12.1% of VPIs received continuous positive airway pressure and 26.7% (2378 or 8923) were intubated. Surfactant was prescribed for 52.7% of the infants, and postnatal dexamethasone was prescribed to 9.5% (636 of 6675) of the infants. A total of 85.5% (8171) of the infants received complete care, and 14.5% (1381) were discharged against medical advice. The incidences of the major morbidities were bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 29.2% (2379 of 8148); severe intraventricular hemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia, 10.4% (745 of 7189); necrotizing enterocolitis, 4.9% (403 of 8171 ); sepsis, 9.4% (764 of 8171); and severe retinopathy of prematurity, 4.3% (296 of 6851) among infants who received complete care. Among VPIs with complete care, 95.4% (7792 of 8171) survived: 65.6% (155 of 236) at 25 weeks' or less GA, 89.0% (880 of 988) at 26 to 27 weeks' GA, 94.9% (2635 of 2755)at 28 to 29 weeks' GA, and 98.3% (4122 of 4192) at 30 to 31 weeks' GA. Only 57.2% (4677 of 8171) of infants survived without major morbidity: 10.5% (25 of 236) at 25 weeks' or less GA, 26.8% (48 of 179) at 26 to 27 weeks' GA, 51.1% (1409 of 2755) at 28 to 29 weeks' GA, and 69.3% (2904 of 4192) at 30 to 31 weeks' GA. Among all infants admitted, the survival rate was 87.6% (8370 of 9552)and survival without major morbidities was 51.8% (4947 of 9552).

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that survival and survival without major morbidity of VPIs in Chinese NICUs have improved but remain lower than in high-income countries. Comprehensive and targeted quality improvement efforts are needed to provide complete care for all VPIs, optimize obstetrical and neonatal care practices, and improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.18904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329742PMC
August 2021

A protocol to develop a standard guideline for neonatal pain management.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Jun;10(6):1712-1720

Department of Nursing, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Hospitalized newborns experience a high frequency of painful procedures. Undertreated pain has a series of adverse physical and psychosocial effects on newborns. Guidelines successfully applied in clinical practice can effectively improve pain management in NICUs and reduce the incidence of pain. Neonatal care providers in China are in urgent need of a high-quality, evidence-based guideline for the treatment and management of neonatal pain. The National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders is leading the development of a standard guideline for neonatal pain management suitable for the medical environment in China providing empirical support and safety guarantees for clinical practice. The WHO Collaborating Centre for Guideline Implementation and Knowledge Translation will provide technical support and guidance. The purpose of this paper is to outline the detailed methodology and technical route of guideline development.

Methods: We will follow the WHO principles and methods for the formulation of standard guidelines. The critical steps for developing the guideline are as follows: (I) definition of the guideline Scope; (II) establishment of guideline working groups; (III) selection of the clinical questions; (IV) performance of systematic reviews; (V) grading the quality of the body of evidence; and (VI) formulating recommendations and reaching consensus.

Discussion: This protocol would ensure that the process of guideline development is normative, scientific, and transparent. The standard guideline for neonatal pain management based on the available high-quality evidence and tailored to the Chinese health care system will help neonatal caregivers in NICUs effectively manage neonatal pain.

Guideline Registration: The guideline was registered at the International Practice Guidelines Registry Platform. The registration No. is IPGRP-2021CN044.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp-21-111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261575PMC
June 2021

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A retrospective cohort study.

J Card Surg 2021 Oct 22;36(10):3554-3560. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: The role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenatio (ECMO) for rescue therapy of respiratory failure in critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of ECMO in the treatment of COVID-19 compared with conventional ventilation support.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, data were collected on extremely critical patients with COVID-19 from January 2020 to March 2020 in intensive care unit of a hospital in charge by national rescue team in Wuhan, China, the epicenter of pandemic. Patients were classified into the ECMO group and the conventional ventilation non-ECMO group. Clinical characteristics, technical characteristics, laboratory results, mortality, and complications of the two groups were analyzed.

Results: 88 patients with extremely critical COVID-19 were screened; 34 received ECMO support and 31 received conventional ventilation support. Both groups had comparable characteristics at baseline in terms of age, gender, and comorbidities. Before ECMO or conventional therapy, patients in the two groups had sever acute respiratory distress syndrome with a mean partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO /FiO ) ratio of 69.6 and 75.4, respectively. At the time of reporting, patients in the ECMO had significantly lower in-hospital mortality compared with the control group (58.8 vs. 93.5%, p = .001).

Conclusion: ECMO is shown to decrease the mortality of extremely critical ill COVID-19 patients compared with the conventional treatment. Although complications occurred frequently, ECMO could still be a rescue therapy for the treatment of COVID-19 during the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.15833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447061PMC
October 2021

A Rapid Gas-Chromatography/Mass-Spectrometry Technique for Determining Odour Activity Values of Volatile Compounds in Plant Proteins: Soy, and Allergen-Free Pea and Brown Rice Protein.

Molecules 2021 Jul 5;26(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Food, Nutrition and Health, Faculty of Land & Food Systems, 2205 East Mall, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Plant-based protein sources have a characteristic aroma that limits their usage in various meat-alternative formulations. Despite being the most popular plant-based protein, the allergenicity of soy protein severely restricts the potential adoption of soy protein as an animal substitute. Thereby, allergen-free plant-protein sources need to be characterized. Herein, we demonstrate a rapid solid-phase-microextraction gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) technique for comparing the volatile aroma profile concentration of two different allergen-free plant-protein sources (brown rice and pea) and comparing them with soy protein. The extraction procedure consisted of making a 1:7 / aqueous plant protein slurry, and then absorbing the volatile compounds on an SPME fibre under agitation for 10 min at 40 °C, which was subsequently injected onto a GC column coupled to an MS system. Observed volatile concentrations were used in conjunction with odour threshold values to generate a Total Volatile Aroma Score for each protein sample. A total of 76 volatile compounds were identified. Aldehydes and furans were determined to be the most dominant volatiles present in the plant proteins. Both brown rice protein and pea protein contained 64% aldehydes and 18% furans, with minor contents of alcohols, ketones and other compounds. On the other hand, soy protein consisted of fewer aldehydes (46%), but a more significant proportion of furans (42%). However, in terms of total concentration, brown rice protein contained the highest intensity and number of volatile compounds. Based on the calculated odour activity values of the detected compounds, our study concludes that pea proteins could be used as a suitable alternative to soy proteins in applications for allergen-free vegan protein products without interfering with the taste or flavour of the product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26134104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271896PMC
July 2021

Nasal high-frequency oscillatory ventilation versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure as primary respiratory support strategies for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Neonatology, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical DisordersChongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 400014, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Nasal high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (NHFOV) is a new respiratory support strategy despite lacking of enough evidence in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The aim of the present systematic review was to explore whether NHFOV reduced the intubation rate as compared with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) as the primary respiratory support strategies in preterm infants with RDS. Medline, the Cochrane library, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang data Information Site were searched from inception to Jan 1, 2021(Prospero2019 CRD42019129316, date and name of registration: Apr 23,2019, The clinical effectiveness of NHFOV vs NCPAP for preterm babies with respiratory distress syndrome). Pooled data from clinically randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing NHFOV with NCPAP as the primary respiratory supporting strategies in preterm infants with RDS were performed using the fixed-effects models whenever no heterogeneity was shown. The primary outcome was intubation rate. Four randomized controlled trials involving 570 participants were included. Comparing with NCPAP, NHFOV resulted in less intubation (relative risk (RR) 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.67, P = 0.0002), and heterogeneity was not found among the trials in the fixed-effects model (P = 0.78, I = 0%). Similar result also appeared in sensitivity analysis after excluding one study with significant difference (RR 0.44; 95% CI 0.25-0.78, P = 0.005) (P = 0.58, I = 0%).Conclusion: NHFOV decreased the intubation rate as compared with NCPAP as primary respiratory supporting strategies in preterm infants suffering from RDS. Future research should assess whether NHFOV can reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and intubation rate in preterm infants with BPD. Fund by Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing (cstc2020jcyj-msxmX0197), and "guan'ai" preterm Study Program of Renze Foundation of Beijing(K022). What is Known: • Nasal high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (NHFOV) has been described to be another advanced version of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). However, its beneficial effects among different studies as the primary modes in the early life of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were inconsistent. What is New: • Comparing with NCPAP, NHFOV decreases the risk of intubation as a primary respiratory supporting strategy in early life for preterm infants suffering from RDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-021-04190-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Multi-angle head pose classification with masks based on color texture analysis and stack generalization.

Concurr Comput 2021 Apr 22:e6331. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

College of Robotics Beijing Union University Beijing China.

Head pose classification is an important part of the preprocessing process of face recognition, which can independently solve application problems related to multi-angle. But, due to the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic, more and more people wear masks to protect themselves, which covering most areas of the face. This greatly affects the performance of head pose classification. Therefore, this article proposes a method to classify the head pose with wearing a mask. This method focuses on the information that is helpful for head pose classification. First, the H-channel image of the HSV color space is extracted through the conversion of the color space. Then use the line portrait to extract the contour lines of the face, and train the convolutional neural networks to extract features in combination with the grayscale image. Finally, stacked generalization technology is used to fuse the output of the three classifiers to obtain the final classification result. The results on the MAFA dataset show that compared with the current advanced algorithm, the accuracy of our method is 94.14% on the front, 86.58% on the more side, and 90.93% on the side, which has better performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpe.6331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8250277PMC
April 2021

Editorial: Research Model Innovations in Advancing Neonatal Care.

Front Pediatr 2021 16;9:711409. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.711409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242165PMC
June 2021

Comment on "A Pumpless Microfluidic Neonatal Lung Assist Device for Support of Preterm Neonates in Respiratory Distress".

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 06 3;8(12):2004382. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neonatology Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics Chongqing 400014 China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202004382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8224411PMC
June 2021

Single boll weight depends on photosynthetic function of boll-leaf system in field-grown cotton plants under water stress.

Photosynth Res 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, People's Republic of China.

Cotton has many leaves and even more bolls, which results in a complicated source-sink relationship. Under water stress, the single boll weight (SBW) of cotton remains relatively stable, while both the leaf area and leaf photosynthetic rate decrease greatly. It is therefore difficult to understand how the formation of SBW is regulated under water stress solely by considering single-leaf photosynthesis. Considering the cotton boll-leaf system (BLS: including the main-stem leaf, sympodial leaves, and non-leaf organs) as the basic unit of the cotton canopy, we speculated that the formation of SBW may depend on photosynthesis in the corresponding BLS under water stress. To verify this hypothesis, five water treatments were set up in the field. The results showed that with increasing water stress, the relative water content (RWC) of the main-stem and sympodial leaves decreased gradually, and the decrease in the sympodial leaves was more obvious. The SBW and the number of BLSs decreased slightly with increasing water stress, while the number of bolls per plant decreased significantly. The area of the BLS decreased gradually with increasing water stress, and the area of sympodial leaves decreased more than that of the main-stem leaves. Gas exchange showed that the photosynthetic rate of the BLS (Pn) decreased gradually with increasing water stress. In addition, the single-leaf photosynthesis and carboxylation efficiency (CE) decreased progressively and rapidly with the increase of water stress. Compared with the main-stem leaf, the photosynthetic function of the sympodial leaf decreased more. Further analysis showed that compared with leaf photosynthetic rate, there was a better correlation between Pn and SBW. Thus, the formation of SBW mainly depends on Pn under water stress, and the increase of BLS to boll is also helpful to maintain SBW to some extent. In BLS, the photosynthesis of the main-stem leaf plays a very important role in maintaining the stability of SBW, while the photosynthetic performance in sympodial leaves may be regulated plastically to influence SBW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11120-021-00837-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Scale ultrasound-guided radial artery cannulation in infant: A randomized controlled trial.

J Vasc Access 2021 Jun 21:11297298211024053. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Department of Anesthesiology, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Cannulation of the radial artery can be extremely challenging in infants. Scale ultrasound can provide accurate arterial location and guidance for operators. We hypothesized that scale ultrasound helps increase the initial success rate of radial artery cannulation in this population.

Method: Seventy-six infants aged 0-3 months who needed arterial puncture after general anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups (1:1 ratio): the scale ultrasound group and the traditional ultrasound group. The primary endpoints were the success rate of the first attempt and the total success rate of arterial cannulation. The secondary endpoints were the time during arterial puncture and the incidence of vascular complications.

Results: The success rate of the first attempt and the total success rate of arterial cannulation were 92.1% (35/38) versus 50% (19/38) and 100% (38/38) versus 86.8% (33/38) in the scale ultrasound and traditional ultrasound group ( < 0.005), respectively. The median time to ultrasound location, needle entry into the radial artery, and successful cannulation in the scale ultrasound group were significantly shorter than those in the traditional ultrasound group: 10 (8.0, 17.2) s, 15 (11.7, 20) s, and 65 (53.8, 78.5) s vs 30 (26.5, 43.5) s, 35 (23, 51) s, and 224.5 (123.5, 356) s ( < 0.001), respectively. The incidence of hematoma was higher in the traditional group ( < 0.005).

Conclusions: Scale ultrasound-guided radial arterial cannulation can significantly improved initial success rate and overall success rate, shorten puncture time in infant, compared with that achieved with the use of traditional ultrasound guidance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11297298211024053DOI Listing
June 2021

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy diagnosis and treatment: a National Survey in China.

BMC Pediatr 2021 06 5;21(1):261. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, National Children's Medical Center, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) affects as many as 100,000 infants each year in China. Therapeutic hypothermia reduces HIE related mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities. National guidelines for HIE management were published a decade ago. This study aimed to investigate the current status of HIE diagnosis and treatment in China.

Method: This prospective cross-sectional national survey used a questionnaire evaluating practices related to HIE management. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used, and a p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: The 273 hospitals that completed the survey were located in 31 of the 34 provincial districts in China. Eighty-eight percent of the hospitals were Level III hospitals, and 74% treated 10 or more HIE cases annually. Awareness rates of the national guidelines for HIE diagnosis, HIE treatment, and therapeutic hypothermia protocol were 85, 63, and 78%, respectively. Neurological manifestations and blood gas were used as HIE diagnostic criteria by 96% (263/273) and 68% (186/273) of the hospitals, respectively. Therapeutic hypothermia was used in 54% (147/273) of hospitals. The percentage of general hospitals that implemented therapeutic hypothermia (43%, 71/165) was significantly lower than that in maternity and infant hospitals (67%, 49/73) (χ = 11.752, p = 0.001) and children's hospitals (77%, 27/35) (χ = 13.446, p < 0.001). Reasons for not providing therapeutic hypothermia included reduction of HIE cases in recent years (39%), high cost of cooling devices and treatment (31%), lack of training (26%), and safety concerns (4%). Among the hospitals that provided therapeutic hypothermia, 27% (39/147) were in full compliance with the recommended protocol. Eighty-one percent (222/273) of the hospitals treated HIE infants with putative neuroprotective agents alone or in combination with cooling. Ninety-one percent of the hospitals had long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up programs for infants with HIE.

Conclusions: There is significant heterogeneity in HIE diagnosis and treatment in China. Therapeutic hypothermia has not become a standard of care for neonatal HIE nationwide. Unproven agents are widely used for HIE treatment. Nationwide standardization of HIE management and dissemination of therapeutic hypothermia represent the opportunities to reduce mortality and improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children affected by HIE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02737-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178820PMC
June 2021

Psychosocial and behavioral problems of children and adolescents in the early stage of reopening schools after the COVID-19 pandemic: a national cross-sectional study in China.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 06 3;11(1):342. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Child Health Care, Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, China.

This study aims to explore the psychosocial and behavioral problems of children and adolescents in the early stage of reopening schools. In this national cross-sectional study, a total of 11072 students from China were naturally divided into two groups based on their schooling status: reopened schools (RS) and home schooling (HS) group. The psychosocial and behavioral functioning were measured by Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and compared in these two groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the independent predictors associated with the psychosocial and behavioral problems. Our results showed that the students in the RS group had more adverse behaviors than that of HS group. The RS group had the higher rates of parent-offspring conflict, prolonged homework time, increased sedentary time and sleep problems (all p < 0.001). When separate analyses were conducted in boys and girls, the RS group had the higher scores for (1) overall behavioral problems (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01), internalizing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02) and externalizing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004) behaviors in the 6-11 age group; (2) externalizing (p = 0.049 and p = 0.006) behaviors in the 12-16 age group. Multivariable regression showed parent-offspring conflict and increased sedentary time were the most common risk factors, while physical activity and number of close friends were protective factors for behavior problems in RS students (p < 0.01 or 0.05). The present study revealed that students' psychosocial and behavioral problems increased in the early stage of schools reopened unexpectedly. These findings suggest that close attention must be paid and holistic strategies employed in the school reopening process of post-COVID-19 period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01462-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172553PMC
June 2021

Antioxidant Activity and Healthy Benefits of Natural Pigments in Fruits: A Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 6;22(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

Key Laboratory of Plant Hormones and Development Regulation of Chongqing, School of Life Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China.

Natural pigments, including carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanidins, determine the attractive color of fruits. These natural pigments are essential secondary metabolites, which play multiple roles in the whole life cycle of plants and are characterized by powerful antioxidant activity. After decades of research and development, multiple benefits of these natural pigments to human health have been explored and recognized and have shown bright application prospects in food, medicine, cosmetics and other industries. In this paper, the research progress of natural fruit pigments in recent years was reviewed, including the structural characteristics and classification, distribution in fruits and analysis methods, biosynthetic process, antioxidant capacity and mechanism, bioaccessibility and bioavailability, and health benefits. Overall, this paper summarizes the recent advances in antioxidant activity and other biological functions of natural fruit pigments, which aims to provide guidance for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125642PMC
May 2021

Changes in the Small RNA Expression in Endothelial Cells in Response to Inflammatory Stimulation.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 27;2021:8845520. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

Objective: Endothelial cell inflammation is a common pathophysiological process in many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Small RNA is a kind of short nonprotein coding RNA molecule. Changes in the small RNA expression in endothelial cells have been linked to the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. We investigated and verified differentially expressed small RNAs in endothelial cells in response to inflammatory stimulation.

Methods: Primary rat endothelial cells were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with 10 ng/ml TNF- for 24 hours. Small RNA sequencing was used to generate extensive small RNA data. Significantly differentially expressed small RNAs identified in the analysis were further confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Then, we investigated the tissue-specific small RNA expression after RNA extraction from different tissues.

Results: Small RNA sequencing demonstrated that 17 miRNAs, 1 piRNA, 10 snoRNAs, and 7 snRNAs were significantly differentially expressed. qRT-PCR identified 3 miRNAs, 2 snoRNAs, and 2 snRNAs with significantly different expression. Analysis of the tissue-specific expression showed that rno-miR-126a-5p was predominantly expressed in the lung, rno-miR-146a-5p in the intestines, and rno-novel-178 in the heart. Rno-piR-017330 was mainly expressed in the muscle. snoR-8966.1 was predominantly expressed in the bone. snoR-6253.1 was mostly expressed in the vessels and bone. snR-29469.1 was mainly expressed in the bone, and snR-85806.1 was predominantly expressed in the vessels and bone.

Conclusions: We report for the first time the expression of small RNAs in endothelial cells under inflammatory conditions. TNF- can regulate the expression of small RNAs in endothelial cells, and their expression is tissue-specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8845520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133845PMC
April 2021

Image-guided surgery in otolaryngology: A review of current applications and future directions in head and neck surgery.

Head Neck 2021 08 25;43(8):2534-2553. Epub 2021 May 25.

Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA.

Image-guided surgery (IGS) has become a widely adopted technology in otolaryngology. Since its introduction nearly three decades ago, IGS technology has developed rapidly and improved real-time intraoperative visualization for a diverse array of clinical indications. As usability, accessibility, and clinical experiences with IGS increase, its potential applications as an adjunct in many surgical procedures continue to expand. Here, we describe the basic components of IGS and review both the current state and future directions of IGS in otolaryngology, with attention to current challenges to its application in surgery of the nonrigid upper aerodigestive tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.26743DOI Listing
August 2021

Whether erythropoietin can be a neuroprotective agent against premature brain injury: cellular mechanisms and clinical efficacy.

Authors:
Xueling Ma Yuan Shi

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University; National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders; Chongqing 400014, China.

Preterm infants are at high risk of brain injury. With more understanding of the preterm brain injury's pathogenesis, neuroscientists are looking for more effective methods to prevent and treat it, among which erythropoietin (Epo) is considered as a prime candidate. This review tries to clarify the possible mechanisms of Epo in preterm neuroprotection and summarize updated evidence considering Epo as a pharmacological neuroprotective strategy in animal models and clinical trials. To date, various animal models have validated that Epo is an anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-excitotoxic, neurogenetic, erythropoietic, angiogenetic, and neurotrophic agent, thus preventing preterm brain injury. However, although the scientific rationale and preclinical data for Epo's neuroprotective effect are promising, when translated to bedside, the results vary in different studies, especially in its long-term efficacy. Based on existing evidence, it is still too early to recommend Epo as the standard treatment for preterm brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X19666210524154519DOI Listing
May 2021

Tease out the future: How tea research might enable crop breeding for acid soil tolerance.

Plant Commun 2021 May 24;2(3):100182. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Unlike most crops, in which soil acidity severely limits productivity, tea () actually prefers acid soils (pH 4.0-5.5). Specifically, tea is very tolerant of acidity-promoted aluminum (Al) toxicity, a major factor that limits the yield of most other crops, and it even requires Al for optimum growth. Understanding tea Al tolerance and Al-stimulatory mechanisms could therefore be fundamental for the future development of crops adapted to acid soils. Here, we summarize the Al-tolerance mechanisms of tea plants, propose possible mechanistic explanations for the stimulation of tea growth by Al based on recent research, and put forward ideas for future crop breeding for acid soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xplc.2021.100182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132122PMC
May 2021

Cough Recognition Based on Mel-Spectrogram and Convolutional Neural Network.

Front Robot AI 2021 7;8:580080. Epub 2021 May 7.

Beijing National Research Center for Information Science and Technology, Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

In daily life, there are a variety of complex sound sources. It is important to effectively detect certain sounds in some situations. With the outbreak of COVID-19, it is necessary to distinguish the sound of coughing, to estimate suspected patients in the population. In this paper, we propose a method for cough recognition based on a Mel-spectrogram and a Convolutional Neural Network called the Cough Recognition Network (CRN), which can effectively distinguish cough sounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2021.580080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138471PMC
May 2021

The role of emodin on cisplatin resistance reversal of lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cell.

Anticancer Drugs 2021 Oct;32(9):939-949

Department of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital.

Exploring drugs that reverse drug resistance and increase the sensitivity of chemotherapy drugs could significantly improve treatment effect of cancer. Our study explored the reversal effect and possible molecular mechanisms of emodin on cisplatin resistance in A549/DDP cells. The IC50 and resistance index of cells were determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. The ability of cell proliferation was evaluated by wound healing assay. Transwell assay was used to detect cell invasion and migration. Apoptosis induction rate was determined by flow cytometry assay and 4',6- diamidino- 2-phenylindole staining. Intracellular concentration was determined by HPLC. Western blot analysis was applied to determine expressions of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) and its downstream proteins. In this study, we found that the growth inhibitory effect of cisplatin was significantly enhanced by emodin in A549/DDP cells. The combined use of emodin with DDP can effectively promote lung cancer cells apoptosis and inhibit cell migration and invasion. Further investigation indicated that reinforcement effect of emodin and DDP may be associated with inhibition of NF-κB pathway and drug efflux-related proteins such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and Glutathione S-transferase (GST). The key role of NF-κB was further confirmed by the application of NF-κB inhibitor Ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate. The intervention of both can significantly increase A549/DDP cell apoptosis and inhibit DDP-induced upregulation of P-gp, MRP and GST. Emodin reverses the cisplatin resistance of tumor cells by down-regulating expression of P-gp, MRP and GST, increasing the intracellular accumulation in A549/DDP cells, and the effect may be associated with the NF-κB pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0000000000001086DOI Listing
October 2021

Hydrogen Alleviates Neuronal Injury and Neuroinflammation Induced by Microglial Activation via the Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-related Factor 2 Pathway in Sepsis-associated Encephalopathy.

Neuroscience 2021 07 13;466:87-100. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China; Tianjin Research Institute of Anesthesiology, Tianjin 300052, China. Electronic address:

Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is characterized by diffuse cerebral and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Microglia play a vital role in protecting the brain from neuronal damage, which is closely related to inflammatory responses. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway has an impact on microglial and neuronal injury. Here, we mainly explored the molecular mechanism by which Hydrogen (H) regulates neuroinflammation in SAE and the role of Nrf2 in this process. An in vivo model of SAE was generated by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Primary microglia and neurons were cultured to establish an in vitro model. Microglia, neurons and brain tissue were obtained to detect Nrf2 expression, inflammation, cell injury, apoptosis, and microglial polarization. Escape latency, the number of platform crossings and the time spent in the target quadrant were measured to assess cognitive function. H attenuated microglial polarization from the M1 to the M2 phenotype, cytokine release and TLR/NF-κb activation and protected neurons from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia-induced injury via the Nrf2 pathway. SAE activated Nrf2 expression, and H further improved Nrf2 expression in SAE mice. H alleviated microglial polarization from the M1 to the M2 phenotype and cytokine release in the cerebral cortex and improved neuronal injury or cognitive dysfunction in SAE mice and wild-type mice but not in Nrf2-/- mice. H exerts antineuroinflammatory effects associated with TLR4/NF-κB signaling activation and neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines, neuronal loss and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo through the Nrf2 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.05.003DOI Listing
July 2021

PADI4 mediates autophagy and participates in the role of ganoderic acid A monomers in delaying the senescence of Alzheimer's cells through the Akt/mTOR pathway.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2021 Jul;85(8):1818-1829

Disease Prevention and Health Management Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

The effects of PADI4 and GAA on the senescence of Alzheimer's cells were explored in the present work. HT22 cells were treated with Aβ25-35 to establish an Alzheimer's model and were then treated with different concentrations of GAA and transfected with a siPADI4 lentiviral vector. GAA could reverse the effects of Aβ25-35 on inhibiting cell viability and promoting apoptosis and senescence. siPADI4 reduced Aβ25-35-induced cell viability and upregulated Aβ25-35-induced cell apoptosis and senescence, as well as partially reversed the effect of GAA on cells, and these results were confirmed by detecting the expressions of senescence- and apoptosis-related proteins. In addition, siPADI4 was found to promote the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR, which was partially reversed by GAA. In conclusion, PADI4 mediates autophagy and participates in the role of GAA monomers in delaying the senescence of Alzheimer's cells through the Akt/mTOR pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bbb/zbab054DOI Listing
July 2021

Polysomnographic nighttime features of narcolepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Aug 5;58:101488. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Sleep Medicine Center, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Mental Health Center, Translational Neuroscience Center, and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Polysomnographic studies have been conducted to explore nighttime sleep features in narcolepsy, but their relationship to narcolepsy is still imperfectly understood. We conducted a systematic review of the literature exploring polysomnographic differences between narcolepsy patients and healthy controls (HCs) in EMBASE, MEDLINE, All EBM databases, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. 108 studies were identified for this review, 105 of which were used for meta-analysis. Meta-analyses revealed significant reductions in sleep latency, sleep efficiency, slow wave sleep percentage, rapid eye movement sleep (REM) latency, cyclic alternating pattern rate, and increases in total sleep time, wake time after sleep onset (WASO), awakening numbers (AWN) per hour, stage shift (SS) per hour, N1 percentage, apnea hypopnea index, and periodic limb movement index in narcolepsy patients compared with HCs. Furthermore, narcolepsy type 1 patients showed more disturbed nighttime sleep compared with narcolepsy type 2 patients. Children and adolescent narcolepsy patients show increased WASO, AWN, and SS compared with adult patients. Macro- and micro-structurally, our study suggests that narcolepsy patients have poor nighttime sleep. Sex, age, body mass index, disease duration, disease type, medication status, and adaptation night are demographic, clinical and methodological factors that contribute to heterogeneity between studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101488DOI Listing
August 2021

A heparin-rosuvastatin-loaded P(LLA-CL) nanofiber-covered stent inhibits inflammatory smooth-muscle cell viability to reduce in-stent stenosis and thrombosis.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Apr 29;19(1):123. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: An endovascular covered-stent has unique advantages in treating complex intracranial aneurysms; however, in-stent stenosis and late thrombosis have become the main factors affecting the efficacy of covered-stent treatment. Smooth-muscle-cell phenotypic modulation plays an important role in late in-stent stenosis and thrombosis. Here, we determined the efficacy of using covered stents loaded with drugs to inhibit smooth-muscle-cell phenotypic modulation and potentially lower the incidence of long-term complications.

Methods: Nanofiber-covered stents were prepared using coaxial electrospinning, with the core solution prepared with 15% heparin and 20 µM rosuvastatin solution (400: 100 µL), and the shell solution prepared with 120 mg/mL hexafluoroisopropanol. We established a rabbit carotid-artery aneurysm model, which was treated with covered stents. Angiography and histology were performed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and incidence rate of in-stent stenosis and thrombosis. Phenotype, function, and inflammatory factors of smooth-muscle cells were studied to explore the mechanism of rosuvastatin action in smooth-muscle cells.

Result: Heparin-rosuvastatin-loaded nanofiber scaffold mats inhibited the proliferation of synthetic smooth-muscle cells, and the nanofiber-covered stent effectively treated aneurysms in the absence of notable in-stent stenosis. Additionally, in vitro experiments showed that rosuvastatin inhibited the smooth-muscle-cell phenotypic modulation of platelet-derived growth factor-BB induction and decreased synthetic smooth-muscle-cell viability, as well as secretion of inflammatory cytokines.

Conclusion: Rosuvastatin inhibited the abnormal proliferation of synthetic smooth-muscle cells, and heparin-rosuvastatin-loaded covered stents reduced the incidence of stenosis and late thrombosis, thereby improving the healing rates of stents used for aneurysm treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00867-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086342PMC
April 2021

Effect of antibiotic-induced intestinal dysbacteriosis on bronchopulmonary dysplasia and related mechanisms.

J Transl Med 2021 04 16;19(1):155. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, No.136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing, 400014, People's Republic of China.

Background: Modification of the gut microbiota by antibiotics may influence the disease susceptibility and immunological responses. Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) subjected to frequent antibiotics and oxygen therapies, which may give rise to local and systemic inflammatory reactions and progression of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This study aimed to investigate the role of intestinal dysbacteriosis by antibiotic therapy before hyperoxia exposure in the progression of BPD.

Methods: Mice had been exposed to hyperoxia (85% O) since postnatal day 3 until day 16 for the BPD model establishment, treated with antibiotics from postnatal day 2 until day 8. Treated mice and appropriate controls were harvested on postnatal day 2 or 10 for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, or postnatal day 17 for assessment of alveolar morphometry and macrophages differentiation.

Results: Antibiotic-induced intestinal dysbacteriosis before hyperoxia exposure gave rise to deterioration of BPD evidenced by reduced survival rates and alveolarization. Moreover, antibiotic-induced intestinal dysbacteriosis resulted in increased M1 macrophage maker (iNOS) and decreased M2 macrophage maker (Arg-1) levels in lung homogenates.

Conclusion: Broad-spectrum antibiotic-induced intestinal dysbacteriosis may participate in BPD pathogenesis via alteration of the macrophage polarization status. Manipulating the gut microbiota may potentially intervene the therapy of BPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02794-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054697PMC
April 2021
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