Publications by authors named "Yu-Hua Wang"

84 Publications

Collection calendar: the diversity and local knowledge of wild edible plants used by Chenthang Sherpa people to treat seasonal food shortages in Tibet, China.

J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2021 Jun 10;17(1):40. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Background: Wild edible plants (WEPs) are non-cultivated and non-domesticated plants used for food. WEPs provided food, nutrition, herbs and other plant products for people in underdeveloped areas, such as the Everest region, to maintain their daily lives. Chenthang Town is the only Sherpa ethnic township in Tibet, China. The core purpose of this research is to investigate, collect and record the WEPs and related local knowledge and functions within the Sherpa community. The ultimate goal is to answer the question of why Sherpa people choose these particular plants.

Materials And Methods: The field study was carried out in the six Sherpa communities of Chenthang Township from September 2019 to August 2020. The WEPs and related local knowledge were collected through semistructured interviews and direct observations. The field work was performed with the assistance of local guides. During the field survey, we collected plant specimens based on the principle of one plant with one vernacular name. In this study, we utilised a use report (UR) and cultural importance index (CI) to evaluate the comprehensive utilization value of WEPs in the daily diet of Sherpa people.

Results: We interviewed 78 people individually who provided us with 1199 use reports. In total, we collected 84 WEPs belonging to 65 genera in 41 families. These species were identified as 78 distinct ethno-species by local people, and the vernacular name of each ethno-species was recorded. Then, these use reports were classified into six use categories. All these plants were native wild plants. In these plants, Arisaema utile, Sorbus cuspidata and Elaeagnus umbellata have been introduced into home gardens by local people. Following the description of the Sherpa people, we articulated a collection calendar for WEPs. The Sherpa collect WEPs throughout nearly the entire year, January and February being the exceptions.

Conclusion: The collection calendar of wild edible plants reflects the wisdom of the Sherpa in terms of survival. The Sherpa cleverly survive the food shortage periods by harnessing the phenology of different species. In general, WEPs can provide the Sherpa with seasonal carbohydrates, nutrition, healthcare supplements and other products and services necessary for survival, which is likely why the Sherpa choose these plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13002-021-00464-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190990PMC
June 2021

Career choice and influential factors among medical students majoring in psychiatry in China.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Mar 25;21(1):183. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Background: The undergraduate program of psychiatry has been widely established in recent years to improve the education and recruitment of psychiatrists in China. We aim to investigate the career choice of medical students majoring in psychiatry in China and the influential factors.

Method: This multicenter study was conducted in 26 medical schools in China from May to October of 2019. Participants included 4610 medical students majoring in psychiatry and 3857 medical students majoring in clinical medicine. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the influential factors of students' choices of psychiatry at matriculation and as a career.

Results: 44.08% of psychiatry majored students gave psychiatry as a first choice at matriculation, and 56.67% of them would choose psychiatry as a career, which was in sharp contrast to the proportion of clinical medicine majored students who would choose psychiatry as a career (0.69%). Personal interest (59.61%), suggestions from family members (27.96%), and experiencing mental problems (23.19%) were main reasons for choosing psychiatry major at matriculation. Personal interest (odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87-2.40), experiencing a psychiatry clerkship (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.28-3.08), being female (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.30-1.68), experiencing mental problems (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.28-1.56), and suggestions from family members (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08-1.46) correlated positively with students' choice of psychiatry as career. Students who lacked psychiatry knowledge (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.29-0.85) or chose psychiatry because of lower admission scores (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.63-0.97) were less likely to choose psychiatry as a career.

Conclusion: More than half of psychiatry majored medical school students planned to choose psychiatry as their career, whereas very few students in the clinic medicine major would make this choice. Increasing students' interest in psychiatry, strengthening psychiatry clerkships, and popularizing psychiatric knowledge are modifiable factors to increase the psychiatry career intention. The extent to which medical students' attitudes toward psychiatry can be changed through medical school education and greater exposure to psychiatry will need further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-021-02622-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992123PMC
March 2021

Clinical characteristics of systemic lupus erythematosus with chylothorax and/or chylous ascites: An analysis of 15 cases in China.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Dec;99(51):e23661

Department of Lymph Surgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Abstract: This analysis of clinical data from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with chylothorax and/or chylous ascites was conducted to guide further clinical work.From June 2008 to June 2019, 15 SLE patients (14 females and 1 male) with chylothorax and/or chylous ascites were hospitalized at the Beijing Shijitan Hospital. Sixty SLE patients without chylothorax and chylous ascites were randomly selected as controls. Patients', clinical data was investigated.The mean age of onset of chylothorax and/or chylous ascites in patients with SLE was 35.7 ± 3.7 years (range, 15-69 years). The mean disease duration of chylothorax and/or chylous ascites in patients with SLE was 13.7 ± 3.4 months (range, 1-48 months). Patients with chylothorax and/or chylous ascites were always diagnosed at later stages of SLE compared with the controls. Among cases, glomerulonephritis and hematologic system involvement were the most common complications. Anti-Sjogren's syndrome antigen A antibody was positive in 7 cases (46.7%). Among cases, direct lymphangiography was performed in 13 patients, indicating thoracic duct outlet obstruction or a poor backflow at the terminal of the thoracic duct. Subsequently, 13 patients were treated with corticosteroids, combined with immunosuppressants in 11 patients and thoracic duct surgery in 6 patients. Eleven patients were followed up for 0.5 to 7.0 years. One patient died of infection. Eight patients (53.3%) achieved remission.Chylothorax and/or chylous ascites are rare complications of SLE. An early diagnosis and timely initiation of glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, and surgery are critical to relieve symptoms and to improve prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748198PMC
December 2020

A natriuretic peptide from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPNP-A) can modulate catalase 2 activity.

Sci Rep 2020 11 12;10(1):19632. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, 3552, Australia.

Analogues of vertebrate natriuretic peptides (NPs) present in plants, termed plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs), comprise a novel class of hormones that systemically affect salt and water balance and responses to plant pathogens. Several lines of evidence indicate that Arabidopsis thaliana PNP (AtPNP-A) affects cellular redox homeostasis, which is also typical for the signaling of its vertebrate analogues, but the molecular mechanism(s) of this effect remains elusive. Here we report identification of catalase 2 (CAT2), an antioxidant enzyme, as an interactor of AtPNP-A. The full-length AtPNP-A recombinant protein and the biologically active fragment of AtPNP-A bind specifically to CAT2 in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses, while a biologically inactive scrambled peptide does not. In vivo bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) showed that CAT2 interacts with AtPNP-A in chloroplasts. Furthermore, CAT2 activity is lower in homozygous atpnp-a knockdown compared with wild type plants, and atpnp-a knockdown plants phenocopy CAT2-deficient plants in their sensitivity to elevated HO, which is consistent with a direct modulatory effect of the PNP on the activity of CAT2 and hence HO homeostasis. Our work underlines the critical role of AtPNP-A in modulating the activity of CAT2 and highlights a mechanism of fine-tuning plant responses to adverse conditions by PNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76676-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665192PMC
November 2020

KP-3-fermented ginseng ameliorates alcohol-induced liver disease in C57BL/6N mice through the AMPK and MAPK pathways.

Food Funct 2020 Nov;11(11):9801-9809

College of Food science and Engineering, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

Panax ginseng was fermented using Lactobacillus fermentum KP-3, and the levels of the minor ginsenosides were measured. Then, the effect of fermented ginseng on alcohol-induced liver injury was investigated. C57BL/6N mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups: pair fed (PF), alcohol fed (AF), alcohol with non-fermented ginseng (AF + NFG) and alcohol with fermented ginseng (AF + FG) groups. After treatment for 8 weeks, fermented ginseng intervention significantly reduced the levels of serum ALT, AST, LPS, TG and TC compared with the AF group. The western-blotting results showed that fermented ginseng activated the adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway to inhibit de novo lipogenesis in the liver and inhibited phosphorylation of p38 through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway to alleviate hepatic inflammation, and these effects were superior than those of non-fermented ginseng. Furthermore, fermented ginseng reduced alcohol-induced liver oxidative damage by upregulating the levels of antioxidant enzymes. These findings suggested that the L. fermentum KP-3-fermented ginseng product may be used as a potential dietary nutraceutical for alleviating alcoholic liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02396eDOI Listing
November 2020

The best choices: the diversity and functions of the plants in the home gardens of the Tsang-la (Motuo Menba) communities in Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon, Southwest China.

J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2020 Aug 31;16(1):50. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Background: Home garden is identified as a kind of small-scale land-use system which is used to manage and cultivate useful plants by local people, and home gardens can provide various plant products and services. Investigating home gardens was regarded as an effective way to understand the biodiversity-related local knowledge and culture of native people in Ethnobiology and Ethnoecology. Home garden is important in less developed and remote areas. The grand canyon of Yarlung Tsangpo is designed as one of the biodiversity hotspots of China, and it is one of the most remote regions of China, because of the rough traffic conditions. The aim of the present study is to collect, record, and document the plants and their local knowledge and functions in the local home gardens, then attempt to answer the question: "why local people selected these plants?"

Material And Methods: The study area was in Beibeng Township of Motuo County in the grand canyon of Yarlung Tsangpo. Observation and semi-structure interviews with informed consent were used to collect data in field study. All information was collected and organized, then documented based on "ethno-species" as a fundamental unit. All of the information of local use and knowledge were organized as the list of "use-report" for quantitative analysis, and the local uses of plants were merged into 14 use categories. Frequency of citation (FC), relative frequency of citation (RFC), cultural importance index (CI), and cultural value index (CV) were used in quantitative analysis. Besides, the Jaccard Index was used to compare the similarity in plant species selection among different communities.

Results: A total of 78 home gardens in the 9 communities of Beibeng Township were visited, and 196 ethno-species were collected. These ethno-species were identified into 188 Botanical taxa. A total of 87 home garden owners as informants were interviewed in the present study, and they provided 625 use-reports to us. The top 5 important plants were Su-lan-tsao (Dendrobium nobile), Sa-ga (Zingiber officinale), Soe-lu (Capsicum annuum), Snying-pa (Citrus medica), and Kham-pu (Prunus persica), according to the quantitative analysis. The most citied use-category was "vegetable," followed by "ornamental plant," "medicine," and "fruit." The altitude might be the most important impact factor of the plant diversity and composition of home gardens, and the traffic conditions, local terrain, also impact the plant diversity and composition of home gardens.

Conclusion: In remote areas such as the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon, the plants in home gardens are important sources of plant products such as foods, herbal medicines, and fibers to support daily lives. The local home gardens in Tsang-la communities had high diversity of plants, and these plants provided many functions and services to support daily lives of local people. Local plant knowledge, including the features, life forms, habits, habitats, and use values of plants, were the summary of the understanding of local people to their surrounding plant worlds. Local people selected appropriate plants to cultivate and manage in their home gardens under the guidance of the local plant knowledge. That is the answer to the question "why local people selected these plants?"
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13002-020-00395-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457371PMC
August 2020

Profile of Long-Term Care Recipients Receiving Home and Community-Based Services and the Factors That Influence Utilization in Taiwan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 04 13;17(8). Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan.

In response to the irreversible aging trend, the Taiwan government has promoted the Long-Term Care (LTC) policy 1.0 launched in 2007 and the LTC policy 2.0 reform since 2016. This study aimed to explore the utilization of formal home and community-based care under LTC policy 1.0 to add scientific support for the on-going LTC policy 2.0 reform.

Methods: By using Andersen and Aday's behavioral model of healthcare utilization, the long-term care dataset was analyzed from 2013 to 2016. A total of 101,457 care recipients were identified after data cleaning.

Results: The results revealed that about 40.7% of the care recipients stayed in the care system for more than two years. A common factor influencing the length of home and community-based services (HCBS) utilization period included need factors, where more dependent recipients leave the LTC system regardless of their socio-economic status. However, the utilization period of non-low-income households is significantly affected by the level of service resources.

Conclusion: For long-term care needs, the phenomenon of a short utilization period was concerning. This study adds information which suggests policy should reconsider care capacity and quality, especially for moderate to severely dependent recipients. This will allow for better understanding to help maintain care recipients in their own communities to achieve the goal of having an aging in place policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216140PMC
April 2020

Medicinal and edible plants used by the Lhoba people in Medog County, Tibet, China.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Mar 26;249:112430. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology and the Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650201, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The Lhoba people are a small, ancient, tribal ethnic group from the Himalayas and are located in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Medog County is rich in biocultural diversity. For a long time, Medog has been almost isolated from the outside world. The Lhoba people, who live in Medog, have maintained a relatively unique lifestyle and have accumulated rich traditional knowledge (TK), especially about medicinal and edible plants. Currently, there is very little documentation of the plants traditionally used by the local Lhoba communities.

Aim Of The Study: Our investigation aimed to (i) document the species of medicinal and food plants used by the Lhoba people in Medog County, Tibet, China; (ii) screen the most important plant taxa for specific medicines, and identify the aliments treated to further contribute to drug and food supplement research; and (iii) examine whether the ethnobotanical knowledge of the Lhoba is similar among different tribes and discuss traditional uses in the health practices and livelihoods of the local communities.

Methods: Ethnobotanical data were recorded through semi-structured interviews, guided field trips, and quantitative analysis. The informant consensus factor (FIC) was used as a quantitative index.

Results: Ninety-one informants (61 men and 30 women) were interviewed. A total of 75 species, including 37 medicinal plants for 14 categories of diseases and 57 edible plants from six types of food, were recorded. Among the usage types of medicinal plants, the highest FIC values were recorded for antidotes (FIC = 0.98), anthelmintics (FIC = 0.98), and treatments of gastrointestinal problems (FIC = 0.93). The FIC values for different types of edible plants were very similar. The most frequently used medicinal and food plants in the studied communities are Zanthoxylum motuoense, Crassocephalum crepidioides, and Swertia nervosa. According to the comparative study, few differences in the use of wild plants were found. There appeared to be more overlapping species between two Lhoba tribes in Medog, named Mixingba and Miguba, with 46 (61%) common species, compared with the Bo'gaer tribe in Milin, which had only two (2.7%) overlapping species. This might be due to the different geographical environments, vegetation types, and different influences of other ethnic cultures.

Conclusions: The Lhoba people in Medog County, Tibet, China, have rich TK about the uses of wild plants. However, the TK is seriously threatened due to environmental degradation and acculturation, and it showed signs of being forgotten and abandoned by the younger generation. Therefore, measures are urgently needed to document and protect the TK of the uses of the wild plant resources; and (i) the most frequently used medicinal and/or edible plants; (ii) the plants used to treat the most commonly mentioned diseases; and (iii) the endemic species that are widely used in Medog, which should be assessed for their potential future as food supplements and therapeutic products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.112430DOI Listing
March 2020

The Implementation of Restorative Care and Factors Associated with Resident Outcomes in Long-Term Care Facilities in Taiwan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 10 12;16(20). Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Yung Shin Social Welfare Foundation, Taichung 437, Taiwan.

This study aimed to analyze how restorative care is implemented in long-term care facilities and factors associated with resident outcomes in Taiwan. A one-group pre-test and post-test design was adopted in 24 long-term care facilities by collecting a sample of 310 participants at the baseline and 210 at six months. Participants were residents aged 65 or over, and were being constrained, used diapers, or were bedridden, or a combination of these. Their physical and mental functions were measured using Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15), and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). Mean differences in the outcomes were analyzed, and mixed effect models were used to examine influencing factors. The results showed that most of the participants had good family support. However, participants with better family support were more likely to drop out. Improvements were found in the residents' outcomes on physical function, depression and quality of life. Social support was a significant influencing factor on most of the outcomes. In conclusion, restorative care was found to have positive effects on residents' physical function and helped maintain mental function. Sufficient support and communication between participants, families, and staff in facilities are key factors leading to positive outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6843543PMC
October 2019

[Design and application of an oral health self-efficacy scale for patients with dental implants].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2019 Jun;28(3):293-296

Department of Prosthodontics, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine; National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology and Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology. Shanghai 200011, China.

Purpose: To design an oral health self-efficacy scale for patients with dental implants and to evaluate their reliability and validity.

Methods: Based on literature review, we designed and developed a self-efficacy energy table that met the characteristics of implant patients. The scale consisted of 16 items which were divided into 3 dimensions, including self-efficacy of dental implant surgery, self-efficacy of postoperative supportive care, and self-efficacy of oral hygiene habits. The reliability and validity of the scale were evaluated by factor analysis in 102 outpatients with dental implants using SPSS 13.3 software package.

Results: A total of 4 common factors were extracted from the scale, and the cumulative contribution rate was 75.35%. The overall Cronbach's α coefficient of the scale was 0.910, and the retest correlation coefficient was 0.882, which belonged to high-signal scale.

Conclusions: The oral health self-efficacy energy scale for implant patients with independent design has high reliability and validity. It can provide targeted guidance for oral health education for implant patients and improve the success rate of implant surgery.
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June 2019

Enhancement of carotenoid biosynthesis in PR106 under stress conditions.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2019 Dec 8;83(12):2375-2385. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

College of Food science and Engineering, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

Carotenoids have good biological activity in antioxidant, anti-aging and scavenging harmful free radicals. In this study, we screened a strain that produced carotenoids, and selected a stress condition which significantly improved carotenoids content. The strain was identified as PR106. Active oxygen generator TiO was the most significant factor to the carotenoids content of the . The content of carotenoids was 54.45 mg/g at 500 mg/L TiO, which was about 1.25 times of the control and the proportion of carotenoids also changed from 1:9:16 to 1:8.5:12. Further, we determined the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in YEPD medium and , found that the ROS (HO, O, and HO•) was significantly increased at 500 mg/L TiO in YEPD medium compared with the control, but increased in under 1000 mg/L TiO treated. These results suggested that the increase in carotenoids was related to ROS in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09168451.2019.1650633DOI Listing
December 2019

Methanol extract of semen Ziziphi Spinosae attenuates ethanol withdrawal anxiety by improving neuropeptide signaling in the central amygdala.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Jun 24;19(1):147. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Department of Psychopharmacology, School of Mental Health, Qiqihar Medical University, 333 Bukuibei Street, Jianhua District, Qiqihar, 161006, China.

Background: Ethanol withdrawal (EtOHW) anxiety is a crucial risk factor for alcoholic relapse. The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) acts upon its receptor (NOP) to antagonize corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and elicit anxiolytic actions. Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS), a prototypical hypnotic-sedative herb in Oriental medicine, exhibits anxiolytic effects during nicotine withdrawal by improving amygdaloid CRF/CRF1 receptor (CRFR1) signaling. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of SZS on EtOHW anxiety and the involvement of amygdaloid CRF/CRFR1 and N/OFQ/NOP pathways.

Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injections of 2 g/kg EtOH (20% v/v) once daily for 28 d followed by a 3-d withdrawal. During EtOHW, the rats were given once-daily intragastric treatments of a methanol extract of SZS (MESZS, 60 or 180 mg/kg/d). Anxiety-like behaviors were measured with the open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests, and plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. mRNA and protein expression levels of the neuropeptides and their receptors were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays.

Results: MESZS increased the distance traveled in the center zone of the OF and dose-dependently elongated the duration of staying in the center zone in EtOHW rats. MESZS increased both the number of entries into and the time spent in the open arms of the EPM by EtOHW rats. And, MESZS inhibited the over secretion of plasma CORT during EtOHW. EtOHW enhanced CRF and CRFR1 gene and protein expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), which were inhibited by 180 mg/kg/d MESZS. EtOHW increased amygdaloid NOP mRNA and protein expression but spared N/OFQ mRNA expression, and 180 mg/kg/d MESZS further promoted these increases. Additionally, a post-MESZS intra-CeA infusion of either CRF or the selective NOP antagonist UFP-101 abolished the expected anxiolytic effect of 180 mg/kg/d MESZS.

Conclusions: These results suggest that MESZS ameliorates EtOHW anxiety by improving both CRF/CRFR1 and N/OFQ/NOP transmissions in the CeA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2546-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6591875PMC
June 2019

Fabrication of a cost effective and broadband self-powered photodetector based on SbTe and silicon.

Nanotechnology 2019 Aug 6;30(34):345202. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023, People's Republic of China.

The excellent conductive surface electronic states of topological insulators make them suitable candidates for the next generation optoelectronic devices. Moreover, their unique semiconducting properties are favorable for building heterojunctions with other semiconductors. Here, we fabricated a low cost and broadband self-powered photodetector based on SbTe and Si. The photolithography and thermal evaporation technique were combined to fabricate a series of asymmetric planar SbTe electrodes on the surface of an n-type silicon substrate. An obvious asymmetrical current voltage curve occurred under dark conditions, which is ascribed to the asymmetry of each electrode. During the photodetection test, self-powered photodetection was obtained upon 940 nm light irradiation. Moreover, the photodetector exhibited fast and broadband photodetection from 365 nm to 940 nm with a response time less than 40 ms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab0d5cDOI Listing
August 2019

Decreased Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of the Salience Network in Drug-Naïve Patients With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

Front Neurosci 2018 28;12:889. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar, China.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients have difficulty in switching between obsessive thought and compulsive behavior, which may be related to the dysfunction of the salience network (SN). However, little is known about the changes in intra- and inter- intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of the SN in patients with OCD. In this study, we parceled the SN into 19 subregions and investigated iFC changes for each of these subregions in 40 drug-naïve patients with OCD and 40 healthy controls (HCs) using seed-based functional connectivity resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We found that patients with OCD exhibited decreased iFC strength between subregions of the SN, as well as decreased inter-network connectivity between SN and DMN, and ECN. These findings highlight a specific alteration in iFC patterns associated with SN in patients with OCD and provide new insights into the dysfunctional brain organization of the SN in patients with OCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2018.00889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6279930PMC
November 2018

Protective effects of enhanced minor ginsenosides in Lactobacillus fermentum KP-3-fermented ginseng in mice fed a high fat diet.

Food Funct 2018 Nov;9(11):6020-6028

College of Food science and Engineering, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

Lactobacillus fermentum KP-3 was isolated from Korean pickle and used to ferment ginseng. The changes in the minor ginsenosides in the fermented ginseng were analyzed and the material was evaluated in high fat diet-fed mice. Total ginsenosides increased from 0.746 mg g-1 to 0.939 mg g-1 after fermentation, and the levels of minor ginsenosides (Rg2, Rg3, Rh1, Rh2, F2, and Ro) increased from 0.186 mg g-1 to 0.704 mg g-1. In an animal study, the serum TC and LDL levels in the HFD group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Compared with the HFD group, the probiotic-fermented ginseng significantly decreased the serum TC and LDL levels. In addition, the serum and liver ALT and AST levels were dramatically increased in the HFD group, but these increases were significantly inhibited by treatment with the probiotic-fermented ginseng. Furthermore, fermented ginseng reduced high fat diet-induced liver lipid accumulation. Overall, fermentation with L. fermentum KP-3 enhanced minor ginsenosides in ginseng and this probiotic-fermented ginseng ameliorated hyperlipidemia and liver injury induced by a high fat diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8fo01056kDOI Listing
November 2018

Pharmacological Characterization of Dezocine, a Potent Analgesic Acting as a κ Partial Agonist and μ Partial Agonist.

Sci Rep 2018 09 20;8(1):14087. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Dezocine is becoming dominated in China market for relieving moderate to severe pain. It is believed that Dezocine's clinical efficacy and little chance to provoke adverse events during the therapeutic process are mainly attributed to its partial agonist activity at the μ opioid receptor. In the present work, we comprehensively studied the pharmacological characterization of Dezocine and identified that the analgesic effect of Dezocine was a result of action at both the κ and μ opioid receptors. We firstly found that Dezocine displayed preferential binding to μ opioid receptor over κ and δ opioid receptors. Dezocine, on its own, weakly stimulated G protein activation in cells expressing κ and μ receptors, but in the presence of full κ agonist U50,488 H and μ agonist DAMGO, Dezocine inhibited U50,488H- and DAMGO-mediated G protein activation, indicating that Dezocine was a κ partial agonist and μ partial agonist. Then the in intro results were verified by in vivo studies in mice. We observed that Dezocine-produced antinociception was significantly inhibited by κ antagonist nor-BNI and μ antagonist β-FNA pretreatment, indicating that Dezocine-mediated antinociception was via both the κ and μ opioid receptors. When co-administrating of Dezocine with U50,488 H or morphine, Dezocine was capable of inhibiting U50,488H- or morphine-induced antinociception. Finally, κ receptor activation-associated side effect sedation was investigated. We found that Dezocine displayed limited sedative effect with a ceiling effecting at a moderate dose. Thus, our work led to a better understanding of the analgesic mechanism of action of Dezocine in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32568-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6148296PMC
September 2018

Integrated Surface Modification to Enhance the Luminescence Properties of KTiF:Mn Phosphor and Its Application in White-Light-Emitting Diodes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Sep 23;10(35):29233-29237. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Chemistry , National Taiwan University , Taipei 106 , Taiwan.

Narrow-band Mn-doped fluoride phosphors have become a research hotspot worldwide. In this study, we propose integrated surface modification processes to enhance the performance and stability of the luminescence properties of KTiF:Mn (KTF) phosphor. These integrated process are applied in the initial synthesis step, coating of the as-synthesized powder post-treatment process, and during the application of the phosphor in the white-light-emitting diode (WLED) device. Surface etching is conducted to remove impurities and small particles in KTF. Double-shell coating forms a stable protective layer outside the KTF. Atomic layer deposition is employed for the surface of the WLED device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b12170DOI Listing
September 2018

7β-Methyl substituent is a structural locus associated with activity cliff for nepenthone analogues.

Bioorg Med Chem 2018 08 24;26(14):4254-4263. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

With the purpose of identifying novel selective κ opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists as potential antidepressants from nepenthone analogues, starting from N-nor-N-cyclopropylmethyl-nepenthone (SLL-020ACP), a highly selective and potent KOR agonist, a series of 7β-methyl-nepenthone analogues was conceived, synthesized and assayed on opioid receptors based on the concept of hybridization. According to the pharmacological results, the functional reversal observed in orvinol analogues by introduction of 7β-methyl substituent could not be reproduced in nepenthone analogues. Alternatively, introduction of 7β-methyl substituent was associated with substantial loss of both subtype selectivity and potency but not efficacy for nepenthone analogues, which was not found in 7β-methyl orvinol analogues. Surprisingly, SLL-603, a 7β-methyl analogue of SLL-020ACP, was identified to be a KOR full agonist. The possible molecular mechanism for the heterogeneity in activity cliff was also investigated. In conclusion, 7β-methyl substituent was a structural locus associated with activity cliff and demonstrated as a pharmacological heterogeneity between nepenthone and orvinol analogues that warrants further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2018.07.020DOI Listing
August 2018

Preparation and characterization of WSe nano-films by magnetron sputtering and vacuum selenization.

Nanotechnology 2018 Jul 29;29(27):275201. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Hubei province Key Laboratory of Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, People's Republic of China.

Graphene-structure WSe nano-films (NFMs) were prepared by magnetron sputtering and vacuum selenization. The as synthesized WSe NFMs were characterized using various techniques such as SEM, XRD and EDS. Our work provides a simple and effective method to prepare WSe NFMs. We have observed the high photo responsivity of WSe2 NFMs up to 10 A W, which is 40% higher than the previously reported data. Our photoelectrochemical tests demonstrate that WSe NFMs have excellent photoelectric properties, indicating that NFMs have a wide application potentialsin solar cells and optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aabab0DOI Listing
July 2018

Nonlinear optical and multi-photon absorption properties in graphene-ZnO nanocomposites.

Nanotechnology 2018 Apr;29(16):165706

Hubei province Key Laboratory of Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430081, People's Republic of China.

Graphene-ZnO (GZO) nanocomposites were synthesized by a modified solvothermal method, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, and UV-vis absorption spectra. The controllable nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of as-prepared GZO nanocomposites were tested by an open-aperture Z-scan method with 1030 nm fs laser pulses; the tested results showed that there were five-photon absorption (5PA) at 46.8 GW cm, 3PA at 28.1 GW cm, 2PA at 18.7 GW cm, and a vital change from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse SA (RSA) with the increase of incident intensity. This was the first time that 5PA was found in GZO nanocomposites at such a low intensity, 46.8 GW cm. The tunable NLO property from SA to RSA and controllable multi-photon absorption provided a facile approach for their applications in optical, optoelectronic devices, and information storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aaac13DOI Listing
April 2018

Blockade of nicotine sensitization by methanol extracts of Glycyrrhizae radix mediated via antagonism of accumbal oxidative stress.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 Nov 16;17(1):493. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

School of Mental Health, Qiqihar Medical University, 333 Bukuibei Street, Jianhua District, Qiqihar, 161006, China.

Background: We previously reported that a methanol extract of Glycyrrhizae radix (MEGR) blocked methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference in rats. In the present study, the effects of MEGR on repeated nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization and enhanced extracellular dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) were evaluated.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received repeated administrations of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, subcutaneous) or saline twice a day for 7 d and were challenged with nicotine 4 d after the last daily dosing. During the 4-d withdrawal period, the rats were treated once a day with MEGR (60 or 180 mg/kg/d). Extracellular DA levels were measured by in vivo microdialysis, the malondialdehyde levels and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in the Nacc were biochemically evaluated, and the expression of antioxidant proteins was confirmed by Western blot assays. All data were assessed with analysis of variance tests followed by post-hoc comparison tests and p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: The expression of repeated nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization was dose-dependently attenuated by MEGR, and 180 mg/kg/d MEGR significantly inhibited augmented accumbal DA release induced by a direct local challenge of nicotine. Moreover, 180 mg/kg/d MEGR reversed increases in malondialdehyde production, decreases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and the reduced expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase 1 in the nicotine-sensitized Nacc.

Conclusions: These results suggest that MEGR inhibited nicotine-induced locomotion and dopaminergic sensitization via antioxidant action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1999-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5691594PMC
November 2017

[Mineral composition analysis and hemostatic effect of limonitum with different mineral genesis].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2017 Aug;42(15):2989-2994

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, National and Local Collaborative Engineering Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization and Formulae Innovative Medicine, State Administration of traditional Chinese medicine Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Resource Recycling Utilization, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Functional Substance of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China.

Models were established in mice with warfarin sodium method, and their bleeding time and hemostasis time were measured by tail cutting method and slide method respectively. Rats were administered for 15 consecutive days to measure their recalcification time, plasma viscosity, platelet adhesion rate, platelet aggregation rate and other blood indexes. As compared with the blank group, the bleeding time was prolonged in model groupn(P<0.05). As compared with the model group, the results showed that the positive vitamin K, the leaching type water decoction and the sediment type decoction could significantly shorten the bleeding time (P<0.01); positive vitamin K significantly (P<0.01) shortened clotting time, and the leaching type water decoction, the sediment type water decoction and the sediment type powder could also shorten the clotting time (P<0.05). As compared with blank group, low dose, medium dose of leaching type water decoction, medium dose of powder, high dose of sediment type decoction and low dose of drug residues could reduce plasma viscosity (P<0.05), and high dose of leaching powder and low dose of water decoction could significantly reduce (P<0.01) plasma viscosity. As compared with blank group, Limonitum leaching type decoction high dose group could significantly reduce the platelet adhesion rate (P<0.05), while sediment type water decoction could significantly increase the platelet adhesion rate (P<0.05); the high dose of leaching type water decoction, high dose of drug residues, low dose of leaching type powder and low dose of drug residues could decrease the platelet aggregation rate (P<0.05), while high dose of leaching type water decoction and high dose of the powder could increase the platelet aggregation rate (P<0.05). Analysis of mineral compositions was conducted by polarized light microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of the both methods showed that Limonitum mineral compositions contained goethite, quartz, and kaolinite, and sedimentary type also contained illite and albite. Sediment type of Limonitum showed better hemostatic effect, which may be related to the high content of goethite and illite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20170630.002DOI Listing
August 2017

Mapping quantitative trait loci for fruit traits and powdery mildew resistance in melon (Cucumis melo).

Bot Stud 2016 Dec 8;57(1):19. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Fruit characters affect consumer preferences and the market value of melons is determined by fruit quality. Most fruit quality-related traits are controlled by multiple genes, and are influenced by environmental factors. Furthermore, powdery mildew is another limiting factor in melon production. To develop new melon cultivars with disease resistance and high quality fruits using the molecular marker-assisted breeding strategy, identification of quantitative trait loci for fruit quality and disease resistance is required.

Results: The F populations from the cross of TARI-08874 (Cucumis melo ssp. melo) and 'Bai-li-gua' (C. melo ssp. agrestis) were used to map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fruit-related traits and powdery mildew resistance in two trials. All traits were significantly different (P < 0.05) between parents. The generated linkage map consisted of twelve major linkage groups (LGs), spanning 626.1 cM in total, with an average distance of 8.3 cM between flanking markers. Nineteen QTLs were detected for seven melon traits, among which ten QTLs were localized to the same positions as the corresponding QTLs described in other studies. Four of these QTLs were detected in both trials. The results of identified QTLs in this study suggested that fruit size in the tested populations were mainly determined by fruit diameter and flesh thickness. All of the major QTLs for fruit diameter and flesh thickness were identified on LG5 and LG11. Four QTLs identified responsible for netting width of fruit rind were co-localized with the QTLs for netting density, suggesting similar genetic mechanisms affecting these two traits. Additionally, only one major QTL for powdery mildew resistance was detected on LG2, and it was closely linked to a simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker CMBR120 which was identified in a previous study.

Conclusion: Because the netting feature is a crucial factor for external appearance of fruits in Asia market, we focus on mining the genetic information of fruit netting. This is the first report of QTL mapping to netting width. Furthermore, new QTLs were identified for netting density (qND4, qND6, and qND7) and netting width (qNW2, qNW4, qNW6, and qNW7) successfully. In addition, novel QTLs for fruit diameter (qFD5), flesh thickness (qFT11) were also detected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40529-016-0130-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5430578PMC
December 2016

Genome-Wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery and the Construction of a High-Density Genetic Map for Melon ( L.) Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing.

Front Plant Sci 2017 6;8:125. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

Department of Agronomy, National Taiwan University Taipei, Taiwan.

Although genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) enables the efficient and low-cost generation of large numbers of markers, the utility of resultant genotypes are limited, because they are enormously error-prone and contain high proportions of missing data. In this study, we generated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for 109 recombinant inbred lines of melon ( L.) using the GBS approach and ordered them according to their physical position on the draft double haploid line DHL92 genome. Next, by investigating associations between these SNPs, we discovered that some segments on the physical map conflict with linkage relationships. Therefore, to filter out error-prone loci, 4,110 SNPs in which we have a high degree of confidence were selected as anchors to test independence with respect to unselected markers, and the resultant dataset was then analyzed using the Full-Sib Family Haplotype (FSFHap) algorithm in the software TASSEL 5.2. On the basis of this analysis, 22,933 loci that have an average rate of missing data of 0.281% were used to construct a genetic map, which spans 1,088.3 cM across 12 chromosomes and has a maximum spacing of 6.0 cM. Use of this high-quality linkage map enabled the identification of several quantitative trait loci (QTL) known to control traits in fruit and validated our approach. This study highlights the utility of GBS markers for the identification of trait-associated QTLs in melon and facilitates further investigation of genome structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5292975PMC
February 2017

Effect of Xinyue capsules on patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2016 08 18;17:412. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

Cardiovascular Diseases Center, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 1 Xiyuan Caochang, Haidian District, Beijing, 100091, China.

Background: The risk of cardiovascular events remains high in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Panax quinquefolius saponin, a major component of Xinyue capsule, has been used to treat patients with CHD. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Xinyue capsules in patients with CHD after PCI.

Methods/design: This study is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 1100 participants are randomly allocated to two groups: the intervention group and a placebo group. The intervention group receives Xinyue capsules plus conventional treatment, and the placebo group receives placebo capsules plus conventional treatment. The patients receive either Xinyue or placebo capsules three times daily (1.8 g/day) for up to 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the time from randomization to the first occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events. The secondary outcome measure is the time from randomization to the first occurrence of stroke, pulmonary embolism, and peripheral vascular events, as well as death due to any cause. All outcome measures will be assessed at 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after randomization. Adverse events will be monitored during the trial.

Discussion: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Xinyue capsules on patients with CHD after interventional treatment. The results of this trial will provide critical evidence regarding Chinese herbal medicine treatment for CHD.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry identifier ChiCTR-IPR-14005475. Registered on 10 November 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-016-1531-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4991005PMC
August 2016

[Study on toxicity of vinegar-processed Kansui Radix on basis of symptom-based prescription theory].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2015 Aug;40(16):3249-55

Objective: To study the differences in the toxicity of vinegar-processed Kansui Radix on normal and cancerous ascites model rats.

Method: Normal and cancerous ascites model rats were taken as the research objects and orally administered with different doses of vinegar-processed Kansui Radix for 7 d. Pathological sections were prepared to observe the damages in liver, stomach, intestinal tissues in rats and detect the impacts on serum, liver, stomach and intestinal tissues and the oxidative damage index.

Result: Compared with the blank group, all of normal administration groups and model groups showed significant damages in liver, stomach and intestinal tissues. Compared with the model groups, all of normal administration groups revealed notable alleviation in damages. Compared with the blank group, the model groups showed significant increases in AST, ALT and MDA in serum and liver (P < 0.01) and a significant decrease in GSH in serum and liver, stomach, intestinal tissues (P < 0.01). Compared with the blank group, the results showed significant decreases in ALT, AST in serum and ALT in liver in model low, medium and high dose groups and AST activity in liver tissues in the normal high dose group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); significant decreases in GSH in serum and stomach tissues in normal low, medium and high dose groups and GSH content in liver and intestinal tissues in normal medium and high dose groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); notable rises in MDA in liver tissues in normal low, medium and high dose groups and MDA content in serum and stomach and intestinal tissues in normal medium and high dose groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with model groups, data revealed significant decreases in ALT, AST in serum in model low, medium and high dose groups, AST in liver tissues of model medium and high dose groups and ALT activity in liver in the model high dose group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); significant increases in GSH content in serum and stomach tissues of model low, medium and high dose groups, GSH in liver tissues in model medium and high dose groups and GSH in intestinal tissues in the high dose groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); and notable declines in MDA content in serum in model low, medium and high dose groups, MDA in liver tissues of model medium and high dose groups and MDA in stomach and intestinal tissues the high dose group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01).

Conclusion: According to the study, vinegar-processed Kansui Radix showed a significant lower toxicity liver, stomach, and intestines of cancerous ascites model rats, which provided a basis for clinical safe application of vinegar-processed Kansui Radix based on symptom-based prescription theory.
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August 2015

[Intervention Study of Mineral Chinese Medicine Chloriti Lapis in PTZ-kindled Epileptic Rat].

Zhong Yao Cai 2016 Jan;39(1):155-9

Objective: To study the intervention effect of Chloriti Lapis in PTZ-kindled epileptic rat.

Methods: Rats were kindled by pentylenetetrazol( PTZ),and successful kindled model were administered with drugs, then taken out the hippocampus of the brain. HE staining method was used to observe lesion in hippocampus, immunohistochemical method was used to test protein expression of nNOS, xanthine oxidase method was used to measure the activity of T-SOD, thiobarbituric acid method was used to measure the content of MDA,and phosphorus determination method was used to detect the activities of Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2 +,Mg2 +-ATPase.

Results: Each group of Chloriti Lapis( powder group, dregs group and decoction group) decreased the lesion grade, MDA content,nNOS protein expression, while increased the T-SOD activities, Na+,K+-ATPase and Ca2 +,Mg2 +-ATPase activities in the hippocampu of rats.

Conclusion: Chloriti Lapis have antiepileptic effects, the mechanism may be related to increasing brain antioxidant activities, eliminating free radicals, protecting membrane function, maintaining dynamic balance of ion concentration in the braiofn rat, inhibiting brain abnormalities discharge, and ultimately achieve the goal of epilepsy treatment.
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January 2016

Role for engagement of β-arrestin2 by the transactivated EGFR in agonist-specific regulation of δ receptor activation of ERK1/2.

Br J Pharmacol 2015 Oct 23;172(20):4847-63. Epub 2015 Sep 23.

Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai, China.

Background And Purpose: β-Arrestins function as signal transducers linking GPCRs to ERK1/2 signalling either by scaffolding members of ERK1/2s cascades or by transactivating receptor tyrosine kinases through Src-mediated release of transactivating factor. Recruitment of β-arrestins to the activated GPCRs is required for ERK1/2 activation. Our previous studies showed that δ receptors activate ERK1/2 through a β-arrestin-dependent mechanism without inducing β-arrestin binding to the δ receptors. However, the precise mechanisms involved remain to be established.

Experimental Approach: ERK1/2 activation by δ receptor ligands was assessed using HEK293 cells in vitro and male Sprague Dawley rats in vivo. Immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, siRNA transfection, intracerebroventricular injection and immunohistochemistry were used to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

Key Results: We identified a new signalling pathway in which recruitment of β-arrestin2 to the EGFR rather than δ receptor was required for its role in δ receptor-mediated ERK1/2 activation in response to H-Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe-OH (TIPP) or morphine stimulation. Stimulation of the δ receptor with ligands leads to the phosphorylation of PKCδ, which acts upstream of EGFR transactivation and is needed for the release of the EGFR-activating factor, whereas β-arrestin2 was found to act downstream of the EGFR transactivation. Moreover, we demonstrated that coupling of the PKCδ/EGFR/β-arrestin2 transactivation pathway to δ receptor-mediated ERK1/2 activation was ligand-specific and the Ser(363) of δ receptors was crucial for ligand-specific implementation of this ERK1/2 activation pathway.

Conclusions And Implications: The δ receptor-mediated activation of ERK1/2 is via ligand-specific transactivation of EGFR. This study adds new insights into the mechanism by which δ receptors activate ERK1/2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.13254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4621978PMC
October 2015

Finding new sources from "using different plants as the same herb": A case study of Huang-lian in Northwest Yunnan, China.

J Ethnopharmacol 2015 Jul 6;169:413-25. Epub 2015 May 6.

Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Traditional and local medicinal knowledge would be useful for finding pharmaceutical resources. Ethnopharmacological methods, especially quantitative analysis could help us to pre-screen herbs in field studies. "Using different plants as the same herb" is common in both traditional and local medicinal systems in China. In terms of medicine safety, it is not best choice, for it would lead to difficulty in controlling the quality, safety and efficacy of herbs. However, from the perspective of finding new resources for pharmaceutical industry, it would be beneficial. The usage of Huang-lian is one of the typical examples of "using different plants as the same herb". According to the previous Phytochemical and Pharmacological studies, berberine is the common effective compound of most of the species used as Huang-lian. Recently, berberine and other effective compounds of Huang-lian have gained much more attention and will become more popular in both medicinal researches and pharmaceutical industry. In our preliminary field work, we found that dozens of plant species might be used as Huang-lian by local people in Northwest Yunnan, an area well known by its rich biodiversity and culture diversity. These herbs might have potential value for pharmaceutical industry, for example, it could be used as the new resources to extract berberine and other effective compounds. Due to this, it is very necessary to collect, identify, document, and analyze the herbs used as Huang-lian in NW Yunnan. In the present study, we focused on that how to use traditional and local medicinal knowledge to find resources for pharmaceutical industry.

Material And Methods: In the field work, interviews and participative observation were used. In the quantitative analysis of the local knowledge, Informant consensus factor (Fic), Use value (UV) and Relative frequency of citation (RFC) were used.

Results And Discussion: A total of 230 key informants were interviewed and 29 plant species belonging to 8 families and 11 genera used as Huang-lian were collected in the study area. Diarrhoea had the highest value of Fic.xiana had the highest value of UV and RFC. The main effective compounds of most of these species were related to the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids, e.g. berberine, jatrorrhizin and palmatine, according to the previous phytochemical studies.

Conclusion: The range of sources of Huang-lian were very wide in NW Yunnan. Treating diarrhoea was the most common use of these species, most of which contained berberine. Based on the results of quantitative analysis, M. duclouxiana may had the greatest potential to future uses, e.g. as a resource for pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, we did not discuss whether the herbs used as Huang-lian could replace the standard Huang-lian in traditional or local medicine or not, and we just wanted to explore how this phenomenon could be used to find new resources for pharmaceutical industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.04.051DOI Listing
July 2015

Discovery, stereospecific characterization and peripheral modification of 1-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl)-2-[(6-chloro-3-oxo-indan)-formyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines as novel selective κ opioid receptor agonists.

Org Biomol Chem 2015 May 21;13(20):5656-73. Epub 2015 Apr 21.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Design and Optimization, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.

A novel series of 1-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl)-2-[(3-oxo-indan)-formyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives maj-3a-maj-3u were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their binding affinity at κ-opioid receptors. Maj-3c displayed the highest affinity for κ-opioid receptors (Ki = 0.033 nM) among all the compounds evaluated. Furthermore, all four stereoisomers of compound 3c were prepared, and (1S,18S)-3c was identified as the most potent (Ki = 0.0059 nM) κ-opioid receptor agonist among the four stereoisomers. Maj-3c produced significant antinociception (ED50 = 0.000406 mg kg(-1)) compared to U-50,488H and original BRL 52580 in the acetic acid writhing assay, but its strong sedative effect (ED50 = 0.000568 mg kg(-1)) observed in the mouse rotation test reduced its druggability. To minimize the central nervous system side effects, a series of hydroxyl-containing analogs of maj-3c were synthesized, and maj-11a was found to be a potent κ-opioid receptor agonist (Ki = 35.13 nM). More importantly, the dose for the sedative effect (ED50 = 9.29 mg kg(-1)) of maj-11a was significantly higher than its analgesic dose (ED50 = 0.392 mg kg(-1)), which made it a promising peripheral analgesic candidate compound with weak sedative side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5ob00350dDOI Listing
May 2015