Publications by authors named "Yu-Hsuan Cheng"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Impacts of Polyisoprene Physical Interactions on Sorting of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 Jul 19:e2100327. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No.43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Da'an Dist., Taipei City, 10607, Taiwan.

Conjugated polymer sorting is currently the best method to select large-diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with tunable narrow chirality in the adaption of highly desired electronics applications. The acceleration on conjugated polymers-SWCNTs interaction with long-term stability through different molecular designs; for example, longer alkyl side-chains or conjugation moieties have been extensively developed in recent years. However, the importance of the macromolecules with abundant van der Waals (VDW) interaction in the conjugated-based block copolymer system acting during SWCNTs sorting is not clearly demonstrated. In this work, a conjugated diblock copolymer involving polyisoprene (PI) and highly dense π-interaction of poly (9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) is utilized to investigate the impact of natural rubber PI physical interaction on sorting effectiveness and stability. Through the rational design of diblock copolymer, PFO with ≈1200 isoprene units can remarkably enhance SWCNTs sorting ability and selected few chiralities with a diameter of ≈0.83-1.1 nm and highly stable solution for more than 1 year. The introduction of long-chain PI system is attributed not only to form weak VDW force with SWCNTs and strengthen the wrapping of PFO around the semiconducting SWCNTs but also to act as a barrier among nanotubes to prevent reaggregation of sorted SWCNTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202100327DOI Listing
July 2021

ESSENCE - A rapid, shear-enhanced, flow-through, capacitive electrochemical platform for rapid detection of biomolecules.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jun 19;182:113163. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, New Jersey, 07102, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, New Jersey, 07102, United States. Electronic address:

The rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of target analytes using electrochemical sensors is challenging. ESSENCE, a new Electrochemical Sensor that uses a Shear-Enhanced, flow-through Nanoporous Capacitive Electrode, overcomes current electrochemical sensors' response limitations, selectivity, and sensitivity limitations. ESSENCE is a microfluidic channel packed with transducer material sandwiched by a top and bottom microelectrode. The room-temperature instrument less integration process allows the switch of the transducer materials to make up the porous electrode without modifying the electrode architecture or device protocol. ESSENCE can be used to detect both biomolecules and small molecules by simply changing the packed transducer material. Electron microscopy results confirm the high porosity. In conjunction with the non-planar interdigitated electrode, the packed transducer material results in a flow-through porous electrode. Electron microscopy results confirm the high porosity. The enhanced shear forces and increased convective fluxes disrupt the electric double layer's (EDL) diffusive process in ESSENCE. This disruption migrates the EDL to high MHz frequency allowing the capture signal to be measured at around 100 kHz, significantly improving device timing (rapid detection) with a low signal-to-noise ratio. The device's unique architecture allows us multiple configuration modes for measuring the impedance signal. This allows us to use highly conductive materials like carbon nanotubes. We show that by combining single-walled carbon nanotubes as transducer material with appropriate capture probes, NP-μIDE has high selectivity and sensitivity for DNA (fM sensitivity, selective against non-target DNA), breast cancer biomarker proteins (p53, pg/L sensitivity, selective against non-target HER2).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113163DOI Listing
June 2021

Genome plasticity in Paramecium bursaria revealed by population genomics.

BMC Biol 2020 11 30;18(1):180. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Genome and Systems Biology Degree Program, Academia Sinica and National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan.

Background: Ciliates are an ancient and diverse eukaryotic group found in various environments. A unique feature of ciliates is their nuclear dimorphism, by which two types of nuclei, the diploid germline micronucleus (MIC) and polyploidy somatic macronucleus (MAC), are present in the same cytoplasm and serve different functions. During each sexual cycle, ciliates develop a new macronucleus in which newly fused genomes are extensively rearranged to generate functional minichromosomes. Interestingly, each ciliate species seems to have its way of processing genomes, providing a diversity of resources for studying genome plasticity and its regulation. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the macronuclear genome of different strains of Paramecium bursaria, a highly divergent species of the genus Paramecium which can stably establish endosymbioses with green algae.

Results: We assembled a high-quality macronuclear genome of P. bursaria and further refined genome annotation by comparing population genomic data. We identified several species-specific expansions in protein families and gene lineages that are potentially associated with endosymbiosis. Moreover, we observed an intensive chromosome breakage pattern that occurred during or shortly after sexual reproduction and contributed to highly variable gene dosage throughout the genome. However, patterns of copy number variation were highly correlated among genetically divergent strains, suggesting that copy number is adjusted by some regulatory mechanisms or natural selection. Further analysis showed that genes with low copy number variation among populations tended to function in basic cellular pathways, whereas highly variable genes were enriched in environmental response pathways.

Conclusions: We report programmed DNA rearrangements in the P. bursaria macronuclear genome that allow cells to adjust gene copy number globally according to individual gene functions. Our results suggest that large-scale gene copy number variation may represent an ancient mechanism for cells to adapt to different environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00912-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7702705PMC
November 2020

The distinct O quenching mechanism between fluorescence and phosphorescence for dyes adsorbed on silica gel.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Dec;22(46):27144-27156

Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.

We herein aim to probe the emission quenched by O2 on silica gel. Our special focus is on the O2 quenching of the fluorescence of a series of organic D-π-A phosphonium compounds 1-3. The results show that the O2 quenching rate constants for the fluorescence of 1-3 are on the order of 1010 M-1 s-1, which are nearly on the same order as those measured for 1-3 and common organic compounds in solution. In yet another approach, the study of O2 quenching of phosphorescence in the solid phase indicates that the O2 quenching rate constant for the triplet state, i.e., , is smaller than by two orders of magnitude. Detailed investigation indicates that this distinction stems from the intrinsic O2 quenching rate constants for the singlet and triplet states subsequent to the formation of collisional complexes. In the absence of the solvent cage effect, is greatly influenced by the formation energy of the O2-dye CT complex, whereas in the solid phase is a nearly diffusion-controlled rate. Due to the larger distinction between and in the solid phase, O2 quenching of fluorescence is efficient for dyes in the solid phase. This leads to a feasible application of sensing O2 with regular fluorescent dyes adsorbed on porous solid substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp05182aDOI Listing
December 2020

Could Chemical Reaction at the Molecular Level Show Distinction between Two Liquid-Water States? Study of the Excited-State Water-Catalyzed Proton Transfer Reaction Provides a Clue.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Nov 27;11(21):9468-9475. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.

The two liquid-water states, which lead to some anomalies when temperature crosses over 50 ± 10 °C at the atmospheric pressure, have been continuously catching popular attention. In this study, using the excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) catalyzed by water molecules as a prototypical reaction, we demonstrate that the kinetics of ESPT indeed is influenced by the two liquid-water states. In the water-catalyzed ESPT of 3-cyano-7-azaindole (), a repetitive and comprehensive temperature-dependent study of ESPT in HO from 0 to 90 °C shows anomalous behavior. The plot of the logarithm of ESPT rate constant as a function of inverse of absolute temperature deviates from a straight line. The convex-Arrhenius behavior manifests the activation free energy for water-assisted ESPT being dependent on temperature and hence the liquid water structure. To simplify the discussion, the plot is well fitted by using two straight lines that are crossed over in the vicinity of 40 °C. The free energy difference between water-solvated and the 1:1 HO: complex is deduced to be 2.29 ± 0.04 and 1.96 ± 0.04 kcal·mol in the regions of 0-40 and 40-90 °C water, respectively, which also results in different frequency factors, i.e., the proton transfer/tunneling rates of (5.83 ± 0.36) × 10 and (3.48 ± 0.27) × 10 s, respectively. In a qualitative manner, the results are then rationalized by the different types of H-bonding configuration as proposed for two liquid-water phases, rendering experimental evidence to support the different water phases in ambient temperatures at 1 bar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c02896DOI Listing
November 2020

Kidney-based in vivo model for drug-induced nephrotoxicity testing.

Sci Rep 2020 08 14;10(1):13640. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, National Cheng Kung University and Hospital, 138 Sheng-Li Road, Tainan, 70403, Taiwan.

The need is critical and urgent for a real-time, highly specific, and sensitive acute kidney injury biomarker. This study sought to establish a sensitive and specific Miox-NanoLuc transgenic mouse for early detection of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. We generated Miox-NanoLuc transgenic mice with kidney-specific NanoLuc overexpression. Our data showed that Miox-NanoLuc-produced luminescence was kidney-specific and had good stability at room temperature, 4 °C, - 20 °C, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Serum levels of BUN and creatinine were significantly increased at day 2 or 3 in cisplatin-treated mice and at day 5 in aristolochic acid (AAI)-treated mice. Particularly, the serum and urine Miox-NanoLuc luminescence levels were significantly increased at day 1 in cisplatin-treated mice and at day 3 in AAI-treated mice. Renal pathological analysis showed that the kidney sections of cisplatin-treated mice at day 5 and AAI-treated mice at day 13 showed cytolysis and marked vacuolization of tubular cells. In conclusion, we developed a new platform to early quantify drug-induced nephrotoxicity before serum BUN and creatinine levels increased and pathological tubular cell injury occurred. This model may serve as an early detection for drug- and food-induced nephrotoxicity and as an animal model to investigate tubular cell injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70502-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428004PMC
August 2020

Effects of protein supplementation on aerobic training-induced gains in cardiopulmonary fitness, muscle mass, and functional performance in chronic stroke: A randomized controlled pilot study.

Clin Nutr 2020 09 17;39(9):2743-2750. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wan-Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The beneficial effects of protein supplementation on aerobic exercise-induced gains in patients with stroke are currently unknown. This study evaluated the feasibility and potential value of protein supplementation with aerobic exercise among stroke survivors.

Methods: This double-blinded randomized controlled pilot study included 20 ambulatory persons with chronic (>6 months) stroke randomly assigned to either the protein (PRO) or carbohydrate (CHO) group. All participants received three 40-min cycling ergometric training sessions a week for 8 weeks. Training intensity at 60%-80% heart rate reserve was determined using cardiopulmonary exercise pretests. Immediately before and after each session, the PRO group received a 20-g protein-rich supplement, and the CHO group received a 20-g calorie-matched carbohydrate-rich supplement. Outcomes included changes in body composition, cardiopulmonary capacity, and clinical functional performance.

Results: Those completing the protocol (n = 18) received 18-24 cycling training sessions, achieving target training intensity without major adverse effects. Of the two groups, the PRO group tended to obtain greater aerobic capacity (effect size [ES]>0.5 in every cardiopulmonary index), greater improvements in functional performance (0.25 < ES < 1.00 in various clinical tests), and greater total lean mass versus total fat mass (ES = 0.52).

Conclusions: Protein supplementation with aerobic exercise training tends to improve body composition, cardiopulmonary fitness, and function among persons with stroke. This study protocol is feasible, and future trials with larger sample sizes could confirm these results.

Trial Registration: NCT03244527.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.12.013DOI Listing
September 2020

Effect of electrode configuration on the sensitivity of nucleic acid detection in a non-planar, flow-through, porous interdigitated electrode.

Biomicrofluidics 2019 Nov 21;13(6):064118. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA.

Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) sensors, though rapid and cost-effective, often suffer from poor sensitivity. EIS sensors modified with carbon-based transducers show a higher conductance, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the sensor toward biomolecules such as DNA. However, the EIS spectra are compromised by the parasitic capacitance of the electric double layer (EDL). Here, a new shear-enhanced, flow-through nonporous, nonplanar interdigitated microelectrode sensor has been fabricated that shifts the EDL capacitor to high frequencies. Enhanced convective transport in this sensor disrupts the diffusion dynamics of the EDL, shifting its EIS spectra to high frequency. Concomitantly, the DNA detection signal shifts to high frequency, making the sensor very sensitive and rapid with a high signal to noise ratio. The device consists of a microfluidic channel sandwiched between two sets of top and bottom interdigitated microelectrodes. One of the sets of microelectrodes is packed with carbon-based transducer material such as carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). Multiple parametric studies of three different electrode configurations of the sensor along with different carbon-based transducer materials are undertaken to understand the fundamental physics and electrochemistry. Sensors packed with SWCNT show femtomolar detection sensitivity from all the different electrode configurations for a short target-DNA. A 20-fold jump in the signal is noticed from the unique working electrode configuration in contrast to the other electrode configurations. This demonstrates the potential of the sensor to have a significant increase in detection sensitivity for DNA and other biomolecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5126452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872468PMC
November 2019

Clinical non-superiority of technology-assisted gait training with body weight support in patients with subacute stroke: A meta-analysis.

Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2020 Nov 30;63(6):535-542. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wan-Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Technology-assisted gait training (TAGT) with body weight support (BWS) has been designed to provide high numbers of repetitions during stepping practice, but its benefits have been inconclusive.

Objective: We evaluated the superiority of TAGT over conventional overground training (COT) to judge the clinical benefits.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases from their earliest record to July 1, 2019 and included randomized controlled trials of TAGT with BWS, such as robot-assisted gait training and body weight-supported treadmill training, for treating walking disability in patients within 6months after stroke. We conducted a meta-analysis of the outcomes motor impairment, mobility capacity, walking speed, endurance and fitness, balance, and activities of daily living as well as subgroup analyses of initial ambulatory ability and stroke duration.

Results: Among 14robotics and 10body weight-supported treadmill studies included for review, 23studies involving 1452participants contributed to the meta-analysis. We found no significant standardized mean differences between TAGT and COT (P>0.05) across all outcome categories in the robotics subgroup, the body weight-supported treadmill subgroup, or both subgroups combined, for both the short and long term. Further subgroup analyses also revealed non-significant standardized mean differences (P>0.05) across all outcomes in the subgroups initially ambulatory, non-ambulatory, or stroke duration less than 3 months.

Conclusions: TAGT with BWS was not superior to COT in improving post-stroke recovery in patients with subacute stroke. Strategies other than simply increasing the repetitions by external assistance may be considered to augment the treatment effects of TAGT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rehab.2019.09.009DOI Listing
November 2020

Striatal histamine mechanism in the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome.

Sleep 2020 02;43(2)

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA.

Study Objectives: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) has been hypothesized to be generated by abnormal striatal dopamine transmission. Dopaminergic drugs are effective for the treatment of RLS. However, long-term use of dopaminergic drugs causes adverse effects. We used iron-deficient (ID) and iron-replacement (IR) rats to address the neuropathology of RLS and to determine if a histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonist might be a useful treatment. Histamine H3R antagonists have been shown to decrease motor activity.

Methods: Control and ID rats were surgically implanted with electrodes for polysomnographic recording. After 3 days of baseline polysomnographic recordings, rats were systemically injected with the H3R agonist, α-methylhistamine, and antagonist, thioperamide. Recordings were continued after drug injection. Striatal H3R levels from control, ID, and IR rats were determined by western blots. Blood from control, ID, and IR rats was collected for the measurement of hematocrit levels.

Results: α-Methylhistamine and thioperamide increased and decreased motor activity, respectively, in control rats. In ID rats, α-methylhistamine had no effect on motor activity, whereas thioperamide decreased periodic leg movement (PLM) in sleep. Sleep-wake states were not significantly altered under any conditions. Striatal H3R levels were highest in ID rats, moderate to low in IR rats, and lowest in control rats. Striatal H3R levels were also found to positively and negatively correlate with PLM in sleep and hematocrit levels, respectively.

Conclusions: A striatal histamine mechanism may be involved in ID anemia-induced RLS. Histamine H3R antagonists may be useful for the treatment of RLS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsz223DOI Listing
February 2020

The effect of mechanical traction on low back pain in patients with herniated intervertebral disks: a systemic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Rehabil 2020 Jan 28;34(1):13-22. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of traction in improving low back pain, functional outcome, and disk morphology in patients with herniated intervertebral disks.

Data Source: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from the earliest record to July 2019.

Review Methods: We included randomized control trials which (1) involved adult patients with low back pain associated with herniated disk confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, (2) compared lumbar traction to sham or no traction, and (3) provided quantitative measurements of pain and function before and after intervention. Methodological quality was assessed using the physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scale and Cochrane risk of bias assessment.

Results: Initial searches for literature yielded 3015 non-duplicated records. After exclusion based on the title, abstract, and full-text review, 7 articles involving 403 participants were included for quantitative analysis. Compared with the control group, the participants in the traction group showed significantly greater improvements in pain and function in the short term, with standard mean differences of 0.44 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11-0.77) and 0.42 (95% CI: 0.08-0.76), respectively. The standard mean differences were not significant to support the long-term effects on pain and function, nor the effects on herniated disk size.

Conclusion: Compared with sham or no traction, lumbar traction exhibited significantly more pain reduction and functional improvements in the short term, but not in the long term. There is insufficient evidence to support the effect of lumbar traction on herniated disk size reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269215519872528DOI Listing
January 2020

A Facile Molecular Machine: Optically Triggered Counterion Migration by Charge Transfer of Linear Donor-π-Acceptor Phosphonium Fluorophores.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019 Sep 9;58(38):13456-13465. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 7, 80101, Joensuu, Finland.

The D-π-A type phosphonium salts in which electron acceptor (A=- PR ) and donor (D=-NPh ) groups are linked by polarizable π-conjugated spacers show intense fluorescence that is classically ascribed to excited-state intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). Unexpectedly, salts with π=-(C H ) - and -(C H C H )- exhibit an unusual dual emission (F and F bands) in weakly polar or nonpolar solvents. Time-resolved fluorescence studies show a successive temporal evolution from the F to F emission, which can be rationalized by an ICT-driven counterion migration. Upon optically induced ICT, the counterions move from - PR to -NPh and back in the ground state, thus achieving an ion-transfer cycle. Increasing the solvent polarity makes the solvent stabilization dominant, and virtually stops the ion migration. Providing that either D or A has ionic character (by static ion-pair stabilization), the ICT-induced counterion migration should not be uncommon in weakly polar to nonpolar media, thereby providing a facile avenue for mimicking a photoinduced molecular machine-like motion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201906929DOI Listing
September 2019

Fluoroquinolone resistance in carbapenem-resistant Elizabethkingia anophelis: phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of clinical isolates with topoisomerase mutations and comparative genomic analysis.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 06;74(6):1503-1510

Graduate Institute of Medical Science, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: MDR Elizabethkingia anophelis strains are implicated in an increasing number of healthcare-associated infections worldwide, including a recent cluster of E. anophelis infections in the Midwestern USA associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, there is minimal information on the antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. anophelis strains or their antimicrobial resistance to carbapenems and fluoroquinolones.

Objectives: Our aim was to examine the susceptibilities and genetic profiles of clinical isolates of E. anophelis from our hospital, characterize their carbapenemase genes and production of MBLs, and determine the mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance.

Methods: A total of 115 non-duplicated isolates of E. anophelis were examined. MICs of antimicrobial agents were determined using the Sensititre 96-well broth microdilution panel method. QRDR mutations and MBL genes were identified using PCR. MBL production was screened for using a combined disc test.

Results: All E. anophelis isolates harboured the blaGOB and blaB genes with resistance to carbapenems. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicated different resistance patterns to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin in most isolates. Sequencing analysis confirmed that a concurrent GyrA amino acid substitution (Ser83Ile or Ser83Arg) in the hotspots of respective QRDRs was primarily responsible for high-level ciprofloxacin/levofloxacin resistance. Only one isolate had no mutation but a high fluoroquinolone MIC.

Conclusions: Our study identified a strong correlation between antibiotic susceptibility profiles and mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance among carbapenem-resistant E. anophelis isolates, providing an important foundation for continued surveillance and epidemiological analyses of emerging E. anophelis opportunistic infections. Minocycline or ciprofloxacin has the potential for treatment of severe E. anophelis infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz045DOI Listing
June 2019

Multicentre MDR Elizabethkingia anophelis isolates: Novel random amplified polymorphic DNA with capillary electrophoresis systems to rapid molecular typing compared to genomic epidemiology analysis.

Sci Rep 2019 02 12;9(1):1806. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Graduate Institute of Medical Science, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Elizabethkingia species are ubiquitous bacteria that uncommonly cause human infection. Elizabethkingia anophelis was first identified in 2011 from the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The currently available bacterial typing systems vary greatly with respect to labour, cost, reliability, and ability to discriminate among bacterial strains. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is commonly used to identify genetic markers. To our knowledge, no system coupling RAPD-PCR and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) has been utilized for the epidemiological typing of E. anophelis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to establish a reliable and reproducible molecular typing technique for E. anophelis isolates based on a multi-centre assessment of bacteraemia patients. Here, we used a rapid CGE-light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence (LEDIF)-based method in conjunction with RAPD-PCR to genotype E. anophelis with a high level of discrimination. All clinical isolates of E. anophelis were found to be typeable, and isolates from two hospitals formed two distinct clusters. The results demonstrated the potential of coupling RAPD and CGE as a rapid and efficient molecular typing tool, providing a reliable method for surveillance and epidemiological investigations of bacterial infections. The proposed method shows promise as a novel, cost-effective, high-throughput, first-pass typing method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38819-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372666PMC
February 2019

The potent anti-inflammatory effect of Guilu Erxian Glue extracts remedy joint pain and ameliorate the progression of osteoarthritis in mice.

J Orthop Surg Res 2018 Oct 19;13(1):259. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Life Science, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan.

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a slow progressing, degenerative disorder of the synovial joints. Guilu Erxian Glue (GEG) is a multi-component Chinese herbal remedy with long-lasting favorable effects on several conditions, including articular pain and muscle strength in elderly men with knee osteoarthritis. The present study aimed to identify the effects of Guilu Erxian Paste (GE-P) and Liquid (GE-L) extracted from Guilu Erxian Glue in anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)-induced osteoarthritis mice, and to compare the effectiveness of different preparations on knee cartilage degeneration during the progression of osteoarthritis.

Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice underwent anterior cruciate ligament transection to induce mechanically destabilized osteoarthritis in the right knee. 4 weeks later, the mice were orally treated with PBS, celecoxib (10 mg/kg/day), Guilu Erxian Paste (100 or 300 mg/kg/day), and Guilu Erxian Liquid (100 or 300 mg/kg/day) for 28 consecutive days. Von Frey and open-field tests (OFT) were used to evaluate pain behaviors (mechanical hypersensitivity and locomotor performance). Narrowing of the joint space and osteophyte formation were examined radiographically. Inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) levels in the articular cartilage were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Histopathological examinations were conducted to evaluate the severity and extent of the cartilage lesions.

Results: Guilu Erxian Paste and Guilu Erxian Liquid (300 mg/kg/day) were significantly more effective (p < 0.01) than celecoxib (10 mg/kg/day) in decreasing secondary allodynia when compared to the saline-treated group (p < 0.05). Open-field tests revealed no significant motor dysfunction between the Guilu Erxian Paste- and Guilu Erxian Liquid-treated mice compared to the saline-treated mice. Radiographic findings also confirmed that the administration of Guilu Erxian Paste and Guilu Erxian Liquid (100 and 300 mg/kg/day) significantly and dose-dependently reduced osteolytic lesions and bone spur formation in the anterior cruciate ligament transection-induced osteoarthritis mice when compared to the saline-treated group. Notably, Guilu Erxian Liquid (100 mg/kg/day) treatment significantly reduced the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α as well as relative the protein expression of IL-1β and TNF-α to the effect of celecoxib. Guilu Erxian Paste and Guilu Erxian Liquid (300 mg/kg/day) markedly attenuated cartilage destruction, surface unevenness, proteoglycan loss, chondrocyte degeneration, and cartilage erosion in the superficial layers (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively).

Conclusions: As expected, our findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of Guilu Erxian Liquid (GE-L), following marked decrease on both IL-1β and TNF-α during the early course of post-traumatic osteoarthrosis (OA), may be of potential value in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-018-0967-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194592PMC
October 2018

Nitrate Transport, Signaling, and Use Efficiency.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2018 04 23;69:85-122. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan; email:

Nitrogen accounts for approximately 60% of the fertilizer consumed each year; thus, it represents one of the major input costs for most nonlegume crops. Nitrate is one of the two major forms of nitrogen that plants acquire from the soil. Mechanistic insights into nitrate transport and signaling have enabled new strategies for enhancing nitrogen utilization efficiency, for lowering input costs for farming, and, more importantly, for alleviating environmental impacts (e.g., eutrophication and production of the greenhouse gas NO). Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding how nitrate is acquired from the surroundings, how it is efficiently distributed into different plant tissues in response to environmental changes, how nitrate signaling is perceived and transmitted, and how shoot and root nitrogen status is communicated. Several key components of these processes have proven to be novel tools for enhancing nitrate- and nitrogen-use efficiency. In this review, we focus on the roles of NRT1 and NRT2 in nitrate uptake and nitrate allocation among different tissues; we describe the functions of the transceptor NRT1.1, transcription factors, and small signaling peptides in nitrate signaling and tissue communication; and we compile the new strategies for improving nitrogen-use efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-arplant-042817-040056DOI Listing
April 2018

Reply: The iron-deficient rat as a model of restless legs syndrome: Was anything lost in translation?

Mov Disord 2018 01 14;33(1):182-183. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.27263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5767133PMC
January 2018

Motor hyperactivity of the iron-deficient rat - an animal model of restless legs syndrome.

Mov Disord 2017 Dec 26;32(12):1687-1693. Epub 2017 Aug 26.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Abnormal striatal dopamine transmission has been hypothesized to cause restless legs syndrome. Dopaminergic drugs are commonly used to treat restless legs syndrome. However, they cause adverse effects with long-term use. An animal model would allow the systematic testing of potential therapeutic drugs. A high prevalence of restless legs syndrome has been reported in iron-deficient anemic patients. We hypothesized that the iron-deficient animal would exhibit signs similar to those in restless legs syndrome patients.

Methods: After baseline polysomnographic recordings, iron-deficient rats received pramipexole injection. Then, iron-deficient rats were fed a standard rodent diet, and polysomnographic recording were performed for 2 days each week for 4 weeks.

Results: Iron-deficient rats have low hematocrit levels and show signs of restless legs syndrome: sleep fragmentation and periodic leg movements in wake and in slow-wave sleep. Iron-deficient rats had a positive response to pramipexole treatment. After the iron-deficient rats were fed the standard rodent diet, hematocrit returned to normal levels, and sleep quality improved, with increased average duration of wake and slow-wave sleep episodes. Periodic leg movements decreased during both waking and sleep. Hematocrit levels positively correlated with the average duration of episodes in wake and in slow-wave sleep and negatively correlated with periodic leg movements in wake and in sleep. Western blot analysis showed that striatal dopamine transporter levels were higher in iron-deficient rats.

Conclusions: The iron-deficient rat is a useful animal model of iron-deficient anemic restless legs syndrome. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.27133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5759344PMC
December 2017

Altered stiffness of microchamber and macrochamber layers in the aged heel pad: Shear wave ultrasound elastography evaluation.

J Formos Med Assoc 2018 May 22;117(5):434-439. Epub 2017 May 22.

Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: To compare shear modulus of heel pad microchamber and macrochamber layers between young and elderly people using shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWUE), with the intent to clarify age-related changes.

Methods: This single-center prospective cross-sectional study was conducted between March, 2014 and March, 2016. Shear modulus of entire heel pad (G), macrochamber layer (G), and microchamber layer (G) were measured with SWUE.

Results: Elderly participants (15 men, 15 women; age = 66.9 ± 6.2 years) had significantly higher G (103.8 ± 20.7 vs. 60.1 ± 9.8 kPa; p < 0.001) and G (39.4 ± 10.5 vs. 34.1 ± 5.4 kPa; p = 0.005), but a significantly lower G (21.7 ± 7.5 vs. 27.9 ± 4.9 kPa; p < 0.001) compared with those of young participants (15 men, 15 women; age = 26.4 ± 2.9 years). Positive correlations were observed between age and G (r = 0.79, p < 0.001) and between age and G (r = 0.28, p = 0.03), and negative correlation between age and G (r = -0.46, p = 0.001).

Conclusion: SWUE revealed that the heel pad macrochamber layer was slightly softer but the microchamber layer was exaggeratedly stiffer, making the entire heel pad stiffer in the elderly group than in the younger group, implying age-related compensation in heel pad layers to retain foot function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2017.05.006DOI Listing
May 2018

Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP) on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2016 Sep 13;17(9). Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Institute of Biotechnology, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan 710, Taiwan.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in pathogeneses of renal damage on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Inonotus obliquus (IO) is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae; it has been used as an edible mushroom and exhibits many biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Especially the water-soluble Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs) have been previously reported to significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in mice and protect from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In order to identify the nephroprotective effects of low molecular weight of IOP fraction (LIOP), from the fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus, high-fat diet (HFD) plus STZ-induced type 2-like diabetic nephropathy C57BL/6 mice were investigated in this study. Our data showed that eight weeks of administration of 10-100 kDa, LIOP (300 mg/kg) had progressively increased their sensitivity to glucose (less insulin tolerance), reduced triglyceride levels, elevated the HDL/LDL ratio and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(ACR) compared to the control group. By pathological and immunohistochemical examinations, it was indicated that LIOP can restore the integrity of the glomerular capsules and increase the numbers of glomerular mesangial cells, associated with decreased expression of TGF-β on renal cortex in mice. Consistently, three days of LIOP (100 μg/mL) incubation also provided protection against STZ + AGEs-induced glucotoxicity in renal tubular cells (LLC-PK1), while the levels of NF-κB and TGF-β expression significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that LIOP treatment could ameliorate glucolipotoxicity-induced renal fibrosis, possibly partly via the inhibition of NF-κB/TGF-β1 signaling pathway in diabetic nephropathy mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5037810PMC
September 2016

Dynamic ultrasound imaging for the iliotibial band/snapping hip syndrome.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2015 Jun;94(6):e55-6

From the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (K-SC, Y-HC, C-HW); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (K-SC); and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey (LÖ).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0000000000000299DOI Listing
June 2015

Ultrahigh capacity 2 × 2 MIMO RoF system at 60  GHz employing single-sideband single-carrier modulation.

Opt Lett 2014 Mar;39(6):1358-61

This article proposes and experimentally demonstrates a radio-over-fiber system employing single-sideband single-carrier (SSB-SC) modulation at 60 GHz. SSB-SC modulation has a lower peak-to-average-power ratio than orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) modulation; therefore, the SSB-SC signals provide superior nonlinear tolerance, compared to OFDM signals. Moreover, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology was used extensively to enhance spectral efficiency. A least-mean-square-based equalizer was implemented, including MIMO channel estimation, frequency response equalization, and I/Q imbalance compensation to recover the MIMO signals. Thus, using 2×2 MIMO technology and 64-QAM SSB-SC signals, we achieved the highest data rate of 84 Gbps with 12  bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using the 7-GHz license-free band at 60 GHz.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.39.001358DOI Listing
March 2014

High spectral efficient W-band optical/wireless system employing single-sideband single-carrier modulation.

Opt Express 2014 Feb;22(4):3911-7

With broader available bandwidth, W-band wireless transmission has attracted a lot of interests for future Giga-bit communication. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate W-band radio-over-fiber (RoF) system employing single-sideband single-carrier (SSB-SC) modulation with lower peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) than orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM). To overcome the inter-symbol interference (ISI) of the penalty from uneven frequency response and SSB-SC modulation, frequency domain equalizer (FDE) and decision feedback equalizer (DFE) are implemented. We discuss the maximum available bandwidth of different modulation formats between SSB-SC and OFDM signals at the BER below forward error correction (FEC) threshold (3.8 × 10(-3)). Up to 50-Gbps 32-QAM SSB-SC signals with spectral efficiency of 5 bit/s/Hz can be achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.003911DOI Listing
February 2014

High spectral efficient W-band OFDM-RoF system with direct-detection by two cascaded single-drive MZMs.

Opt Express 2013 Jul;21(14):16615-20

Institute of Photonic System, National Chiao-Tung University, Tainan 711, Taiwan.

W-band wireless transmission has attracted a lot of interest due to its wider available bandwidth (i.e. 75-110 GHz). In this article, we propose a direct-detection orthogonal frequency division multiplexing radio over fiber (OFDM-RoF) system via two cascaded single-drive MZMs at center frequency of 103 GHz. We discuss maximum bandwidth of different modulation formats under forward error correction (FEC) threshold (3.8 x 10(-3)). Up to 40-Gbps 16-QAM OFDM signals is achieved over 25-km fiber and 2-m wireless transmission. To overcome the penalty from uneven frequency response, bit-loading algorithm is applied to discuss data rate and spectral efficiency with signal bandwidth from 5 to 10 GHz. With 10-GHz bandwidth, 46.4-Gb/s data rate and 4.64-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency was achieved. To achieve 40-Gbps data rate, the required bandwidth of OFDM signal with bit-loading is 2 GHz less than that without bit-loading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.016615DOI Listing
July 2013
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