Publications by authors named "Yu-Chun Chang"

30 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Rapid Detection of Gut Microbial Metabolite Trimethylamine N-Oxide for Chronic Kidney Disease Prevention.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 14;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Institute of Medical Science and Technology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804201, Taiwan.

The gut microbiota plays a critical role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and trimethylamine (TMA) are gut microbiota-derived metabolites, and both are known uraemic toxins that are implicated in CKD, atherosclerosis, colorectal cancer and cardiovascular risk. Therefore, the detection and quantification of TMAO, which is a metabolite from gut microbes, are important for the diagnosis of diseases such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis and colorectal cancer. In this study, a new "colour-switch" method that is based on the combination of a plasma separation pad/absorption pad and polyallylamine hydrochloride-capped manganese dioxide ([email protected]) nanozyme was developed for the direct quantitative detection of TMAO in whole blood without blood sample pretreatment. As a proof of concept, a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of less than 6.7 μM for TMAO was obtained with a wide linear quantification range from 15.6 to 500 μM through quantitative analysis, thereby suggesting potential clinical applications in blood TMAO monitoring for CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios11090339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8469701PMC
September 2021

Characterization of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria from Taiwanese ropy fermented milk and their application in low-fat fermented milk.

Anim Biosci 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, College of Bioresources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan.

Objective: The aim of this study is to characterize the exopolysaccharides (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria from Taiwanese ropy fermented milk (TRFM) for developing a clean label low-fat fermented milk.

Methods: Potential isolates from TRFM were selected based on the Gram staining test and observation of turbid suspension in the culture broth. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and API CHL 50 test were used for strain identification. After evaluation of EPS concentration, target strains were introduced to low-fat milk fermentation for 24 h. Fermentation characters were checked: pH value, acidity, viable count, syneresis, and viscosity. Sensory evaluation of fermented products was carried out by 30 volunteers, while the storage test was performed for 21 days at 4°C.

Results: Two EPS-producing strains (APL15 and APL16) were isolated from TRFM and identified as Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis subsp. cremoris. Their EPS concentrations in glucose and lactose media were higher than other published strains of Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris. Low-fat fermented milk separately prepared with APL15 and APL16 reached pH 4.3 and acidity 0.8% with a viable count of 9 log CFU/mL. The physical properties of both products were superior to the control yogurt, showing significant improvements in syneresis and viscosity (P < 0.05). Our low-fat products had appropriate sensory scores in appearance and texture according to sensory evaluation. Although decreasing viable cells of strains during the 21-day storage test, low-fat fermented milk made by APL15 exhibited stable physicochemical properties, including pH value, acidity, syneresis and sufficient viable cells throughout the storage period.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris APL15 isolated from TRFM had good fermentation abilities for the production of low-fat fermented milk. These data indicate that EPS-producing lactic acid bacteria have great potential to act as natural food stabilizers for low-fat fermented milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0251DOI Listing
August 2021

Zoledronate alters natural progression of tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

FASEB J 2021 10;35(10):e21849

Center for Regenerative Medicine at the Abigail Wexner Research Institute, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Macrophages are a critical driver of neovessel formation in tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs), but also contribute to graft stenosis, a leading clinical trial complication. Macrophage depletion via liposomal delivery of clodronate, a first-generation bisphosphonate, mitigates stenosis, but simultaneously leads to a complete lack of tissue development in TEVGs. This result and the associated difficulty of utilizing liposomal delivery means that clodronate may not be an ideal means of preventing graft stenosis. Newer generation bisphosphonates, such as zoledronate, may have differential effects on graft development with more facile drug delivery. We sought to examine the effect of zoledronate on TEVG neotissue formation and its potential application for mitigating TEVG stenosis. Thus, mice implanted with TEVGs received zoledronate or no treatment and were monitored by serial ultrasound for graft dilation and stenosis. After two weeks, TEVGs were explanted for histological examination. The overall graft area and remaining graft material (polyglycolic-acid) were higher in the zoledronate treatment group. These effects were associated with a corresponding decrease in macrophage infiltration. In addition, zoledronate affected the deposition of collagen in TEVGs, specifically, total and mature collagen. These differences may be, in part, explained by a depletion of leukocytes within the bone marrow that subsequently led to a decrease in the number of tissue-infiltrating macrophages. TEVGs from zoledronate-treated mice demonstrated a significantly greater degree of smooth muscle cell presence. There was no statistical difference in graft patency between treatment and control groups. While zoledronate led to a decrease in the number of macrophages in the TEVGs, the severity of stenosis appears to have increased significantly. Zoledronate treatment demonstrates that the process of smooth muscle cell-mediated neointimal hyperplasia may occur separately from a macrophage-mediated mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001606RRDOI Listing
October 2021

Improving Leadership Competence Among Undergraduate Nursing Students: Innovative Objectives Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.

Nurs Educ Perspect 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

About the Authors Li-Wei Hsieh, PhD, RN, is a director, Department of Nursing, Tainan Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Tainan City, Taiwan. Yu-Chun Chang, MSN, RN, is a doctoral student, School of Nursing, Collage of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Miaofen Yen, PhD, RN, FAAN, is a professor, Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan. This research was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST 104-2511-S-006-007-MY2), Taiwan. The authors are grateful to the National Cheng Kung University nursing faculty and teachers who participated in this study. Special thanks are extended to the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan. For more information, contact Dr. Yen at

Aim: The aim of the study was to identify baccalaureate nursing leadership objectives and evaluate their effectiveness when embedded into an undergraduate nursing curriculum.

Background: The objectives of nursing leadership competencies cannot be met in one semester but must be gradually developed over successive courses.

Method: A list of learning objectives for leadership competence was generated and reviewed by 12 experts using the Delphi method. The consensuses objectives were embedded into a four-year nursing baccalaureate curriculum in Taiwan. Nursing students (N = 120) who participated in the courses evaluated the embedded objectives of leadership competency introduced in their undergraduate nursing program. Leadership competence was improved among students on nine items (t = 2.282 to 5.741, p = .001 to .030) of the Nursing Leadership Competence Assessment Scale for Undergraduate Nursing Students.

Conclusion: The results can serve as a reference for universities seeking to promote nursing leadership education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000866DOI Listing
August 2021

Formation and Near-Infrared Emission of CsPbI Nanoparticles Embedded in CsPbI Crystals.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 15;13(29):34742-34751. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan.

CsPbI, as a rarely investigated member of the CsPbX (X is a halogen element) family, has been successfully synthesized at low temperatures, and the synthetic conditions have been optimized. Metal iodides such as LiI, KI, NiI, CoI, and ZnI, as additives, play an important role in enhancing the formation of the CsPbI microcrystals. ZnI with the lowest dissociation energy is the most efficient additive to supply iodide ions, and its amount of addition has also been optimized. Strong red to near-infrared (NIR) emission properties have been detected, and its optical emission centers have been identified to be numerous embedded perovskite-type α-CsPbI nanocrystallites (∼5 nm in diameter) based on investigations of temperature- and pressure-dependent photoluminescent properties. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to detect these hidden nanoparticles, although the material was highly beam-sensitive and confirmed a "raisin bread"-like structure of the CsPbI crystals. A NIR mini-LED for the biological application has been successfully fabricated using as-synthesized CsPbI crystals. This work provides information for the future development of infrared fluorescent nanoscale perovskite materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c08920DOI Listing
July 2021

Sex and Tamoxifen confound murine experimental studies in cardiovascular tissue engineering.

Sci Rep 2021 04 13;11(1):8037. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Center for Regenerative Medicine, The Abigail Wexner Research Institute, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, USA.

Tissue engineered vascular grafts hold promise for the creation of functional blood vessels from biodegradable scaffolds. Because the precise mechanisms regulating this process are still under investigation, inducible genetic mouse models are an important and widely used research tool. However, here we describe the importance of challenging the baseline assumption that tamoxifen is inert when used as a small molecule inducer in the context of cardiovascular tissue engineering. Employing a standard inferior vena cava vascular interposition graft model in C57BL/6 mice, we discovered differences in the immunologic response between control and tamoxifen-treated animals, including occlusion rate, macrophage infiltration and phenotype, the extent of foreign body giant cell development, and collagen deposition. Further, differences were noted between untreated males and females. Our findings demonstrate that the host-response to materials commonly used in cardiovascular tissue engineering is sex-specific and critically impacted by exposure to tamoxifen, necessitating careful model selection and interpretation of results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87006-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044102PMC
April 2021

Current Challenges and Solutions to Tissue Engineering of Large-scale Cardiac Constructs.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2021 03 17;23(5):47. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Center for Regenerative Medicine, Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Research Building III, Columbus, OH, 43215, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Large-scale tissue engineering of cardiac constructs is a rapidly advancing field; however, there are several barriers still associated with the creation and clinical application of large-scale engineered cardiac tissues. We provide an overview of the current challenges and recently (within the last 5 years) described promising solutions to overcoming said challenges.

Recent Findings: The five major criteria yet to be met for clinical application of engineered cardiac tissues are successful electrochemical/mechanical cell coupling, efficient maturation of cardiomyocytes, functional vascularization of large tissues, balancing appropriate immune response, and large-scale generation of constructs. Promising solutions include the use of carbon/graphene in conjunction with existing scaffold designs, utilization of biological hormones, 3D bioprinting, and gene editing. While some of the described barriers to generation of large-scale cardiac tissue have seen encouraging advancements, there is no solution that yet achieves all 5 described criteria. It is vital then to consider a combination of techniques to achieve the optimal construct. Critically, following the demonstration of a viable construct, there remain important considerations to address associated with good manufacturing practices and establishing a standard for clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11886-021-01474-7DOI Listing
March 2021

MicroRNA-221/222 Mediates ADSC-Exosome-Induced Cardioprotection Against Ischemia/Reperfusion by Targeting PUMA and ETS-1.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 3;8:569150. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Cardiovascular disease is a major health problem in industrialized and developing countries and is the leading cause of death and disability. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) causes cardiomyocyte damage such as apoptosis and hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC-Exo) on hearts from I/R mice and to explore the underlying mechanisms. ADSC-Exo significantly decreased I/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and hypertrophy, as detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining, respectively. In addition, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins p-p53 and PUMA and hypertrophy-related proteins ETS-1 and ANP were significantly reduced in the cardiomyocytes of ADSC-Exo-treated I/R mice compared to those of control mice. Both PUMA and ETS-1 are reported to be target genes for miR-221/222. I/R operation significantly reduced miR-221/222 expression, while ADSC-Exo treatment increased miR-221/222 expression, as detected by RT-qPCR. We also observed that cardiac I/R operation markedly increased cell apoptosis and hypertrophy in miR-221/222 knockout (KO) mice, while ADSC-Exo reduced the effects of I/R operation. Furthermore, ADSC-Exo protected H9c2 cardiomyocytes from HO-induced damage by reducing apoptosis and hypertrophy . HO treatment significantly reduced miR-221/222 expression, while ADSC-Exo treatment reversed this effect in H9c2 cells. ADSC-Exo treatment decreased HO-induced PUMA and ETS-1 expression. Compared with control treatment, I/R treatment significantly reduced p-AKT and increased p-p65, while ADSC-Exo and miR-221/222 mimics attenuated these effects. The AKT activator SC79 and p65 inhibitor Bay 11-7082 reduced HO-induced cell apoptosis and hypertrophy. Based on these findings, ADSC-Exo prevents cardiac I/R injury through the miR-221/miR-222/PUMA/ETS-1 pathway. Therefore, ADSC-Exo is an effective inhibitor of I/R-induced heart injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.569150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744807PMC
December 2020

Highly Luminescent [email protected] Nanocrystals and Their Application in Electroluminescent Emitters.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Dec 18;11(23):10196-10202. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan.

Zero-dimensional perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are becoming the most attractive material due to their excellent optical performance and better stability compared with high-dimensional perovskite. However, their application in electroluminescent (EL) emitters for high-quality displays is still limited. In this work, we successfully achieved [email protected] NCs around 13.9 ± 0.2 nm by using the hot-injection method. Additional SnBr was mixed in the PbBr precursor to provide extra Br ions and reduce the excessive amount of Pb ions to promote the formation of [email protected] Time resolution photoluminescence analysis indicated that the green emission of our [email protected] NCs originated from the embedded CsPbBr NCs, which corresponds to our previous research. The CsPbBr crystals passivated the surface of CsPbBr NCs, resulting in the absence of trions for the high photoluminescence quantum yield. The as-synthesized [email protected] NCs were used to fabricate quantum dot light-emitting diode (QLED) devices with the highest current efficiency of 4.89 cd/A. This is the best performance of the [email protected] QLED device, which reveals the great potential of [email protected] NCs and will inspire further study of zero-dimensional perovskite composite NCs for EL emitters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c03142DOI Listing
December 2020

Evaluating the Longevity of the Fontan Pathway.

Pediatr Cardiol 2020 Dec 8;41(8):1539-1547. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.

Children born with single ventricle physiology who undergo Fontan palliation face a diverse set of long-term complications. However, patient follow-up has in large part been limited to single institutional experiences without uniform application of diagnostic modalities to screen for relevant outcomes. Additionally, the use of different graft materials and variable surgical technique as part of the Fontan procedure has further complicated the evaluation of single ventricle patients. The purpose of this review is to define the changes in the Fontan pathway specific to the graft material used and its relationship to patient outcomes. As a means of introduction, we briefly review the historical evolution of the Fontan procedure with a focus on the intent behind design changes and incorporation of different biomaterials. We further delineate changes to the Fontan pathway which include the development of stenosis, differential growth, thrombosis, and calcification. Ultimately, the recognition of the changes noted within the Fontan pathway need to be assessed relative to their impact on patient hemodynamics, functional capacity, and Fontan-associated comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-020-02452-6DOI Listing
December 2020

Tissue Engineered Vascular Graft Recipient Interleukin 10 Status Is Critical for Preventing Thrombosis.

Adv Healthc Mater 2020 12 19;9(24):e2001094. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

The Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, 575 Children's Crossroad, Research III, WB4160 A1, Columbus, OH, 43215, USA.

Tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) are a promising technology, but are hindered by occlusion. Seeding with bone-marrow derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) mitigates occlusion, yet the precise mechanism remains unclear. Seeded cells disappear quickly and potentially mediate an anti-inflammatory effect through paracrine signaling. Here, a series of reciprocal genetic TEVG implantations plus recombinant protein treatment is reported to investigate what role interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays from both host and seeded cells. TEVGs seeded with BM-MNCs from wild-type and IL-10 KO mice, plus unseeded grafts, are implanted into wild-type and IL-10 KO mice. Wild-type mice with unseeded grafts also receive recombinant IL-10. Serial ultrasound evaluates occlusion and TEVGs are harvested at 14 d for immunohistochemical analysis. TEVGs in IL-10 KO mice have significantly higher occlusion incidence compared to wild-type mice attributed to acute (<3 d) thrombosis. Cell seeding rescues TEVGs in IL-10 KO mice comparable to wild-type patency. IL-10 from the host and seeded cells do not significantly influence graft inflammation and macrophage phenotype, yet IL-10 treatment shows interesting biologic effects including decreasing cell proliferation and increasing M2 macrophage polarization. IL-10 from the host is critical for preventing TEVG thrombosis and seeded BM-MNCs exert a significant anti-thrombotic effect in IL-10 KO mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202001094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936649PMC
December 2020

Effects of Braiding Parameters on Tissue Engineered Vascular Graft Development.

Adv Healthc Mater 2020 12 15;9(24):e2001093. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Nationwide Children's Hospital, Abagail Wexner Research Institute, 575 Children's Crossroad, Columbus, OH, 43215, USA.

Tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) using scaffolds fabricated from braided poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) fibers coated with poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) are developed. The approach relies on in vivo tissue engineering by which neotissue forms solely within the body after a scaffold has been implanted. Herein, the impact of altering scaffold braid design and scaffold coating on neotissue formation is investigated. Several combinations of braiding parameters are manufactured and evaluated in a Beige mouse model in the infrarenal abdominal aorta. Animals are followed with 4D ultrasound analysis, and 12 week explanted vessels are evaluated for biaxial mechanical properties as well as histological composition. Results show that scaffold parameters (i.e., braiding angle, braiding density, and presence of a PGS coating) have interdependent effects on the resulting graft performance, namely, alteration of these parameters influences levels of inflammation, extracellular matrix production, graft dilation, neovessel distensibility, and overall survival. Coupling carefully designed in vivo experimentation with regression analysis, critical relationships between the scaffold design and the resulting neotissue that enable induction of favorable cellular and extracellular composition in a controlled manner are uncovered. Such an approach provides a potential for fabricating scaffolds with a broad range of features and the potential to manufacture optimized TEVGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202001093DOI Listing
December 2020

Improvement of a Novel Small-diameter Tissue-engineered Arterial Graft With Heparin Conjugation.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 04 16;111(4):1234-1241. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Center for Regenerative Medicine, The Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio; Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background: Small diameter (<6 mm), bioabsorbable, arterial, tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) remain limited by thromboembolism. The objective of this study was to test whether heparin-eluting (HE) TEVGs prevent early thrombosis in a large animal model.

Methods: TEVGs were created with an outer poly-ε-caprolactone electrospun nanofiber layer, with a 15-μm average pore size and an inner layer composed of a 50:50 poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) copolymer. Adult female sheep (n = 5) underwent bilateral carotid artery interposition grafting, with a control TEVG in 1 carotid artery and an HE TEVG in the contralateral position. Animals were followed for 8 weeks with weekly Duplex ultrasonography to monitor TEVG performance.

Results: All sheep survived to the designated endpoint. At 8 weeks all 5 HE TEVGs were patent. Three of 5 control TEVGs had early thrombotic occlusion at <1 week. More than 97% of heparin release occurred within the first 24 hours. Histologic evaluation of the HE TEVG displayed cellularity like a native carotid artery with no evidence of calcification. Significantly fewer platelets adhered to the HE TEVG than to the control TEVG (P < .001).

Conclusions: This study suggests HE TEVGs prevent acute graft thrombosis. We hypothesize that the HE properties of the HE TEVG during vascular endothelialization is useful for maintaining TEVG patency. This technique may aid in the translation of small arterial TEVGs to the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.06.112DOI Listing
April 2021

The effect of pore diameter on neo-tissue formation in electrospun biodegradable tissue-engineered arterial grafts in a large animal model.

Acta Biomater 2020 10 18;115:176-184. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Center for Regenerative Medicine, The Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Surgery, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Heart Center, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, T2294, Columbus, OH 43205, USA. Electronic address:

To date, there has been little investigation of biodegradable tissue engineered arterial grafts (TEAG) using clinically relevant large animal models. The purpose of this study is to explore how pore size of electrospun scaffolds can be used to balance neoarterial tissue formation with graft structural integrity under arterial environmental conditions throughout the remodeling process. TEAGs were created with an outer poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) electrospun layer and an inner sponge layer composed of heparin conjugated 50:50 poly (l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) copolymer (PLCL). Outer electrospun layers were created with four different pore diameters (4, 7, 10, and 15 µm). Fourteen adult female sheep underwent bilateral carotid artery interposition grafting (n = 3-4 /group). Our heparin-eluting TEAG was implanted on one side (n = 14) and ePTFE graft (n = 3) or non-heparin-eluting TEAG (n = 5) on the other side. Twelve of the fourteen animals survived to the designated endpoint at 8 weeks, and one animal with 4 µm pore diameter graft was followed to 1 year. All heparin-eluting TEAGs were patent, but those with pore diameters larger than 4 µm began to dilate at week 4. Only scaffolds with a pore diameter of 4 µm resisted dilation and could do so for up to 1 year. At 8 weeks, the 10 µm pore graft had the highest density of cells in the electrospun layer and macrophages were the primary cell type present. This study highlights challenges in designing bioabsorbable TEAGs for the arterial environment in a large animal model. While larger pore diameter TEAGs promoted cell infiltration, neotissue could not regenerate rapidly enough to provide sufficient mechanical strength required to resist dilation. Future studies will be focused on evaluating a smaller pore design to better understand long-term remodeling and determine feasibility for clinical use. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In situ vascular tissue engineering relies on a biodegradable scaffold that encourages tissue regeneration and maintains mechanical integrity until the neotissue can bear the load. Species-specific differences in tissue regeneration and larger mechanical forces often result in graft failure when scaling up from small to large animal models. This study utilizes a slow-degrading electrospun PCL sheath to reinforce a tissue engineered arterials graft. Pore size, a property critical to tissue regeneration, was controlled by changing PCL fiber diameter and the resulting effects of these properties on neotissue formation and graft durability was evaluated. This study is among few to report the effect of pore size on vascular neotissue formation in a large animal arterial model and also demonstrate robust neotissue formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.08.011DOI Listing
October 2020

Incidence and characteristics of paediatric abusive head trauma in Taiwan, 2006-2015: a nationwide population-based study.

Inj Prev 2021 08 11;27(4):356-362. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Objectives: To examine the incidence rate and characteristics of paediatric abusive head trauma (PAHT) among children under age 5 years in Taiwan.

Methods: The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) was used to identify broad and narrow definitions of children aged under 5 years with PAHT from 2006 to 2015 in Taiwan using a representative national insurance research database. Medical resource utilisation was also analysed. Incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were calculated and presented with 95% CI. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect the changes in trends and calculate the annual percentage change in PAHT incidence over time.

Results: From 2006 to 2015, 479 (narrow definition) and 538 (broad definition) PAHT cases were identified. Incidence rates of PAHT by narrow and broad definitions among children under 1 year of age (18.7/100 000 and 20.0/100 000) were nearly 10-fold or 20-fold higher than for children aged 1-2 (1.7/100 000 and 2.1/100 000) and 3-5 (0.9/100 000 and 1.2/100 000) years. The PAHT incidence significantly increased since 2012, with trends varying by age and gender. Our results suggest that over 40% of the children with PAHT experienced serious injury and nearly 13% were fatal cases. For 87% (n=57) of fatal cases, this was their first ever hospitalisation. The number of fatal cases among infants was fourfold higher than that of children aged 1-5 years.

Conclusions: This study provides a robust national estimate of PAHT and identifies infants as the most vulnerable group for PAHT in Taiwan. Education to enhance healthcare profession's sensitivity and competence for the early identification and diagnosis of PAHT is critical.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2020-043805DOI Listing
August 2021

The impacts of maternal childhood adversity, stress, and mental health on child development at 6 months in Taiwan: A follow-up study.

Dev Psychopathol 2021 08;33(3):970-979

Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.

Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is not only associated with one's adverse health outcomes in adulthood but also increases the risk of child developmental problems in offspring. However, the mechanisms involved in the transmission of the effects of maternal ACEs to the offspring largely remain unexplored. This study sought to identify possible psychosocial pathways of intergenerational effects of maternal ACEs on child development at 6 months. Data from a longitudinal study on maternal childhood adversity and maternal psychosocial risk during pregnancy as well as maternal mental health problems and child development at 6 months postnatal were used. Structural equation modeling with bootstrapping was used to estimate the indirect effects of maternal ACEs on child development at 6 months. The model showed that maternal ACEs indirectly influenced offspring's development via maternal stressful events during pregnancy and pre- and postnatal mental health problems. This finding highlights the possible interventions at the prenatal and postnatal periods. Early identification of women who have ACEs or who are at psychosocial risk during pre- and postnatal periods is critical to provide interventions to buffer those negative effects on offspring's development. Future studies are needed to longitudinally assess the effects of maternal ACEs on child development over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579420000267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8374618PMC
August 2021

The evaluation of a tissue-engineered cardiac patch seeded with hips derived cardiac progenitor cells in a rat left ventricular model.

PLoS One 2020 8;15(6):e0234087. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Center for Regenerative Medicine, The Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, United States of America.

Background: Ventricular septal perforation and left ventricular aneurysm are examples of potentially fatal complications of myocardial infarction. While various artificial materials are used in the repair of these issues, the possibility of associated infection and calcification is non-negligible. Cell-seeded biodegradable tissue-engineered patches may be a potential solution. This study evaluated the feasibility of a new left ventricular patch rat model to study neotissue formation in biodegradable cardiac patches.

Methods: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells (hiPS-CPCs) were cultured onto biodegradable patches composed of polyglycolic acid and a 50:50 poly (l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) copolymer for one week. After culturing, patches were implanted into left ventricular walls of male athymic rats. Unseeded controls were also used (n = 10/group). Heart conditions were followed by echocardiography and patches were subsequently explanted at 1, 2, 6, and 9 months post-implantation for histological evaluation.

Result: Throughout the study, no patches ruptured demonstrating the ability to withstand the high pressure left ventricular system. One month after transplantation, the seeded patch did not stain positive for human nuclei. However, many new blood vessels formed within patches with significantly greater vessels in the seeded group at the 6 month time point. Echocardiography showed no significant difference in left ventricular contraction rate between the two groups. Calcification was found inside patches after 6 months, but there was no significant difference between groups.

Conclusion: We have developed a surgical method to implant a bioabsorbable scaffold into the left ventricular environment of rats with a high survival rate. Seeded hiPS-CPCs did not differentiate into cardiomyocytes, but the greater number of new blood vessels in seeded patches suggests the presence of cell seeding early in the remodeling process might provide a prolonged effect on neotissue formation. This experiment will contribute to the development of a treatment model for left ventricular failure using iPS cells in the future.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234087PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279601PMC
August 2020

Spontaneous reversal of stenosis in tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

Sci Transl Med 2020 04;12(537)

The Heart Center, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.

We developed a tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) for use in children and present results of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved clinical trial evaluating this graft in patients with single-ventricle cardiac anomalies. The TEVG was used as a Fontan conduit to connect the inferior vena cava and pulmonary artery, but a high incidence of graft narrowing manifested within the first 6 months, which was treated successfully with angioplasty. To elucidate mechanisms underlying this early stenosis, we used a data-informed, computational model to perform in silico parametric studies of TEVG development. The simulations predicted early stenosis as observed in our clinical trial but suggested further that such narrowing could reverse spontaneously through an inflammation-driven, mechano-mediated mechanism. We tested this unexpected, model-generated hypothesis by implanting TEVGs in an ovine inferior vena cava interposition graft model, which confirmed the prediction that TEVG stenosis resolved spontaneously and was typically well tolerated. These findings have important implications for our translational research because they suggest that angioplasty may be safely avoided in patients with asymptomatic early stenosis, although there will remain a need for appropriate medical monitoring. The simulations further predicted that the degree of reversible narrowing can be mitigated by altering the scaffold design to attenuate early inflammation and increase mechano-sensing by the synthetic cells, thus suggesting a new paradigm for optimizing next-generation TEVGs. We submit that there is considerable translational advantage to combined computational-experimental studies when designing cutting-edge technologies and their clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aax6919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478265PMC
April 2020

Effects of academic performance on the relationship between child maltreatment and deviant behavior: A national study in Taiwan.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 12 12;98:104224. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Department of Nursing, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Child maltreatment has been found to significantly increase the risk of deviant behavior. Academic performance has been shown to have an indirect effect on the relationship between child maltreatment and deviant behavior. However, not all adolescents who have been maltreated engage in deviant behavior, so the relationship between child maltreatment and deviant behavior has remained unclear.

Objective: The aim of this research was to examine the potential mediating and/or moderating effects of academic performance on the relationship between child maltreatment and deviant behavior.

Participants And Setting: The data in this study were from a nationwide study examining the consequences of childhood maltreatment in Taiwan. The database consisted of data from 2321 adolescents.

Methods: A secondary data analysis was conducted. Self-report data were obtained on childhood maltreatment experiences, academic performance, and deviant behaviors. Path analyses and a generalized linear model were used to examine the effects of academic performance on the relationship between child maltreatment and deviant behavior.

Results: Most participants were male (61.4%), with a mean age of 15.9 years. The mean scores of self-rated academic performance and deviant behavior were 2.86 and 8.2, respectively. A total of 83% participants reported having experienced childhood maltreatment. In this study, academic performance was found to have a moderating rather than a mediating effect on the relationship between child maltreatment and deviant behavior. Among adolescents who had been maltreated during childhood, those who self-rated poorer academic performance were more likely to have a higher deviant behavior score than those who self-rated better academic performance.

Conclusions: Good academic performance can be a buffer that reduces the risk of deviant behavior among individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment. Healthcare professionals and educators can tailor early prevention and intervention educational programs targeted toward adolescents with experience of childhood abuse or poor academic performance to prevent the incidence of deviant behavior and thus break the cycle of violence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.104224DOI Listing
December 2019

The axis of local cardiac endogenous Klotho-TGF-β1-Wnt signaling mediates cardiac fibrosis in human.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2019 11 11;136:113-124. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Cardiovascular fibrosis is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease, the primary cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We previously reported expression of endogenous Klotho in human arteries, and that CKD is a state of Klotho deficiency, resulting in vascular calcification, but myocardial expression of Klotho is poorly understood. This study aimed to further clarify endogenous Klotho's functional roles in cardiac fibrosis in patients with underlying CKD.

Methods And Results: Human atrial appendage specimens were collected during cardiac surgery from individuals with or without CKD. Cardiac fibrosis was quantified using trichrome staining. For endogenous Klotho functional studies, primary human cardiomyocytes (HCMs) were treated with uremic serum from CKD patients or recombinant human TGF-β1. The effects of endogenous Klotho in HCMs were studied using Klotho-siRNA and Klotho-plasmid transfection. Both gene and protein expression of endogenous Klotho are found in human heart, but decreased Klotho expression is clearly associated with the degree of cardiac fibrosis in CKD patients. Moreover, we show that endogenous Klotho is expressed by HCMs and cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs) but that HCM expression is suppressed by uremic serum or TGF-β1. Klotho knockdown or overexpression aggravates or mitigates TGF-β1-induced fibrosis and canonical Wnt signaling in HCMs, respectively. Furthermore, co-culture of HCMs with HCFs increases TGF-β1-induced fibrogenic proteins in HCFs, but overexpression of endogenous Klotho in HCMs mitigates this effect, suggesting functional crosstalk between HCMs and HCFs.

Conclusions: Our data from analysis of human hearts as well as functional in vitro studies strongly suggests that the loss of cardiac endogenous Klotho in CKD patients, specifically in cardiomyocytes, facilitates intensified TGF-β1 signaling which enables more vigorous cardiac fibrosis through upregulated Wnt signaling. Upregulation of endogenous Klotho inhibits pathogenic Wnt/β-catenin signaling and may offer a novel strategy for prevention and treatment of cardiac fibrosis in CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2019.09.004DOI Listing
November 2019

Differential expression patterns of housekeeping genes increase diagnostic and prognostic value in lung cancer.

PeerJ 2018 9;6:e4719. Epub 2018 May 9.

Division of Renal Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Background: Using DNA microarrays, we previously identified 451 genes expressed in 19 different human tissues. Although ubiquitously expressed, the variable expression patterns of these "housekeeping genes" (HKGs) could separate one normal human tissue type from another. Current focus on identifying "specific disease markers" is problematic as single gene expression in a given sample represents the specific cellular states of the sample at the time of collection. In this study, we examine the diagnostic and prognostic potential of the variable expressions of HKGs in lung cancers.

Methods: Microarray and RNA-seq data for normal lungs, lung adenocarcinomas (AD), squamous cell carcinomas of the lung (SQCLC), and small cell carcinomas of the lung (SCLC) were collected from online databases. Using 374 of 451 HKGs, differentially expressed genes between pairs of sample types were determined via two-sided, homoscedastic -test. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering classified normal lung and lung cancers subtypes according to relative gene expression variations. We used uni- and multi-variate cox-regressions to identify significant predictors of overall survival in AD patients. Classifying genes were selected using a set of training samples and then validated using an independent test set. Gene Ontology was examined by PANTHER.

Results: This study showed that the differential expression patterns of 242, 245, and 99 HKGs were able to distinguish normal lung from AD, SCLC, and SQCLC, respectively. From these, 70 HKGs were common across the three lung cancer subtypes. These HKGs have low expression variation compared to current lung cancer markers (e.g., EGFR, KRAS) and were involved in the most common biological processes (e.g., metabolism, stress response). In addition, the expression pattern of 106 HKGs alone was a significant classifier of AD versus SQCLC. We further highlighted that a panel of 13 HKGs was an independent predictor of overall survival and cumulative risk in AD patients.

Discussion: Here we report HKG expression patterns may be an effective tool for evaluation of lung cancer states. For example, the differential expression pattern of 70 HKGs alone can separate normal lung tissue from various lung cancers while a panel of 106 HKGs was a capable class predictor of subtypes of non-small cell carcinomas. We also reported that HKGs have significantly lower variance compared to traditional cancer markers across samples, highlighting the robustness of a panel of genes over any one specific biomarker. Using RNA-seq data, we showed that the expression pattern of 13 HKGs is a significant, independent predictor of overall survival for AD patients. This reinforces the predictive power of a HKG panel across different gene expression measurement platforms. Thus, we propose the expression patterns of HKGs alone may be sufficient for the diagnosis and prognosis of individuals with lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5949062PMC
May 2018

α-Klotho expression determines nitric oxide synthesis in response to FGF-23 in human aortic endothelial cells.

PLoS One 2017 2;12(5):e0176817. Epub 2017 May 2.

Department of Medicine, Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States of America.

Endothelial cells (ECs) express fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors and are metabolically active after treatment with FGF-23. It is not known if this effect is α-Klotho independent or mediated by humoral or endogenous endothelial α-Klotho. In the present study, we aimed to characterize EC α-Klotho expression within the human vascular tree and to investigate the potential role of α-Klotho in determining FGF-23 mediated EC regulation. Human tissue and ECs from various organs were used for immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Primary cultures of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) were used to generate in vitro cell models. We found endogenous α-Klotho expression in ECs from various organs except in microvascular ECs from human brain. Furthermore, FGF-23 stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, nitric oxide (NO) production, and cell proliferation in HAECs. Interestingly, these effects were not observed in our HBMEC model in vitro. High phosphate treatment and endothelial α-Klotho knockdown mitigated FGF-23 mediated eNOS induction, NO production, and cell proliferation in HAECs. Rescue treatment with soluble α-Klotho did not reverse endothelial FGF-23 resistance caused by reduced or absent α-Klotho expression in HAECs. These novel observations provide evidence for differential α-Klotho functional expression in the human endothelium and its presence may play a role in determining the response to FGF-23 in the vascular tree. α-Klotho was not detected in cerebral microvascular ECs and its absence may render these cells nonresponsive to FGF-23.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0176817PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5413063PMC
September 2017

Single-Round Infectious Particle Antiviral Screening Assays for the Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

Viruses 2017 04 10;9(4). Epub 2017 Apr 10.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.

Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome that contains a big open reading frame (ORF) flanked by 5'- and 3'- untranslated regions (UTRs). Nearly 30,000 JE cases with 10,000 deaths are still annually reported in East Asia. Although the JEV genotype III vaccine has been licensed, it elicits a lower protection against other genotypes. Moreover, no effective treatment for a JE case is developed. This study constructed a pBR322-based and cytomegaloviruses (CMV) promoter-driven JEV replicon for the production of JEV single-round infectious particles (SRIPs) in a packaging cell line expressing viral structural proteins. Genetic instability of JEV genome cDNA in the pBR322 plasmid was associated with the prokaryotic promoter at 5' end of the JEV genome that triggers the expression of the structural proteins in E. coli. JEV structural proteins were toxic E. coli, thus the encoding region for structural proteins was replaced by a reporter gene (enhanced green fluorescent protein, EGFP) that was in-frame fused with the first eight amino acids of the C protein at N-terminus and the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A peptide at C-terminus in a pBR322-based JEV-EGFP replicon. JEV-EGFP SRIPs generated from JEV-EGFP replicon-transfected packaging cells displayed the infectivity with cytopathic effect induction, self-replication of viral genomes, and the expression of EGFP and viral proteins. Moreover, the combination of JEV-EGFP SRIP plus flow cytometry was used to determine the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of antiviral agents according to fluorescent intensity and positivity of SRIP-infected packaging cells post treatment. MJ-47, a quinazolinone derivative, significantly inhibited JEV-induced cytopathic effect, reducing the replication and expression of JEV-EGFP replicon in vitro. The IC50 value of 6.28 µM for MJ-47 against JEV was determined by the assay of JEV-EGFP SRIP infection in packaging cells plus flow cytometry that was more sensitive, effective, and efficient compared to the traditional plaque assay. Therefore, the system of JEV-EGFP SRIPs plus flow cytometry was a rapid and reliable platform for screening antiviral agents and evaluating antiviral potency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v9040076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5408682PMC
April 2017

Exploring the relationship between nursing hours per patient day and mortality rate of hospitalised patients in Taiwan.

J Nurs Manag 2017 Mar 24;25(2):85-92. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

Department of Economics & Graduate Institute of Political Economy, College of Social Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.

Aim: To investigate the relationship between nursing hours per patient day and the inpatient mortality rate in Taiwan.

Background: Nursing hours per patient day has been associated with better patient outcomes. The literature is inconclusive on the relationship between nursing hours per patient day and the inpatient mortality rate, and no studies have yet examined this issue in Taiwan.

Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study analysed data from the 'Nursing Utilization of Resources, Staffing and Environment on Outcome Study: NURSE-outcome study'. Hierarchical regression estimated the relationship between nursing hours per patient day and in-hospital mortality rate after controlling for confounding variables.

Results: The mean nursing hours per patient day in Taiwan was 2.3, while the mean inpatient mortality rate was 0.73% higher nursing hours per patient day was associated with a lower inpatient mortality rate after controlling for confounding variables. The total explained variance of this study in inpatient mortality rate was 19.9%. Significant relationships to inpatient mortality were found in levels of hospitals, seasonal variation and nurses' work experience.

Conclusion: Nursing hours per patient day affects the mortality rate among hospitalised patients in Taiwan.

Implications For Nursing Management: According to the results, we suggested the government and managers in Taiwan double the nursing hours per patient day so that the inpatient mortality rate will decline by 1.1%. This might be the optimal nurse configuration that could provide a balance between cost-effectiveness and patient safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12443DOI Listing
March 2017

Oxidative Stress and in Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Diseases.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016 11;2016:4797102. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

Department of Chinese Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; School of Chinese Medicine for Post Baccalaureate, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Aging-associated cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have some risk factors that are closely related to oxidative stress. (SM) has been used commonly to treat CVDs for hundreds of years in the Chinese community. We aimed to explore the effects of SM on oxidative stress in aging-associated CVDs. Through literature searches using Medicine, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, CINAHL, and Scopus databases, we found that SM not only possesses antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects but also exerts angiogenic and cardioprotective activities. SM may reduce the production of reactive oxygen species by inhibiting oxidases, reducing the production of superoxide, inhibiting the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins, and ameliorating mitochondrial oxidative stress. SM also increases the activities of catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and coupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase. In addition, SM reduces the impact of ischemia/reperfusion injury, prevents cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction, preserves cardiac function in coronary disease, maintains the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and promotes self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells in stroke. However, future clinical well-designed and randomized control trials will be necessary to confirm the efficacy of SM in aging-associated CVDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4797102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5078662PMC
March 2017

A randomized controlled trial of auricular acupressure in heart rate variability and quality of life for hypertension.

Complement Ther Med 2015 Apr 20;23(2):200-9. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

School of Nursing, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Nursing Department, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

Background: Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases. Hypertensive patients who intend to control blood pressure need professional medical assistance. Auricular acupressure is a patient-dependent task, wherein a person does not have to rely on a healthcare professional to self-perform the task.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of auricular acupressure on heart rate variability (HRV) and quality of life (QoL) in patients with hypertension.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial with permuted block randomization was used. In total, 150 participants from a medical teaching hospital were randomly assigned to the experimental group that received auricular acupressure for 10 weeks, and the control group that received only routine care of equal duration. Outcomes were assessed through HRV parameters, heart rate, blood pressure, and QoL before and after the auricular acupressure intervention.

Results: After the adjustment of disease duration and mental health, a significant difference existed between the two groups in body pain (p=.03) and mental health (p=.002) of QoL, but not in HRV parameters, heart rate, blood pressure, and overall QoL (p>.05).

Conclusion: Acupressure can be applied at the acupoints of shenmen, sympathesis, kidney, liver, heart, and subcortex to improve physical pain and mental health of QoL for hypertensive patients. Auricular acupressure is acceptable and feasible although it does not support physiological benefits. Further studies are warranted to assure the effects of using auricular acupressure as an adjunctive care for patients with hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2015.01.005DOI Listing
April 2015

[A review of mixed gas detection system based on infrared spectroscopic technique].

Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2014 Oct;34(10):2851-7

In order to provide the experiences and references to the researchers who are working on infrared (IR) mixed gas detection field. The proposed manuscript reviews two sections of the aforementioned field, including optical multiplexing structure and detection method. At present, the coherent light sources whose representative are quantum cascade laser (QCL) and inter-band cascade laser(ICL) become the mainstream light source in IR mixed gas detection, which replace the traditional non-coherent light source, such as IR radiation source and IR light emitting diode. In addition, the photon detector which has a super high detectivity and very short response time is gradually beyond thermal infrared detector, dominant in the field of infrared detector. The optical multiplexing structure is the key factor of IR mixed gas detection system, which consists of single light source multi-plexing detection structure and multi light source multiplexing detection structure. Particularly, single light source multiplexing detection structure is advantages of small volume and high integration, which make it a plausible candidate for the portable mixed gas detection system; Meanwhile, multi light source multiplexing detection structure is embodiment of time division multiplex, frequency division multiplexing and wavelength division multiplexing, and become the leading structure of the mixed gas detection system because of its wider spectral range, higher spectral resolution, etc. The detection method applied to IR mixed gas detection includes non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy, wavelength and frequency-modulation spectroscopy, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy, etc. The IR mixed gas detection system designed by researchers after recognizing the whole sections of the proposed system, which play a significant role in industrial and agricultural production, environmental monitoring, and life science, etc.
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October 2014

Gelation behavior of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)/poly[9,9-di(2-ethylhexyl)-fluorenyl-2,7-diyl] blend in methylcyclohexane solutions.

Langmuir 2012 Dec 4;28(50):17457-64. Epub 2012 Dec 4.

Department of Materials Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71003, Taiwan.

We investigated the gelation behavior of the blend of two light-emitting polyfluorenes, i.e., poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl) (PF(8)) and poly[9,9-di(2-ethylhexyl)-fluorenyl-2,7-diyl] (PF(2/6)), in solutions with methylcyclohexane (MCH). Upon prolonged aging at room temperature, dynamic light scattering revealed that phase separation in the initially well-mixed solutions occurred via spinodal decomposition, yielding a PF(8)/PF(2/6)-enriched phase and an isotropic solvent-rich phase. Sheetlike aggregates in which a portion of the PF(8) chains adopted the β conformation were formed in the polymer-enriched phase, as revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering and optical spectroscopy. Macroscopically, the phase separation transformed the original viscous liquid solution into a gel. Measurements of the gelation temperature (T(gel)), gel-to-sol transition temperature (T(g-s)), and spinodal decomposition temperature (T(SD)) indicated that gelation (and hence phase separation) became more difficult with increasing content of PF(2/6). The presence of PF(2/6) also hindered formation of the β-phase of PF(8.) Therefore, the microstructure and photophysical properties of PF(8)/PF(2/6) in MCH solution can be tuned by the composition of the two polymers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la303501rDOI Listing
December 2012

Analysis of phase sensitivity for binary computer-generated holograms.

Appl Opt 2006 Jun;45(18):4223-34

KLA-Tencor Corporation, Milpitas, California 95035, USA.

A binary diffraction model is introduced to study the sensitivity of the wavefront phase of binary computer-generated holograms on groove depth and duty-cycle variations. Analytical solutions to diffraction efficiency, diffracted wavefront phase functions, and wavefront sensitivity functions are derived. The derivation of these relationships is obtained by using the Fourier method. Results from experimental data confirm the analysis. Several phase anomalies were discovered, and a simple graphical model of the complex fields is applied to explain these phenomena.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.45.004223DOI Listing
June 2006
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