Publications by authors named "Yu Zhong"

413 Publications

Insights into how poly aluminum chloride and poly ferric sulfate affect methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 11:151413. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control Technology, Hunan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Changsha 410004, China.

Poly aluminum chloride (PAC) and poly ferric sulfate (PFS) are widely used in wastewater treatment and sludge dewatering, resulting in their amounts being accumulated substantially in waste activated sludge (WAS). Till now, however, little information about their influence on WAS digestion is available. This work therefore aims to provide insights into how PAC and PFS affect sludge anaerobic digestion. The experimental results showed that PFS's inhibition to methane production was much severer than PAC, in control reactor (0 mg Al or Fe /g TSS), the maximum cumulative methane production was 152.99 ± 7.18 mL/g VSS, when flocculants concentration increased to 30 mg Al/g TSS or 30 mg Fe/g TSS, the yields decreased to 129.54 ± 6.18 mL/g VSS and 89.52 ± 4.82 mL/g VSS respectively. Mechanism explorations exhibited that protein in WAS could bond with flocculants, which would inhibit protein bioconversion. It was also observed that the apparent activation energy (AAE) of organic solubilisation of PAC and PFS-contained sludge were increased by 38.58% and 18.67% respectively. Meanwhile, compared to the PFS, PAC led to more serious suppression of hydrolysis and acidogenesis processes, with propionic acid used as substrate, PFS inhibit methanogenesis more severely than PAC. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analyses showed that the number of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) enriched obviously in PFS reactor. The results revealed that although PFS reduced methane production more severely than PAC, the reduction was mainly enforced by the activity of SRB but not organic enmeshment. Furthermore, PAC severely suppresses acetotrophic methanogens but PFS depress hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis microorganism mainly. Additionally, malodor control and dewaterability enhancement of digested sludge can be realized with PAC existence. The finding obtained in this study would provide insights into the PFS or PAC-involved sludge anaerobic digestion system and might support the important implication for further manipulate WAS treatment in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151413DOI Listing
November 2021

Ultrafast Synthesis of I-Rich Lithium Argyrodite Glass-Ceramic Electrolyte with High Ionic Conductivity.

Adv Mater 2021 Nov 11:e2107346. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

Lithium argyrodites are one of the most promising sulfide electrolytes due to their high ionic conductivity and ductile feature. Among them, Li PS I (LPSI) exhibits better stability against Li metal but a rather low ionic conductivity (only ≈10 S cm ) because of the absence of S /I disorder. Herein, argyrodite Li PS I glass-ceramic electrolytes with high iodine content are synthesized using ultimate-energy mechanical alloying method. S /I disorder is successfully introduced into the system by doping LiI during this one-pot process. Determined by Li magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, the introduction of iodine promotes Li inter-cage jumps, leading to an enhanced long-range Li conducting. The Li PS I glass-ceramic electrolyte (LPSI -gc) possesses high ionic conductivity (2.04 mS cm ) and excellent stability against Li metal. The Li symmetric cell with the LPSI -gc electrolyte demonstrates ultralong cycling stability over 3200 h at 0.2 mA cm . LiCoO /Li PS Cl/Li all-solid-state battery applying LPSI -gc as the anode interlayer also presents prominent cycling and rate performance. This work provides a novel type of electrolyte with high ionic conductivity and stability against Li metal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202107346DOI Listing
November 2021

Long non-coding RNAs are involved in alternative splicing and promote cancer progression.

Br J Cancer 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

NHC Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Hunan Key Laboratory of Cancer Metabolism, Hunan Cancer Hospital and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Alternative splicing (AS) is a key process in which precursor RNAs produce different mature RNAs, and the disorder of AS is a key factor in promoting cancer development. Compared with coding RNA, studies on the functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are far from enough. In fact, lncRNA is an important participant and regulator in the process of AS. On the one hand, lncRNAs regulate cancer progression as AS products of precursor messenger RNA (mRNA), but on the other hand, precursor lncRNA generates cancer-related abnormal splicing variants through AS. In addition, lncRNAs directly or indirectly regulate the AS events of downstream target genes, thus affecting the occurrence and development of cancer. Here, we reviewed how lncRNAs regulate AS and influence oncogenesis in different ways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01600-wDOI Listing
November 2021

HB-EGF-induced IL-8 secretion from airway epithelium leads to lung fibroblast proliferation and migration.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Nov 6;21(1):347. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, 524001, China.

Background: We have reported that heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) is increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and associated with collagen deposition, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigated the inflammatory cytokines secreted by bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to HB-EGF that promoted proliferation and migration of human lung fibroblast.

Methods: HB-EGF-induced inflammatory cytokines were assayed in two airway epithelial cells (primary human bronchial epithelial cells [HBECs] and BEAS-2B cells). Moreover, the culture supernatants derived from HB-EGF-treated HBECs and BEAS-2B cells were added to human primary lung fibroblasts. The effect of culture supernatants on proliferation and migration of fibroblasts was assessed.

Results: IL-8 expression was significantly increased in bronchial epithelial cells treated with HB-EGF, which was at least partially dependent on NF-kB pathways activation. HB-EGF-induced IL-8 was found to further promote lung fibroblasts proliferation and migration, and the effects were attenuated after neutralizing IL-8.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that HB-EGF may be involved in the pathology of airway fibrosis by induction of IL-8 from airway epithelium, subsequently causing lung fibroblasts proliferation and migration. Thus, inhibition of HBEGF and/or IL-8 production could prevent the development of airway fibrosis by modulating fibroblast activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-021-01726-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8572483PMC
November 2021

Multifunctional Hyphae Carbon Powering Lithium Sulfur Batteries.

Adv Mater 2021 Nov 6:e2107415. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

Biotechnology can bring new breakthrough on design and fabrication of energy materials and devices. In this work, for the first time, we propose a novel and facile biological self-assembly technology to fabricate multifunctional Rhizopus hyphae carbon fibre (RHCF) and its derivatives in large scale for electrochemical energy storage. Crosslinked hollow carbon fibres are successfully prepared by conversion of Rhizopus hyphae, and we further realize macroscopic production of centimeter-level carbon balls consisting of hollow RHCFs. Moreover, the self-assembled RHCF balls show strong adsorption characteristics on metal ions and can be converted into a series of derivatives such as RHCF/metal oxides. Notably, the designed RHCF derivatives are demonstrated with powerful multifunctionability as cathode, anode and separator for lithium sulfur batteries (LSBs). The RHCF can act as the host material to combine with metal oxide (CoO) and S, Li metal and polypropylene (PP) separator to form new RHCF/CoO-S cathode, RHCF/Li anode and RHCF/PP separator, respectively. Consequently, the optimized LSBs full cell presents excellent cycling performance and superior high-rate capacity (881.3 mA h g at 1 C). Our work provides a new method for large-scale preparation of hollow carbon fibres and derivatives for advanced energy storage and conversion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202107415DOI Listing
November 2021

Construction of an N6-methyladenosine lncRNA- and immune cell infiltration-related prognostic model in colorectal cancer.

Protoplasma 2021 Nov 3. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 1 Minde Road, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi, China.

The present paper aims to shed light on the influence of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and immune cell infiltration on colorectal cancer (CRC). We downloaded workflow-type data and xml-format clinical data on CRC from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. The relationship between lncRNA and m6A was identified by using Perl and R software. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis was performed. Lasso regression was utilized to construct a prognostic model. Survival analysis was used to explore the relationship between clusters of m6A lncRNAs and clinical survival data. Differential analysis of the tumor microenvironment and an immune correlation analysis were used to determine immune cell infiltration levels in different clusters and their correlation with clinical prognosis. The expression of lncRNA was tightly associated with m6A. The univariate Cox regression analysis showed that lncRNA was a risk factor for the prognosis. Differential expression analysis demonstrated that m6A lncRNAs were partially highly expressed in tumor tissue. m6A lncRNA-related prognostic model could predict the prognosis of CRC independently. "ECM_RECEPTOR_INTERACTION" was the most significantly enriched gene set. PARP8 was overexpressed in tumor tissue and high-risk cluster. CD4 memory T cells, activated resting NK cells, and memory B cells were highly clustered in the high-risk cluster. All of the scores were higher in the low-risk group. m6A lncRNA is closely related to the occurrence and progression of CRC. The corresponding prognostic model can be utilized to evaluate the prognosis of CRC. m6A lncRNA and related immune cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment can provide novel therapeutic targets for further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-021-01718-xDOI Listing
November 2021

Lithium Storage Performance Boosted via Delocalizing Charge in Zn Co PS /CoS of 2D/3D Heterostructure.

Small 2021 Oct 29:e2104295. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

A promising anode material consisting of bimetallic thiophosphate Zn Co PS and CoS with 2D/3D heterostructure is designed and prepared by an effective chemical transformation. Density functional theory calculations illustrate that the Zn can effectively modulate the electrical ordering of Zn Co PS on the nanoscale: the reduced charge distribution emerging around the Zn ions can enhance the local built-in electric field, which will accelerate the ions migration rate by Coulomb forces and provide tempting opportunities for manipulating Li storage behavior. Moreover, the merits of the large planar size enable Zn Co PS to provide abundant anchoring sites for metallic CoS nanocubes, generating a 2D/3D heterostructure with a strong electric field. The resultant Zn Co PS /CoS can offer the combined advantages of bimetallic alloying and heterostructure in lithium storage applications, leading to outstanding performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Consequently, a high capacity of 794 mA h g can be retained after 100 cycles at 0.2 A g . Even at 3.0 A g , a satisfactory capacity of 465 mA h g can be delivered. The appealing alloying-heterostructure and electrochemical performance of this bimetallic thiophosphate demonstrate its great promise for applications in practical rechargeable batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202104295DOI Listing
October 2021

Multi-Dopant Engineering in Perovskite CsSnCl: White Light Emitter and Spatially Luminescent Heterostructure.

Inorg Chem 2021 Nov 27;60(22):17357-17363. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, People' Republic of China.

Bi/Te co-doped CsSnCl with dual emission spectrum (i.e., 450 and 575 nm) was achieved by a modified solution method, which can overcome the phase separation in the previous method for CsSnCl crystal growth. The two emission peaks arising from the two dopants Bi and Te have distinct photoluminescence (PL) lifetimes. Thus, the control of dopant ratio or PL delay time will regulate the PL intensity ratio between 450 and 575 nm peaks leading to adjustable emission color. The energy transfer between the two emission centers, which is confirmed by the optical spectra and PL lifetime, has a critical distance around 7.8 nm with a maximum of 50% transfer efficiency. The Bi/Te co-doped CsSnCl with superior stability in water and aqua regia was fabricated into a single-phase white light-emitting diode. In the meantime, various luminescent heterostructures were obtained by epitaxial CsSnCl crystal growth with different dopants, which can broaden the study of composition engineering in halide perovskites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c02840DOI Listing
November 2021

A Three-Dimensional Electrospun LiLaZrTaO-Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride-Hexafluoropropylene) Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Rechargeable Solid-State Lithium Ion Batteries.

Front Chem 2021 4;9:751476. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Developing high-quality solid-state electrolytes is important for producing next-generation safe and stable solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Herein, a three-dimensional highly porous polymer electrolyte based on poly (vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) with LiLaZrTaO (LLZTO) nanoparticle fillers (PVDF-HFP-LLZTO) is prepared using the electrospinning technique. The PVDF-HFP-LLZTO gel polymer electrolyte possesses a high ionic conductivity of 9.44 × 10 S cm and a Li-ion transference number of 0.66, which can be ascribed that the 3D hierarchical nanostructure with abundant porosity promotes the liquid electrolyte uptake and wetting, and LLZTO nanoparticles fillers decrease the crystallinity of PVDF-HFP. Thus, the solid-state lithium battery with LiFePO cathode, PVDF-HFP-LLZTO electrolyte, and Li metal anode exhibits enhanced electrochemical performance with improved cycling stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.751476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8522983PMC
October 2021

Theoretical and in vivo investigations of morphology and concentration of gold nanoparticles for laser surgery.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Dermatology, Ganzhou People's Hospital, Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China.

Background And Objective: Precise control of the thermal damage is critical during thermal therapy with the assistance of gold nanoparticles, which depends on the laser parameters and characteristics of gold nanoparticles. However, the current understanding of the relationship between the gold nanoparticles/incident laser light and the efficiency of photothermal therapy is limited, which should be studied systematically.

Materials And Methods: In this study, theoretical simulations were conducted to investigate the influence of laser wavelength, the size and shape of gold nanoparticles, and the distance of the particle in complex nanostructures on the optical properties and temperature distribution after laser irradiation, aiming to achieve maximum photothermal conversion efficiency and therapeutic effect during the laser treatment of port wine stains. Thereafter, gold nanoparticles were prepared and in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect on thermal damage of blood vessels.

Results: For the laser wavelength at 532 nm, gold nanospheres with diameters of 20 nm are ideal in terms of temperature rise. The optimized particle distance is 5 nm and the corresponding concentration is 0.26 mg/ml. For Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of 6.3 and an effective radius of 12.7 nm are the most effective photothermal agents. The optimized particle distance is 4 nm, yielding the optimal concentration of 0.017 mg/ml. In vivo results demonstrated that using gold nanoparticles following our simulations as photothermal agents can greatly enhance the thermal damage of diseased blood vessels, reducing the laser energy and laser pulses required for the obvious thermal response of blood vessels.

Conclusion: For different laser wavelengths used in clinics in the near future, theoretical models presented in this study can be employed to obtain the morphology of single gold nanoparticle and the concentration of nanoparticles solutions, thereby obtaining the optimal photothermal conversion and enhanced thermal damage assisted by gold nanoparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.23482DOI Listing
October 2021

Development of the National Air Quality Health Index - China, 2013-2018.

China CDC Wkly 2021 Jan;3(4):61-64

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Summary:

While the establishment of an air quality health index (AQHI) in some countries yielded positive outcomes in communicating health risks of air pollution, China lagged behind in developing its own AQHI. Several research studies of AQHI were conducted in China, but this scientific research has not yet been applied to standards.



This report introduced the method of calculation of Chinese AQHI to be launched in pilot cities. The index in this report was established on the basis of fully drawing on international experience and considering Chinese characteristics.



The purpose of this report is to guide unified application of the AQHI throughout China and translate scientific evidence into public services to promote public health. Based on the AQHI construction method in this report, an AQHI real-time computing platform and data transfer interface will be developed. The release of AQHI aims to communicate health risk of air pollution and provide scientific health protective guidance to the general public, accordingly to protect people's health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2021.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393087PMC
January 2021

Extremely anisotropic van der Waals thermal conductors.

Nature 2021 Sep 29;597(7878):660-665. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

The densification of integrated circuits requires thermal management strategies and high thermal conductivity materials. Recent innovations include the development of materials with thermal conduction anisotropy, which can remove hotspots along the fast-axis direction and provide thermal insulation along the slow axis. However, most artificially engineered thermal conductors have anisotropy ratios much smaller than those seen in naturally anisotropic materials. Here we report extremely anisotropic thermal conductors based on large-area van der Waals thin films with random interlayer rotations, which produce a room-temperature thermal anisotropy ratio close to 900 in MoS, one of the highest ever reported. This is enabled by the interlayer rotations that impede the through-plane thermal transport, while the long-range intralayer crystallinity maintains high in-plane thermal conductivity. We measure ultralow thermal conductivities in the through-plane direction for MoS (57 ± 3 mW m K) and WS (41 ± 3 mW m K) films, and we quantitatively explain these values using molecular dynamics simulations that reveal one-dimensional glass-like thermal transport. Conversely, the in-plane thermal conductivity in these MoS films is close to the single-crystal value. Covering nanofabricated gold electrodes with our anisotropic films prevents overheating of the electrodes and blocks heat from reaching the device surface. Our work establishes interlayer rotation in crystalline layered materials as a new degree of freedom for engineering-directed heat transport in solid-state systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03867-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481126PMC
September 2021

Author Correction: Diverse heterochromatin-associated proteins repress distinct classes of genes and repetitive elements.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 Nov;23(11):1212

Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Smilow Center for Translational Research, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00759-xDOI Listing
November 2021

The Impact of Solvent Vapor on the Film Morphology and Crystallization Kinetics of Lead Halide Perovskites during Annealing.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 20;13(38):45365-45374. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Chemistry, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstr. 30, Bayreuth 95440, Germany.

One of the key factors for the remarkable improvements of halide perovskite solar cells over the last few years is the increased control over perovskite crystallinity and its thin film morphology. Among various processing methods, solvent vapor-assisted annealing (SVAA) has proven to be promising in achieving high-quality perovskite films. However, a comprehensive understanding of the perovskite crystallization process during SVAA is still lacking. In this work, we use a home-built setup to precisely control the SVAA conditions to investigate in detail the perovskite crystallization kinetics. By changing the solvent vapor concentration during annealing, the perovskite grain size can be tuned from 200 nm to several micrometers. We monitor the crystallization kinetics during solvent-free annealing and SVAA using in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, where we find a diminished perovskite growth rate and the formation of low dimensional perovskite at the top of the perovskite layer during SVAA. Scanning electron microscopy images of the final films further suggest that the perovskite growth follows an Ostwald ripening process at higher solvent concentrations. Thus, our results will contribute to achieve a more targeted processing of perovskite films.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09075DOI Listing
September 2021

Shikonin attenuates HO-induced oxidative injury in HT29 cells via antioxidant activities and the inhibition of mitochondrial pathway-mediated apoptosis.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Oct 4;22(4):1118. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524023, P.R. China.

Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone extracted from the roots of , possesses multiple pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects. It has been hypothesized that the properties of shikonin are associated with its oxygen free radical scavenging abilities. However, the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of shikonin is not completely understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of shikonin against HO-induced oxidative injury in HT29 cells and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. The concentration and duration of HO treatment to cause maximal damage, and the effects of shikonin (2.5, 5 or 10 µg/ml) on the activity of HO-induced HT29 cells were determined by MTT assay. The apoptotic rate in HT29 cells was determined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. HT29 cell cycle alteration was also analyzed by propidium iodide staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed by monitoring 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin in diacetate fluorescence. Mitochondrial membrane potentials were determined by JC-1 staining. The activities of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were measured using spectrophotometric assays. The expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome were determined by western blotting. The results suggested that shikonin increased cell viability, reduced cell apoptosis and increased the proliferation index in HO-treated HT29 cells. Shikonin also significantly inhibited increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), restored the mitochondrial membrane potential, prevented the release of lactic dehydrogenase and decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde in HO-induced HT29 cells. Furthermore, shikonin significantly decreased caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities, increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax and cytochrome expression levels in HO-induced HT29 cells. The results indicated that shikonin protected against HO-induced oxidative injury by removing ROS, ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction, attenuating DNA oxidative damage and inhibiting mitochondrial pathway-mediated apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383764PMC
October 2021

Risk of Cardiovascular Hospital Admission After Exposure to Fine Particulate Pollution.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Sep;78(10):1015-1024

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Heavy fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM) pollution events continue to occur frequently in developing countries.

Objectives: The authors conducted a case-crossover study aimed at exploring the association between heavy PM pollution events and hospital admission for cardiovascular diseases.

Methods: Hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases were observed by Beijing Municipal Commission of Health and Family Planning Information Center from 2013 to 2017. Air pollution data were collected from the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center. Distinct definitions were used to identify heavy and extremely heavy fine particulate pollution events. A conditional logistic regression model was used. The hospital admission burdens for cardiovascular disease were also estimated.

Results: A total of 2,202,244 hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases and 222 days of extremely heavy PM pollution events (PM concentration ≥150 μg/m) were observed. The ORs associated with extremely heavy PM pollution events lasting for 3 days or more for total cardiovascular disease, angina, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and heart failure were 1.085 (95% CI: 1.077-1.093), 1.112 (95% CI: 1.095-1.130), 1.068 (95% CI: 1.037-1.100), 1.071 (95% CI: 1.053-1.090), and 1.060 (95% CI: 1.021-1.101), respectively. The numbers and days of cardiovascular disease hospital admission annually related to extremely heavy PM pollution events lasting for 1 day or more were 3,311 (95% CI: 2,969-3,655) and 37,020 (95% CI: 33,196-40,866), respectively.

Conclusions: Heavy and extremely heavy PM pollution events resulted in substantial increased hospital admission risk for cardiovascular disease. With higher PM concentration and longer duration of heavy PM pollution events, a greater risk of cardiovascular hospital admission was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.06.043DOI Listing
September 2021

Arabidopsis AtPRP17 functions in embryo development by regulating embryonic patterning.

Planta 2021 Aug 23;254(3):58. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, 271018, China.

Main Conclusion: Arabidopsis AtPRP17, a homolog of yeast splicing factor gene PRP17, is expressed in siliques and embryos and functions in embryo development via regulating embryonic patterning. Yeast splicing factor PRP17/CDC40 is essential for cell growth through involvement in cell cycle regulation. Arabidopsis genome encodes a homolog of PRP17, AtPRP17; however, its function in Arabidopsis development is unknown. This study showed that AtPRP17 was highly expressed in siliques and embryos, and the protein was localized in the nucleus. The loss-of-function mutation of AtPRP17 led to shrunken seeds in Arabidopsis mature siliques. Further analysis revealed that the defective mature seeds of the mutant resulted from abnormal embryos with shriveled cotyledons, unequal cotyledons, swollen and shortened hypocotyls, or shortened radicles. During embryogenesis, mutant embryos showed delayed development and defective patterning of the apical and base domains, such as inhibited cotyledons and disorganized quiescent center cells and columella. Our results suggested that AtPRP17 functions in Arabidopsis embryo development via regulating embryonic patterning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-021-03702-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Discovery of GNE-502 as an orally bioavailable and potent degrader for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 10 20;50:128335. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

WuXi AppTec Co, Ltd., 288 Fute Zhong Road, Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Shanghai 200131, PR China.

Fulvestrant is an FDA-approved drug with a dual mechanism of action (MOA), acting as a full antagonist and degrader of the estrogen receptor protein. A significant limitation of fulvestrant is the dosing regimen required for efficacy. Due to its high lipophilicity and poor pharmacokinetic profile, fulvestrant needs to be administered through intramuscular injections which leads to injection site soreness. This route of administration also limits the dose and target occupancy in patients. We envisioned a best-in-class molecule that would function with the same dual MOA as fulvestrant, but with improved physicochemical properties and would be orally bioavailable. Herein we report our progress toward that goal, resulting in a new lead GNE-502 which addressed some of the liabilities of our previously reported lead molecule GNE-149.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2021.128335DOI Listing
October 2021

A Powerful One-Step Puffing Carbonization Method for Construction of Versatile Carbon Composites with High-Efficiency Energy Storage.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 23;33(40):e2102796. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, P. R. China.

Carbon materials play a critical role in the advancement of electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Currently, it is still a great challenge to fabricate versatile carbon-based composites with controlled morphology, adjustable dimension, and tunable composition by a one-step synthesis process. In this work, a powerful one-step maltose-based puffing carbonization technology is reported to construct multiscale carbon-based composites on large scale. A quantity of composite examples (e.g., carbon/metal oxides, carbon/metal nitrides, carbon/metal carbides, carbon/metal sulfides, carbon/metals, metal/semiconductors, carbon/carbons) are prepared and demonstrated with required properties. These well-designed composites show advantages of large porosity, hierarchical porous structure, high conductivity, tunable components, and proportion. The formation mechanism of versatile carbon composites is attributed to the puffing-carbonization of maltose plus in situ carbothermal reaction between maltose and precursors. As a representative example, Li S is in situ implanted into a hierarchical porous cross-linked puffed carbon (CPC) matrix to verify its application in lithium-sulfur batteries. The designed S-doped CPC/Li S cathode shows superior electrochemical performance with higher rate capacity (621 mAh g at 2 C), smaller polarization and enhanced long-term cycles as compared to other counterparts. The research provides a general way for the construction of multifunctional component-adjustable carbon composites for advanced energy storage and conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202102796DOI Listing
October 2021

Highly Dispersed Ru Nanoparticles on Boron-Doped Ti C T (MXene) Nanosheets for Synergistic Enhancement of Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

Small 2021 Sep 19;17(38):e2102218. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia.

2D-layered materials have attracted increasing attention as low-cost supports for developing active catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In addition, atomically thin Ti C T (MXene) nanosheets have surface termination groups (T : F, O, and OH), which are active sites for effective functionalization. In this work, heteroatom (boron)-doped Ti C T (MXene) nanosheets are developed as an efficient solid support to host ultrasmall ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles for electrocatalytic HER. The quantum-mechanical first-principles calculations and electrochemical tests reveal that the B-doping onto 2D MXene nanosheets can largely improve the intermediate H* adsorption kinetics and reduce the charge-transfer resistance toward the HER, leading to increased reactivity of active sites and favorable electrode kinetics. Importantly, the newly designed electrocatalyst based on Ru nanoparticles supported on B-doped MXene ([email protected] C T ) nanosheets shows a remarkable catalytic activity with low overpotentials of 62.9 and 276.9 mV to drive 10 and 100 mA cm , respectively, for the HER, while exhibiting excellent cycling stabilities. Moreover, according to the theoretical calculations, [email protected] C T exhibits a near-zero value of Gibbs free energy (ΔG  = 0.002 eV) for the HER. This work introduces a facile strategy to functionalize MXene for use as a solid support for efficient electrocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102218DOI Listing
September 2021

Diverse heterochromatin-associated proteins repress distinct classes of genes and repetitive elements.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 08 5;23(8):905-914. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Smilow Center for Translational Research, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Heterochromatin, typically marked by histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) or lysine 27 (H3K27me3), represses different protein-coding genes in different cells, as well as repetitive elements. The basis for locus specificity is unclear. Previously, we identified 172 proteins that are embedded in sonication-resistant heterochromatin (srHC) harbouring H3K9me3. Here, we investigate in humans how 97 of the H3K9me3-srHC proteins repress heterochromatic genes. We reveal four groups of srHC proteins that each repress many common genes and repeat elements. Two groups repress H3K9me3-embedded genes with different extents of flanking srHC, one group is specific for srHC genes with H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, and one group is specific for genes with srHC as the primary feature. We find that the enhancer of rudimentary homologue (ERH) is conserved from Schizosaccharomyces pombe in repressing meiotic genes and, in humans, now represses other lineage-specific genes and repeat elements. The study greatly expands our understanding of H3K9me3-based gene repression in vertebrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00725-7DOI Listing
August 2021

N6-Methyladenosine Related Long Non-Coding RNAs and Immune Cell Infiltration in the Tumor Microenvironment of Gastric Cancer.

Biol Proced Online 2021 Aug 1;23(1):15. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 1 Minde Road, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi, China.

Aim: To illustrate the influence of N6-methyladenosine long non-coding RNAs and immune cell infiltration in gastric cancer.

Methods: We downloaded workflow-type data and clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. The relationship of lncRNA and m6A was identified. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes gene expression enrichment analysis was performed. Lasso regression was utilized to construct a prognostic model. Survival analysis to explore the relationship between m6A lncRNA and clinical survival data. Differential analysis of the tumor microenvironment and immune correlation analysis to determine immune cell infiltration levels and their correlation with clinical prognosis.

Results: Co-expression analysis indicated that lncRNA expression was associated closely with m6A. m6A-lncRNAs were partially highly expressed in tumor tissue and could be used in a prognostic model to predict GC prognosis, independent of other clinical characteristics. "ADIPPOCYTOKINE SIGNALING PATHWAY" was most significantly enriched according to GSEA. ACBD3-AS1 was overexpressed in tumor tissue. Naïve B cell, Plasma cells, resting CD4 memory T cell were highly infiltrated tissues in cluster 2, while Macrophages M2, resting Mast cells, Monocytes, regulates T cells were lowly in cluster 1. All related scores were higher in cluster 2, indicating a lower purity of tumor cells and higher density of immune-related cells in the tumor microenvironment.

Conclusion: m6A lncRNA is closely related to the occurrence and progression of GC. The corresponding prognostic model can be utilized to evaluate the prognosis of GC. m6A lncRNA and related immune cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment can provide novel therapeutic targets for further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12575-021-00152-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325795PMC
August 2021

scDPN for High-throughput Single-cell CNV Detection to Uncover Clonal Evolution During HCC Recurrence.

Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

BGI Education Center, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518083, China; BGI-Shenzhen, Beishan Industrial Zone, Shenzhen 518083, China; Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Single-Cell Omics, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518100, China. Electronic address:

Single-cell genomics provides substantial resources for dissecting cellular heterogeneity and cancer evolution. Unfortunately, classical DNA amplification-based methods have low throughput and introduce coverage bias during sample preamplification. We developed a single-cell DNA library preparation method without preamplification in nanolitre scale (scDPN) to address these issues. The method achieved a throughput of up to 1800 cells per run for copy number variation (CNV) detection. Also, our approach demonstrated a lower level of amplification bias and noise than the multiple displacement amplification (MDA) method and showed high sensitivity and accuracy for cell line and tumour tissue evaluation. We used this approach to profile the tumour clones in paired primary and relapsed tumour samples of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We identified three clonal subpopulations with a multitude of aneuploid alterations across the genome. Furthermore, we observed that a minor clone of the primary tumour containing additional alterations in chromosomes 1q, 10q, and 14q developed into the dominant clone in the recurrent tumour, indicating clonal selection during recurrence in HCC. Overall, this approach provides a comprehensive and scalable solution to understand genome heterogeneity and evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gpb.2021.03.008DOI Listing
July 2021

GDC-9545 (Giredestrant): A Potent and Orally Bioavailable Selective Estrogen Receptor Antagonist and Degrader with an Exceptional Preclinical Profile for ER+ Breast Cancer.

J Med Chem 2021 08 12;64(16):11841-11856. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080, United States.

Breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer death in women, representing a significant unmet medical need. Here, we disclose our discovery efforts culminating in a clinical candidate, (GDC-9545 or giredestrant). is an efficient and potent selective estrogen receptor degrader (SERD) and a full antagonist, which translates into better antiproliferation activity than known SERDs (, , , and ) across multiple cell lines. Fine-tuning the physiochemical properties enabled once daily oral dosing of in preclinical species and humans. exhibits low drug-drug interaction liability and demonstrates excellent and safety profiles. At low doses, induces tumor regressions either as a single agent or in combination with a CDK4/6 inhibitor in an ESR1 mutant PDX or a wild-type ERα tumor model. Currently, is being evaluated in Phase III clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c00847DOI Listing
August 2021

Dissecting spatial heterogeneity and the immune-evasion mechanism of CTCs by single-cell RNA-seq in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Nat Commun 2021 07 2;12(1):4091. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Liver Surgery & Transplantation, Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University; Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Little is known about the transcriptomic plasticity and adaptive mechanisms of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) during hematogeneous dissemination. Here we interrogate the transcriptome of 113 single CTCs from 4 different vascular sites, including hepatic vein (HV), peripheral artery (PA), peripheral vein (PV) and portal vein (PoV) using single-cell full-length RNA sequencing in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. We reveal that the transcriptional dynamics of CTCs were associated with stress response, cell cycle and immune-evasion signaling during hematogeneous transportation. Besides, we identify chemokine CCL5 as an important mediator for CTC immune evasion. Mechanistically, overexpression of CCL5 in CTCs is transcriptionally regulated by p38-MAX signaling, which recruites regulatory T cells (Tregs) to facilitate immune escape and metastatic seeding of CTCs. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unappreciated spatial heterogeneity and an immune-escape mechanism of CTC, which may aid in designing new anti-metastasis therapeutic strategies in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24386-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253833PMC
July 2021

Long non-coding RNA AFAP1-AS1 accelerates lung cancer cells migration and invasion by interacting with SNIP1 to upregulate c-Myc.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 06 25;6(1):240. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

NHC Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Hunan Key Laboratory of Cancer Metabolism, Hunan Cancer Hospital and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Actin filament associated protein 1 antisense RNA 1 (named AFAP1-AS1) is a long non-coding RNA and overexpressed in many cancers. This study aimed to identify the role and mechanism of AFAP1-AS1 in lung cancer. The AFAP1-AS1 expression was firstly assessed in 187 paraffin-embedded lung cancer and 36 normal lung epithelial tissues by in situ hybridization. The migration and invasion abilities of AFAP1-AS1 were investigated in lung cancer cells. To uncover the molecular mechanism about AFAP1-AS1 function in lung cancer, we screened proteins that interact with AFAP1-AS1 by RNA pull down and the mass spectrometry analyses. AFAP1-AS1 was highly expressed in lung cancer clinical tissues and its expression was positively correlated with lung cancer patients' poor prognosis. In vivo experiments confirmed that AFAP1-AS1 could promote lung cancer metastasis. AFAP1-AS1 promoted lung cancer cells migration and invasion through interacting with Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (named SNIP1), which inhibited ubiquitination and degradation of c-Myc protein. Upregulation of c-Myc molecule in turn promoted the expression of ZEB1, ZEB2, and SNAIL gene, which ultimately enhanced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and lung cancer metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanism by which AFAP1-AS1 promotes lung cancer's migration and invasion may provide novel therapeutic targets for lung cancer patients' early diagnosis and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00562-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225811PMC
June 2021

Doping Strategies in Sb S Thin Films for Solar Cells.

Small 2021 10 19;17(39):e2100241. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Centre for Catalysis and Clean Energy (CCCE), School of Environment and Science, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, 4222, Australia.

Sb S is an attractive solar absorber material that has garnered tremendous interest because of its fascinating properties for solar cells including suitable band gap, high absorption coefficient, earth abundance, and excellent stability. Over the past several years, intensive efforts have been made to enhance the photovoltaic efficiencies of Sb S solar cells using many promising approaches including interfacial engineering, surface passivation, additive engineering, and band-gap engineering of the charge transport layers and active light absorbing Sb S materials. Recently, doping strategies in Sb S light absorbers have gained attention as they promise to play important roles in controlling band gap, regulating film morphology, and passivating grain boundaries, and thus resulting in enhanced carrier transport, which is one of the most challenging issues in this cutting-edge research field. In this review, after a brief introduction to Sb S , an overview of Sb S solar cells and their fundamental properties are provided. Recent advances in doping strategies in Sb S thin films and solar cells are then discussed to provide in-depth understanding of the effects of various dopants on the photovoltaic properties of Sb S materials. In conclusion, the personal perspectives and outlook to the future development of Sb S solar cells are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202100241DOI Listing
October 2021

Wavefront correction algorithm based on a complete second-order DM-SHWS model for free-space optical communications.

Appl Opt 2021 Jun;60(16):4954-4963

Free-space optical communication brings large-capacity communication with excellent confidentiality, though fatal obstacles are set by atmospheric turbulence that causes phase shifting in laser links. Therefore, we derived a novel, to the best of our knowledge, iterative wavefront correction algorithm based on a complete second-order deformable mirror (DM) Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor model as a solution to it. For correcting static wavefront aberration, the proposed algorithm possesses a converging speed faster than the traditional one. In terms of correcting dynamic atmospheric turbulence, it can achieve convergence within two iterations with a residual wavefront root mean square value of less than 1/8 wavelength. The input wavefront under 1.5 wavelength can be corrected on our testbed due to the deformability of the micromachined membrane DM. The research result offers a solution for atmospheric turbulence in the adaptive optics field and may contribute to the development of free-space optical communication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.425751DOI Listing
June 2021

High-Dose Dexmedetomidine Promotes Apoptosis in Fetal Rat Hippocampal Neurons.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 8;15:2433-2444. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a potent a2-adrenoceptor agonist that has sedative, analgesic, and anxiolytic effects. Its primary clinical use is as an adjunct to general anesthesia to reduce anesthetic doses, provide analgesia and sedation in the preoperative and postoperative periods, it also used in intensive care units (ICUs). However, high concentrations of DEX may have toxic effects on neurons and cause neuronal apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the potential proapoptotic effects of DEX on fetal rat hippocampal neurons.

Methods: Primary hippocampal were cultured in vitro for 8 days and incubated with different DEX concentrations for 3 h. Cell viability was measured using cell counting kit-8 assays. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins, such as cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9, Cyt-c, Bax, and Bcl-2, was measured by Western blotting. The mitochondrial ATP levels, Δψm, and ROS analyzed were conducted.

Results: High concentrations of DEX (≥100 μM) significantly reduced cell viability, induced neuronal apoptosis, upregulated the protein expression of cleaved caspase 3, Bax, cleaved caspase 9, and Cyt-c. DEX also considerably promoted the release of ROS. However, DEX (≥100 μM) downregulated the protein expression of Bcl-2, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (MTP), and reduced ATP synthesis.

Conclusion: High concentrations of dexmedetomidine produced toxic effects on neurons and caused neuronal apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S300247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197572PMC
June 2021

The global, regional, and national burden of cancer among adolescents and young adults in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a population-based study.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 06 9;14(1):89. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, 34 Hospital Road, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong.

Background: Accurate appraisal of burden of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) cancers is crucial to informing resource allocation and policy making. We report on the latest estimates of burden of AYA cancers in 204 countries and territories between 1990 and 2019 in association with socio-demographic index (SDI).

Patients And Methods: Estimates from the Global Burden of Disease study 2019 were used to analyse incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to AYA cancers at global, regional, and national levels by sex. Association between AYA cancer burden and SDI were investigated. Burdens of AYA cancers were contextualized in comparison with childhood and older adult cancers. All estimates are reported as counts and age-standardized rates per 100,000 person-years.

Results: In 2019, there were 1.2 million incident cases, 0.4 million deaths, and 23.5 million DALYs due to AYA cancers globally. The highest age-standardized incidence rate occurred in Western Europe (75.3 [Females] and 67.4 [Males] per 100,000 person-years). Age-standardized death (23.2 [Females] and 13.9 [Males] per 100,000 person-years) and DALY (1328.3 [Females] and 1059.2 [Males] per 100,000 person-years) rates were highest in Oceania. Increasing SDI was associated with a higher age-standardized incidence rate. An inverted U-shaped association was identified between SDI and death and DALY rates. AYA cancers collectively is the second leading cause of non-communicable diseases-related deaths globally in 2019. DALYs of AYA cancers ranked the second globally and the first in low and low-middle SDI locations when compared with that of childhood and older adult cancers.

Conclusion: The global burden of AYA cancers is substantial and disproportionally affect populations in limited-resource settings. Capacity building for AYA cancers is essential in promoting equity and population health worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01093-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191013PMC
June 2021
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