Publications by authors named "Yu Zhao"

2,225 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

CRISPR/Cas9/AAV9-mediated in vivo editing identifies MYC regulation of 3D genome in skeletal muscle stem cell.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are stem cells responsible for muscle development and regeneration. Although CRISPR/Cas9 has been widely used, its application in endogenous SCs remains elusive. Here, we generate mice expressing Cas9 in SCs and achieve robust editing in juvenile SCs at the postnatal stage through AAV9-mediated short guide RNA (sgRNA) delivery. Additionally, we reveal that quiescent SCs are resistant to CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate efficient editing of master transcription factor (TF) Myod1 locus using the CRISPR/Cas9/AAV9-sgRNA system in juvenile SCs. Application on two key TFs, MYC and BCL6, unveils distinct functions in SC activation and muscle regeneration. Particularly, we reveal that MYC orchestrates SC activation through regulating 3D genome architecture. Its depletion results in strengthening of the topologically associating domain boundaries thus may affect gene expression. Altogether, our study establishes a platform for editing endogenous SCs that can be harnessed to elucidate the functionality of key regulators governing SC activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.08.011DOI Listing
September 2021

Releasing Antiaromaticity in Metal-Bridgehead Naphthalene.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Shenzhen Grubbs Institute, Department of Chemistry, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, P. R. China.

As a fundamental chemical property, aromaticity guides the synthesis of novel structures and materials. Replacing the carbon moieties of aromatic hydrocarbons with transition metal fragments is a promising strategy to synthesize intriguing organometallic counterparts with a similar aromaticity to their organic parents. However, since antiaromaticity will endow compound instability, it is a great challenge to obtain an antiaromatic organometallic counterpart based on such transition metal replacement in aromatic hydrocarbons. Here, we report an efficient aromaticity transformation on aromatic naphthalene through the bridgehead replacement of an osmium fragment, leading to the unprecedented synthesis of metal-bridgehead naphthalene featuring a highly twisted structure as confirmed by X-ray crystallography characterization. Such a twisted conformation works together with its phosphonium substituents to release the antiaromaticity in the planar conformation of the metal-bridgehead naphthalene. Our findings prove the bridgehead involvement of transition metals in unexpected aromaticity modifications and open an avenue for novel metal-bridgehead complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c08106DOI Listing
September 2021

Molecular epidemiology of norovirus infections in children with acute gastroenteritis in 2017-2019 in Tianjin, China.

J Med Virol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Digestion, Tianjin Children's Hospital (Children's Hospital of Tianjin University), Tianjin, 300134, China.

Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Globally, the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain has predominated since 2012, although GII.4 variant strains have caused AGE outbreaks in China. Recent patterns of NoV genotype distributions in 6011 children with AGE in Tianjin, China were investigated. NoV was detected using real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of partial sequences of the viral capsid gene. NoV genotypes were determined, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. Epidemiological and clinical data were compared between children infected with different NoV genotypes. NoV was detected in 27.6% of the specimens tested. GII.4 strains comprised 49.4% infections, followed by GII.3 at 39.9%. Genotypes GII.2, GII.13, GII.17, GII.1, GII.6, and GII.14 were also detected. NoV was detected during most of the year, with a peak season of cases in the winter. Diarrhea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, and dehydration were present in patients with NoV infection. The main genotypes were GII.4 and GII.3, with a slight increase in GII.2, beginning in March 2017. Among the GII.4 strains, GII.4 Sydney 2012 was the only epidemic strain in Tianjin. Patients with GII.4 genotypes were more likely to present with diarrhea and vomiting than those with GII.3. Children with GII. Others were more prone to suffer from dehydration and abdominal pain than those with GII.3. NoV GII has become the main cause of viral AGE in Tianjin, China. The predominant genotypes of NoV were GII.4 and GII.3. Identification of emerging genotypes is crucial for the prevention and control of NoV-caused AGE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27340DOI Listing
September 2021

Electrochemical sulfonylation of enamides with sodium sulfinates to access β-amidovinyl sulfones.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

School of Pharmacy, Nantong University, 19 Qixiu Road, Nantong, Jiangsu Province 226001, People's Republic of China.

The electrochemical sulfonylation of enamides with sodium sulfinates was developed in an undivided cell in constant current mode, leading to the formation of β-amidovinyl sulfones in moderate to good yields. The catalyst-, electrolyte- and oxidant-free protocol features good functional group tolerance and employs electric current as a green oxidant. Mechanistic insights into the reaction indicate that the reaction may proceed a radical mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob01485dDOI Listing
September 2021

Berberine exerts neuroprotective activities against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through up-regulating PPAR-γ to suppress NF-κB-mediated pyroptosis.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Neurology (Six), the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Objective: Berberine (BBR) is an anti-inflammatory alkaloid compound extracted from herbs. The purpose of this study is to probe the possible effect and the mechanism of BBR against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.

Methods: In vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model was established on neurons from rat hippocampus, which was then subjected to BBR, IVA337 (PPAR-γ agonist), or GW9662 (PPAR-γ antagonist) treatment, to identify their effects on neuronal pyroptosis. MTT assay was utilized to determine cell survival rates, TUNEL staining for observation of β-tubulin and MAP2 expressions, qRT-PCR for detection of mRNA expression of PPAR-γ, Western blot for assessment of protein expressions of PPAR-γ and pyroptosis-related proteins (AIM2, NLPR3, ASC, cleaved-Caspase-1, GSDMD, and GSDMD-N), and ELISA for examination of IL-18 and IL-1β expressions.

Results: OGD modeling induced neuron pyroptosis, as evidenced by increased expression levels of pyroptosis-related proteins as well as IL-1β and IL-18, and elevated cell apoptosis rate. In addition, OGD exposure led to PPAR-γ up-regulation and NF-κB activation. Overexpression of PPAR-γ ameliorated cell pyroptosis, while knockdown of PPAR-γ intensified neuron pyroptosis that could be reversed by BBR. Furthermore, either BBR could block the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway through PPAR-γ.

Conclusion: BBR protects rats from cerebral I/R injury by up-regulating PPAR-γ to restrain NF-κB-mediated pyroptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.09.005DOI Listing
September 2021

Switchable immune modulator for tumor-specific activation of anticancer immunity.

Sci Adv 2021 Sep 10;7(37):eabg7291. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Institute of Bioengineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abg7291DOI Listing
September 2021

Cationization of neutral small molecules by site-specific carboxylation of 10-phenyl-10-phenothiazine in laser desorption/ionization.

Analyst 2021 Sep 13;146(18):5533-5541. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 215123, China.

It is a pre-requisite to ionize analyte molecules efficiently for detection by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Here, we report a conceptual demonstration of cationizing neutral small molecules which are typically difficult to be ionized with the traditional organic matrices due to their low proton/cation affinity values. Our strategy features generating radical cations from site-specifically carboxylated 10-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10-phenothiazine-3,7-dicarboxylic acid (PTZ(A)-Ph(A)) with a laser, and anchoring the chlorine ion from NaCl through covalent bond-like bridging interactions with the N/S atoms in the heterocyclic structure. This "Maverick" design allows a dramatic change of the energy landscape of analyte sodiation with an enhanced efficiency. We have synthesized two families of compounds based on the model structures of phenothiazine (PTZ) and phenoxazine (PXZ) and their carboxylated derivatives, and performed comparison between them or against the traditional organic matrices in a systematic format. We have demonstrated that PTZ(A)-Ph(A) is outstanding as a novel MALDI matrix for the detection of oligosaccharides and amino acids, with an ultra-clean background baseline and high signal-to-noise ratios (up to dozens of times better than the traditional matrices). This work provides a new method for the cationization of neutral small molecules in a distinct mechanism, inspiring the development of next-generation matrices for sensitive detection of hard-to-be-ionized molecules by MALDI MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an01111aDOI Listing
September 2021

3D Printed Electrochromic Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Mechanical Strength and Energy Density.

Small 2021 Sep 12:e2102639. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Science and Technology on Thermostructural Composite Materials Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, 710072, China.

With the accelerating update of advanced electronic gadgets, a great deal of attention is being paid today to the function integration and intelligent design of electronic devices. Herein, a novel kind of multitasking 3D oxygen-deficient WO  ∙ 2H O/Ag/ceramic microscaffolds, possessing simultaneous giant energy density, ultrahigh mechanical strength, and reversible electrochromic performance is proposed, and fabricated by a 3D printing technique. The ceramic microscaffolds ensure outstanding mechanical strength and stability, the topology optimized porous lattice structure provides developed surface area for coloration as well as abundant easily accessible channels for rapid ion transportation, and the bifunctional oxygen-defective pseudomaterials enable the large areal capacity and impressive electrochromic performance. As a result, this 3D-printed multitasking microscaffolds simultaneously perform structure-designable, electrochromic, compression resistant, and energy storage functions, behaving with true 3D structure with tailorable curvatures, excellent compressive strength (61.9 MPa), large color variations (>145% in b* value), good aesthetic visual quality as well as exciting electrochemical performances for energy storage including ultrahigh areal capacitance (10.05 F cm at 5 mA cm ), record-high energy density (0.60 mWh cm ), and superior long-term cycling stability (88.6% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles). This work opens up the possibility for high-performance multi-functional coupling structural materials and integrated systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102639DOI Listing
September 2021

SnRK1 stimulates the histone H3K27me3 demethylase JMJ705 to regulate a transcriptional switch to control energy homeostasis.

Plant Cell 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070 Wuhan, China.

Plant SNF1-Related Kinase1 (SnRK1) is an evolutionarily conserved energy sensing protein kinase that orchestrates transcriptional networks to maintain cellular energy homeostasis when energy supplies become limited. However, the mechanism by which SnRK1 regulates this gene expression switch to gauge cellular energy status remains largely unclear. In this work, we show that the rice histone H3K27me3 demethylase JMJ705 is required for low energy stress tolerance in rice plants. The genetic inactivation of JMJ705 resulted in similar effects as those of the rice snrk1 mutant on the transcriptome, which impair not only the promotion of the low energy stress-triggered transcriptional program but also the repression of the program under an energy-sufficient state. We show that the α-subunit of OsSnRK1 interacts with and phosphorylates JMJ705 to stimulate its H3K27me3 demethylase activity. Further analysis revealed that JMJ705 directly targets a set of low energy stress-responsive transcription factor genes. These results uncover the chromatin mechanism of SnRK1-regulated gene expression in both energy-sufficient and -limited states in plants and suggest that JMJ705 functions as an upstream regulator of the SnRK1α-controlled transcriptional network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koab224DOI Listing
September 2021

Landscape of T-cell repertoires with public COVID-19-associated T-cell receptors in pre-pandemic risk cohorts.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 28;10(9):e1340. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Internal Medicine IV Oncology/Hematology Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg Halle (Saale) Germany.

Objectives: T cells have an essential role in the antiviral defence. Public T-cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes are expanded in a substantial proportion of COVID-19 patients. We set out to exploit their potential use as read-out for COVID-19 T-cell immune responses.

Methods: We searched for COVID-19-associated T-cell clones with public TCRs, as defined by identical complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) beta chain amino acid sequence that can be reproducibly detected in the blood of COVID-19 patients. Of the different clonotype identification algorithms used in this study, deep sequencing of brain tissue of five patients with fatal COVID-19 delivered 68 TCR clonotypes with superior representation across 140 immune repertoires of unrelated COVID-19 patients.

Results: Mining of immune repertoires from subjects not previously exposed to the virus showed that these clonotypes can be found in almost 20% of pre-pandemic immune repertoires of healthy subjects, with lower representation in repertoires from risk groups like individuals above the age of 60 years or patients with cancer.

Conclusion: Together, our data show that at least a proportion of the SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response is mediated by public TCRs that are present in repertoires of unexposed individuals. The lower representation of these clones in repertoires of risk groups or failure to expand such clones may contribute to more unfavorable clinical COVID-19 courses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cti2.1340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401425PMC
August 2021

Inhibition of testosterone synthesis induced by oral TiO NPs is associated with ROS-MAPK(ERK1/2)-StAR signaling pathway in SD rat.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2021 Aug 9;10(4):937-946. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China.

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO NPs) have been widely used in food, medical, and other fields; their reproductive toxicity has been reported in numerous studies. However, the relevant toxicity mechanism still requires further exploration. In this paper, the effect of oral exposure to 500 mg/kg TiO NPs (anatase and rutile) in adult male SD rats was studied over 3 and 7 days. Results showed that the total sperm count and testosterone level of 7 days of exposure in serum decreased in the experimental group. Testicular tissue lesions, such as disappearance of Leydig cells, disorder of arrangement of spermatogenic cells in the lumen of convoluted seminiferous tubules, and disorder of arrangement of germ cells, were observed. Meanwhile, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR; the key factors of testosterone synthesis), MAPK (ERK1/2), and phosphorylated ERK1/2 in testes of SD rats after exposure to TiO NPs for 7 days decreased, while the malondialdehyde content increased and superoxide dismutase activity decreased in serum. The present study showed that TiO NPs could cause reproductive toxicity. Notably, anatase is more toxic than rutile. In addition, exposure to 500 mg/kg TiO NPs for 7 days inhibited testosterone synthesis in male rat, which may be related to the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-MAPK (ERK1/2)-StAR signal pathway. Warning that the use of TiO NPs should be regulated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxres/tfab077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403597PMC
August 2021

Role of psychotherapy strategy for the management of patients with Tourette syndrome - A Bayesian network meta-analysis.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, PR China. Electronic address:

Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by high comorbidity. Treatment with psychotherapy is highly recommended, however, there exists limited available evidence on the use and the optimal psychotherapeutic outcome is debatable. We performed a systematic search on several bibliographic databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the use of psychotherapy treatment in TS patients, from inception to August 1st, 2020, and without language restrictions. Outcome measures were measured by the Yale global tic severity scale (YGTSS) to determine the efficacy of psychotherapy. Data were pooled as Standard mean difference (SMD) in the Bayesian analysis of the random effect model. A total of 17 RCTs with 9 treatments and 1042 participants were included from an initial 4901 records. The primary outcome including, Comprehensive behavioral intervention (CBIT) [SMD = -1.43, 95%Credible interval (CrI): -2.39, -0.44], Exposure with response prevention (ERP) [SMD = -1.37, 95%CrI: -2.62, -0.13], Habit reversal therapy (HRT) [SMD = -0.93, 95%CrI: 1.83, -0.05], and Behavior therapy (BT) [SMD = -0.85, 95%CrI: 1.51, -0.18], were found to be significantly lower in the TS group compared with the control group (including wait-list, treatment-as-usual or other named control group). Based on the Surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA), CBIT (SUCRA value = 86.97%, 95%CrI: 44%, 100%) was found to be a suitable psychotherapeutic treatment for TS patients. High-quality RCTs on psychotherapy are needed to perform for establishing the foundation of the generation of evidence-based guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.07.051DOI Listing
August 2021

Contribution of blood to nuclear Overhauser effect at -1.6 ppm.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Purpose: A relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement (rNOE) saturation transfer effect at around -1.6 ppm from water, termed NOE(-1.6), was previously reported in rat and human brain, and some publications suggest that it may be related to blood. Here, we studied whether the NOE(-1.6) arises from blood through in vivo and ex vivo experiments.

Methods: To evaluate the contribution from in vivo blood to NOE(-1.6), intravascular signals in rat brain were suppressed by two approaches: (1) signal acquisition with a diffusion-weighting of b = 400 s/mm ; (2) intravascular injection of 5 mg/kg monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticle (MION). Ex vivo blood sample was also prepared. The signals were acquired using a chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) pulse sequence. Multiple-pool Lorentzian fitting of CEST Z-spectra was performed to quantify the NOE(-1.6) signal.

Results: There are no significant variations in the fitted in vivo NOE(-1.6) signals when measured with or without diffusion-weighting, but significant signal decease does occur after injection of MION. The NOE(-1.6) signal from ex vivo blood is weaker than that from in vivo tissues.

Conclusion: Considering the relatively small volume of blood in brain, the in vivo experiments with diffusion weighting and the ex vivo experiments both suggest that the NOE(-1.6) is not mainly from blood. The mechanism for the in vivo experiments with MION are less clear. MION not only suppresses MR signals from intravascular space, but changes the susceptibility in the perivascular space. This result suggests that although the NOE(-1.6) is not mainly from blood, it may be vasculature dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28973DOI Listing
September 2021

Left atrial strain measured by 4D Auto LAQ echocardiography is significantly correlated with high risk of thromboembolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Sep;11(9):3920-3931

Department of Ultrasound, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanhang, China.

Background: The 4-dimensional automated left atrial quantification (4D Auto LAQ) tool is a new software for analysis of the structure and function of the left atrium (LA). This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between LA strain (LAS) as measured by 4D Auto LAQ echocardiography and thromboembolism risk in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF).

Methods: Eight-five patients with NVAF were recruited from the cardiovascular center of our hospital, including 39 patients at high risk and 46 patients at low risk of thromboembolism. The study participants were assessed by routine echocardiography; 4D images were obtained, after which 4D Auto LAQ assessment was performed.

Results: In the thromboembolism high-risk group, the rates of impaired LA reservoir strain, LA contraction strain, LA reservoir circumferential strain, LA conduit circumferential strain, and LA contraction circumferential strain were found to be significantly higher than in the low-risk group. However, there was no significant difference in volume at onset of LA contraction or LA ejection fraction (LAEF) between the 2 groups. LA contraction circumferential strain was found to be an independent high risk factor for thromboembolism [odds ratio (OR): 2.52; P=0.008]. LA contraction circumferential strain >-4.5% was the cut-off for differentiating between participants with high and low risk of thromboembolism, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.95 (P<0.0001), a sensitivity of 0.872, and a specificity of 0.978. Sequential analysis revealed that LA contraction circumferential strain had a high diagnostic efficacy for stroke, as well as a specified accuracy in the diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes in patients aged ≥65 years old. However, it was not found to be effective in the diagnosis of heart failure and vascular diseases.

Conclusions: LAS is a useful index for the dynamic evaluation of LA function in patients with non-valvular AF, with higher sensitivity and accuracy than LA volume. LA contraction circumferential strain is an independent high risk factor for thromboembolism, and LA contraction circumferential strain >-4.5% is a valuable cut-off to guide the use of anticoagulant therapy in patients with non-valvular AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-1381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339650PMC
September 2021

Biofunctionalization of electrospun fiber membranes by LbL-collagen/chondroitin sulfate nanocoating followed by mineralization for bone regeneration.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Sep 3;128:112295. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, PR China; Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, PR China. Electronic address:

It is of great significance to develop osteoinductive artificial scaffold for bone repair and regeneration. We constructed a biomimetic apatite interface on electrospun polycaprolactone fibers by combining layer-by-layer (LbL) nanocoating with mineralization to fabricate an osteoinductive artificial scaffold. After polydopamine modification, cationic type-І collagen and anionic chondroitin sulfate were sequentially adsorbed on the fiber surface. The fibers coated with the multilayer components served as the precursor matrix to induce apatite deposition. By adjusting the number of the layers and duration of mineralization, the nanoscale morphology of composite fibers was optimized. When ten bilayers of the collagen and chondroitin sulfate were deposited onto the fibers followed by one day-mineralization, the obtained polycaprolactone-apatite composite scaffolds significantly promoted the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. In a subcutaneous implantation in mice, this composite fiber membrane enhanced in vivo ectopic osteogenesis. Our nano-architectural scaffolds were able to mimic the composition and structure of the bone matrix to a certain extent, holding great potential for bone repair and regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112295DOI Listing
September 2021

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of six horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae).

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Aug 27;95:105054. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan province 410128, China; College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Xinyang Agriculture and Forestry University, Xinyang, Henan province 464000, PR China. Electronic address:

The family Tabanidae (Insecta: Diptera) is one of the economically most important group of haematophagous insects, causing millions of livestock deaths per year. However, current knowledge on the mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from this family is limited. Additional tabanid mitogenomes characterization is of utmost importance for their identification, epidemiologic and phylogenetic studies. We sequenced the mt genomes of six horseflies with an Illumina platform and their phylogenetic relationship was conducted with other infraorder Tabanomorpha members with available mt genome datasets. All six newly sequenced mitogenomes were typical 37-gene circular structures retaining the gene order of Tabanomorpha. The trnQ, trnM and trnA were highly conserved among the six mitogenomes (identity = 100%). The TΨC arm and variable loop regions were relatively more variable compared to the amino acid receptor arm, anticodon arm and DHU arm of the tRNAs. Among 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) of tabanids mitogenomes, the highest nucleotide diversity was detected in atp8, cox1, cox3, nad6 and cytb (0.1 for each). In addition, atp8 genes exhibited the highest evolutionary rate (ω = 0.24) among 13 PCGs. The interspecies K2P genetic distances among some Tabanus spp. across the mitogenome was greater (0.08) than intergeneric genetic distance between T. amaenus and Atylotus miser (0.07). Phylogenetic analyses revealed non-monophyletic relationships among horseflies of the genus Tabanus. The present study showed mt gene order is highly conserved within Tabanus species. Our mito-phylogenomic analysis supports the paraphyly of the genus Tabanus. The new data provide novel genetic markers for studies of population genetics and systematics of horseflies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105054DOI Listing
August 2021

Characterization of Episomal Replication of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 DNA in Long-Term Virion-Infected Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Culture.

Virol Sin 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuyin Children Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035, China.

We have previously reported that bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) DNA can replicate its genome and produce infectious virus-like particles in short term virion-infected S. cerevisiae (budding yeast) cultures (Zhao and Frazer 2002, Journal of Virology, 76:3359-64 and 76:12265-73). Here, we report the episomal replications of BPV-1 DNA in long term virion-infected S. cerevisiae culture up to 108 days. Episomal replications of the BPV-1 DNA could be divided into three patterns at three stages, early active replication (day 3-16), middle weak replication (day 23-34/45) and late stable replication (day 45-82). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis and Southern blot hybridization have revealed further that multiple replication intermediates of BPV-1 DNA including linear form, stranded DNA, monomers and higher oligomers were detected in the virion-infected yeast cells over the time course. Higher oligomers shown as covalently closed circular DNAs (cccDNAs) are the most important replication intermediates that serve as the main nuclear transcription template for producing all viral RNAs in the viral life cycle. In this study, the cccDNAs were generated at the early active replication stage with the highest frequencies and then at late stable replication, but they appeared to be suppressed at the middle weak replication. Our data provided a novel insight that BPV-1 genomic DNA could replicate episomally for the long period and produce the key replication intermediates cccDNAs in S. cerevisiae system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-021-00439-yDOI Listing
August 2021

Enhanced fluoride removal from water by nanosized cerium oxides impregnated porous polystyrene anion exchanger.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 18;287(Pt 1):131932. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, PR China.

Efficient elimination of fluoride from wastewater is an urgent need for ensuring water safety. In the present study, a stable and reusable nanocomposite ([email protected]) was synthesized by impregnating nanosized cerium oxides (NCO) inside a porous polystyrene anion exchanger (PAE) host for efficient fluoride removal from wastewater. The newly fabricated [email protected] exhibited excellent resistance to acid and alkali environment, allowing it to be utilized in a wide pH range (2-12). Fluoride uptake onto [email protected] was a pH-dependent process, which could reach the maximum capacity at pH 3.0. Compared with its host PAE, [email protected] showed conspicuous adsorption affinity towards fluoride in the coexistence of other competing anions at high concentrations. Adsorption kinetics confirmed its high efficiency for achieving equilibrium within 120 min. Fixed-bed adsorption runs demonstrated that the effective processing capacity of [email protected] for synthetic fluoride-containing wastewater (initial fluoride 2.5 mg/L) was about ~330 BV (bed volume), while only 22 BV for the host PAE. The exhausted [email protected] could be effectively revived by a simple in-situ desorption method for long-term cycle operation without conspicuous capacity loss. All the results indicated that [email protected] is a reliable and promising adsorbent for water defluoridation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131932DOI Listing
August 2021

Defect-Rich Amorphous Iron-Based Oxide/Graphene Hybrid-Modified Separator toward the Efficient Capture and Catalysis of Polysulfides.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 27;13(35):41698-41706. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Centre of Efficient Green Energy and Environment Protection Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

The sluggish sulfur reduction reaction, severe shuttle effect, and poor conductivity of sulfur species are three main problems in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Functional materials with a strong affinity and catalytic effect toward polysulfides play a key role in addressing these issues. Herein, we report a defect-rich amorphous a-FeO/GO material with a nanocube-interlocked structure as an adsorber as well as an electrocatalyst for the Li-S battery. The composition and defect structure of the material are determined by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The distinctive open framework architecture of the as-engineered composite inherited from the metal-organic framework precursor ensures the stability and activity of the catalyst during extended cycles. The oxygen defects in the amorphous structure are capable of absorbing polysulfides and similarly work as catalytic centers to boost polysulfide conversion. Taking advantage of a-FeO/GO on the separator surface, the Li-S battery shows a capacity over 610 mA h g at 1 C and a low decay rate of 0.12% per cycle over 500 cycles and superior rate capability. The functional material made via the low-cost synthesis process provides a potential solution for advanced Li-S batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c11594DOI Listing
September 2021

Autosomal recessive Alport syndrome caused by a novel compound heterozygous mutation: A case report.

Clin Nephrol 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Aim: Autosomal dominant inheritance of Alport syndrome (AS) is very rare, and only a few unrelated families have been found with or gene mutations. Therefore, we aimed to explore the gene mutation spectrum in autosomal recessive Alport syndrome (ARAS).

Materials And Methods: Blood samples of the proband and his parents were sent to the Institute of Rare Diseases at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University for genetic testing. The analyzed genes were . The chip capture high-throughput sequencing method was adopted. The data analysis process of high-throughput sequencing was applied for data analysis.

Results: A 26-year-old female patient (proband) was diagnosed with AS. The results of genetic analysis and comparison between the proband's genetic information and her parents' showed that the proband carried a compound heterozygous mutation c.4758_4760delCCC (p.1586_1587del) and c.4333+3A>G in the gene; the nonframeshift mutation c.4758_4760delCCC (p.1586_1587del) was inherited from her mother, and the splice site mutation c.4333+3A>G was inherited from her father, suggesting that gene variants caused ARAS in this patient.

Conclusion: The novel mutation found in this patient enriches the mutation spectrum of ARAS caused by the gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/CN110540DOI Listing
August 2021

Long-term variability in base cation, sulfur and nitrogen deposition and critical load exceedance of terrestrial ecosystems in China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 14;289:117974. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

The rapid development of China's industrial economy and implementation of air pollution controls have led to great changes in sulfur (S), nitrogen (N) and base cation (BC) deposition in the past three decades. We estimated China's anthropogenic BC emissions and simulated BC deposition from 1985 to 2015 with a five-year interval using a multilayer Eulerian model. Deposition of S and N from 2000 to 2015 with a five-year interval was simulated with the EMEP MSC-W model and the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory of China (MEIC). The critical load (CL) and its exceedance were then calculated to evaluate the potential long-term acidification risks. From 1985 to 2005, the BC deposition in China was estimated to have increased by 16 % and then decreased by 33 % till 2015. S deposition was simulated to increase by 49 % from 2000 to 2005 and then decrease by 44 % in 2015, while N deposition increased by 32 % from 2000 to 2010 with a limited reduction afterward. The maximum CL of S was found to increase in 67 % of mainland China areas from 1985 to 2005 and to decline in 55 % of the areas from 2005 to 2015, attributed largely to the changed BC deposition. Consistent with the progress of national controls on SO and NO emissions, the CL exceedance of S increased from 2.9 to 4.6 Mt during 2000-2005 and then decreased to 2.5 Mt in 2015, while that of N increased from 0.4 in 2000 to 1.2 Mt in 2010 and then decreased to 1.1 Mt in 2015. The reduced BC deposition due to particle emission controls partially offset the benefit of SO control on acidification risk reduction in the past decade. It demonstrates the need for a comprehensive strategy for multi-pollutant control against soil acidification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117974DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of nurse-led square dancing on older patients with mild cognitive impairment combined with depressive symptoms: A pilot study.

Geriatr Nurs 2021 Aug 20;42(5):1164-1171. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

School of Nursing, Peking Union Medical College, No 0.33, Badachu Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, 100144, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: The present study aimed to verify the feasibility and preliminary effects of nurse-led square dancing designed to improve older adults' cognitive function and depressive symptoms who with MCI.

Methods: A quasi-experimental pilot study design was adopted for the present study. Screening for cognitive function was conducted among older adults (≥ 60 years old) living in two communities in Beijing who complained of memory loss. A total of 107 older patients with MCI and depressive symptoms were diagnosed after obtaining informed consent. Thirty-five patients selected from each community were included in the study as control and intervention groups, respectively. The two groups of patients received health education while the intervention group participated in a square dance intervention program led by nurses three times per week for 60 min per session over a period of three months. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Peking version (MoCA-P) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) were used to assess the cognitive function and depressive symptoms of patients in the two groups at three time intervals; before intervention, at the end of the three-month intervention period, and over a three-month follow-up period after the end of intervention.

Results: Feasibility of the intervention was established with a high completion rate of 90%. Data collection for 63 out of 70 patients enrolled for the study was completed after six months. MoCA-P and GDS-30 scores of the intervention group were significantly different after the intervention when compared with the control group. A significant improvement in cognition was observed in the intervention group, and depressive symptoms decreased after intervention and follow-up when compared with the control group. During the intervention and follow-up phases, the MoCA-P score of the intervention group increased gradually with time. Furthermore, the MoCA-P and GDS-30 scores of the control group remained unchanged.

Conclusion: This study has revealed that square dance intervention exerts a positive impact on cognitive function and depressive symptoms among older patients suffering from MCI and depressive symptoms. The results of this study support the feasibility and preliminary effects of square dancing on relieving cognitive decline and depressive symptoms. Square dancing is a recommended type of intervention that can be applied to the local Chinese population because of its simplicity, convenience, and suitability for the older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2021.06.028DOI Listing
August 2021

Redox-enabled direct stereoconvergent heteroarylation of simple alcohols.

Nat Commun 2021 08 19;12(1):5035. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.

The direct transformation of racemic feedstock materials to valuable enantiopure compounds is of significant importance for sustainable chemical synthesis. Toward this goal, the radical mechanism has proven uniquely effective in stereoconvergent carbon-carbon bond forming reactions. Here we report a mechanistically distinct redox-enabled strategy for an efficient enantioconvergent coupling of pyrroles with simple racemic secondary alcohols. In such processes, chirality is removed from the substrate via dehydrogenation and reinstalled in the catalytic reduction of a key stabilized cationic intermediate. This strategy provides significant advantage of utilizing simple pyrroles to react with feedstock alcohols without the need for leaving group incorporation. This overall redox-neutral transformation is also highly economical with no additional reagent nor waste generation other than water. In our studies, oxime-derived iridacycle complexes are introduced, which cooperate with a chiral phosphoric acid to enable heteroarylation of alcohols, accessing a wide range of valuable substituted pyrroles in high yield and enantioselectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25268-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Translational control by DHX36 binding to 5'UTR G-quadruplex is essential for muscle stem-cell regenerative functions.

Nat Commun 2021 08 19;12(1):5043. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to regenerate owing to its resident stem cells (also called satellite cells, SCs). SCs are normally quiescent; when stimulated by damage, they activate and expand to form new fibers. The mechanisms underlying SC proliferative progression remain poorly understood. Here we show that DHX36, a helicase that unwinds RNA G-quadruplex (rG4) structures, is essential for muscle regeneration by regulating SC expansion. DHX36 (initially named RHAU) is barely expressed at quiescence but is highly induced during SC activation and proliferation. Inducible deletion of Dhx36 in adult SCs causes defective proliferation and muscle regeneration after damage. System-wide mapping in proliferating SCs reveals DHX36 binding predominantly to rG4 structures at various regions of mRNAs, while integrated polysome profiling shows that DHX36 promotes mRNA translation via 5'-untranslated region (UTR) rG4 binding. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DHX36 specifically regulates the translation of Gnai2 mRNA by unwinding its 5' UTR rG4 structures and identify GNAI2 as a downstream effector of DHX36 for SC expansion. Altogether, our findings uncover DHX36 as an indispensable post-transcriptional regulator of SC function and muscle regeneration acting through binding and unwinding rG4 structures at 5' UTR of target mRNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25170-wDOI Listing
August 2021

The role of cerebrospinal fluid cross-section area ratio in the prediction of dural ossification and clinical outcomes in patients with thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Aug 17;22(1):701. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, shuaifuyuan 1#, Dongcheng district, Beijing, China.

Background: It is imperative to preoperatively distinguish dural ossification (DO) and thus anticipate the risks and outcome of the surgery for patients with ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF). However, studies have disagreed as to the efficacy of the radiographic signs or factors to predict DO and surgical outcome. In additon, the association between the cerebrospinal fluid cross-section area ratio (CCAR) and DO or clinical outcome had not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyse CCAR and its role in prediction of DO and neurological function recovery rate in patients with OLF.

Methods: Fifty-two consecutive patients with OLF, who underwent posterior thoracic decompression and fusion between September 2012 and March 2019 at a single institution, were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, radiographic signs of DO, CCAR, pre- and postoperative modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) score were recorded.

Results: There were 27 patients in the DO group and 25 patients in the non-DO group, with a mean age at surgery of 57.4 years and 53.9 years, respectively. No significant differences were found in sex, age, segment of maximum compression and preoperative mJOA score between the two groups. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the value of CCAR had a relatively high value for diagnosis of DO and prediction of neurological function recovery rate (P = .000). According to the value of CCAR, three zones were defined as DO zone (≤14.3%), non-DO zone (≥44.5%), and gray zone (14.3 to 44.5%). When the value of CCAR≤14.3%, the recovery rate was poor or fair, while it had good or excellent recovery when CCAR≥45.2%.

Conclusion: The value of CCAR had a high diagnostic value for prediction of DO and neurological function recovery rate in patients with OLF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04574-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369786PMC
August 2021

High Frequency Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection Detected in Non-Resolved Donations Suggests the Requirement of Anti-HBc Test in Blood Donors in Southern China.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:699217. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Provincial Key Laboratory for Transfusion-Transmitted Infectious Diseases, Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Chengdu, China.

Background: Most Chinese Blood Centers adopted mini pool (MP) nucleic acid testing (NAT) for HBV screening due to high cost of Individual donation (ID) NAT, and different proportions of MP-reactive but ID-non-reactive donations (MP+/ID-, defined as non-resolved donations) have been observed during daily donor screening process. Some of these non-resolved donations are occult HBV infections (OBIs), which pose potential risk of HBV transmission if they are not deferred. This study is aimed to further analyze these non-resolved donations.

Methods: The non-resolved plasma samples were further analyzed by serological tests and various HBV DNA amplification assays including quantitative PCR (qPCR) and nested PCR amplifying the basic core and pre-core promoter regions (BCP/PC; 295 base pairs) and HBsAg (S) region (496 base pairs). Molecular characterizations of HBV DNA+ non-resolved samples were determined by sequencing analysis.

Results: Of 17,226 MPs from 103,356 seronegative blood donations, 98 MPs were detected reactive for HBV. Fifty-six out of these 98 (57.1%) reactive MPs were resolved as HBV DNA+, but the remaining 42 pools (42.9%, 252 donations) were left non-resolved with a high rate (53.2%) of anti-HBc+. Surprisingly, among 42 non-resolved MPs, 17 contained one donation identified as OBIs by alternative NAT assays. Sequence analysis on HBV DNAs extracted from these OBI donations showed some key mutations in the S region that may lead to failure in HBsAg detection and vaccine escape.

Conclusion: A total of 53.2% of the non-resolved donations were anti-HBc+, and OBIs were identified in 40.5% of these non-resolved pools. Therefore, non-resolved donations with anti-HBc+ might pose potential risk for HBV transmission. Our present analysis indicates that anti-HBc testing in non-resolved donations should be used to identify OBIs in order to further increase blood safety in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.699217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8355616PMC
July 2021

Shrinkage in serial intervals across transmission generations of COVID-19.

J Theor Biol 2021 11 11;529:110861. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; CUHK Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

One of the key epidemiological characteristics that shape the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the serial interval (SI). Although SI is commonly considered following a probability distribution at a population scale, recent studies reported a slight shrinkage (or contraction) of the mean of effective SI across transmission generations or over time. Here, we develop a likelihood-based statistical inference framework with truncation to explore the change in SI across transmission generations after adjusting the impacts of case isolation. The COVID-19 contact tracing surveillance data in Hong Kong are used for exemplification. We find that for COVID-19, the mean of individual SI is likely to shrink with a factor at 0.72 per generation (95%CI: 0.54, 0.96) as the transmission generation increases, where a threshold may exist as the lower boundary of this shrinking process. We speculate that one of the probable explanations for the shrinkage in SI might be an outcome due to the competition among multiple candidate infectors within the same case cluster. Thus, the nonpharmaceutical interventive strategies are crucially important to block the transmission chains, and mitigate the COVID-19 epidemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2021.110861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8356772PMC
November 2021

Talaromyces cellulolyticus as a promising candidate for biofilm construction and treatment of textile wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Nov 8;340:125718. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Screening of microorganisms with broad-spectrum adaptability to extreme acid-base conditions and highperformance is essential for the construction of high-efficient biochemical wastewater treatment system. Herein, an acid-tolerant fungus isolated from acid medium was successfully identified through micromorphological observation and molecular characterization. The isolated fungus matched well with the filamentous fungus and was eventually identified as Talaromyces cellulolyticus. Considering the wide-range adaptability to pH condition (2.0-9.0), high cellulase activity (11.25 U mL), ideal biofilm-forming property (17.87 mg cm) on the surface of ceramsites, high tolerance to metal ions, and potential adsorption performance for aniline dyes, T. cellulolyticus issuitable for the construction of biofilm treatment system and treatment of textile wastewater based on the investigation of the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand and chromaticity of the synthetic textile wastewater. A promising candidate filamentous fungus for the treatment of textile wastewater was provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125718DOI Listing
November 2021

Five-Year Outcomes of Post-Drug-Coated Balloon Angioplasty Dissection in Complex Femoropopliteal Artery Disease.

Int J Gen Med 2021 5;14:4197-4207. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Medical School of Chinese PLA, Beijing, 100853, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To evaluate the long-term outcomes after drug-coated balloon (DCB) angioplasty dissection in patients with complex femoropopliteal artery disease.

Methods: Two hundred patients with femoropopliteal peripheral artery disease were enrolled in the AcoArt I trial and randomly assigned to either the DCB or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) group. A total of 86 patients with post-balloon angioplasty dissection were reanalyzed. The primary endpoint was clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR) over five years. Kaplan-Meier curve estimates were used to evaluate the association between the treatment and CD-TLR. Interaction and stratified analyses were also performed.

Results: Over five years, patients treated with DCB angioplasty demonstrated an acceptable effect with a numerically higher but not statistically significant rate of freedom from CD-TLR compared with those treated by PTA (Kaplan-Meier estimate of 77.6% vs 64.4%; log-rank = 0.08). Among the patients who underwent TLR, the mean time from intervention to TLR in the DCB group was significantly prolonged compared to the PTA group (P < 0.001). The stratified analysis showed that the Rutherford classification played an interactive role in the association between the DCB angioplasty and low CD-TLR rate at five years. No significant difference in the all-cause mortality was found in the patients with post-balloon angioplasty dissection between the two treatment groups.

Conclusion: The five-year follow-up outcomes of the post-balloon angioplasty dissection in the AcoArt I trial demonstrated that DCB angioplasty is more trustworthy than PTA, with a higher rate of freedom than CD-TLR and sustained improvement in clinical symptoms. However, the all-cause mortality rate in patients with femoropopliteal lesions is similar after both DCB angioplasty and PTA.

Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

Unique Identifier: NCT01850056.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S316916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8352644PMC
August 2021

Assessment methodology applied to arsenic pollution in lake sediments combining static and dynamic processes.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 26;277:130260. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

The fraction transformation from stable to mobile forms in sediments is continuous, slow, and spontaneous chain reactions causing static risks to the aquatic system. However, this process may change into abrupt, rapid, and dynamic paths when certain physicochemical conditions changed. Using the Delayed Geochemical Hazard (DGH) model, comprehensive methods combing both static and dynamic risk assessment were therefore conducted to evaluate the aforementioned processes. By applying these methods, arsenic (As) pollution in surface sediments of the Baiyangdian Lake (BYD Lake) was investigated thoroughly as a case study area. The results showed that the total As concentrations in those sediment samples ranged from 4.87 to 17.94 mg/kg, with an average of 8.75 mg/kg. In a fraction, Fe and Mn were observed to pose effects on the surface-adsorbed (As) and residual fractions (As) with the coefficient analysis. The static risk assessment showed that both the contamination and ecological risk are at a low level in the total content but a low to moderate risk in the fraction. The dynamic risk assessment posted the potential transformation paths of As in the sediments, indicating a trend of potential DGH burst in 45.24%-78.57% of the BYD Lake. In summary, this study provides a methodology for the risk assessment of arsenic that may extend to other heavy metal(loid)s combining static and dynamic processes in sediments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130260DOI Listing
August 2021
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