Publications by authors named "Yu Wang"

9,246 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

[Synergistic effect of acupoint injection and moxibustion or catgut embedding or acupuncture on symptoms and expression of Th1/Th2 related cytokines in nasal mucosa of rats with allergic rhinitis].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2022 May;47(5):409-14

The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550004.

Objective: To observe the effect of moxibustion, catgut embedding and acupuncture on allergic symptoms and expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) of nasal mucosa in rats with allergic rhinitis (AR) based on acupoint injection, so as to explore their synergistic effect and related mechanism in relieving AR.

Methods: SD rats (half male half female) were randomly divided into normal control, model, acupoint injection (AI), AI+moxibustion, AI+catgut embedding and AI+acupuncture groups, with 8 rats in each group. The AR model was established by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin suspension (once every other day for 7 times), and intranasal drop of 0.5% ovalbumin solution (once daily for 7 days). After successful modeling, rats of the AI group received injection of a mixture solution of equal proportion of 1% lidocaine, dexamethasone and transfer factor into "Yingxiang" (LI20) and "Yintang" (EX-HN3) once every 4 days, 4 times altogether. Mild moxibustion or catgut embedment or manual acupuncture was applied to bilateral "Feishu" (BL13) and "Zusanli" (ST36). Both moxibustion (20 min every time) and acupuncture (with the needles retained for 30 min every time) were conducted once daily for 14 times, and catgut embedding was conducted once a week, twice altogether based on acupoint injection. The rats' nasal allergic reaction score (symptom score, 1-3 points) was given according to the times of nose scratching and sneezing, and the running nose state in 30 min, and histopathological changes of nasal mucosa were observed by H.E. staining. The expression levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 in the nasal mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, separately.

Results: Compared with the normal group, the symptom score and the expression of IL-4 positive cells and protein in nasal mucosa were significantly increased (<0.05), while the expression of IFN-γ positive cells and protein were considerably decreased in the model group (<0.05). In comparison with the model group, the symptom score and the expression of IL-4 positive cells and protein were obviously decreased (<0.05), while the expression of IFN-γ positive cells and protein were remarkably increased in the 4 treatment groups (<0.05). The effects of AI+moxibustion, AI+catgut embedment, AI+acupuncture were signi-ficantly superior to those of simple AI in up-regulating the expression of IFN-γ positive cells and protein and in down-regulating the expression of IL-4 positive cells and protein (<0.05). Both the symptom score and the expression of IL-4 were notably lower in the AI+moxibustion group than in the AI+catgut embedment and AI+acupuncture groups (<0.05), whereas the expression of IFN-γ was apparently higher in the AI+moxibustion group than in the other 3 treatment groups (<0.05). No significant differences were found between the AI+catgut embedment and AI+acupuncture groups in the levels of symptom score, IFN-γ and IL-4 expressions (>0.05).

Conclusion: Moxibustion or catgut embedment or acupuncture and AI have a synergistic effect in relieving symptoms of AR rats, which may be related to their function in regulating the expression levels of nasal IFN-γ and IL-4 proteins. The therapeutic effect of moxibustion is obviously superior to those of both acupuncture and catgut embedment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.20211370DOI Listing
May 2022

The Incidence, Outcomes, and Risk Factors of Secondary Poor Graft Function in Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Acquired Aplastic Anemia.

Front Immunol 2022 9;13:896034. Epub 2022 May 9.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Disease, Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, Peking University Institute of Hematology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Secondary poor graft function (sPGF) increases the risk of life-threatening complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The incidence, clinical outcomes, and risk factors of sPGF have not been elucidated in haploidentical (haplo-) HSCT for acquired aplastic anemia (AA) patients. We retrospectively reviewed 423 consecutive AA patients who underwent haplo-HSCT between January 2006 and December 2020 and report a 3-year cumulative incidence of 4.62% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.92%-10.23%) of sPGF. While no primary PGF occurred. The median time to sPGF was 121 days (range 30-626 days) after transplantation. To clarify the risk factors for sPGF, 17 sPGF cases and 382 without PGF were further analyzed. Compared to patients without PGF, the 2-year overall survival was significantly poorer for sPGF patients (67.7% vs 90.8%, p =.002). Twelve sPGF patients were alive until the last follow-up, and 7 achieved transfusion independency. The multivariable analyses revealed that later neutrophil engraftment (OR 2.819, p=.049) and a history of refractory cytomegalovirus viremia (OR=7.038, p=.002) post-transplantation were associated with sPGF. There was weak evidence that a history of grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease increased the risk of sPGF (p=.063). We advocated better post-transplantation strategies to balance the risk of immunosuppression and viral reactivation for haplo-HSCT in AA patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.896034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9124828PMC
May 2022

Endothelial β-Catenin Deficiency Causes Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown Enhancing the Paracellular and Transcellular Permeability.

Front Mol Neurosci 2022 9;15:895429. Epub 2022 May 9.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Biomimetic Materials and Cellular Immunomodulation, Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) causes or contributes to neuronal dysfunction and several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for maintaining the integrity of the adult BBB in physiological and pathological conditions, including stroke. However, how the impairment of the endothelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling results in BBB breakdown remains unclear. Furthermore, the individual contributions of different BBB permeability-inducing mechanisms, including intercellular junction damage, endothelial transcytosis, and fenestration, remains unexplored. Here, we induced β-catenin endothelial-specific conditional knockout (ECKO) in adult mice and determined its impact on BBB permeability and the underlying mechanism. β-catenin ECKO reduced the levels of active β-catenin and the mRNA levels of Wnt target genes in mice, indicating downregulation of endothelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling. β-catenin ECKO mice displayed severe and widespread leakage of plasma IgG and albumin into the cerebral cortex, which was absent in wild-type controls. Mechanistically, both the paracellular and transcellular transport routes were disrupted in β-catenin ECKO mice. First, β-catenin ECKO reduced the tight junction protein levels and disrupted the intercellular junction ultrastructure in the brain endothelium. Second, β-catenin ECKO substantially increased the number of endothelial vesicles and caveolae-mediated transcytosis through downregulating Mfsd2a and upregulating caveolin-1 expression. Interestingly, fenestration and upregulated expression of the fenestration marker Plvap were not observed in β-catenin ECKO mice. Overall, our study reveals that endothelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling maintains adult BBB integrity regulating the paracellular as well as transcellular permeability. These findings may have broad applications in understanding and treatment of CNS disorders involving BBB disruption.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2022.895429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9125181PMC
May 2022

Traffic costs of air pollution: the effect of PM on traffic violation.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

School of Economics and Management, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Although emerging studies have investigated the effect of air pollution on traffic crashes, it is unclear to scholars whether air pollution affects another road safety problem-traffic violations. To address this gap, the current paper constructs a data set from 1,390,221 traffic violation records of 640,971 drivers from the Wuhan Traffic Management Bureau between January 2018 and December 2018. An ordered logistic regression was conducted to verify our hypotheses. The result shows that PM has no overall impact on the severity of traffic violations, but each 1% increase in the daily concentration of PM leads to a 1.02-fold increase in the odds of serious inexperience-related violations and a 0.99-fold decrease in the odds of serious overconfidence-related violations. This effect is the strongest in PM, followed by NO, and has not been observed in CO and O. In addition, robustness tests indicate that the relationship between air pollution and traffic violations is consistent among the different subsets (e.g., clear weather, no rain and snow, and good visibility). We also provide valuable practical advice for drivers and traffic authorities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20790-1DOI Listing
May 2022

Hydroxysafflor yellow A triggered a fast-to-slow muscle fiber-type conversion regulating FoxO1 in myocytes.

Food Funct 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is the main bioactive component of safflower and has been reported to have significant health-promoting abilities. However, the regulation of HSYA on different types of skeletal myofibers is largely unknown. Here, experiments found that the water extract of safflower could significantly increase MyHC I, MB and Tnni1 mRNA expression while downregulating MyHC IIb mRNA expression. Furthermore, HSYA triggered fast-to-slow fiber-type switching and increased gene expression related to mitochondrial biosynthesis both and . Autodock analyses proved that FoxO1 is a potential target of HSYA, and qRT-PCR and western blotting further showed that HSYA significantly promoted the activation of the FoxO1 signaling pathway. Additionally, the levels of PGC1α, downstream of FoxO1, also significantly increased after HSYA treatment. Together, our findings suggested that HSYA triggered a fast-to-slow myofiber-type shift through the FoxO1 signaling pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo03612bDOI Listing
May 2022

Molecular Genetic Screening of Neonatal Intensive Care Units: Hyperbilirubinemia as an Example.

Appl Clin Genet 2022 18;15:39-48. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Neonatology, Changzhou Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To explore the clinical value of newborn genomic screening (nGS) for neonatal intensive care units (NICU) infants (taking neonatal hyperbilirubinemia as an example).

Methods: Dried blood spots (DBSs) were collected after 72 hours of birth. The tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) screening and Angel Care genomic screening (GS, based on Targeted next-generation sequencing) were performed at the same time.

Results: Ninety-six hyperbilirubinemia newborns were enrolled in this study and none was identified with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) by TMS, while 6 infants (6.25%, 6/96) were suspected to have a genetic disorder by Angel Care, including 2 cases of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), and 1 case of maple syrup urine disease type 1B (MSUD1B), autosomal recessive deafness 1A (DFNB1A), Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), thyroid dyshormonogenesis 6 (TDH6) each. In addition, 44 infants (45.8%) were detected having at least one variant which conferred a carrier status for a recessive childhood-onset disorder. A total of 33 out of 60 variants (55.0%) reported for carrier status were pathogenic (P), 24 (40.0%) were likely pathogenic (LP), and 3 variants were variant of uncertain significance (VUS). Top six common genes of carrier status were . Two newborns showed abnormalities in elementary screening of TMS, but were confirmed as false positive after recall. Their results of Angel Care did not found abnormality.

Conclusion: Using neonatal hyperbilirubinemia as an example, genome sequencing screening can find more evidence of genetic variation in NICU newborns, and "Angel Care" is an effective method.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TACG.S362148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9124469PMC
May 2022

Nanomechanical assay for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 based on peptide nucleic acid.

Nano Res 2022 May 19:1-13. Epub 2022 May 19.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Material, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230027 China.

The massive global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic makes the development of more effective and easily popularized assays critical. Here, we developed an ultrasensitive nanomechanical method based on microcantilever array and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. The method has an extremely low detection limit of 0.1 fM (10 copies/mL) for N-gene specific sequence (20 bp). Interestingly, it was further found that the detection limit of N gene (pharyngeal swab sample) was even lower, reaching 50 copies/mL. The large size of the N gene dramatically enhances the sensitivity of the nanomechanical sensor by up to three orders of magnitude. The detection limit of this amplification-free assay method is an order of magnitude lower than RT-PCR (500 copies/mL) that requires amplification. The non-specific signal in the assay is eliminated by the comparison of the array, reducing the false-positive misdiagnosis rate. The method is amplification-free and label-free, allowing for accurate diagnosis within 1 h. The strong specificity and ultra-sensitivity allow single base mutations in viruses to be distinguished even at very low concentrations. Also, the method remains sensitive to fM magnitude lung cancer marker (miRNA-155). Therefore, this ultrasensitive, amplification-free and inexpensive assay is expected to be used for the early diagnosis of COVID-19 patients and to be extended as a broad detection tool.

Electronic Supplementary Material: Supplementary material (experimental section, N gene sequences and all nucleic acid sequences used in the study, Figs. S1-S6, and Tables S1-S3) is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s12274-022-4333-3.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12274-022-4333-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9118818PMC
May 2022

Contribution of metabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors to cardiovascular disease: A mendelian randomization study.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2022 May 2. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, China; Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Etiologic associations between some modifiable factors (metabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remain unclear. To identify targets for CVD prevention, we evaluated the causal associations of these factors with coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) method.

Methods And Results: Previously published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for blood pressure (BP), glucose, lipids, overweight, smoking, alcohol intake, sedentariness, and education were used to identify instruments for 15 modifiable factors. We extracted effects of the genetic variants used as instruments for the exposures on coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke from large GWASs (N = 60 801 cases/123 504 controls for CAD and N = 40 585 cases/406 111 controls for ischemic stroke). Genetically predicted hypertension (CAD: OR, 5.19 [95% CI, 4.21-6.41]; ischemic stroke: OR, 4.92 [4.12-5.86]), systolic BP (CAD: OR, 1.03 [1.03-1.04]; ischemic stroke: OR, 1.03 [1.03-1.03]), diastolic BP (CAD: OR, 1.05 [1.05-1.06]; ischemic stroke: OR, 1.05 [1.04-1.05]), type 2 diabetes (CAD: OR, 1.11 [1.08-1.15]; ischemic stroke: OR, 1.07 [1.04-1.10]), smoking initiation (CAD: OR, 1.26 [1.18-1.35]; ischemic stroke: OR, 1.24 [1.16-1.33]), educational attainment (CAD: OR, 0.62 [0.58-0.66]; ischemic stroke: OR, 0.68 [0.63-0.72]), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (CAD: OR, 1.55 [1.41-1.71]), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (CAD: OR, 0.82 [0.74-0.91]), triglycerides (CAD: OR, 1.29 [1.14-1.45]), body mass index (CAD: OR, 1.25 [1.19-1.32]), and alcohol dependence (OR, 1.04 [1.03-1.06]) were causally related to CVD.

Conclusion: This systematic MR study identified 11 modifiable factors as causal risk factors for CVD, indicating that these factors are important targets for preventing CVD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2022.04.019DOI Listing
May 2022

Transcutaneous auricular vague nerve stimulation improved brain connection activity on patients of disorders of consciousness: a pilot study.

J Tradit Chin Med 2022 Jun;42(3):463-471

Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve nerve stimulation (taVNS) on disorders of consciousness (DOC) patients with Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) and cerebral cortex activity by electroencephalogram (EEG) detection.

Methods: Randomized controlled methods were used to evaluate the clinical effect of taVNS on patients with DOC. Twelve patients with initial CRS-R of 6-10 were randomly divided into the treatment group of taVNS and control group of transcutaneous non-auricular vague nerve stimulation (tnVNS). According to clinical diagnosis, the treatment group was divided into vegetative state (VS) group and minimally conscious state (MCS) group.

Results: The energy of delta and beta bands is positively correlated with the brain activity of patients. taVNS has different regulatory effects on patients with different conscious States. In taVNS group, the energy of delta band in local brain regions changed significantly. Significant changes in brain connection activity were limited to local brain regions. While in patients with MCS in the taVNS group, delta and beta band energy significantly changed in multiple brain regions and cross-brain connection activity also changed significantly.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that taVNS may be a related extra method for arousing patients' awakening by improving brain connection activity. And the effect is remarkable in MCS patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19852/j.cnki.jtcm.2022.03.012DOI Listing
June 2022

A novel bionic magnetic SERS aptasensor for the ultrasensitive detection of Deoxynivalenol based on "dual antennae" nano-silver.

Biosens Bioelectron 2022 May 19;211:114383. Epub 2022 May 19.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Risk Assessment and Control Technology for Environment and Food Safety, Tianjin Institute of Environmental and Operational Medicine, Tianjin, 300050, PR China. Electronic address:

Deoxynivalenol (DON), as a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium, showed great harm to human body, crops and animals, so it is urgent to establish an efficient, sensitive and selective method for the detection of DON. Here, a novel bionic magnetic SERS aptasensor based on "dual antennae" nano-silver was designed. β[email protected] was modified 4-MBA and the aptamers respectively with chemical bond and host-guest interaction, which was reflected in the "dual antennae" characteristics of identifying target and SERS signal label. In addition, [email protected] was conjugated with SH- modified complementary DNA to prepare capture probes, enabling fast magnetic separation of the captured target and further enhanced Raman scattering. With the specific recognition and competitive binding of DON and aptamer, the combination of "dual antenna" signal probe and capture probe is significantly reduced, exerting a lower SERS intensity. There was a good linear relationship in the range of 0.0001-100 ng mL between the SERS intensity and the logarithm of DON concentration, and the limit of detection (LOD) was as low as 0.032 pg mL. The SERS aptasensor exhibited good selectivity, satisfactory repeatability and expected practicability, presenting a great application prospect in the detection of mycotoxins and biochemical analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2022.114383DOI Listing
May 2022

Provable Boolean interaction recovery from tree ensemble obtained via random forests.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 May 24;119(22):e2118636119. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Statistics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.

SignificanceRandom Forests (RFs) are among the most successful machine-learning algorithms in terms of prediction accuracy. In many domain problems, however, the primary goal is not prediction, but to understand the data-generation process-in particular, finding important features and feature interactions. There exists strong empirical evidence that RF-based methods-in particular, iterative RF (iRF)-are very successful in terms of detecting feature interactions. In this work, we propose a biologically motivated, Boolean interaction model. Using this model, we complement the existing empirical evidence with theoretical evidence for the ability of iRF-type methods to select desirable interactions. Our theoretical analysis also yields deeper insights into the general interaction selection mechanism of decision-tree algorithms and the importance of feature subsampling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2118636119DOI Listing
May 2022

A Slice-Low-Rank Plus Sparse (slice-L + S) Reconstruction Method for k-t Undersampled Multiband First-Pass Myocardial Perfusion MRI.

Magn Reson Med 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Purpose: The synergistic use of k-t undersampling and multiband (MB) imaging has the potential to provide extended slice coverage and high spatial resolution for first-pass perfusion MRI. The low-rank plus sparse (L + S) model has shown excellent performance for accelerating single-band (SB) perfusion MRI.

Methods: A MB data consistency method employing ESPIRiT maps and through-plane coil information was developed. This data consistency method was combined with the temporal L + S constraint to form the slice-L + S method. Slice-L + S was compared to SB L + S and the sequential operations of split slice-GRAPPA and SB L + S (seq-SG-L + S) using synthetic data formed from multislice SB images. Prospectively k-t undersampled MB data were also acquired and reconstructed using seq-SG-L + S and slice-L + S.

Results: Using synthetic data with total acceleration rates of 6-12, slice-L + S outperformed SB L + S and seq-SG-L + S (N = 7 subjects) with respect to normalized RMSE and the structural similarity index (P < 0.05 for both). For the specific case with MB factor = 3 and rate 3 undersampling, or for SB imaging with rate 9 undersampling (N = 7 subjects), the normalized RMSE values were 0.037 ± 0.007, 0.042 ± 0.005, and 0.031 ± 0.004; and the structural similarity index values were 0.88 ± 0.03, 0.85 ± 0.03, and 0.89 ± 0.02 for SB L + S, seq-SG-L + S, and slice-L + S, respectively (P < 0.05 for both). For prospectively undersampled MB data, slice-L + S provided better image quality than seq-SG-L + S for rate 6 (N = 7) and rate 9 acceleration (N = 7) as scored by blinded experts.

Conclusion: Slice-L + S outperformed SB-L + S and seq-SG-L + S and provides 9 slice coverage of the left ventricle with a spatial resolution of 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm with good image quality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.29281DOI Listing
May 2022

Naringenin upregulates GTPCH1/eNOS to ameliorate high glucose-induced retinal endothelial cell injury.

Authors:
Bing Xue Yu Wang

Exp Ther Med 2022 Jun 5;23(6):428. Epub 2022 May 5.

Medical Department of Dalian Second People's Hospital, Dalian, Liaoning 116011, P.R. China.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes, while retinal endothelial cell (REC) dysfunction is considered the primary pathological process of DR. Naringenin, a natural flavonoid compound, exhibits therapeutic potential against multiple types of endothelial cell injury. To the best of our knowledge, however, its effect on REC injury has not been previously investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of naringenin on high glucose (HG)-induced REC injury and assess the underlying mechanism. To establish a retinal injury model, human (H)RECs were treated with 30 mM glucose. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and TUNEL staining were used to assess the effects of naringenin on cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and concentration of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), the essential cofactor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), were measured using a ROS detection kit and ELISA, respectively. The transfection efficiency of HRECs with guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 (GTPCH1) interfering plasmid was examined by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The protein expression levels of Ki67, proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), eNOS and GTPCH1 were determined by western blot analysis. Compared with the HG-induced group alone, co-treatment with naringenin inhibited HG-induced HREC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, increased expression levels of the proliferation-associated proteins Ki67 and PCNA and effectively decreased intracellular ROS levels. Furthermore, naringenin upregulated GTPCH1/eNOS signaling and promoted release of BH4. However, GTPCH1 knockdown partially reversed the ameliorative effect of naringenin on HG-induced HREC injury. In summary, the present study suggested that naringenin effectively inhibited HG-induced HREC apoptosis and intracellular oxidative stress, which may be associated with naringenin-mediated GTPCH1/eNOS upregulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2022.11355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9121200PMC
June 2022

Exploiting the Synergistic Electronic Interaction between Pt-Skin Wrapped Intermetallic PtCo Nanoparticles and Co-N-C Support for Efficient ORR/EOR Electrocatalysis in a Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell.

Small 2022 May 23:e2202071. Epub 2022 May 23.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), Shenzhen, 518055, China.

The development of low-Pt catalysts with high activity and durability is critical for fuel cells. Here, Pt-skin wrapped sub-5 nm PtCo intermetallic nanoparticles are successfully mounted on single atom Co-N-C support by exploiting the barrier effect of Co-anchor. According to a collaborative experimental and computational investigation, the increased oxygen reduction reaction activity of PtCo/Co-N-C arises from the direct electron transfer from PtCo to Co-N-C, and the resulting optimal d-band center of Pt. Owing to such unique electronic structure interaction and synergistic effect, the specific and mass activities of PtCo/Co-N-C are up to 4.20 mA cm and 2.71 A mg , respectively, with barely degraded stability after 40 000 CV cycles. The PtCo/Co-N-C also exhibits outstanding activity as an ethanol electrocatalyst. This work shows a new and effective route to boost the overall efficiency of direct ethanol fuel cells in acidic media by integrating intermetallic low-Pt alloys and single atom carbon support.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202202071DOI Listing
May 2022

Determination of ATRP Equilibrium Constants under Polymerization Conditions.

ACS Macro Lett 2012 Dec 13;1(12):1367-1370. Epub 2012 Nov 13.

Center for Macromolecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Carnegie Mellon University, 4400 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, United States.

Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) equilibrium constants () were measured during polymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) with CuBr/CuBr in either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or acetonitrile (MeCN) in the presence of either tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPMA) or tris[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amine (MeTREN) as the ligand and with ethyl 2-bromopropionate as the initiator. The ln() values changed linearly with the volume fraction of solvents in the reaction medium, allowing extrapolation of the values for to bulk conditions, which were 2 × 10 and 3 × 10 for TPMA and MeTREN ligands at 25 °C, respectively. The temperature effect on values was studied in MA/MeCN = 1/1 (v/v) with TPMA as the ligand in the temperature range from 0 to 60 °C. The values increased with temperature providing Δ = 36 kJ mol in MeCN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mz3005378DOI Listing
December 2012

Iron-Based ICAR ATRP of Styrene with ppm Amounts of FeBr and 1,1'-Azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile).

ACS Macro Lett 2012 May 19;1(5):599-602. Epub 2012 Apr 19.

Center for Macromolecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Carnegie Mellon University, 4400 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, United States.

A successful ICAR (initiators for continuous activator regeneration) ATRP (atom transfer radical polymerization) of styrene was conducted with iron(III) bromide and 1,1'-azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) (ACHN) as the thermal initiator. A polymerization, started with 50 ppm of FeBr and 50 mol equivalents of ACHN in 33% (v/v) anisole at 90 °C, reached 70% conversion in 24 h and was well controlled, giving a polymer with a narrow molecular weight distribution (/ = 1.15). The number average molecular weight () corresponded well to theoretical values, as conversion increased. The rate of polymerization was dependent on the amount of ACHN initially added to the reaction. A polymer with a relatively narrow molecular weight distribution, / = 1.29 at 65% of conversion, was obtained with 5 ppm of FeBr and the appropriate amount of ACHN. This procedure therefore provides an efficient controlled polymerization in addition to creating a robust, cheap, and environmentally friendly catalytic system. Control of polymerization with ACHN was better than with -butyl peracetate as a thermal initiator or tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, Fe, or Zn wire as reducing agents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mz3001463DOI Listing
May 2012

DNAJC24 is a potential therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma through affecting ammonia metabolism.

Cell Death Dis 2022 May 24;13(5):490. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Tumor Cell Biology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, 300060, China.

Evolutionarily conserved heat shock proteins are involved in the heat shock response of cells in response to changes in the external environment. In normal tissues, heat shock proteins can help cells survive in a rapidly changing environment. Likewise, in malignant tumors heat shock proteins may help tumor cells cope with external stresses as well as the stress of treatment. In this way they become accomplices of malignant tumors. Here we demonstrated for the first time that high expression of DNAJC24 (a heat shock protein) shortens survival in patients with HCC by immunohistochemical staining of 167 paired hepatocellular carcinomas and paraneoplastic tissues as well as data from public databases. In vitro experiments demonstrated that stimuli such as hypoxia, starvation and heat could upregulate DNAJC24 expression in HCC cells through transcriptional regulation of HSF2, and high expression of DNAJC24 in HCC cells could promote the proliferation and motility of HCC cells. In addition, we also verified that targeting DNAJC24 under normal culture conditions can affect the proliferation and autophagy of HCC cells by interfering with ammonia metabolism, thereby inhibiting the malignant progression of HCC. Overall, we suggested that DNAJC24 may become a new target for the treatment of HCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-04953-zDOI Listing
May 2022

[Hydrogen alleviates collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice by inhibiting IL-22 levels].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 May;38(5):400-405

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of hydrogen (H) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Methods DBA/1 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, CIA group and CIA mice treated with H group (H treated group), with 6 mice in each group. Following the preparation of CIA mouse model, the H treated group received H inhalation therapy (300 mL/L, 3 hours/d) for 15-60 days. The arthritis score were assessed and HE staining of joint were evaluated by referring to the pathology score; The number of CD4IL-22 cells in spleen and joint was observed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemical staining; ELISA was conducted to assess the levels of interleukin 22 (IL-22) in serum and joint; Western blotting was performed to examine the expression of phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) and phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB) in joint between the three groups. Results In the CIA group, both the arthritis score and pathology score were higher than control group, while they dropped after H treatment. In addition, compared with control group, CIA group showed higher proportion of CD4IL-22 cells and higher level of IL-22 which then interestingly decreased after H therapy. Besides, the p-STAT3 and p-NF-κB were elevated in CIA mice compared with control group, and H treatment significantly inhibited them. Conclusion H can reduce the levels of CD4IL-22 cells and IL-22, and alleviate arthritis symptoms in CIA mice by inhibiting STAT3/NF-κB pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
May 2022

Chl1 coordinates with H3K9 methyltransferase Clr4 to reduce the accumulation of RNA-DNA hybrids and maintain genome stability.

iScience 2022 May 27;25(5):104313. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

A genome-wide analysis in indicated that double-deletion mutants of Chl1 and histone H3K9 methyltransferase complex factors are synthetically sick. Here, we show that loss of Chl1 increases the accumulation of RNA-DNA hybrids at pericentromeric dg and dh repeats in the absence of the H3K9 methyltransferase Clr4, which leads to genome instability, including more severe defects in chromosome segregation and increased chromatin accessibility. Localization of Chl1 at pericentromeric regions depends on a subunit of replication protein A (RPA), Ssb1. In wild-type (WT) cells, transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin prevents the formation of RNA-DNA hybrids. When Clr4 is deleted, dg and dh repeats are highly transcribed. Then Ssb1 associates with the displaced single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and recruits Chl1 to resolve the RNA-DNA hybrids. Together, our data suggest that Chl1 coordinates with Clr4 to eliminate RNA-DNA hybrids, which contributes to the maintenance of genome integrity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.104313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9118164PMC
May 2022

Niche differentiation of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and related autotrophic carbon fixation potential in the water column of the South China Sea.

iScience 2022 May 29;25(5):104333. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Institute of Environmental Research at Greater Bay Area; Key Laboratory for Water Quality and Conservation of the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

The significant primary production by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the ocean was reported, but the carbon fixation process of AOA and its community composition along the water depth remain unclear. Here, we investigated the abundance, community composition, and potential carbon fixation of AOA in water columns of the South China Sea. Higher abundances of the and genes of AOA were found below the euphotic zone. Similarly, higher carbon fixation potential of AOA, evaluated by the ratios of to gene, was also observed below euphotic zone and the ratios increased with increasing water depth. The vertical niche differentiation of AOA was further evidenced, with the dominant genus shifting from in the epipelagic zone to uncultured genus in the meso- and bathypelagic zones. Our findings highlight the higher carbon fixation potential of AOA in deep water and the significance of AOA to the ocean carbon budget.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.104333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9118673PMC
May 2022

Evidence and Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Coronary Heart Disease Patients With Anxiety or Depression: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

Front Pharmacol 2022 5;13:854292. Epub 2022 May 5.

Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and potential mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for treating coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with anxiety or depression. A systematic literature search was performed. Screening studies, extracting data, and assessing article quality were carried out independently by two researchers. The active ingredients of CHM for the treatment of CHD with anxiety or depression were analyzed by the network pharmacology, and the main potential mechanisms were summarized by the database of Web of Science. A total of 32 studies were included. The results showed that compared with the blank control groups, CHM was more beneficial in treating anxiety or depression in patients with CHD [anxiety: OR = 3.22, 95% CI (1.94, 5.35), < 0.00001, I = 0%; depression: OR = 3.27, 95% CI (1.67, 6.40), = 0.0005, I = 0%], and the efficacy of CHM was not inferior to that of Western medicine (WM) [anxiety: OR = 1.58, 95%CI (0.39, 6.35), = 0.52, I = 67%; depression: OR = 1.97, 95%CI (0.73, 5.28), = 0.18, I = 33%,]. Additionally, CHM also showed a significant advantage in improving angina stability (AS) in CHD patients with anxiety or depression compared with blank groups [anxiety: SMD = 0.55, 95%CI (0.32, 0.79), < 0.00001, I = 0%; depression: = 0.004] and WM groups [anxiety: SMD = 1.14, 95%CI (0.80, 1.47), < 0.00001, I = 0%; depression: SMD = 12.15, 95%CI (6.07, 18.23), < 0.0001, I = 0%]. Angina frequency (AF) and electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis after using CHM demonstrated similar trends. Based on the network pharmacology, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, beta-sitosterol, puerarin, stigmasterol, isorhamnetin, baicalein, tanshinone IIa, and nobiletin were most closely and simultaneously related to the pathological targets of CHD, anxiety, and depression. The main underlying mechanisms might involve anti-damage/apoptosis, anti-inflammation, antioxidative stress, and maintaining neurotransmitter homeostasis. CHM exhibited an obvious efficacy in treating CHD patients with anxiety or depression, especially for improving the symptom of angina pectoris. The most active compounds of CHM could simultaneously act on the pathological targets of CHD, anxiety, and depression. Multiple effective components and multiple targets were the advantages of CHM compared with WM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.854292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9117623PMC
May 2022

Embedding graphs on Grassmann manifold.

Neural Netw 2022 May 10;152:322-331. Epub 2022 May 10.

Discipline of Business Analytics, The University of Sydney Business School, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Learning efficient graph representation is the key to favorably addressing downstream tasks on graphs, such as node or graph property prediction. Given the non-Euclidean structural property of graphs, preserving the original graph data's similarity relationship in the embedded space needs specific tools and a similarity metric. This paper develops a new graph representation learning scheme, namely Egg, which embeds approximated second-order graph characteristics into a Grassmann manifold. The proposed strategy leverages graph convolutions to learn hidden representations of the corresponding subspace of the graph, which is then mapped to a Grassmann point of a low dimensional manifold through truncated singular value decomposition (SVD). The established graph embedding approximates denoised correlationship of node attributes, as implemented in the form of a symmetric matrix space for Euclidean calculation. The effectiveness of Egg is demonstrated using both clustering and classification tasks at the node level and graph level. It outperforms baseline models on various benchmarks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2022.05.001DOI Listing
May 2022

E-waste dismantling-related occupational and routine exposure to melamine and its derivatives: Estimating exposure via dust ingestion and hand-to-mouth contact.

Environ Int 2022 May 14;165:107299. Epub 2022 May 14.

MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China. Electronic address:

Melamine (MEL) and its derivatives are increasingly applied as nitrogenous flame retardants in consumer products. Nevertheless, limited information is available on their environmental occurrence and subsequent human exposure via multiple exposure pathways. In this study, we analysed MEL and its derivatives in dust (indication of the dust ingestion route) and hand wipe samples (indication of the hand-to-mouth route) collected in various microenvironments. The levels of ∑MELs in both dust (median: 24,100 ng/g) and participant hand samples (803 ng/m) collected in e-waste dismantling workshops were significantly higher than those in samples collected in homes (15,600 ng/g and 196 ng/m, respectively), dormitories (13,100 ng/g and 227 ng/m, respectively) and hotel rooms (11,800 ng/g and 154 ng/m, respectively). Generally, MEL dominated in dust samples collected in e-waste dismantling workshops, whereas cyanuric acid dominated in hand wipe samples. This may occur partly because the latter is an ingredient in disinfection products, which are more frequently employed in daily lives during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exposure assessment suggests that dust ingestion is an important exposure pathway among dismantling workers and the general population, whereas hand-to-mouth contact could not be overlooked in certain populations, such as children and dismantling workers not wear gloves at work.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2022.107299DOI Listing
May 2022

Transauricular Vagal Nerve Stimulation at 40 Hz Inhibits Hippocampal P2X7R/NLRP3/Caspase-1 Signaling and Improves Spatial Learning and Memory in 6-Month-Old APP/PS1 Mice.

Neuromodulation 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Clinical Medical College of Acupuncture, Moxibustion, and Rehabilitation, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Transauricular vagal nerve stimulation (taVNS) at 40 Hz attenuates hippocampal amyloid load in 6-month-old amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice, but it is unclear whether 40-Hz taVNS can improve cognition in these mice. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear.

Materials And Methods: 6-month-old C57BL/6 (wild type [WT]) and APP/PS1 mice were subjected to 40-Hz taVNS. Novel Object Recognition and the Morris Water Maze were used to evaluate cognition. Hippocampal amyloid-β (Aβ)1-40, Aβ1-42, pro-interleukin (IL)-1β, and pro-IL-18 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Hippocampal Aβ42, purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), Caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 expression were evaluated by western blotting. Histologic assessments including immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, Nissl staining, and Congo red staining were used to assess microglial phagocytosis, neuroprotective effects, and Aβ plaque load.

Results: 40-Hz taVNS improved spatial memory and learning in 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice but did not affect recognition memory. There were no effects on the cognitive behaviors of 6-month-old WT mice. taVNS at 40 Hz modulated microglia; significantly decreased levels of Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, pro-IL-1β, and pro-IL-18; inhibited Aβ42, P2X7R, NLRP3, Caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 expression; reduced Aβ deposits; and had neuroprotective effects in the hippocampus of 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice. These changes were not observed in 6-month-old WT mice.

Conclusion: Our results show that 40-Hz taVNS inhibits the hippocampal P2X7R/NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling and improves spatial learning and memory in 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurom.2022.03.011DOI Listing
May 2022

Into the Shadows and Back into Sunlight: Photosynthesis in Fluctuating Light.

Annu Rev Plant Biol 2022 May;73:617-648

Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA; email:

Photosynthesis is an important remaining opportunity for further improvement in the genetic yield potential of our major crops. Measurement, analysis, and improvement of leaf CO assimilation () have focused largely on photosynthetic rates under light-saturated steady-state conditions. However, in modern crop canopies of several leaf layers, light is rarely constant, and the majority of leaves experience marked light fluctuations throughout the day. It takes several minutes for photosynthesis to regain efficiency in both sun-shade and shade-sun transitions, costing a calculated 10-40% of potential crop CO assimilation. Transgenic manipulations to accelerate the adjustment in sun-shade transitions have already shown a substantial productivity increase in field trials. Here, we explore means to further accelerate these adjustments and minimize these losses through transgenic manipulation, gene editing, and exploitation of natural variation. Measurement andanalysis of photosynthesis in sun-shade and shade-sun transitions are explained. Factors limiting speeds of adjustment and how they could be modified to effect improved efficiency are reviewed, specifically nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), Rubisco activation, and stomatal responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-arplant-070221-024745DOI Listing
May 2022

LC-MS/MS methods for determination of unstable pivmecillinam and mecillinam in acidified human plasma: Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

J Sep Sci 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Research Division of Clinical Pharmacology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China.

Pivmecillinam, the ester of biologically active antibiotic mecillinam, is an effective oral preparation to treat urinary tract infections. To study pharmacokinetics in humans, LC-MS/MS methods were developed to quantify pivmecillinam and mecillinam in human plasma, respectively. Cephalexin as internal standards, analytes were separated on Ultimate XB-C18 columns after protein precipitation by acetonitrile. The mobile phase was composed of water containing 0.1% formic acid and methanol. The multiple reactions monitoring transitions of m/z 440.2→167.1, 326.1→167.1 and 348.1→158.1 were selected to inspect pivmecillinam, mecillinam and the internal standards in positive ion mode. No apparent matrix effect was perceived. Linearities were obtained over calibration ranges of 0.0500-12.0 and 10.0-15000 ng/mL, respectively. The intra-day precisions were below 5.5%, the inter-day precisions were below 6.1%, and accuracies got within -8.1% to 13.0%. Stability tests were conducted and an acidification step was explored to enhance the stability of pivmecillinam and mecillinam. Further stability was validated under various storage and processing conditions. Both methods were applied to a pharmacokinetic study of pivmecillinam and mecillinam after oral administration of 400 mg pivmecillinam hydrochloride tablets in healthy Chinese subjects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202200070DOI Listing
May 2022

A Fault Diagnosis System for a Pipeline Robot Based on Sound Signal Recognition.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Apr 24;22(9). Epub 2022 Apr 24.

Department of Electromechanical Convergence Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan-si 31253, Korea.

Timely and accurate identification of fault types at the early stage of minor faults is significant for cutting off fault evolution. In order to have a clear understanding of the pipeline robot's own situation in the pipeline, this paper proposes a fault diagnosis system for pipeline robots based on sound signal recognition. This can effectively reduce the probability of serious faults such as shutdown and loss of control in the pipeline without affecting the safe operation of the pipeline robot, which is a key issue to improve the reliability of the pipeline robot. The system consists of a combination of three parts: hardware, software, and algorithm. On the one hand, Raspberry Pi is the core module, while on the other hand, it is also responsible for the data transmission between the various modules, including storing the original sound signals collected by the sensors and transmitting the diagnosis results to the upper computer software interface. The proposed system is validated on the dataset collected by the data experimentation platform. The experimental results show that the proposed fault prediction method obtains advanced results on this dataset, verifying the effectiveness and stability of the proposed fault diagnosis system for pipeline robots based on sound signal recognition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22093275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9104926PMC
April 2022

Stable Gaze Tracking with Filtering Based on Internet of Things.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Apr 20;22(9). Epub 2022 Apr 20.

School of Computer and Communication Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

Gaze tracking is basic research in the era of the Internet of Things. This study attempts to improve the performance of gaze tracking in an active infrared source gaze-tracking system. Owing to unavoidable noise interference, the estimated points of regard (PORs) tend to fluctuate within a certain range. To reduce the fluctuation range and obtain more stable results, we introduced a Kalman filter (KF) to filter the gaze parameters. Considering that the effect of filtering is relevant to the motion state of the gaze, we design the measurement noise that varies with the speed of the gaze. In addition, we used a correlation filter-based tracking method to quickly locate the pupil, instead of the detection method. Experiments indicated that the variance of the estimation error decreased by 73.83%, the size of the extracted pupil image decreased by 93.75%, and the extraction speed increased by 1.84 times. We also comprehensively discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed method, which provides a reference for related research. It must be pointed out that the proposed algorithm can also be adopted in any eye camera-based gaze tracker.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22093131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9101891PMC
April 2022

Evaluation of carbon sink in the Taklimakan Desert based on correction of abnormal negative CO flux of IRGASON.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 16;838(Pt 1):155988. Epub 2022 May 16.

Xinjiang Information Engineering School, Urumqi 830002, China.

Studies showing that deserts can sequester CO through non-photosynthetic processes have contributed to locating missing carbon sinks. However, the contradiction between the desert CO flux obtained by different observation methods leads to uncertainty in evaluating desert carbon sequestration. This has caused scepticism regarding desert carbon sequestration after years of research. Through a comparative experiment in the non-vegetated shifting sand of the Taklimakan Desert (TD), it was found that if the abnormal negative CO flux observed by IRGASON during the day was not corrected, the carbon sequestration of the TD would be overestimated. The CO flux observed by EC155 is highly consistent with that of LI-COR8100A and can reflect the real CO exchange in the desert. The CO flux observed by EC155 was used to correct the results of IRGASON. Results show that the expansion/contraction of soil air containing CO caused by the change in the daily average soil temperature difference (T) drives CO exchange in shifting sand. This results in diurnal variation of CO release caused by shifting sand during the day and CO absorption at night, and a unimodal distribution of CO exchange caused by shifting sand throughout the year. From April to September (T > 2 °C), the shifting sand releases CO as a carbon source. In the other months (T < 2 °C), the shifting sand absorbs CO as a carbon sink. The stronger absorption shows that the shifting sand in the TD provides carbon sequestration, with a CO uptake rate of ~148.85 × 10 tons a. This suggests that deserts play an active role in locating the missing carbon sinks and mitigating climate change, and that the status of deserts in the global carbon cycle cannot be ignored.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155988DOI Listing
May 2022
-->