Publications by authors named "Yu Tao"

1,754 Publications

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Advanced Nanotheranostics of CRISPR/Cas for Viral Hepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Oct 19:e2102051. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Key Laboratory of Polymer Ecomaterials, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun, 130022, P. R. China.

Liver disease, particularly viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is a global healthcare burden and leads to more than 2 million deaths per year worldwide. Despite some success in diagnosis and vaccine development, there are still unmet needs to improve diagnostics and therapeutics for viral hepatitis and HCC. The emerging clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/associated proteins (CRISPR/Cas) technology may open up a unique avenue to tackle these two diseases at the genetic level in a precise manner. Especially, liver is a more accessible organ over others from the delivery point of view, and many advanced strategies applied for nanotheranostics can be adapted in CRISPR-mediated diagnostics or liver gene editing. In this review, the focus is on these two aspects of viral hepatitis and HCC applications. An overview on CRISPR editor development and current progress in clinical trials is first given, followed by highlighting the recent advances integrating the merits of gene editing and nanotheranostics. The promising systems that are used in other applications but may hold potentials in liver gene editing are also discussed. This review concludes with the perspectives on rationally designing the next-generation CRISPR approaches and improving the editing performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202102051DOI Listing
October 2021

Mechanistic Analysis of Micro-Neurocircuits Underlying the Epileptogenic Zone in Focal Cortical Dysplasia Patients.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Center of Epilepsy, Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

We aim to explore the microscopic neurophysiology of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) induced epileptogenesis in specific macroscopic brain regions, therefore mapping a micro-macro neuronal network that potentially indicates the epileptogenic mechanism. Epileptic and relatively non-epileptic temporal neocortex specimens were resected from FCD and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) patients, respectively. Whole-cell patch-clamping was performed on cells from the seizure onset zone (SOZ) and non-SOZ inside the epileptogenic zone (EZ) of FCD patients, as well as the non-epileptic neocortex of mTLE patients. Microscopic data were recorded, including membrane characteristics, spontaneous synaptic activities, and evoked action potentials. Immunohistochemistry was also performed on parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons. We found that SOZ interneurons exhibited abnormal neuronal expression and distribution as well as reduced overall function compared with non-SOZ and mTLE interneurons. The SOZ pyramidal cells experienced higher excitation but lower inhibition than the mTLE controls, whereas the non-SOZ pyramidal cells exhibited intermediate excitability. Action potential properties of both types of neurons also suggested more synchronized neuronal activity inside the EZ, particularly inside the SOZ. Together, our research provides evidence for a potential neurocircuit underlying SOZ epileptogenesis and non-SOZ seizure susceptibility. Further investigation of this microscopic network may promote understanding of the mechanism of FCD-induced epileptogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhab350DOI Listing
October 2021

Genetic Counseling and Testing in African American Patients With Breast Cancer: A Nationwide Survey of US Breast Oncologists.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Oct 18:JCO2101426. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO.

Purpose: To determine if physicians' self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding genetic counseling and testing (GCT) vary by patients' race.

Methods: We conducted a nationwide 49-item survey among breast oncology physicians in the United States. We queried respondents about their own demographics, clinical characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceived barriers in providing GCT to patients with breast cancer.

Results: Our survey included responses from 277 physicians (females, 58.8%; medical oncologists, 75.1%; academic physicians, 61.7%; and Whites, 67.1%). Only 1.8% indicated that they were more likely to refer a White patient than refer an African American patient for GCT, and 66.9% believed that African American women with breast cancer have lower rates of GCT than White women. Regarding perceived barriers to GCT, 63.4% of respondents indicated that African American women face more barriers than White women do and 21% felt that African American women require more information and guidance during the GCT decision-making process than White women. Although 32% of respondents indicated that lack of trust was a barrier to GCT in all patients, 58.1% felt that this was a greater barrier for African American women ( < .0001). Only 13.9% believed that noncompliance with GCT is a barrier for all patients, whereas 30.6% believed that African American women are more likely than White women to be noncompliant ( < .0001).

Conclusion: We demonstrated that racial differences exist in oncology physicians' perceived barriers to GCT for patients with breast cancer. This nationwide survey will serve as a basis for understanding physicians' determinants of GCT for African American women and highlights the necessity of education and interventions to address bias among physicians. Awareness of such physician biases can enable further work to address inequities, ultimately leading to improved GCT equity for African American women with breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.01426DOI Listing
October 2021

Safety, tolerability and antiviral activity of the antisense oligonucleotide bepirovirsen in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a phase 2 randomized controlled trial.

Nat Med 2021 Oct 12;27(10):1725-1734. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Ionis Pharmaceuticals Inc, Carlsbad, CA, USA.

Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) leads to an increased risk of death from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Functional cure rates are low with current treatment options (nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) and pegylated interferons). Bepirovirsen is an antisense oligonucleotide targeting all HBV messenger RNAs; in cell culture and animal models, bepirovirsen leads to reductions in HBV-derived RNAs, HBV DNA and viral proteins. This phase 2 double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial is the first evaluation of the safety and activity of an antisense oligonucleotide targeting HBV RNA in both treatment-naïve and virally suppressed individuals with chronic HBV infection. The primary objective was to assess the safety and tolerability of bepirovirsen in individuals with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (NCT02981602). The secondary objective was to assess antiviral activity, including the change from baseline to day 29 in serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) concentration. Participants with CHB infection ≥6 months and serum HBsAg ≥50 IU ml were enrolled from seven centers across Hong Kong and the Republic of Korea and randomized (3:1 within each dose cohort) to receive bepirovirsen or placebo via subcutaneous injection twice weekly during weeks 1 and 2 (days 1, 4, 8 and 11) and once weekly during weeks 3 and 4 (days 15 and 22). Participants were then followed for 26 weeks. Twenty-four participants were treatment-naïve and seven were receiving stable NA therapy. Treatment-emergent adverse events were mostly mild/moderate (most commonly injection site reactions). Eleven (61.1%) and three (50.0%) treatment-naïve participants experienced one or more treatment-emergent adverse event in the bepirovirsen and placebo groups, respectively. In participants receiving NA therapy, the corresponding numbers were three (60.0%) and one (50.0%). Transient, self-resolving alanine aminotransferase flares (≥2× upper limit of normal) were observed in eight treatment-naïve participants and three participants on stable NA regimens in the bepirovirsen treatment arms. HBsAg reductions were observed and were significant versus placebo for treatment-naïve participants receiving bepirovirsen 300 mg (P = 0.001), but not for the bepirovirsen 150 mg group (P = 0.245) or participants receiving stable NA therapy (P = 0.762). Two participants in each of the 300 mg dose groups achieved HBsAg levels below the lower limit of quantitation by day 29 (n = 3) or day 36 (n = 1). Bepirovirsen had a favorable safety profile. These preliminary observations warrant further investigation of the safety and activity of bepirovirsen in a larger CHB patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01513-4DOI Listing
October 2021

Subregional radiomics analysis for the detection of the EGFR mutation on thoracic spinal metastases from lung cancer.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

China Medical University, Shenyang, 110122, CHINA.

The present study intended to use radiomic analysis of spinal metastasis subregions to detect epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. In total, 94 patients with thoracic spinal metastasis originated from primary lung adenocarcinoma (2017 - 2020). All patients underwent T1-weighted (T1W) and T2 fat-suppressed (T2FS) MRI scans. The spinal metastases (tumor region) were subdivided into phenotypically consistent subregions based on patient- and population-level clustering: Three subregions, S1, S2 and S3, and the total tumor region. Radiomics features were extracted from each subregion and from the whole tumor region as well. Least shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression were used for feature selection and radiomics signature definition. Detection performance of S3 was better than all other regions using T1W (AUCs, S1 vs. S2 vs. S3 vs. whole tumor, 0.720 vs. 0.764 vs. 0.786 vs. 0.758) and T2FS (AUCs, S1 vs. S2 vs. S3 vs. whole tumor, 0.791 vs. 0.708 vs. 0.838 vs. 0.797) MRI. The multi-regional radiomics signature derived from the joint of inner subregion S3 from T1W and T2FS MRI achieved the best detection capabilities with AUCs of 0.879 (ACC = 0.774, SEN = 0.838, SPE = 0.840) and 0.777 (ACC = 0.688, SEN = 0.947, SPE = 0.615) in the training and test sets, respectively. Our study revealed that MRI-based radiomic analysis of spinal metastasis subregions has the potential to detect the EGFR mutation in patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ac2ea7DOI Listing
October 2021

Monitoring land degradation and assessing its drivers to support sustainable development goal 15.3 in Central Asia.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 7;807(Pt 2):150868. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China.

Land degradation has become one of the most critical environmental and socioeconomic issues in the world, particularly in Central Asia. Moreover, the realization of Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) in Central Asia faces enormous challenges in achieving the global Sustainable Development Goal 15.3 (SDG 15.3). It is critical to monitor land degradation and assess its drivers in Central Asia. In this study, an Optimal Land Degradation Index (OLDI) was established as a new index for monitoring land degradation using a constrained optimization algorithm. The spatiotemporal characteristics of LDN were monitored in Central Asia. Further analysis explored the driving force of land degradation in different areas. The results showed that 7.22% and 15.33% of the total land area exhibited land improvement and land degradation, respectively. According to abrupt change analysis, mutation changes in the OLDI were observed in 2005, 2012 and 2015. At the subnational scale, most regions in Central Asia have not achieved the goal of LDN. The residual analysis highlighted the drivers of spatial differences in land degradation performance in Central Asia. Drought was the main driving force affecting land degradation by the compound effect of decreased precipitation and increased temperature on the Ustyurt Plateau, while 24.01% of the land degradation areas resulted from anthropogenic disturbances and were mainly distributed in the areas surrounding the Aral Sea. The results also indicated that 72.56% of the land improvement areas resulted from human activities and were mainly concentrated in the Balkhash Lake Delta and the Amudarya Delta. In Central Asia, the realization of SDG 15.3 by 2030 remains a severe challenge. Restoration measures should be prioritized in land degradation areas in Central Asia to implement the LDN initiative, especially around the Aral Sea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150868DOI Listing
October 2021

Transformative neural representations support long-term episodic memory.

Sci Adv 2021 Oct 8;7(41):eabg9715. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abg9715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500506PMC
October 2021

Intra- and peritumoral radiomics on assessment of breast cancer molecular subtypes based on mammography and MRI.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Intelligent Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110122, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of digital mammography (DM), digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI separately and combined in the prediction of molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

Methods: A total of 241 patients were enrolled and underwent breast MD, DBT, DW and DCE scans. Radiomics features were calculated from intra- and peritumoral regions, and selected with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression to develop radiomics signatures (RSs). Prediction performance of intra- and peritumoral regions in the four modalities were evaluated and compared with area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), specificity and sensitivity as comparison metrics.

Results: The RSs derived from combined intra- and peritumoral regions improved prediction AUCs compared with those from intra- or peritumoral regions alone. DM plus DBT generated better AUCs than the DW plus DCE on predicting Luminal A and Luminal B in the training (Luminal A: 0.859 and 0.805; Luminal B: 0.773 and 0.747) and validation (Luminal A: 0.906 and 0.853; Luminal B: 0.807 and 0.784) cohort. For the prediction of HER2-enriched and TN, the DW plus DCE yielded better AUCs than the DM plus DBT in the training (HER2-enriched: 0.954 and 0.857; TN: 0.877 and 0.802) and validation (HER2-enriched: 0.974 and 0.907; TN: 0.938 and 0.874) cohort.

Conclusions: Peritumoral regions can provide complementary information to intratumoral regions for the prediction of molecular subtypes. Compared with MRI, the mammography showed higher AUCs for the prediction of Luminal A and B, but lower AUCs for the prediction of HER2-enriched and TN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-021-03822-0DOI Listing
October 2021

Salmonella Pullorum lacking srfA is attenuated, immunogenic and protective in chickens.

Microb Pathog 2021 Oct 5;161(Pt A):105230. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

School of Life Science and Technology, Xinxiang University, Xinxiang, China. Electronic address:

Sallmonella Pullorum is a host-restricted pathogen for poultry and causes severe economic importance in many developing countries. The development of novel vaccines for Salmonella Pullorum is necessary to eradicate the prevalence of the pathogen. In our study, a srfA deletion mutant (C79-13ΔsrfA) of Salmonella Pullorum was constructed, and then the biological characteristics and protective efficacy of the mutant were evaluated. The mutant C79-13ΔsrfA was much less virulent than its parental strain C79-13 in one-day-old HY-line white chickens, immunization with C79-13ΔsrfA (4 × 10 CFU) through oral pathway induced highly specific humoral and cellular immune responses, the growth performance of vaccinated chickens was consistent with that of unvaccinated chickens. The survival percentages of vaccinated chickens reached 90% and 80%, after challenge with Salmonella Pullorum strain C79-13 and Salmonella Gallinarum strain SG9 at 10 days post-immunization (dpi), respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that C79-13ΔsrfA is a live attenuated vaccine candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105230DOI Listing
October 2021

Malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells induced by benzo [a] pyrene suggests a negative feedback of TP53 to PPP1R13L via binding a possible enhancer element.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Nov 2;349:109683. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Dept. of Toxicology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110122, China. Electronic address:

Previous studies have shown that PPP1R13L as an inhibitor of apoptosis protease TP53 can lead to abnormal cell proliferation and carcinogenesis, however, the function of PPP1R13L was complicated and the interaction between TP53 and PPP1R13L needs to be further explored. In the present study, a malignant transformation model of human bronchial epithelial cells induced by benzo (a) pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) was established to observe the regulatory patterns between TP53 and PPP1R13L during carcinogenesis. In vitro experiments including CRISPR-Cas9 editing, RNA silence, Co-Immunoprecipitation and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation were applied to discuss their interactive effects. Additionally, TCGA data profile and our clinical samples of lung cancer were also used to analyze their relationship at the transcriptome level. Interestingly, we found that the mRNA and protein level of TP53 and PPP1R13L fluctuated as a wave in BPDE-induced malignant transformation under wild-type TP53 genetic background. Our results have also demonstrated that PPP1R13L acts as an inhibitor of TP53, while TP53 can regulate PPP1R13L via binding a possible enhancer of the first intron of PPP1R13L gene. Likewise, TCGA data and clinical samples have identified that in the case of TP53 mutation, TP53 expression was negatively correlated with PPP1R13L, while in the case of TP53 wild-type, TP53 expression was not correlated with PPP1R13L. It suggested that there existed a negative feedback of wild-type TP53 to PPP1R13L, which reminded a unique implication during chemical carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109683DOI Listing
November 2021

Nematicity Arising from a Chiral Superconducting Ground State in Magic-Angle Twisted Bilayer Graphene under In-Plane Magnetic Fields.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(12):127001

Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg, Germany.

Recent measurements of the resistivity in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene near the superconducting transition temperature show twofold anisotropy, or nematicity, when changing the direction of an in-plane magnetic field [Cao et al., Science 372, 264 (2021)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.abc2836]. This was interpreted as strong evidence for exotic nematic superconductivity instead of the widely proposed chiral superconductivity. Counterintuitively, we demonstrate that in two-dimensional chiral superconductors the in-plane magnetic field can hybridize the two chiral superconducting order parameters to induce a phase that shows nematicity in the transport response. Its paraconductivity is modulated as cos(2θ_{B}), with θ_{B} being the direction of the in-plane magnetic field, consistent with experiment in twisted bilayer graphene. We therefore suggest that the nematic response reported by Cao et al. does not rule out a chiral superconducting ground state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.127001DOI Listing
September 2021

Connective Tissue Growth Factor From Periosteal Tartrate Acid Phosphatase-Positive Monocytes Direct Skeletal Stem Cell Renewal and Fate During Bone Healing.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 14;9:730095. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The periosteum is critical for bone healing. Studies have shown that the periosteum contains periosteal stem cells (PSCs) with multidirectional differentiation potential and self-renewal ability. PSCs are activated in early fracture healing and are committed to the chondrocyte lineage, which is the basis of callus formation. However, the mechanism by which PSCs are activated and committed to chondrocytes in bone regeneration remains unclear. Here, we show that tartrate acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive monocytes secrete CTGF to activate PSCs during bone regeneration. The loss function of TRAP-positive monocytes identifies their specific role during bone healing. Then, the secreted CTGF promotes endochondral ossification and activates PSCs in mouse bone fracture models. The secreted CTGF enhances PSC renewal by upregulating the expression of multiple pluripotent genes. CTGF upregulates c-Jun expression through αVβ5 integrin. Then, c-Jun transcription activates the transcription of the pluripotent genes , , and . Simultaneously, CTGF also activates the transcription and phosphorylation of Smad3 through αVβ5 integrin, which is the central gene in chondrogenesis. Our study indicates that TRAP-positive monocyte-derived CTGF promotes bone healing by activating PSCs and directing lineage commitment and that targeting PSCs may be an effective strategy for preventing bone non-union.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.730095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8476870PMC
September 2021

The association of lipid ratios with hyperuricemia in a rural Chinese hypertensive population.

Lipids Health Dis 2021 Sep 29;20(1):121. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Background: Current studies support lipid ratios [the total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio; the triglyceride (TG)/HDL-C ratio; the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL -C)/HDL-C ratio; and non-HDL-C] as reliable indicators of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes. However, whether lipid ratios could serve as markers for hyperuricemia (HUA) remains unclear due to limited research. This study aimed to explore the association between lipid ratios and HUA in hypertensive patients.

Methods: The data from 14,227 Chinese hypertensive individuals in the study were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis and smooth curve fitting models examined the relationship between lipid ratios and HUA.

Results: The results showed positive associations between the lipid ratios and HUA (all P < 0.001). Furthermore, lipid ratios were converted from continuous variables to tertiles. Compared to the lowest tertile, the fully adjusted ORs (95 % CI) of the TC/HDL-C ratio, the TG/HDL-C ratio, the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and non-HDL-C in the highest tertile were 1.79 (1.62, 1.99), 2.09 (1.88, 2.32), 1.67 (1.51, 1.86), and 1.93 (1.74, 2.13), respectively (all P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The study suggested that high lipid ratios (TC/HDL-C ratio, TG/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and non-HDL-C) are associated with HUA in a Chinese hypertensive population. This study's findings further expand the scope of the application of lipid ratios. These novel and essential results suggest that lipid ratio profiles might be potential and valuable markers for HUA.

Trial Registration: No. ChiCTR1800017274. Registered July 20, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-021-01556-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8482679PMC
September 2021

Enzyme-induced morphological transformation of drug carriers: Implications for cytotoxicity and the retention time of antitumor agents.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Oct 25;129:112389. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

School of Bioscience and Technology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053, China. Electronic address:

Nanocarriers have been widely employed to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment. However, the insufficient accumulation of nanoparticles in tumors is an important reason for the poor efficacy of nanodrugs. In this study, a novel drug delivery system with a self-assembled amphiphilic peptide was designed to respond specifically to alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a protease overexpressed in cancer cells. The amphiphilic peptide self-assembled into spherical and fibrous nanostructures, and it easily assembled into spherical drug-loaded peptide nanoparticles after loading of a hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drug. The cytotoxicity of the drug carriers was enhanced against tumor cells over time. These spherical nanoparticles transformed into nanofibers under the induction of ALP, leading to efficient release of the encapsulated drug. This drug delivery strategy relying on responsiveness to an enzyme present in the tumor microenvironment can enhance local drug accumulation at the tumor site. The results of live animal imaging showed that the residence time of the morphologically transformable drug-loaded peptide nanoparticles at the tumor site was prolonged in vivo, confirming their potential use in antitumor therapy. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of the influence of drug carrier morphology on intracellular retention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112389DOI Listing
October 2021

Morphological, Physiological and Photophysiological Responses of Critically Endangered to Acid Stress.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Sep 19;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Forest Resources and Ecosystem Processes, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

Acid rain deposition (AR) has long-lasting implications for the community stability and biodiversity conservation in southwest China. is a critically endangered species in the rain zone of Western China where AR occurs frequently. To understand the effects of AR on the morphology and physiology of , we conducted an acid stress simulation experiment for 1.5 years. The morphological, physiological, and photosynthetic responses of to the acidity, composition, and deposition pattern of acid stress was observed. The results showed that simulated acid stress can promote the growth of via the soil application mode. The growth improvement of under nitric-balanced acid rain via the soil application mode was greater than that of sulfuric-dominated acid rain via the soil application mode. On the contrary, the growth of was significantly inhibited by acid stress and the inhibition increased with the acidity of acid stress applied via leaf spraying. The inhibitory impacts of nitric-balanced acid rain via the leaf spraying of were greater than that of sulfur-dominant acid rain via leaf spraying. The observations presented in this work can be utilized for considering potential population restoration plans for , as well as the forests in southwest China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10091958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470873PMC
September 2021

Effect of Microcapsules with Waterborne Coating as Core Material on Properties of Coating for Tilia Europaea and Comparison with Other Microcapsules.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Sep 18;13(18). Epub 2021 Sep 18.

College of Furnishings and Industrial Design, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.

Urea formaldehyde was used as wall material and waterborne coatings as a core material to prepare microcapsules. So as to explore the influence of mass ratio of core to shell, reaction temperature and standing time on the performance of microcapsules, the orthogonal test of three factors and two levels was put into effect. The orthogonal experimental results showed the mass ratio of core to shell was the most important factor. With the increase of the mass ratio of core to shell, the output and clad ratio of microcapsules increased first and then decreased. The microcapsule with the mass ratio of core to shell of 0.67:1 had better appearance, output, and encapsulation performance. The optical properties of waterborne wood coating with the microcapsules of waterborne coating as core materials did not decrease significantly, while the hardness, impact resistance, and toughness were improved. At the same time, the microcapsules have a certain self-repairing effect on coating micro-cracks. Compared with the properties of waterborne coatings with other microcapsules, the coating with waterborne coating as core material has better comprehensive performance. The results provide a new research idea for the performance enhancement and self-healing of wood waterborne coating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13183167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473182PMC
September 2021

Radiomic Evaluations of the Diagnostic Performance of DM, DBT, DCE MRI, DWI, and Their Combination for the Diagnosisof Breast Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 10;11:725922. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Fundamental Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate digital mammography (DM), digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE), and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI, individually and combined, for the values in the diagnosis of breast cancer, and propose a visualized clinical-radiomics nomogram for potential clinical uses.

Methods: A total of 120 patients were enrolled between September 2017 and July 2018, all underwent preoperative DM, DBT, DCE, and DWI scans. Radiomics features were extracted and selected using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression. A radiomics nomogram was constructed integrating the radiomics signature and important clinical predictors, and assessed with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, calibration curve, and decision curve analysis (DCA).

Results: The radiomics signature derived from DBT plus DM generated a lower area under the ROC curve (AUC) and sensitivity, but a higher specificity compared with that from DCE plus DWI. The nomogram integrating the combined radiomics signature, age, and menstruation status achieved the best diagnostic performance in the training (AUCs, nomogram combined radiomics signature clinical model, 0.975  0.964  0.782) and validation (AUCs, nomogram combined radiomics signature clinical model, 0.983  0.978  0.680) cohorts. DCA confirmed the potential clinical usefulness of the nomogram.

Conclusions: The DBT plus DM provided a lower AUC and sensitivity, but a higher specificity than DCE plus DWI for detecting breast cancer. The proposed clinical-radiomics nomogram has diagnostic advantages over each modality, and can be considered as an efficient tool for breast cancer screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.725922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8461299PMC
September 2021

Pediatric ocular trauma with pars plana vitrectomy in Southwest of China: clinical characteristics and outcomes.

Int J Ophthalmol 2021 18;14(9):1321-1326. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Southwest Hospital/Southwest Eye Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing 400038, China.

Aim: To investigate the clinical characteristics and predictive factors of pediatric ocular trauma patients with vitrectomy.

Methods: Pediatric ocular trauma patients (aged 14y or younger) who received vitrectomy in Southwest Hospital between January 2007 and December 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Age, gender, mechanism of injury, final visual acuity (VA), and prognostic factors were analyzed.

Results: A total of 139 eyes in 139 pediatric patients were included in the study. The mean age was 7.4±3.7 years old and the male-to-female ratio was 5:1. There were 104 (74.8%) open globe injuries and 35 (25.2%) closed globe injuries. The top one traumatic eye injuries were penetrating injuries occur through sharp metal objects (43.9%). After vitrectomy, 116 patients had favorable anatomic outcome at the last follow-up, and 30 eyes (21.6%) achieved VA of 20/200 or better. Following univariate analysis, we found zone III injuries (=0.021), poor initial VA (=0.005), endophthalmitis (=0.024), and recurrent retinal detachment (<0.001) were poor prognostic factors for pediatric ocular trauma. After Logistic regression analysis, the poor initial VA (odds ratio: 8.276, 95%CI: 1.597-42.897, =0.012) and recurrent retinal detachment (odds ratio: 6.455, 95%CI: 2.372-17.562, <0.001) were significantly correlated with unfavorable vision outcome in pediatric ocular trauma.

Conclusion: The treatment of vitrectomy for severe ocular trauma results in favorable anatomic outcomes, but VA improvement is not as good as anatomic outcomes. Initial VA and recurrent retinal detachment are the independent prognostic indicators for unfavorable visual outcome of severe pediatric ocular trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2021.09.05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403860PMC
September 2021

Hydrated electrons mediated in-situ construction of cubic phase CdS/Cd thin layer on a millimeter-scale support for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 8;607(Pt 1):769-781. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

TJU-NIMS International Collaboration Laboratory, Tianjin University, No. 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072, People's Republic of China; International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan.

In this study, non-noble metal Cd decorated cubic phase CdS (CdS/Cd) thin layer on a millimeter-scale chitosan-Mg(OH) xerogel beads (CMB) were elaborately designed and successfully synthesized via facile hydrated electrons (e) assistant strategy. The in-situ formation of metallic Cd was driven by e generated from UV/NaSO process. Owing to metallic Cd, [email protected]/Cd exhibited better visible-light absorption ability and more efficient separation capability for photo-induced carriers, its hydrogen production efficiency was about threefold improved compared to [email protected] Both characterization methods and density functional theory calculations determined a built-in electric field from metallic Cd to CdS and Ohmic-contact between Cd and CdS, which largely promoted the carriers transfer efficiency. Moreover, the introduction of metallic Cd on the CdS could reduce the ΔG, thus greatly boosting the photocatalytic hydrogen production efficiency. This work provides a simple and green approach to construct metallic Cd coupled semiconductor to achieve efficient photocatalytic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.09.039DOI Listing
September 2021

A unique microbiome in a highly polluted and alkalic lake in a seasonally frozen area.

Environ Res 2021 Sep 14;204(Pt B):112056. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090, China; Institute of Advanced Technology, Heilongjiang Academy of Sciences, Harbin, 150028, China. Electronic address:

Highly polluted waters profoundly promoted microbial activities and vice versa. Although microbial community structures and bioprocesses in polluted environments have been fully investigated, they are rarely uncovered in abandoned and highly polluted aquatic environment, especially in a seasonally frozen area. East Lake had been polluted by surrounding paper mills and dairy plants from the 1960s to the early 2000s. Under low biodegradability (BOD/COD ratio<0.2) and alkalic (pH > 9) conditions, a unique microbiome was discovered in East lake. Proteobacteria was the largest taxonomic group in the microbial community, covering almost half of the top-100 genera. Among them, seven genera are sulfate-reducing bacteria, including Desulfuromusa, Desulfuromonas, Desulfobulbus, Desulfocapsa, Desulfurivibrio, Desulfatiglans, and Desulfomicrobium. Functional analysis revealed abundant predicted functional genes for the respiration of sulfur compounds and sulfate respiration. Great vertical variations were found to both microbial community structures and predicted functions. This work provides unique evidence for future microbiome studies of nutrient-rich, alkalic, and seasonally frozen water habitats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.112056DOI Listing
September 2021

Robust and Accurate 3D Self-portraits in Seconds.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Sep 16;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

In this paper, we propose an efficient method for robust and accurate 3D self-portraits using a single RGBD camera. Our method can generate detailed and realistic 3D self-portraits in seconds and shows the ability to handle subjects wearing extremely loose clothes. To achieve highly efficient and robust reconstruction, we propose PIFusion, which combines learning-based 3D recovery with volumetric non-rigid fusion to generate accurate sparse partial scans of the subject. Meanwhile, a non-rigid volumetric deformation method is proposed to continuously refine the learned shape prior. Moreover, a lightweight bundle adjustment algorithm is proposed to guarantee that all the partial scans can not only loop with each other but also remain consistent with the selected live key observations. Finally, to further generate realistic portraits, we propose non-rigid texture optimization to improve the texture quality. Additionally, we also contribute a benchmark for single-view 3D self-portrait reconstruction, an evaluation dataset that contains 10single-view RGBD sequences of a self-rotated performer wearing various clothes and the corresponding ground-truth 3D models in the first frame of each sequence. The results and experiments based on this dataset show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art methods on accuracy, efficiency, and generality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3113164DOI Listing
September 2021

Altered topological properties of brain functional networks in drug-resistant epilepsy patients with vagus nerve stimulators.

Seizure 2021 Sep 7;92:149-154. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.45 Changchun Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100053, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To explore abnormalities of topological properties in drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) patients after vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) by analyzing brain functional networks using graph theory.

Methods: Fifteen patients and eight healthy controls (HC) were scanned separately with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Graph theoretical analyses were chosen to compare the global (small-world parameters [γ, λ, σ, Cp, and Lp], and network efficiency [Eg and Eloc]), and nodal (BC, DC, and NE) properties in preoperative patients (EPpre), postoperative patients (EPpost) and HC.

Results: HC, EPpre and EPpost all satisfied the criteria for small-world properties (σ > 1) within the sparsity range of 0.05-0.5. Compared with EPpre, EPpost performed higher in λ and Eloc but lower in γ, σ, and Cp. Compared with HC, EPpre exhibited decreased BC, DC or NE in the right inferior frontal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right supplementary motor area, right superior occipital gyrus, right Heschl gyrus, and left calcarine fissure; increased BC in the left postcentral/precentral gyrus, right paracentral lobule, left rolandic operculum, and left supramarginal gyrus, and increased NE in the right caudate nucleus. Compared with EPpre, EPpost showed increased BC, DC or NE in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right superior temporal gyrus, and right Heschl gyrus and decreased BC in the left fusiform gyrus.

Conclusion: VNS downregulated small-world properties in DRE, and caused changes in some key nodes to reorganize the transmission ability of the large-scale network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2021.09.001DOI Listing
September 2021

Sepsis induces muscle atrophy by inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis via PLK1-AKT signalling.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Oct 12;25(20):9724-9739. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Sepsis and sepsis-induced skeletal muscle atrophy are common in patients in intensive care units with high mortality, while the mechanisms are controversial and complicated. In the present study, the atrophy of skeletal muscle was evaluated in sepsis mouse model as well as the apoptosis of muscle fibres. Sepsis induced atrophy of skeletal muscle and apoptosis of myofibres in vivo and in vitro. In cell-based in vitro experiments, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation also inhibited the proliferation of myoblasts. At the molecular level, the expression of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) was decreased. Overexpression of PLK1 partly rescued LPS-induced apoptosis, proliferation suppression and atrophy in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, inhibiting the AKT pathway deteriorated LPS-induced atrophy in PLK1-overexpressing C2C12 myotubes. PLK1 was found to participate in regulating apoptosis and E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in C2C12 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that sepsis induces skeletal muscle atrophy by promoting apoptosis of muscle fibres and inhibiting proliferation of myoblasts via regulation of the PLK1-AKT pathway. These findings enhance understanding of the mechanism of sepsis-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8505846PMC
October 2021

5'-tiRNA-Cys-GCA regulates VSMC proliferation and phenotypic transition by targeting STAT4 in aortic dissection.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Dec 29;26:295-306. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Cardiac Ultrasound, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No. 16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266000, People's Republic of China.

Accumulating evidence shows that tRNA-derived fragments are a novel class of functional small non-coding RNA; however, their roles in aortic dissection (AD) are still unknown. In this study, we found that 5'-tiRNA-Cys-GCA was significantly downregulated in human and mouse models of aortic dissection. The abnormal proliferation, migration, and phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) played a crucial role in the initiation and progression of aortic dissection, with 5'-tiRNA-Cys-GCA as a potential phenotypic switching regulator, because its overexpression inhibited the proliferation and migration of VSMCs and increased the expression of contractile markers. In addition, we verified that signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) was a direct downstream target of 5'-tiRNA-Cys-GCA. We found that the STAT4 upregulation in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-treated VSMCs, which promoted cell proliferation, migration, and phenotypic transformation, was reversed by 5'-tiRNA-Cys-GCA. Furthermore, 5'-tiRNA-Cys-GCA treatment reduced the incidence and prevented the malignant process of angiotensin II- and β-aminopropionitrile-induced AD in mice. In conclusion, our findings reveal that 5'-tiRNA-Cys-GCA is a potential regulator of the AD pathological process via the STAT4 signaling pathway, providing a novel clinical target for the development of future treatment strategies for aortic dissection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.07.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413832PMC
December 2021

Targeting non-coding RNAs in unstable atherosclerotic plaques: Mechanism, regulation, possibilities, and limitations.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 3;17(13):3413-3427. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Institute for translational medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No. 38 Dengzhou Road, 266021, People's Republic of China.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) caused by arteriosclerosis are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In the late stages of atherosclerosis, the atherosclerotic plaque gradually expands in the blood vessels, resulting in vascular stenosis. When the unstable plaque ruptures and falls off, it blocks the vessel causing vascular thrombosis, leading to strokes, myocardial infarctions, and a series of other serious diseases that endanger people's lives. Therefore, regulating plaque stability is the main means used to address the high mortality associated with CVDs. The progression of the atherosclerotic plaque is a complex integration of vascular cell apoptosis, lipid metabolism disorders, inflammatory cell infiltration, vascular smooth muscle cell migration, and neovascular infiltration. More recently, emerging evidence has demonstrated that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play a significant role in regulating the pathophysiological process of atherosclerotic plaque formation by affecting the biological functions of the vasculature and its associated cells. The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively review the regulatory mechanisms involved in the susceptibility of atherosclerotic plaque rupture, discuss the limitations of current approaches to treat plaque instability, and highlight the potential clinical value of ncRNAs as novel diagnostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic strategies to improve plaque stability and reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.62506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416736PMC
August 2021

Metabolomic analysis reveals potential biomarkers and serum metabolomic profiling in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage patients using UPLC/quadrupole time-of-flight MS.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Sep 10:e5241. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Heilongjiang Provincial Hospital, Harbin, China.

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10-20% of all strokes and contributes to higher mortalities and severe disabilities. The aims of this study were, therefore, to characterize novel biomarkers, metabolic disruptions, and mechanisms involving ICH. A total 30 ICH patients and 30 controls were enrolled in the study, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. Nontargeted metabolomic analysis was conducted using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF). Multivariate statistical analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used for screening and evaluating the predictive ability of biomarkers. ICH patients showed significantly higher systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose levels, white blood cell counts, neutrophil count, percentage of neutrophils and globulin and a lower albumin/globin ratio when compared with controls. In sum, 11 important metabolites were identified, which were associated with disruption of fatty acid oxidation and sphingolipid and phospholipid metabolism, as well as increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular pathologies. Further multiple logistic regression analyses of these metabolites showed that l-carnitine and phosphatidylcholine (20:3/22:6) have potential as biomarkers of ICH, and the area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity were 0.974, 90%, and 93%, respectively. These findings provide insights into the pathogenesis, early prevention, and diagnosis of ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5241DOI Listing
September 2021

Recovery of cortical atrophy in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy after successful anterior temporal lobectomy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 10 6;123:108272. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, PR China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Brain Informatics, Beijing 100053, PR China. Electronic address:

The aims of this study were to investigate whether the cortical atrophy caused by temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was reversible after successful anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and to further observe whether possible changes are related to age at surgery and cognitive changes. Twelve patients with unilateral mesial TLE who received ATL and remained seizure free in one year follow-up were included. They underwent two MRI scans few days before and oneyear after surgery. Thirty age- and sex-matched healthy participants were recruited as controls. Group comparisons were used to test the differences in cortical thickness (CTh) between the pre-/postsurgical patients and controls. Longitudinal test was used to directly show postsurgical changes of the patients. Besides, the correlations between regional cortical volume (CVo) changes and age at surgery or cognitive changes were also tested. Compared with controls, the patients with TLE showed dispersed cortical thinning especially in the bilateral frontal lobes before surgery and no significant cortical thinning except for cortices near the resected areas after surgery. The longitudinal analysis showed CTh increment in the ipsilateral precentral and postcentral gyrus, cuneus and widespread in the contralateral cortex. In the volumetric analysis, the CVo changes in the contralateral hemisphere were negatively correlated with age at surgery and positively correlated with MoCA score changes. This study suggests that the cortical atrophy caused by TLE could recover after successful ATL. The recovery ability is greater in younger subjects and is positively related to cognitive recovery. These findings could serve as new clues that patients with TLE can benefit from timely and successful ATL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108272DOI Listing
October 2021

Grey and white matter microstructure changes in epilepsy patients with vagus nerve stimulators.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Oct 28;209:106918. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 45 Changchun Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100053, China.

Objectives: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been widely used as an effective treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). However, little is known about grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) microstructure changes caused by VNS. This study aimed to detect consistent GM and WM alterations in epilepsy patients with vagus nerve stimulators.

Methods: The diffusion tensor imaging data was acquired from 15 patients who underwent VNS implantation. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used to detect group differences in GM and WM microstructure and explore their correlation with postoperative seizure reduction.

Results: After 3 months of stimulation, GM density reduced in right cerebellum, left superior temporal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus and left thalamus, and increased in left cerebellum, left inferior parietal lobule, left middle occipital gyrus and left gyrus rectus. No significant volume changes had been found in 14 subcortical nuclei. The fractional anisotropy (FA) values reduced in left superior longitudinal fasciculus and left corticospinal tract, and increased in bilateral cingulum and body of corpus callosum. The mean diffusivity (MD) values reduced in right retrolenticular part of internal capsule, right posterior corona radiata and right superior longitudinal fasciculus. The seizure reduction had positive correlation trends with the volume reduction in left nucleus accumbens and right amygdala, and MD reduction in right medial lemniscus and right posterior corona radiata.

Conclusions: The results showed that VNS could cause changes of GM density, WM FA and MD values in epilepsy patients. The volume and MD reduction in some subcortical structures might participate in the seizure frequency reduction of VNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2021.106918DOI Listing
October 2021

Electrical Switching of Optical Gain in Perovskite Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

Nano Lett 2021 Sep 7;21(18):7831-7838. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China.

Perovskite semiconductor nanocrystals are promising for optical amplification and laser applications benefiting from efficient optical gain generation. Nevertheless, the pump threshold is limited by more than one exciton per nanocrystal required to generate population inversion in neutral nanocrystals due to the level degeneracy. Here, we show that by charging nanocrystals with current injection, the level degeneracy can be lifted to generate charged exciton gain with markedly low excitation density. On the basis of the scenario, we have demonstrated electrical switching of amplified spontaneous emission in films of CsPbBr nanocrystals sandwiched by two electrodes with over 50% threshold reduction owing to charged excitons. Our work provides an effective approach to electrically modulated optical gain in colloidal perovskite nanocrystals for potential applications in advanced laser and information technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02880DOI Listing
September 2021

The regulatory roles of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase in cardiovascular disease.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Sep 24;25:372-387. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Cardiac Ultrasound, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No. 16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266000, People's Republic of China.

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are widely found in organisms, which can activate amino acids and make them bind to tRNA through ester bond to form the corresponding aminoyl-tRNA. The classic function of ARS is to provide raw materials for protein biosynthesis. Recently, emerging evidence demonstrates that ARSs play critical roles in controlling inflammation, immune responses, and tumorigenesis as well as other important physiological and pathological processes. With the recent development of genome and exon sequencing technology, as well as the discovery of new clinical cases, ARSs have been reported to be closely associated with a variety of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), particularly angiogenesis and cardiomyopathy. Intriguingly, aminoacylation was newly identified and reported to modify substrate proteins, thereby regulating protein activity and functions. Sensing the availability of intracellular amino acids is closely related to the regulation of a variety of cell physiology. In this review, we summarize the research progress on the mechanism of CVDs caused by abnormal ARS function and introduce the clinical phenotypes and characteristics of CVDs related to ARS dysfunction. We also highlight the potential roles of aminoacylation in CVDs. Finally, we discuss some of the limitations and challenges of present research. The current findings suggest the significant roles of ARSs involved in the progress of CVDs, which present the potential clinical values as novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets in CVD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399643PMC
September 2021
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