Publications by authors named "Yu Song"

1,062 Publications

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Increasing importance of ammonia emission abatement in PM pollution control.

Sci Bull (Beijing) 2022 Jul 19. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, National Observation and Research Station of Agriculture Green Development (Quzhou, Hebei), China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scib.2022.07.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353663PMC
July 2022

Clinical impact and mechanisms in hepatitis B virus infection concurrent with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2022 Aug 1. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, China.

Abstract: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection is an important threat to global health despite the administration of vaccines and the use of antiviral treatments. In recent years, as the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome has increased, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with CHB has become more common. Both diseases can lead to liver fibrosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma, but the risk of dual etiology, outcome, and CHB combined with NAFLD is not fully clear. In this review, we assess the overlapping prevalence of NAFLD and CHB, summarize recent studies of clinical and basic research related to potential interactions, and evaluate the progressive changes and treatments for CHB patients with NAFLD. This study increases the understanding of the relationship and mechanisms of interaction between steatosis and hepatitis B virus infection, and it provides new strategies for the future clinical management and treatment of CHB combined with NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000002310DOI Listing
August 2022

Arabidopsis mitochondrial SSB1 and SSB2 are essential regulators of mtDNA replication and homologous recombination.

J Integr Plant Biol 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Faithful DNA replication is one of the most essential processes in almost all living organisms. However, the proteins responsible for organellar DNA replication are still largely unknown in plants. Here, we show that the two mitochondrion-targeted single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) proteins SSB1 and SSB2 directly interact with each other and act as key factors for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance, as their single or double loss-of-function mutants exhibit severe germination delay and growth retardation. The mtDNA levels in mutants lacking SSB1 and/or SSB2 function were 2- to 4-fold higher than in the WT, revealing a negative role for SSB1/2 in regulating mtDNA replication. Genetic analysis indicated that SSB1 functions upstream of mitochondrial DNA POLYMERASE IA (POLIA) or POLIB in mtDNA replication, as mutation in either gene restored the high mtDNA copy number of the ssb1-1 mutant back to WT levels. In addition, SSB1 and SSB2 also participate in mitochondrial genome maintenance by influencing mtDNA homologous recombination (HR). Additional genetic analysis suggested that SSB1 functions upstream of ORGANELLAR SINGLE-STRANDED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (OSB1) during mtDNA replication, while SSB1 may act downstream of OSB1 and MUTS HOMOLOG1 (MSH1) for mtDNA HR. Overall, our results yield new insights into the roles of the plant mitochondrion-targeted SSB proteins and OSB1 in maintaining mtDNA stability via affecting DNA replication and DNA HR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jipb.13338DOI Listing
August 2022

Silk sericin-based materials for biomedical applications.

Biomaterials 2022 Jun 17;287:121638. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Research Center for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China; Department of Clinical Laboratory, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China. Electronic address:

Silk sericin, a natural protein extracted from silkworm cocoons, has been extensively studied and utilized in the biomedical field because of its superior biological activities and controllable chemical-physical properties. Sericin is biocompatible and naturally cell adhesive, enabling cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation in sericin-based materials. Moreover, its abundant functional groups from variable amino acids composition allow sericin to be chemically modified and cross-linked to form versatile constructs serving as alternative matrixes for biomedical applications. Recently, sericin has been constructed into various types of biomaterials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, including various bulk constructions (films, hydrogels, scaffolds, conduits, and devices) and micro-nano formulations. In this review, we systemically summarize the properties of silk sericin, introduce its different forms, and demonstrate their newly-developed as well as potential biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2022.121638DOI Listing
June 2022

N-cadherin mimetic hydrogel enhances MSC chondrogenesis through cell metabolism.

Acta Biomater 2022 Jul 30. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Department of Orthopaedics, Tongji Medical College, Union Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China. Electronic address:

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine because of their proliferative capacity and differentiation potential. However, the hypertrophic phenotype occurring in late MSCs chondrogenic differentiation severely limits their clinical translation. While hypertrophy inhibition strategies have been explored, the role of cell metabolism in MSCs chondrogenesis has rarely been studied. In this study, we found that hypertrophy occurred in the late stage of MSCs chondrogenesis with increased fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and decreased glycolysis, as well as cell-cell junctions impairment. Therefore, a N-cadherin mimetic hydrogel was developed to enhance cell-cell junctions via N-cadherin mimetic peptides and high seeding density. The N-cadherin mimetic hydrogel attenuated hypertrophy through regulating glycolysis and FAO. The regulation of cell-cell junctions mechanotransduction on cell metabolism was partly mediated by Hif-1α. In addition, 2D and 3D culture of N-cadherin mimetic hydrogel had similar functions on N-cadherin expression and chondrogenesis in MSCs. Our study is the first to reveal that metabolic remodeling induced hypertrophy during MSCs chondrogenesis, and indicate the effect of N-cadherin mimetic hydrogel on hypertrophy inhibition of MSCs. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The development of hypertrophy during MSCs chondrogenesis severely limits its clinical translation. Various strategies have been explored to inhibit hypertrophy by chemical and/or mechanical stimulation. However, the role of cell metabolism in MSCs chondrogenesis has rarely been studied. In this study, we developed an RNA sequencing at day 0, 7, and 21 of MSCs chondrogenesis to clarify the mechanisms that mediate hypertrophy. We found that hypertrophy occurred in the late stage of MSCs chondrogenesis with increased FAO and decreased glycolysis, as well as impaired cell-cell junctions. We also found that N-cadherin mimetic hydrogel attenuated hypertrophy and enhanced chondrogenesis through regulating glycolysis and FAO. Our finding provides new insights into the application of MSCs in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2022.07.050DOI Listing
July 2022

Convergent functional changes of the episodic memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment: An ALE meta-analysis.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 15;14:919859. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Institute of Brain Functional Imaging, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to be an intermediate stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The earliest and most common symptom of MCI is impaired episodic memory. When episodic memory is impaired in MCI patients, specific functional changes occur in related brain areas. However, there is currently a lack of a unified conclusion on this change. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis is to find MRI-specific functional changes in episodic memory in MCI patients.

Methods: Based on three commonly used indicators of brain function: functional connectivity (FC), the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation /fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF/fALFF), and regional homogeneity (ReHo), we systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science and Ovid related literature and conducted the strict screening. Then we use the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) algorithm to perform the coordinate-based meta-analysis.

Results: Through strict screening, this meta-analysis finally included 21 related functional neuroimaging research articles. The final result displays that functional changes of episodic memory in MCI patients are mainly located in the parahippocampal gyrus, precuneus, posterior cingulate gyrus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and thalamus.

Conclusions: There are specific functional changes in episodic memory brain regions in MCI patients, and the brain functional network can regulate episodic memory through these brain regions. And these specific changes can assist in the early diagnosis of MCI, providing new ideas and directions for early identification and intervention in the process of MCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.919859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9335195PMC
July 2022

A review of the effects of estrogen and epithelial-mesenchymal transformation on intrauterine adhesion and endometriosis.

Transpl Immunol 2022 Jul 28:101679. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Institute of Reproductive Health, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China. Electronic address:

Uterus transplantation has become an option for women suffering from some form of infertility. Current review discusses key physiological functions of the endometrium requiring the transition of tissue cells between the mesenchyme and epithelial cell phenotype, a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Estrogen and EMT play a key role in the pathogenesis and treatment of intrauterine adhesion and endometriosis. There is also a close regulatory relationship between estrogen and EMT, and investigation of this relationship is of great significance for the treatment of endometrial disorders. The present review discusses the effects of estrogen on endometrial dysfunction, with a focus on the relationship between estrogen and EMT in endometrial disorders, taking into consideration the mechanisms by which receptors that regulate their functions and proteins that regulate their local biological functions interact with the factors involved in EMT. In addition, the review summarizes emerging drugs targeting receptors or proteins and provides information on the direction of new therapies for endometrial disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2022.101679DOI Listing
July 2022

RNA-Seq Analysis Demonstrates Different Strategies Employed by Tiger Nuts ( L.) in Response to Drought Stress.

Life (Basel) 2022 Jul 14;12(7). Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Legume Crop Laboratory, Agriculture College, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319, China.

Drought stress, an important abiotic stress, has affected global agricultural production by limiting the yield and the quality of crops. Tiger nuts ( L.) are C4 crops in the Cyperaceae family, which have high-quality wholesome ingredients. However, data on mechanisms underlying the response of tiger nuts to drought stress are few. Here, the variety of Jisha 1 and 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG; a drought stress simulator) were used to study the mechanisms of stress response in tiger nuts. Our evaluation of the changes in physiological indicators such as electrolyte leakage (El), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (HO), superoxide anion (O) and activities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed that 12 h was the most suitable time point to harvest and analyze the response to drought stress. Thereafter, we performed transcriptome (RNA-Seq) analysis in the control (CK) and stress treatment groups and showed that there was a total of 1760 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that the DEGs were enriched in abscisic acid (ABA) terms, and pathways such as starch and sucrose metabolism (ko00500), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (ko00940) and plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075) were significantly enriched in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of the DEGs demonstrated an upregulation of ABA and lignin content, as well as enzyme activities in enriched pathways, which validated the RNA-Seq data. These results revealed the pathways and mechanisms adopted by the tiger nuts in response to drought stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life12071051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9322875PMC
July 2022

Aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation attributed to phenols from biomass burning.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 23;847:157582. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, International Joint Laboratory for Regional Pollution Control, Ministry of Education (IJRC), College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Biomass burning emits large quantities of phenols, which readily partition into the atmospheric aqueous phase and subsequently may react to produce aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA). For the first time, we quantitatively explored the influence of phenols emitted from biomass burning on aqSOA formation in the winter of Beijing. A typical haze episode associated with significant aqSOA formation was captured. During this episode, aqueous-phase processing of biomass burning promoted aqSOA formation was identified. Furthermore, high-resolution mass spectrum analysis provided molecular-level evidence of the phenolic aqSOA tracers. Estimation of aqSOA formation rate (R) with compiled laboratory kinetic data indicated that biomass-burning phenols can efficiently produce aqSOA at midday, with R of 0.42 μg m h accounting for 15 % of total aqSOA formation rate. The results highlight that aqSOA formation of phenols contributes the haze pollution. This implies the importance of regional joint control of biomass burning to mitigate the heavy haze.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157582DOI Listing
July 2022

Antibiotics-induced disruption of gut microbiota increases systemic exposure of clopidogrel active metabolite in type 2 diabetic rats.

Drug Metab Dispos 2022 Jul 20. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

School of Life Sciences, Jilin university china, China

Gut microbiota play an important role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) and biodisposition of drugs. Our previous study demonstrated that T2DM rats had the decreased plasma exposure of clopidogrel active metabolite (Clop-AM) due to upregulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). However, whether the change to clopidogrel (Clop) disposition under T2DM condition is associated with gut microbiota needs to be elucidated. In the study, we used an antibiotic cocktail consisting of ampicillin, vancomycin, metronidazole, and neomycin to disrupt gut microbiota and observed their influence on pharmacokinetic profiles of Clop-AM. Antibiotic administration markedly alleviated T2DM rats' phenotype including hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and liver dysfunction. Meanwhile, treatment with antibiotics significantly reversed the reduced systemic exposure of Clop-AM in T2DM rats relative to control rats, which was associated with the decreased intestinal P-gp level that might promote Clop absorption, resulting in more Clop transformation to Clop-AM. Fecal microbiome analysis exhibited a serious disruption of gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment with the sharply reduced microbial load and the altered microbial composition. Interestingly, an study showed that antibiotics had no influence on P-gp mRNA leve in SW480 cells, suggesting the microbiome disruption, not the direct role of antibiotics on P-gp expression, contributes to the altered P-gp level and Clop disposition in T2DM rats. The findings add new insights into the potential impact of gut microbiota on Clop biodisposition. 1.Antibiotics increase systemic exposure of Clop-AM in T2DM rats, which is associated with the downregulation of P-gp level.2.Antibiotics-induced disruption of gut microbiota, not direct effect of antibiotics on P-gp and CYPs expression, contributes to the altered Clop disposition.3.Antibiotics also alleviate T2DM phenotype including hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, liver dysfunction and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.122.000906DOI Listing
July 2022

Utilization of T1-Mapping for the pelvic and thigh muscles in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a quantitative biomarker for disease involvement and correlation with clinical assessments.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 Jul 16;23(1):681. Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Department of Medical Imaging center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Minde Road No. 1, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi Province, China.

Background: Little is known about the disease distribution and severity detected by T1-mapping in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Furthermore, the correlation between skeletal muscle T1-values and clinical assessments is less studied. Hence, the purposes of our study are to investigate quantitative T1-mapping in detecting the degree of disease involvement by detailed analyzing the hip and thigh muscle, future exploring the predicting value of T1-mapping for the clinical status of DMD.

Methods: Ninety-two DMD patients were included. Grading fat infiltration and measuring the T1-values of 19 pelvic and thigh muscles (right side) in axial T1-weighted images (T1WI) and T1-maps, respectively, the disease distribution and severity were evaluated and compared. Clinical assessments included age, height, weight, BMI, wheelchair use, timed functional tests, NorthStar ambulatory assessment (NSAA) score, serum creatine kinase (CK) level. Correlation analysis were performed between the muscle T1-value and clinical assessments. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted for the independent association of T1-value and motor function.

Results: The gluteus maximus had the lowest T1-value, and the gracilis had the highest T1-value. T1-value decreased as the grade of fat infiltration increased scored by T1WI (P < 0.001). The decreasing of T1-values was correlated with the increase of age, height, weight, wheelchair use, and timed functional tests (P < 0.05). T1-value correlated with NSAA (r = 0.232-0.721, P < 0.05) and CK (r = 0.208-0.491, P < 0.05) positively. T1-value of gluteus maximus, tensor fascia, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, and adductor magnus was independently associated with the clinical motor function tests (P < 0.05). Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis and Bland-Altman plots showed excellent inter-rater reliability of T1-value region of interest (ROI) measurements.

Conclusion: T1-mapping can be used as a quantitative biomarker for disease involvement, further assessing the disease severity and predicting motor function in DMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-022-05640-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9288085PMC
July 2022

Mechanism of the effect of vertically propagating internal gravity waves on turbulence barrier and pollutant diffusion during heavy haze episodes.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 14;845:157349. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Department of Environmental Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China.

During heavy haze episodes, especially the cumulative stage (CS) of pollutants, strong turbulence intermittency and the resulting turbulence barrier effect (i.e., a phenomenon that turbulence at certain heights may disappear forming a laminar flow as if there is a barrier layer impeding the vertical turbulent exchange) suppress the vertical diffusion of pollutants, leading to high PM concentrations. However, there are still some short-time removal processes of pollutants occurring at different heights in the CS, accompanied with interesting non-simultaneous drop or opposite variation of PM concentrations at different heights. The ubiquitous internal gravity waves (IGWs) in the stable boundary layer (SBL) may play a critical role in the above situation, as they are closely related to the intermittent turbulence bursts appearing in the persistent weak turbulent motions. In this study, two representative heavy haze pollution cases were chosen to demonstrate the above speculation using five layers of turbulence data, two layers of pressure fluctuations and three layers of PM concentrations. Results showed that the non-simultaneous drop or opposite variation of PM concentrations was associated with the destruction of turbulence barrier by the vertical propagation of IGWs. IGWs generated by some certain mechanisms, such as nonhomogeneous terrain and wind shear around the low-level jet (LLJ), can propagate upward or downward with the upward or downward development of the temperature inversion layer. The vertically propagating IGWs then triggered intermittent increasing turbulence layer by layer. Turbulence between layers reconnected sequentially and turbulence barriers were broken in turn. The enhanced turbulent exchange expedited the pollutant diffusion, thus the PM concentrations at different heights varied non-simultaneously even inversely. This study provides a good explanation for the positive effects of sub-mesoscale motions such as IGWs on triggering intermittent increasing turbulence and facilitating the diffusion of pollutants during heavy haze pollution events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157349DOI Listing
July 2022

Assessing the influence of sewage sludge and derived-biochar in immobilization and transformation of heavy metals in polluted soil: Impact on intracellular free radical formation in maize.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jul 13;309:119768. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

CAS-Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, PR China; School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010, Sichuan, PR China.

As one of the most common ways to get rid of municipal waste, landfill leachate, waste with complicated compositions and high levels of contaminants, has become a significant threat to the world's environment. Here, the impact of sewage sludge (SS) and derived-biochar (SSB) amendments on the immobilization and potential mobility of heavy metals in a contaminated soil-plant system was investigated. The sequential fractionation findings showed that using SS-2%, SSB-2%, and SSBC-1% reduced the potential mobility of heavy metals while increasing the residual fraction in polluted soils. The translocation and bioconcentration factors showed that heavy metals were slightly transferred into shoots from roots and lowered accumulation in roots from contaminated soils. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) comprehensive characterization results indicated the significant role of applied amendments for heavy metals transformation from the exchangeable-soluble fractions to the least available form by lowering their mobility to confirm the adsorption-based complexes, which results in the surface adsorption of heavy metals with functional groups. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) results indicated the dominance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the intracellular formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) in maize plant roots and shoots. ROS (•OH) generation plays a critical influence in the interaction between the physiological processes of plants and heavy metals. Moreover, all the amendments increased maize growth and biomass production. Our study suggests that alone and combined application of SS and SSB have great potential to remediate heavy metals contaminated soil for environmental sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119768DOI Listing
July 2022

Solid-Liquid Interfacial Coordination Chemistry Enables High-Capacity Ammonium Storage in Amorphous Manganese Phosphate.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Jul 15:e202207711. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, 3-11, Wenhua Road, Heping district, Shenyang, 110819, China.

Ammonium (NH ) ion as charge carrier is attracting attention in aqueous batteries. Yet, most NH host materials are still limited by the relatively low capacities. Here, we fabricated a manganese phosphate (MP-20) for NH ion storage. MP-20 displays a high capacity of 299.6 mAh g at 1 A g in ammonium acetate (NH Ac) electrolyte, outperforming other reported NH host materials. Spectroscopy studies suggest a new NH /H co-insertion mechanism. We surprisingly discover that the NH Ac electrolyte plays an important role in improving the charge storage capability of the materials. Experimental and computational results indicate acetate ions can form coordination bonds with the Mn atoms, tailoring the electronic structure of the Mn atoms and the surrounding O atoms, and therefore facilitating the NH storage process. Our findings provide a new NH host material and propose the important role of the electrolyte-electrode coordination effect in aqueous ammonium batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202207711DOI Listing
July 2022

Study on the Correlation Between CT Features and Vascular Tumor Thrombus Together With Nerve Invasion in Surgically Resected Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Front Surg 2022 28;9:931568. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 900 Hospital of the Joint Logistics Team, Fuzhou, China.

Background: We aimed to analyze the relationship between pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients with vascular tumor thrombus and nerve invasion and different CT features.

Methods: The preoperative CT scanning data of 86 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical resection in our hospital from January 2020 to January 2022 were analyzed in the form of retrospective analysis. The CT images of all patients were observed, and the relationship between them and vascular tumor thrombus and nerve invasion of lung adenocarcinoma was analyzed. At the same time, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of enhanced CT and plain CT were compared to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of both.

Results: The results showed that the vascular tumor thrombus of lung adenocarcinoma was mainly related to the solid components and lobulated and calcified tumors in CT images, and the nerve invasion of lung adenocarcinoma was mainly related to the tumors with bronchial inflation sign in CT images ( < 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of enhanced CT in the diagnosis of vascular tumor thrombus were 78.26%, 96.83%, and 91.86%, respectively, and the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in the diagnosis of nerve invasion were 75.00%, 98.72%, and 96.51%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of plain CT in the diagnosis of vascular tumor thrombus were 43.48%, 92.06%, and 79.07%, respectively, and the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in the diagnosis of nerve invasion were 25.00%, 94.87%, and 88.37%, respectively. The contrast showed that the sensitivity and accuracy of enhanced CT were higher than those of plain CT ( < 0.05), but the difference of specificity was not obvious ( > 0.05).

Conclusions: Solid components and lobulated and calcified tumors in CT signs are closely related to vascular tumor thrombus of lung adenocarcinoma, while patients with bronchial inflation sign are related to nerve invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2022.931568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9273926PMC
June 2022

Silk sericin patches delivering miRNA-29-enriched extracellular vesicles-decorated myoblasts (SPEED) enhances regeneration and functional repair after severe skeletal muscle injury.

Biomaterials 2022 Jun 10;287:121630. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Research Center for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China; Department of Clinical Laboratory, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China. Electronic address:

Severe skeletal muscle injuries usually lead to a series of poor recovery issues, such as massive myofibers loss, scar tissue formation, significant muscle function impairment, etc. Here, a silk sericin patch delivering miRNA-29-enriched extracellular vesicles-decorated myoblasts (SPEED) is designed for the rapid regeneration and functional repair after severe skeletal muscle injury. Specifically, miR29-enriched extracellular vesicles (miR29-EVs) are prepared and used to deliver miR29 into primary myoblasts, which promote the myotube formation of myoblasts and increase the expression of myogenic genes while inhibiting the expression of fibrotic genes. Our results indicate that miR29-EVs promote the integration of primary myoblasts and host muscle in a severe mouse tibialis anterior (TA) muscle injury model. Moreover, implantation of SPEED drastically stimulates skeletal muscle regeneration, inhibits fibrosis of injured muscles, and leads to significant improvement of muscle contraction forces and motor ability of mice about 3 weeks after treatment. Subsequently, we further evaluate the transcriptomes of TA muscles and find that SPEED can significantly ameliorate energy metabolism and muscular microenvironment of TA muscles on day 9 after implantation. Additionally, bioinformatic analysis and comprehensive molecular biology studies also reveal that the down-regulation of CDC20-MEF2C signaling axis may participate in the muscle repair process. Together, SPEED may serve as an effective alternative for the rapid repair of severe skeletal muscle injuries in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2022.121630DOI Listing
June 2022

Impact of Exercise and Aging on Mitochondrial Homeostasis in Skeletal Muscle: Roles of ROS and Epigenetics.

Cells 2022 Jun 30;11(13). Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Exercise Physiology and Sports Medicine, Institute of Exercise and Health, Tianjin University of Sport, Tianjin 301617, China.

Aging causes degenerative changes such as epigenetic changes and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Exercise can upregulate muscle mitochondrial homeostasis and enhance antioxidant capacity and represents an effective treatment to prevent muscle aging. Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and microRNA expression are involved in the regulation of exercise-induced adaptive changes in muscle mitochondria. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in signaling molecules in exercise-induced muscle mitochondrial health benefits, and strong evidence emphasizes that exercise-induced ROS can regulate gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. The majority of mitochondrial proteins are imported into mitochondria from the cytosol, so mitochondrial homeostasis is regulated by nuclear epigenetic mechanisms. Exercise can reverse aging-induced changes in myokine expression by modulating epigenetic mechanisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of exercise-generated ROS in the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. In addition, the potential epigenetic mechanisms involved in exercise-induced myokine expression are reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells11132086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9266156PMC
June 2022

A P300-Detection Method Based on Logistic Regression and a Convolutional Neural Network.

Front Comput Neurosci 2022 16;16:909553. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Research Center for Medical Artificial Intelligence, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are widely utilized in various fields, including health care, intelligent assistance, identity recognition, emotion recognition, and fatigue detection. P300, the main event-related potential, is the primary component detected by EEG-based BCI systems. Existing algorithms for P300 classification in EEG data usually perform well when tested in a single participant, although they exhibit significant decreases in accuracy when tested in new participants. We attempted to address this lack of generalizability associated with existing classification methods using a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) model developed using logistic regression (LR).

Materials And Methods: We proposed an LR-CNN model comprising two parts: a combined LR-based memory model and a CNN-based generalization model. The LR-based memory model can learn the individual features of participants and addresses the decrease in accuracy caused by individual differences when applied to new participants. The CNN-based generalization model can learn the common features among participants, thereby reducing overall classification bias and improving overall classification accuracy.

Results: We compared our method with existing, commonly used classification methods through three different sets of experiments. The experimental results indicated that our method could learn individual differences among participants. Compared with other commonly used classification methods, our method yielded a marked improvement (>90%) in classification among new participants.

Conclusion: The accuracy of the proposed model in the face of new participants is better than that of existing, commonly used classification methods. Such improvements in cross-subject test accuracy will aid in the development of BCI systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncom.2022.909553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9243506PMC
June 2022

Unimolecular dissociation dynamics of electronically excited HCO(ÃA''): rotational control of nonadiabatic decay.

Faraday Discuss 2022 Jul 4. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

The photoinduced unimolecular decay of the electronically excited HCO(ÃA'') is investigated in a combined experimental-theoretical study. The molecule is excited to the (1, , 0) combination bands, which decay Renner-Teller coupling to the ground electronic state. The rovibrational state distribution of the CO fragment was measured the high- Rydberg H-atom time-of-flight method and calculated using a wave packet method on an accurate set of potential energy surfaces. It is shown that the non-adiabatic decay rate is strongly modulated by the HCO rotational angular momentum, which leaves unique signatures in the product state distribution. The experimentally observed bimodal rotational distribution of the dominant CO( = 0) fragment is likely due to decay of different vibronic states populated by the excitation and modulated by the excited state lifetime, which is in turn controlled by the parent rotational quantum number.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2fd00011cDOI Listing
July 2022

EPSTI1 promotes monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro via upregulating VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2022 Jul 1. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Laboratory Medicine Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of arterial wall, and circulating monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Epithelial-stromal interaction 1 (EPSTI1) is a novel gene, which is dramatically induced by epithelial-stromal interaction in human breast cancer. EPSTI1 expression is not only restricted to the breast but also in other normal tissues. In this study we investigated the role of EPSTI1 in monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and its expression pattern in atherosclerotic plaques. We showed that EPSTI1 was dramatically upregulated in human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques when compared with normal arteries. In addition, the expression of EPSTI1 in endothelial cells of human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques is significantly higher than that of the normal arteries. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EPSTI1 promoted human monocytic THP-1 cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via upregulating VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in HUVECs. Treatment with LPS (100, 500, 1000 ng/mL) induced EPSTI1 expression in HUVECs at both mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Knockdown of EPSTI1 significantly inhibited LPS-induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion via downregulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Moreover, we revealed that LPS induced EPSTI1 expression through p65 nuclear translocation. Thus, we conclude that EPSTI1 promotes THP-1 cell adhesion to endothelial cells by upregulating VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression, implying its potential role in the development of atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-022-00923-5DOI Listing
July 2022

Anti-PADI4 antibody suppresses breast cancer by repressing the citrullinated fibronectin in the tumor microenvironment.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Jun 27;153:113289. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Medical Research Center of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Wutaishan Road 1677, Qingdao, Shandong 266000, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: PADI4, an enzyme catalyzing arginine residues to citrulline residues, is highly expressed in malignant tumors. This study prepared a monoclonal anti-human PADI4 antibody and investigated the therapeutic effect of the antibody on breast tumors and the functional mechanism.

Methods: After treatment with PADI4 antibody, the changes in tumor-bearing mice were examined by PET-CT, pathological assays, biochemical tests, routine blood tests, cytokine assays and metabolic assays. We used PADI4 recombinant protein to catalyze fibronectin (Fn) and then used citrullinated fibronectin (Cit-Fn) to culture MDA-MB-231 cells. We also treated Cit-Fn cultured cells with PADI4 antibody. The cultured cells were examined using cell proliferation, apoptosis, colony formation, migration and glycolic ATP production. Citrullination in the tumor tissues and peripheral blood was measured using Western blotting and ELISA, respectively.

Results: Following PADI4 antibody treatment, tumor growth was significantly suppressed, and the number of apoptotic cells in tumor tissues was increased. The citrullination level in peripheral blood and tumor tissues was decreased, EMT-related gene expression in tumors was also decreased, and the spontaneous movement of tumor-bearing mice was increased following treatment. Following antibody treatment, the serum concentrations of IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-23, ALT and AST were significantly decreased. MDA-MB-231 cells treated with Cit-Fn showed increased cell proliferation, cell migration, colony formation and glycolytic ATP production and decreased apoptosis. The growth and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells were reduced following PADI4 antibody treatment, and PADI4 antibody inhibited the citrullination of fibronectin in vitro.

Conclusions: The PADI4 antibody had a therapeutic effect on breast tumors by inhibiting the citrullination of fibronectin to change the tumor tissue microenvironment. PADI4 antibody is a potential means for tumor treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113289DOI Listing
June 2022

The complete plastid genome of the endangered shrub Brassaiopsis angustifolia (Araliaceae): Comparative genetic and phylogenetic analysis.

PLoS One 2022 30;17(6):e0269819. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Southwest Research Center for Landscape Architecture Engineering, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China.

Brassaiopsis angustifolia K.M. Feng belongs to the family Araliaceae, and is an endangered shrub species in southwest China. Despite the importance of this species, the plastid genome has not been sequenced and analyzed. In this study, the complete plastid genome of B. angustifolia was sequenced, analyzed, and compared to the eight species in the Araliaceae family. Our study reveals that the complete plastid genome of B. angustifolia is 156,534 bp long, with an overall GC content of 37.9%. The chloroplast genome (cp) encodes 133 genes, including 88 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. All protein-coding genes consisted of 21,582 codons. Among the nine species of Araliaceae, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and five large repeat sequences were identified with total numbers ranging from 37 to 46 and 66 to 78, respectively. Five highly divergent regions were successfully identified that could be used as potential genetic markers of Brassaiopsis and Asian Palmate group. Phylogenetic analysis of 47 plastomes, representing 19 genera of Araliaceae and two related families, was performed to reconstruct highly supported relationships for the Araliaceae, which highlight four well-supported clades of the Hydrocotyle group, Greater Raukaua group, Aralia-Panax group, and Asian Palmate group. The genus Brassaiopsis can be divided into four groups using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data. The results indicate that plastome and ITS data can contribute to investigations of the taxonomy, and phylogeny of B. angustifolia. This study provides a theoretical basis for species identification and future biological research on resources of the genus Brassaiopsis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0269819PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9246242PMC
June 2022

Leveraging Existing 16SrRNA Microbial Data to Define a Composite Biomarker for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jun 28:e0033122. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Division of Gastroenterology, Liyuan Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Cumulative studies have utilized high-throughput sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene to characterize the composition and structure of the microbiota in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, they do not always obtain consistent results; thus, conducting cross-study comparisons is necessary. This study sought to analyze the alteration of fecal microbiota and the diagnostic capabilities of gut microbiota biomarkers in individuals with ASD using the existing 16SrRNA microbial data and explore heterogeneity among studies. The raw sequence and metadata from 10 studies, including 1,019 samples, were reanalyzed. Results showed no significant difference in alpha diversity of fecal microbiota between ASD and the control group. However, a significant difference in the composition structure of fecal microbiota was observed. Given the large differences in sample selection and technical differences, the separation of fecal microbiota between ASD and controls was not observed. Subgroup analysis was performed on the basis of different country of origin, hypervariable regions, and sequencing platforms, and the dominant genera in ASD and healthy control groups were determined by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of the effect size (LEfSe) algorithm and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Machine learning analyses were carried out to determine the diagnostic capabilities of potential microbial biomarkers. A total of 12 genera were identified to distinguish ASD from control, and the AUC of the training set and verification set was 0.757 and 0.761, respectively. Despite cohort heterogeneity, gut microbial dysbiosis of ASD has been proven to be a widespread phenomenon. Therefore, fecal microbial markers are of great significance in diagnosing ASD diseases and possible candidates for further mechanistic study of the role of intestinal microbiota in ASD. This study provides an updated analysis to characterize the gut microbiota in ASD using 16SrRNA gene high-throughput sequencing data from 10 publicly available studies. Our analysis suggests an association between the fecal microbiota and ASD. Sample selection and technical differences between studies may interfere with the species composition analysis of the ASD group and control group. By summarizing the results of 16SrRNA gene sequencing from multiple fecal samples, we can provide evidence to support the use of microbial biomarkers to diagnose the occurrence of ASD. Our study provides a new perspective for further revealing the correlation between gut microbiota and ASD from the perspective of 16SrRNA sequencing in larger samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.00331-22DOI Listing
June 2022

Thinned peach polyphenols alleviate obesity in high fat mice by affecting gut microbiota.

Food Res Int 2022 Jul 18;157:111255. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

College of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang-Malaysia Joint Research Laboratory for Agricultural Product Processing and Nutrition, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315800, China. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to explore the anti-obesity activity of thinned peach polyphenols (TPP) and their effects on gut microbiota. An obese mouse model was established using a high-fat diet, and high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze changes in gut microbiota in mice fed with TPP. The results showed that dietary TPP reduced body weight, promoted appetite, reduced liver injury, and reduced levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ASL and ALT while increasing HDL-C. TPP also enhanced the richness and diversity of gut microbiota in later stages of feeding. Composition and correlation analysis indicated that TPP increased probiotics (such as Alistipes, Akkermansia, Klebsiella, Bacteroides) which negatively correlate with obesity. TPP also reduced the numbers of harmful bacteria (including Helicobacter, Anaeroplasma), which positively correlate with obesity. Probiotics and harmful bacteria cluster independently and the two groups affect each other negatively. These results suggest that TPP reduced obesity by affecting the composition of the gut microbiota in mice. TPP can therefore be used as an ingredient in food to prevent the development of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111255DOI Listing
July 2022

Pesticide Residues in Commonly Consumed Vegetables in Henan Province of China in 2020.

Front Public Health 2022 10;10:901485. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Social Medicine, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to control insect pests and regulate plant growth in China, which may result in the presence of some pesticide residues in the vegetables. However, few studies of monitoring pesticides have been conducted in Henan Province. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed vegetables in the regions of Henan Province.

Methods: In this study, we collected 5,576 samples of 15 different vegetables in 17 areas from Henan Province during 2020. Eight kinds of pesticides were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), including procymidone, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, pendimethalin, isocarbophos, isazophos, fenthion and deltamethrin. The chi-square test was used to compare the detection rates of pesticide residues in different regions.

Results: Of all the pesticides above, procymidone, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, pendimethalin and isocarbophos were detected in vegetables, the detection rates were 27.0%, 16.2%, 11.4%, 3.5%, and 1.9%, respectively. However, isazophos, fenthion, and deltamethrin were not detected. In addition, procymidone, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cypermethrin were detected in urban areas, while pendimethalin was detected in rural areas. The detection rates of cypermethrin and pendimethalin in rural were 19.8% and 5.4%, respectively, which in urban were at relatively lower levels (13.7% and 1.9%, respectively) ( < 0.05). Compared the differences of pesticide detection rates among five areas of Henan province, we found that there were statistical differences in the detection rates of procymidone, cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in different regions (all < 0.05).

Conclusion: The results have revealed that the pesticide residues are present. Higher detection rates and more types of pesticides were found in rural areas than urban areas. In addition, there were higher detection rates in Eastern Henan. The findings provided valuable information on the current pesticide residues status, which can be a reference of pesticide supervision and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.901485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9226416PMC
June 2022

PDSM-LGCN: Prediction of drug sensitivity associated microRNAs via light graph convolution neural network.

Methods 2022 Jun 23;205:106-113. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Central South University, Tianxin District, Hunan 410083, China. Electronic address:

Cancer has become one of the critical diseases threatening human life and health. The sensitivity difference of cancer drugs has always been a critical cause of the treatment come to nothing. Once drug resistance occurs, it will make the anticancer treatment or even various drugs ineffective. With the deepening of cancer research, a growing number of evidence shows that microRNA has a particular regulatory effect on the sensitivity of cancer drugs, which provides new research ideas. However, using traditional biological experiments to verify and discover the relations of microRNA-drug sensitivity is cumbersome and time-consuming, significantly slowing down cancer drug sensitivity's research progress. Therefore, this paper proposes a computational method (PDSM-LGCN) that spreads information through the high-order connection between cancer drug sensitivity and microRNA. At the same time, the model constructs an optimized-GCN as an embedding propagation layer to obtain the practical embeddings of microRNA and medicines. Finally, based on a collaborative filtering algorithm, the model brings the prediction score between microRNA and drug sensitivity. The results of fivefold cross-validation show that the AUC of PDSM-LGCN is 0.8872, and the AUPR is as high as 0.9026. At the same time, we also reproduced the five latest models of similar problems and compared the results. Our model has the best comprehensive effect among them. In addition, the reliability of PDSM-LGCN was further confirmed through the case study of Cisplatin and Doxorubicin, which can be used as a powerful tool for clinical and biological research. The source code and datasets can be obtained from https://github.com/19990915fzy/PDSM-LGCN/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2022.06.005DOI Listing
June 2022

The Investigation of Protein Profile and Meat Quality in Bovine Frozen under Different Temperatures by Data-Independent Acquisition (DIA) Strategy.

Foods 2022 Jun 17;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Department of Food Science and Formulation, TERRA Research Centre, University of Liege, 5030 Gembloux, Belgium.

The influence of freezing on the protein profile and quality traits in bovine (LT) muscle was investigated by the data-independent acquisition (DIA) technique. Compared to fresh meat, a total of 262 proteins were identified as differential abundance proteins (DAPs) in four frozen groups (-12 °C, -18 °C, -38 °C, and -80 °C). According to the bioinformatics analysis, most of the DAPs in the significant Go terms and the KEGG pathway were structure proteins and enzymes. Proteome changes in the frozen bovine muscle at -12 °C and -18 °C were more significant than those at -38 °C and -80 °C. The result was consistent with the deterioration trend of the meat quality. The correlation analysis revealed that 17 proteins were correlated closely with the color, shear force, thawing loss, and cooking loss of the frozen meat, which could be used as putative biomarkers for frozen meat quality. MYO18A and ME3 are newly discovered proteins that are associated with frozen beef quality. In addition, CTTN and SERPINB6 were identified in frozen groups, which exhibited a significant inverse correlation with thawing loss ( < 0.01). These findings reveal the quality changes induced by freezing at the protein molecular level and provide new insights into the control of quality deterioration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11121791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9222788PMC
June 2022

Author Correction: WTAP-mediated mA modification of lncRNA NORAD promotes intervertebral disc degeneration.

Nat Commun 2022 Jun 22;13(1):3572. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430022, Wuhan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31302-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218080PMC
June 2022

High fraction of soluble trace metals in fine particles under heavy haze in central China.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Oct 18;841:156771. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Chemistry Academy of Sciences Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Atmospheric trace metals are a key component of particulate matter and significantly influence the atmospheric process and human health. The dissolved fraction of trace metals represents their bioavailability and exhibits high chemical activity. However, the optimum measurement method for detecting the soluble fraction of trace metals is still undetermined. The impact of variations in pollution on the soluble fraction is largely unrevealed. Therefore, in this work, a one-month field observation was conducted in Central China and different extraction solvents were used to determine the proper measurement method for the soluble fraction of trace metals and investigate the variation pattern under different pollution conditions. The findings show that solvents with acidity near that of aerosol water can better reflect the actual soluble fraction of trace metals in fine particulate matter. The soluble fraction of trace metals tends to increase with pollution level increased, demonstrating unexpectedly high health risks and chemical activity under heavy haze conditions. Our results indicate that remediation and trace metal pollution control are urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156771DOI Listing
October 2022

Regional PM pollution confined by atmospheric internal boundaries in the North China Plain: Analysis based on surface observations.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Oct 15;841:156728. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, State Key Lab of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

There are plenty of mesoscale meteorological discontinuities in the atmosphere, acting as atmospheric internal boundaries (AIBs). In conjunction with the atmospheric boundary layer in the vertical direction, they form confined three-dimensional structures that significantly affect air pollution. However, the role of AIBs in regional pollution has not been systematically elucidated. Based on surface observations, this study investigates PM pollution distributions under the forcing of various AIBs in the North China Plain. A total of 98 regional pollution episodes are identified during the autumn and winter of 2014-2020, and are further classified according to the impact of AIBs. In the pollution formation-maintenance stage, there are three categories. The frontal category (with a frequency of 41%), including the frontal trough type and frontal inverted trough type, displays the most polluted air masses along the mountains. The frontal AIB defines the lateral border of the pollution zone and forms a frontal inversion above, creating a closed and stable structure wherein the highest concentration of PM accumulates. The wind shear category (29%) is decided by the dynamic convergence AIB, which causes lighter PM pollution with diverse spatial patterns corresponding to west-southwest shear, southeast-east shear, and south-north shear. The topographic obstruction category (14%) presents as a narrow arc-shaped pollution belt at the foot of the windward mountains, resulting from the cold air damming AIB with dynamical obstruction and thermal stratification. Pollution diffuses in three ways: northwest, west, and northeast, respectively. The first one is the strongest and most frequent (42%), with both strong horizontal wind and vertical mixing. The second category is relatively rare (17%), characterized by foehn-induced active vertical ventilation. The last one is frequent (41%), but relatively weak, mainly relying on horizontal diffusion. Some evolution details of the AIB affecting PM pollution are also illustrated by a typical case.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156728DOI Listing
October 2022
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