Publications by authors named "Yu Shi"

991 Publications

Recent advances in infection mechanisms and current methods in controlling in postharvest apples.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 20:1-14. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

One of the most significant challenges associated with postharvest apple deterioration is the blue mold caused by , which leads to considerable economic losses to apple production industries. Apple fruits are susceptible to mold infection owing to their high nutrient and water content, and current physical control methods can delay but cannot completely inhibit growth. Biological control methods present promising alternatives; however, they are not always cost effective and have application restrictions. infection not only enhances disease pathogenicity, but also inhibits the expression of host-related defense genes. The implementation of new ways to investigate and control are expected with the advent of omics technology. Advances in these techniques, together with molecular biology approaches such as targeted gene deletion and whole genome sequencing, will lead to a better understanding of the infectious machinery. Here, we review the progress of research on the blue mold disease caused by in apples, including physiological and molecular infection mechanisms, as well as various methods to control this common plant pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1978384DOI Listing
September 2021

Pan-Cancer Analysis of Atrial-Fibrillation-Related Innate Immunity Gene .

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 3;8:713983. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common tachyarrhythmia around the world. Cancer is one of the main causes of death worldwide. A recent study demonstrated that cancer was associated with an increased incidence of AF. In the present study, we aimed to explore possible mechanisms and potential common therapeutic targets between AF and cancer. Differentially expressed proteins between AF and sinus rhythm were identified utilizing proteomics analysis. Weighted gene correlation network analysis was applied to cluster proteins into different modules and investigate associations between modules and AF. Hub immune-related genes were selected via InnateDB database and verified using qRT-PCR. RNA sequencing and clinical data of 33 different cancer types were achieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The correlations between expression and the prognosis were calculated utilizing Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to assess associations between and immune infiltration and DNA methylation. Enrichment analysis was performed through gene ontology and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). was identified as hub immune-related gene between AF and sinus rhythm. Expression levels of increased in diverse cancer types. Survival analysis suggested prognostic significance of expression levels in various cancer types. Immune correlation analysis indicated that expression levels were associated with tumor immune infiltration in most cancer types. might influence the efficacy of immunotherapy via tumor burden and microsatellite instability. GSEA results indicated that high expression groups were mainly enriched in peroxisome, bile acid biosynthesis, and p53 pathway. was identified as a hub immune-related gene in AF, which has never been reported. Pan-cancer analysis indicated its potential as a novel clinical prognostic marker and therapeutic target in diverse cancer types. might play crucial roles in AF and cancer, and targeted therapy for might reduce the incidence of AF in cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.713983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446278PMC
September 2021

Laparoscopic sphincter preserving total pelvic exenteration for recurrent cervical cancer - a video vignette.

Colorectal Dis 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Sichuan Cancer Hospital& Institute, Sichuan Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610041, China.

About 15-20% patients with cervical cancer present with local recurrence after chemoradiation[1]. Approximately 10% of primary rectal carcinomas present with tumour invasion into adjacent organs without distant metastases, and local recurrence rates after surgery in patients with rectal cancer range between 5-10%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/codi.15918DOI Listing
September 2021

Characteristics of childhood allergic diseases in outpatient and emergency departments in Shanghai, China, 2016-2018: a multicenter, retrospective study.

BMC Pediatr 2021 Sep 17;21(1):409. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, National Children's Medical Center, Shanghai, 201102, China.

Background: The prevalence of allergic diseases (ADs), such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR), is increasing worldwide in both adults and children. Although ADs are common and frequently coexist in outpatient care, city-level data regarding the characteristics of childhood AD remain limited in China. This study aimed to assess the profile and characteristics of ADs in the city of Shanghai.

Methods: A multicenter retrospective study was designed to collect routine administrative data from outpatient and emergency departments from 66 hospitals in Shanghai, China, from 2016 to 2018. Children with asthma, AR, allergic conjunctivitis (AC), and allergic skin diseases were investigated. Demographic characteristics, patients visit pattern, spectrum of diagnosis, and comorbidities were analyzed.

Results: A total of 2,376,150 outpatient and emergency visits for ADs were included in the period from 2016 to 2018. Allergic skin diseases accounted for 38.9%, followed by asthma (34.8%), AR (22.9%), and AC (3.3%), with a male predominance in all four diseases. Asthma and allergic skin diseases were most frequent in the 1 to < 4 years of age group, while AR and AC were more common in the 4 to < 7 years of age group. Asthma accounted for the greatest number of annual and emergency visits. The most frequent comorbidity of asthma was lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) (49.3%), followed by AR (20.5%) and upper respiratory tract infection (14.1%). The most common comorbidities of AR were otitis media (23.4%), adenoid hypertrophy/obstructive sleep apnea (22.1%), followed by LRTI (12.1%), asthma (9.4%) and chronic pharyngitis (8.9%).

Conclusions: Asthma and allergic skin diseases were the most common ADs in outpatient and emergency departments in the study period. Respiratory tract infection was the most common comorbidity of asthma in children. More attention should be devoted to the treatment of comorbidities to improve childhood AD outcomes with a better understanding of the characteristics of ADs in outpatient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02880-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447671PMC
September 2021

Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Reduces the Effects of Glucosteroid in Asthma via Activating the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway.

Front Physiol 2021 27;12:703281. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Aims: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for steroid-resistant (SR) asthma. However, the underlying mechanism is not well defined. This study aimed to investigate how chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the main pathophysiology of OSA, influenced the effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) on asthma.

Main Methods: The effects of dexamethasone (Dex) were determined using the ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged mouse model of asthma and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β treated airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), with or without CIH. The p38 MAPK signaling pathway activity was then detected in the mouse ( = 6) and ASMCs models ( = 6), which were both treated with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB239063.

Key Findings: Under CIH, mouse pulmonary resistance value, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and inflammation scores increased in OVA-challenged combined with CIH exposure mice compared with OVA-challenged mice ( < 0.05). These indicators were similarly raised in the OVA + CIH + Dex group compared with the OVA + Dex group ( < 0.05). CIH exposure enhanced the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway, oxidative stress injury, and the expression of NF-κB both in lung tissue and ASMCs, which were reversed by treatment with Dex and SB239063. In the study, treatment with Dex and SB239063 decreased ASMCs proliferation induced by TGF-β combined with CIH and suppressed activation of the p38 MAPK pathway, oxidative stress injury, and NF-κB nuclear transcription ( < 0.05).

Significance: These results indicated that CIH decreased GC sensitivity by activating the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.703281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430218PMC
August 2021

Moderators of the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and exposure to anaesthesia and surgery in children.

Br J Anaesth 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Children's exposure to anaesthesia has been associated with risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The goal of this study was to determine if selected patient characteristics moderate the association between exposure to anaesthesia and ADHD.

Methods: In a cohort of children born in between 2006 and 2012, exposure to anaesthesia before the age of 5 yr was categorised into unexposed, singly, or multiply exposed. Weighted proportional hazard regression was performed to evaluate the hazard ratios (HRs) of ADHD diagnosis related to anaesthesia exposure. Interaction analyses were performed to evaluate potential moderators.

Results: Among 185 002 children in the cohort, 9179 were diagnosed with ADHD. Compared with unexposed children, a single exposure to anaesthesia was associated with a HR of 1.39, (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.47) for ADHD. Multiple exposures were associated with a HR of 1.75 (95% CI, 1.62-1.87). In the analyses evaluating moderators of the association between exposure and ADHD, only the interaction for race was statistically significant (P=0.006); exposure increased the incidence of ADHD to a greater extent in non-White compared with White children. Among children with a single exposure, the age at exposure did not affect the relationship between exposure and incidence of ADHD (P=0.78).

Conclusions: Exposure of young children to anaesthesia and surgery is associated with an increased incidence of ADHD, with more exposures associated with greater risk. Compared with White children, non-White children are at greater risk for reasons that are unknown but need to be further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2021.07.025DOI Listing
September 2021

Sex Differences in the Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Signal to Placebo Analgesia and Nocebo Hyperalgesia in Experimental Pain: A Functional MRI Study.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 23;15:657517. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Rehabilitation, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: Placebo as well as nocebo responses are widely found in scientific research and clinical practice. Growing evidence suggests sex differences in placebo as well as nocebo responses. However, data concerning this question are still insufficient. This study examined whether the BOLD signals of two responses, as measured with functional MRI (fMRI), differ by sex under conditions of equivalent experimental pain perception.

Method: Thirty-one healthy volunteers (14 female) underwent two fMRI scans, once during a placebo intervention and once during a nocebo intervention, pseudorandomly ordered, in an acute lower back pain (ALBP) model. We collected visual analog scale (VAS) data after each scanning. fMRI data from different sex groups were subjected to functional connectivity (FC) analysis and behavioral correlation analysis (BCA).

Results: The results showed statistical differences in VAS scores between male and female participants, in both placebo and nocebo responses. Both groups also showed reduced FC in the pain-associated network of the placebo response and elevated FC in the pain-related network of the nocebo response. However, in the placebo condition, male participants displayed increased FC in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus (PHP), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), while female participants showed increased FC in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampal gyrus (HP), and insular cortex (IC). In the nocebo condition, male participants showed decreased FC in the PCC and HP, while female participants displayed decreased FC in the mid-cingulate cortex, thalamus (THS), and HP. The BCA results of the two groups were also different.

Conclusion: We found that the endogenous opioid system and reward circuit play a key role in sex differences of placebo response and that anxiety and its secondary reactions may cause the sex differences of nocebo response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2021.657517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419258PMC
August 2021

Laser-assisted hatching zona thinning does not improve the pregnancy outcomes of poor-quality blastocysts in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycle: a retrospective cohort study.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Futian District, Shenzhen, 518000, Guangdong, China.

It had been suggested, after facilitating the hatching process, improved pregnancy outcomes could be attained in embryos with thick and hard zona. This study aimed to determine the effect of zona thinning on pregnancy outcomes in poor-quality frozen-thawed blastocysts. This retrospective study included 230 women (≤ 40 years) who underwent frozen embryo transfer of poor-quality blastocysts (scored < 3BB). In total, 105 patients were in the assisted hatching group in which the zona was thinned by laser before transfer and 125 patients were in the control group in which the blastocysts were non-manipulated. Patients' demographics, cycle characteristics, and pregnancy outcomes were compared between the assisted hatching group and the control group. Further, regression analysis was applied to test the correlation between assisted hatching and live birth. All parameters in the patients' demographic characteristics and the cycle's characteristics were not significantly different between two groups. As for pregnancy outcomes, the second trimester pregnancy loss was significantly higher in the assisted hatching group (P = 0.035). Other pregnancy outcomes, including implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, biochemical miscarriage rate, the first trimester pregnancy loss, ongoing pregnancy rate, and live birth rate were comparable between two groups. The logistic regression analysis demonstrated no association between live birth and assisted hatching (univariate, OR = 0.787, P > 0.05; multivariate, OR = 0.652, P > 0.05), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the regression model was almost 0.7. It suggested that zona thinning may not be supposed to perform on poor-quality, frozen-thawed blastocysts. The indications of assisted hatching were still needed to further investigate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-021-03409-8DOI Listing
September 2021

Two-dimensional intermetallic PtBi/Pt core/shell nanoplates overcome tumor hypoxia for enhanced cancer therapy.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 16;13(33):14245-14253. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

The design of multifunctional nanoplatforms is of great importance for improving hypoxia-induced therapeutic outcomes, especially for overcoming radiotherapy (RT) tolerance. Here, two-dimensional intermetallic PtBi/Pt nanoplates (PtBi NPs) were designed as a therapeutic platform to in situ generate oxygen, and thereby overcome tumor hypoxia for boosting photothermal/radiotherapy (PTT/RT). With high X-ray attenuation coefficient, PtBi NPs exhibited outstanding radiotherapy sensitization characteristics. Moreover, the high photothermal effect of PtBi NPs could promote the catalytic activity of PtBi NPs to achieve a synergistic PTT/RT effect. PEGylated PtBi NPs (PtBi-PEG) exhibited excellent biocompatibility, prolonged blood circulation time and enhanced tumor accumulation. Finally, PtBi-PEG showed excellent trimodal contrast enhancement for infrared (IR) imaging, photoacoustic (PA) imaging and X-ray imaging, facilitating imaging-guided cancer therapy. Thus, our work highlights PtBi-PEG as a novel multifunctional theranostic nanoplatform with great potential for future multimodal imaging-guided synergistic cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr02561aDOI Listing
September 2021

Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Patients: Short-Term Outcomes and Antifungal Options.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Hepatology Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, No 1838, Guangzhou Dadao Bei, Guangzhou, 510515, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients are susceptible to invasive fungal infections. We evaluated the prognosis and antifungal options in ACLF patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA).

Methods: ACLF patients with IPA from 15 hospitals were retrospectively screened from 2011 to 2018, and 383 ACLF patients without lung infections were included from a prospective cohort (NCT02457637). Demographic, laboratory, clinical data, and 28-day outcomes were documented in the two cohorts.

Results: ACLF patients with probable IPA (n = 145) had greater 28-day mortality (33.6% vs. 15.7%, p < 0.001) than those without (n = 383). The respiratory failure-associated 28-day mortality was greater in ACLF patients with IPA than in those without before (17.1% vs. 0.3%, p < 0.001) and after (16.0% vs. 0.0%, p < 0.001) propensity score matching in 116 pairs. IPA patients with lung injury had greater 28-day all-cause mortality (66.5% vs. 24.2%, p < 0.001) and IPA-associated mortality (45.8% vs. 8.1%, p < 0.001) than patients without lung injury (PaO2/FiO2 ≥ 400 mmHg). Antifungal therapy was prescribed to 139 of 145 patients, and 102 patients were treated with voriconazole alone (n = 59) or sequential/combined therapy (n = 43) with varying loading doses (100-800 mg) and daily maintenance doses (0-800 mg). A proposed optimal voriconazole regimen (loading dose, 200 mg twice daily; daily maintenance dose, 100 mg) achieved comparable short-term survival and optimal trough drug concentrations (1-5 μg/mL) on therapeutic drug monitoring in 26 patients.

Conclusion: Presence of IPA increases the short-term mortality of ACLF patients mainly due to respiratory failure. An optimal voriconazole regimen is needed for such critical patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-021-00524-5DOI Listing
September 2021

Four New Triterpenoid Saponins from the Root of Ilex centrochinensis.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Aug 30:e2100343. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Medical School, Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi Tujiazumiaozuzizhizhou, Enshi, 445000, China.

One new siaresinolic acid saponin (1) and three new rotundic acid saponins (2-4) were isolated from the roots of Ilex centrochinensis. Their structures were confirmed by detailed analysis of standard spectroscopic data (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Compounds 1-4 exhibited anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide production in a lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cell inflammatory model. However, they showed no significant lipid-lowering activity against the production of triglycerides in the lipid-accumulation model of HepG2 cells induced by oleic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202100343DOI Listing
August 2021

Lipidated Methotrexate Microbubbles: A Promising Rheumatoid Arthritis Theranostic Medicine Manipulated via Ultrasonic Irradiation.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2021 Jul;17(7):1293-1304

Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Drug Addiction and Medication Safety, Institute of Ultrasound Medicine, Shenzhen-PKU-HKUST Medical Center, Shenzhen, 518036, China.

designed lipidated methotrexate was synthesized and self-assembled into microbubbles for targeted rheumatoid arthritis theranostic treatment. Controlled lipidatedmethotrexate delivery was achieved by ultrasound-targetedmicrobubble destruction technique. Methotrexate was dissociated inflammatory microenvironment of synovial cavity, owing to representive low pH and enriched leucocyte esterase. We first manipulated methotrexate controlled release with RAW 264.7 cell line and further verified with rheumatoid arthritis rabbits . Results showed that lipidated methotrexate microbubbles precisely affected infection focus and significantly enhanced rheumatoid arthritis curative effect comparing with dissociative methotrexate. This study indicates that lipidated methotrexate microbubbles might be considered as a promising rheumatoid arthritis theranostics medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2021.3105DOI Listing
July 2021

MiRNAs and Cancer: Key Link in Diagnosis and Therapy.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Aug 23;12(8). Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Breast Tumor Center, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510000, China.

Since the discovery of the first microRNA (miRNA), the exploration of miRNA biology has come to a new era in recent decades. Monumental studies have proven that miRNAs can be dysregulated in different types of cancers and the roles of miRNAs turn out to function to either tumor promoters or tumor suppressors. The interplay between miRNAs and the development of cancers has grabbed attention of miRNAs as novel tools and targets for therapeutic attempts. Moreover, the development of miRNA delivery system accelerates miRNA preclinical implications. In this review, we depict recent advances of miRNAs in cancer and discuss the potential diagnostic or therapeutic approaches of miRNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12081289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8395027PMC
August 2021

Correlation and mechanism of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on the effect of sewage sludge electro-dewatering.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 19;801:149753. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Electronic address:

Electro-dewatering (ED) is an attractive technology for enhancing dewaterability of waste activated sludge (WAS), and the distribution and composition of EPS and secondary structure of extracellular protein in sludge has a great influence on the sludge dewaterability. Therefore, in order to optimize and regulate sludge ED process, it is necessary to study the influence of EPS components and composition on the efficiency of sludge ED. In this study, the effects of distribution and composition of EPS and the structure of extracellular proteins on the ED rates and performance were analyzed using eight sludges from different sewage treatment process. The results showed that ED rates at both electrodes were significantly negatively correlated with the concentration of soluble EPS (S-EPS) and loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS), and this correlation was gradually weakened with the in-depth structure of layered EPS structure. High concentration of S-EPS and LB-EPS decreased the initial current and the pH gradient, deteriorating the anodic oxidation and acidification, which affect the release and degradation of EPS. Additionally, the proteins secondary structure can be destroyed and transformed by anodic oxidation and acidification, which can impact the protein water-holding capacity and ED performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149753DOI Listing
August 2021

Implementation effect of municipal solid waste mandatory sorting policy in Shanghai.

J Environ Manage 2021 Nov 19;298:113512. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China.

In Shanghai, the biggest metropolis in China, the source classification of domestic waste began in the 1990s but achieved little success over the past thirty years. Surprisingly, the compulsory classification provision of Shanghai residents' domestic waste since 2019 has been successful. In this work, the overall status, and challenges of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Shanghai under compulsory waste sorting rules are investigated. We tracked the classification efficiency of municipal solid waste, physicochemical characteristics of separated waste, and the carbon emissions arising from waste disposal system. It was found that almost 83.62 % of household food waste has been effectively separated with high purity of 99.50 %, while the lower heating value (LHV) of residual waste was increased by 96.4 % compared to previous years. With effective waste classification, the net carbon emission of separated processing was reduced to 0.11 ton CE/ton waste. However, this system generated some negative outcomes as well such as the lower recovery value of metal in bottom ash and the higher chloride content in fly ash. Moreover, we have documented and discussed several challenges of sustainable waste management system in Shanghai in the text. In order to overcome those challenges, we recommend to: (i) establish a finer source separation and recycling system; (ii) develop highly-efficient resource recovery technologies of byproducts from waste disposal system; and (iii) propose optimization adjustment strategy for overcapacity in incineration facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113512DOI Listing
November 2021

Epigenetic Control of Autophagy Related Genes Transcription in Pulpitis via JMJD3.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 9;9:654958. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Autophagy is an intracellular self-cannibalization process delivering cytoplasmic components to lysosomes for digestion. Autophagy has been reported to be involved in pulpitis, but the regulation of autophagy during pulpitis progression is largely unknown. To figure out the epigenetic regulation of autophagy during pulpitis, we screened several groups of histone methyltransferases and demethylases in response to TNFα treatment. It was found JMJD3, a histone demethylase reducing di- and tri-methylation of H3K27, regulated the expression of several key autophagy genes via demethylation of H3K27me3 at the gene promoters. Our study highlighted the epigenetic regulation of autophagy genes during pulpitis, which will potentially provide a novel therapeutic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.654958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381646PMC
August 2021

The potential differential diagnosis value and clinical significance of CD35 expression in B-chronic lymphoproliferative disorders.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(14):1166

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (Jiangsu Provincial People's Hospital), Nanjing, China.

Background: Flow cytometry for immunophenotyping is the main method for diagnosing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Differential diagnosis between CLL and other B-chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (B-CLPDs) is sometimes difficult. This study aimed to investigate whether cluster of differentiation 35 (CD35) could be a useful marker for the differential diagnosis of CLL and other B-CLPDs.

Methods: The CD35 expression on lymphoma cells from 516 B-CLPD patients (347 CLL, 169 other B-CLPDs) was investigated through flow cytometry analysis. Serum C3 and C4 levels in B-CLPD patients were also evaluated.

Results: The results showed that the expression percentage and mean fluorescence intensity of CD35 were reduced in CLL cases compared with other B-CLPD patients. Furthermore, CD35 <17% produced a sensitivity of 81.8% and a specificity of 88.4% for supporting the diagnosis of CLL. Additionally, the addition of CD35 to Matutes score improved the score's discriminative power. The sensitivity of the Matutes score was improved from 81.3% to 88.5%, and the accuracy was improved from 96.6% to 97.6%. Finally, 15.0% and 16.4% of CLL patients had defective serum C3 and C4 levels at diagnosis, respectively.

Conclusions: Evaluating CD35 expression could have potential differential diagnostic value in distinguishing CLL from other B-CLPDs, especially between CLL and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-3199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350686PMC
July 2021

Threshold effects of soil pH on microbial co-occurrence structure in acidic and alkaline arable lands.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 14;800:149592. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

A State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Soil pH plays a pivotal role in shaping microbial diversity and community composition in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil microbes clearly do not exist independently and instead form complex interaction networks, but little is known about the effect of soil pH upon those microbial co-occurrence networks. In this study, 62 alkaline and 61 acidic soil samples were collected from the North China Plain to investigate the effect of soil pH on microbial co-occurrence structure. Most bacterial and fungal OTUs in acidic soils were maximally abundant at soil pH of ~5.5, while in alkaline soils the corresponding OTU abundance attainted its maximum at pH ~8.3. Unlike those OTU abundance distributions, the relationship between soil pH and the number of links between OTUs in the co-occurrence network was best fitted by convex curves, with the pH thresholds found at 5.39 for bacteria and 5.60 for fungi in acidic soils. In alkaline soils, a dip in the relationship (only for fungi) between soil pH and the links was also observed, with a pH threshold at 8.04 for bacteria and 8.28 for fungi. From the co-occurrence analysis we identified 37 core bacterial species (mainly in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) and 24 core fungal species (mainly in Ascomycota). Together, this study revealed the threshold effects of soil pH upon microbial co-occurrence structure and identified the core microbial species in the North China Plain. These findings provide baseline information in mediating soil microbial co-occurrence structure by adjusting soil pH and core species in croplands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149592DOI Listing
August 2021

[Spatial and Temporal Distribution and Pollution Evaluation of Soluble Heavy Metals in Liujiang River Basin].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Sep;42(9):4234-4245

College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China.

In the Liujiang River, soluble heavy metals Zn, Al, Co, As, Ni, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Hg, and Cd were monitored day and night to determine their temporal and spatial distribution as well as the sources of this pollution. The Nemerow comprehensive pollution index method was then used to evaluate the environmental quality of the Liujiang River water body. The results showed that: ① For each river section (Lutang and Luowei), the amounts of soluble Al, Co, As, Ni, Cr, Mn, Pb, and Cd all met the Class Ⅲ water quality standard limit, as defined in the National Surface Water Quality Class Ⅲ Standard. The concentration of Zn and Cu was far below the standard limit, while the Hg content slightly exceeded the standard; the concentration of heavy metals in Liujiang River basin was highest in the normal season and lowest in the wet season. In terms of spatial distribution, the Luowei section had a higher heavy metal concentration. ② The single factor pollution indexes for elemental Hg, Cd, and As were higher in the Liujiang River basin. The Nemerow comprehensive pollution index evaluation shows that the risk of heavy metal pollution in the water body exhibits certain seasonal variations (March > November > June), indicating that rainfall in different seasons may result in reduced drinking water safety in the study area. The water of the Lutang and Luowei sections generally exhibited a moderate level of heavy metal pollution. The comprehensive pollution index of the Luowei section was higher than that of the Lutang section, and the pollution level was relatively severe. Therefore, the Luowei section should be listed as a priority control section of the Liujiang River basin by the water environment management department; ③ After assessing the difference in heavy metal pollution between annual and monthly rainfall periods, it was found that the selection of rainy season or conventional season has no significant impact on the assessment of heavy metal pollution in rivers, when the mass concentration of Cu in the river is used. However, the presence of As, Mn, Pb, Al, Cr, and Ni elements in the river will cause significant differences in the evaluation of heavy metal pollution on an interannual scale; ④ Multivariate statistical analysis results show that Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, and Pb in the Liujiang River are mainly derived from industrial production activities; As and Zn are mainly derived from rainwater leaching of domestic pollution waste; Mn, Al, and Cu are mainly derived from the application of pesticides and fertilizers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202012056DOI Listing
September 2021

Lower platelet counts were associated with 90-day adverse outcomes in acute-on-chronic liver disease patients.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Hepatology Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Hepatology Unit, Zengcheng Branch, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Chronic liver diseases (CLD), including cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic liver diseases, are globally widespread and create a serious disease burden. Platelet count is a clinically accessible and affordable prognostic indicator of liver disease. We investigated the relationship between platelet count and 90-day prognosis in patients with acute-on-chronic liver diseases (AoCLD).

Methods: A total of 3,970 patients with AoCLD from the Chinese Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure (CATCH-LIFE) study, which included two prospective multi-center cohorts, were included in the study. We grouped the patients according to the platelet count and analyzed the 90-day adverse outcome (death or liver transplantation).

Results: In the final analysis, 3,939 patients with AoCLD were included, of whom 2,802 had definite liver cirrhosis. The cumulative incidence of 90-day adverse outcomes in patients increased with the change of platelet group (log-rank P<0.001). From univariate and multivariate analyses, platelet count was inversely associated with the incidence of 90-day adverse outcomes in patients (P for trend <0.001). The group with platelet count <20×109 /L had the highest risk (odds ratio, 3.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-6.25), with 21 (36.8%) of these patients having adverse outcomes within 90 days. The risk of a 90-day adverse outcome in patients increased by 5% for every 10×109 /L decrease in platelet count below 210×109 /L.

Conclusions: Lower platelet count was associated with a higher incidence of 90-day adverse outcomes in patients with AoCLD. Even within the normal platelet count range, the risk of a 90-day adverse outcome in patients increased with decreases in platelet count. Clinical trial number: NCT02457637, NCT03641872.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-1019DOI Listing
August 2021

Gli1 progenitors mediate bone anabolic function of teriparatide via Hh and Igf signaling.

Cell Rep 2021 Aug;36(7):109542

Translational Research Program of Pediatric Orthopedics, Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Teriparatide is the most widely prescribed bone anabolic drug in the world, but its cellular targets remain incompletely defined. The Gli1 metaphyseal mesenchymal progenitors (MMPs) are a main source for osteoblasts in postnatal growing mice, but their potential response to teriparatide is unknown. Here, by lineage tracing, we show that teriparatide stimulates both proliferation and osteoblast differentiation of MMPs. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals heterogeneity among MMPs, including an unexpected chondrocyte-like osteoprogenitor (COP). COP expresses the highest level of Hedgehog (Hh) target genes and the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf1r) among all cell clusters. COP also expresses Pth1r and further upregulates Igf1r upon teriparatide treatment. Inhibition of Hh signaling or deletion of Igf1r from MMPs diminishes the proliferative and osteogenic effects of teriparatide. The study therefore identifies COP as a teriparatide target wherein Hh and insulin-like growth factor (Igf) signaling are critical for the osteoanabolic response in growing mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432334PMC
August 2021

Early Detection and Reversal of Cell Apoptosis Induced by Focused Ultrasound-Mediated Blood-Brain Barrier Opening.

ACS Nano 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Center for Cell and Gene Circuit Design, CAS Key Laboratory of Quantitative Engineering Biology, Shenzhen Institute of Synthetic Biology, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, 518055, People's Republic of China.

Focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with microbubbles (MBs) has recently emerged as a potential approach to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for delivering drugs into the brain. However, appropriate approaches are still lacking to monitor the sublethal damage during FUS-mediated BBB opening , especially the early stage cell apoptotic events. Here, we developed a kind of nanoprobe-loaded MBs ([email protected]) which can monitor the apoptotic cells that occur during FUS-mediated BBB opening through encapsulating the annexin V-targeted nanoprobes AV-ICG-NPs into the cavity of lipid-PLGA hybrid MBs. When irradiated by FUS, [email protected] in the cerebral blood vessels would produce cavitation, favoring the BBB opening. Meanwhile, [email protected] would be destroyed and release their AV-ICG-NPs payload. These released AV-ICG-NPs can be further delivered into the brain the destructed BBB and bind with the phosphatidylserine externalized on the membrane of apoptotic cells if this occurs, leading to the prolonged detention of fluorescent signals in the brain. Furthermore, we also provided an effective strategy to inhibit or reverse the possible damage to the brain from a FUS-mediated BBB opening technology, through developing AV-ICG-NPs/[email protected] that encapsulate the antioxidant gastrodin (GAS) into [email protected] Accompanied by FUS irradiation and bubble cavitation, GAS was released and delivered into the brain, where they scavenged the oxygen free radicals produced from cavitation, leading to significantly lower fluorescence signals in the brain due to the absence of externalized phosphatidylserine. In conclusion, our study provides an approach to monitor and inhibit cell apoptotic events during FUS-mediated BBB opening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c04029DOI Listing
August 2021

MiR-92b-3p Inhibits Proliferation of HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Cell by Targeting circCDYL.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 29;9:707049. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Breast Tumor Center, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Objectives: Circular RNA (circRNA) is a novel class of RNA, which exhibits powerful biological function in regulating cellular fate of various tumors. Previously, we had demonstrated that over-expression of circRNA circCDYL promoted progression of HER2-negative (HER2) breast cancer miR-1275-ULK1/ATG7-autophagic axis. However, the role of circCDYL in HER2-positive (HER2) breast cancer, in particular its role in modulating cell proliferation, one of the most important characteristics of cellular fate, is unclear.

Materials And Methods: qRT-PCR and hybridization analyses were performed to examine the expression of circCDYL and miR-92b-3p in breast cancer tissues or cell lines. The biological function of circCDYL and miR-92b-3p were assessed by plate colony formation and cell viability assays and orthotopic animal models. In mechanistic study, circRNAs pull-down, RNA immunoprecipitation, dual luciferase report, western blot, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining assays were performed.

Results: CircCDYL was high-expressed in HER2 breast cancer tissue, similar with that in HER2 breast cancer tissue. Silencing HER2 gene had no effect on expression of circCDYL in HER2 breast cancer cells. Over-expression of circCDYL promoted proliferation of HER2 breast cancer cells but not through miR-1275-ULK1/ATG7-autophagic axis. CircRNA pull down and miRNA deep-sequencing demonstrated the binding of miR-92b-3p and circCDYL. Interestingly, circCDYL did not act as miR-92b-3p sponge, but was degraded in miR-92b-3p-dependent silencing manner. Clinically, expression of circCDYL and miR-92b-3p was associated with clinical outcome of HER2 breast cancer patients.

Conclusion: MiR-92b-3p-dependent cleavage of circCDYL was an essential mechanism in regulating cell proliferation of HER2 breast cancer cells. CircCDYL was proved to be a potential therapeutic target for HER2 breast cancer, and both circCDYL and miR-92b-3p might be potential biomarkers in predicting clinical outcome of HER2 breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.707049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358302PMC
July 2021

A novel method for inference of acyclic chemical compounds with bounded branch-height based on artificial neural networks and integer programming.

Algorithms Mol Biol 2021 Aug 14;16(1):18. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, 611-0011, Japan.

Analysis of chemical graphs is becoming a major research topic in computational molecular biology due to its potential applications to drug design. One of the major approaches in such a study is inverse quantitative structure activity/property relationship (inverse QSAR/QSPR) analysis, which is to infer chemical structures from given chemical activities/properties. Recently, a novel two-phase framework has been proposed for inverse QSAR/QSPR, where in the first phase an artificial neural network (ANN) is used to construct a prediction function. In the second phase, a mixed integer linear program (MILP) formulated on the trained ANN and a graph search algorithm are used to infer desired chemical structures. The framework has been applied to the case of chemical compounds with cycle index up to 2 so far. The computational results conducted on instances with n non-hydrogen atoms show that a feature vector can be inferred by solving an MILP for up to [Formula: see text], whereas graphs can be enumerated for up to [Formula: see text]. When applied to the case of chemical acyclic graphs, the maximum computable diameter of a chemical structure was up to 8. In this paper, we introduce a new characterization of graph structure, called "branch-height" based on which a new MILP formulation and a new graph search algorithm are designed for chemical acyclic graphs. The results of computational experiments using such chemical properties as octanol/water partition coefficient, boiling point and heat of combustion suggest that the proposed method can infer chemical acyclic graphs with around [Formula: see text] and diameter 30.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13015-021-00197-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364129PMC
August 2021

Glabellar wrinkle correction by autologous fat transplantation and evidence of human adipose tissue regeneration in a nude mouse model.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Biotherapy Center, Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Fat grafts are increasingly applied in augmenting soft tissue defects and correcting static wrinkles, but the outcome is always unpredictable because of high absorption rate. Perilipin1 (Plin1) and perilipin2 (Plin2), two perilipin family proteins on lipid droplets in adipocytes, are reported to be used as biomarkers to evaluate adipocyte regeneration in vivo.

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of glabellar wrinkle correction with autologous fat grafting and to observe human adipose regeneration in a nude mouse model.

Patients/methods: Ten patients with 16 moderate or severe glabellar wrinkles underwent wrinkle correction by subcutaneously injecting autologous lipoaspirates obtained from the abdomen. The injection dose was 0.05 ml per 5 mm. The aspirated adipose tissue (0.05 ml) was also injected under the scalps of nude mice. Fat grafts were explanted at 3, 7, 15, 30, and 120 days after transplantation and the dynamic cellular changes were evaluated by HE staining and immunostaining of Plin1 and Plin2.

Results: Among the sixteen wrinkle lines, thirteen were obviously improved 4 months after procedure. Eight of the ten patients were satisfied with their wrinkle correction effects. The fat grafts demonstrated a continuous changing process from degeneration to regeneration in the mouse model without significant absorption and necrosis. It was Plin1, not Plin2 that was expressed in mature adipocytes. After transplantation, Plin1 expression was lost in dead fat cells while Plin2 expression was activated in newly regenerated adipocytes. After 120 days, all the surviving adipocytes were negative for Plin2 but positive for Plin1 again.

Conclusions: Micro-volume fat transplantation was an easy and safe method to improve glabellum wrinkle lines, and the regenerative process of human adipose tissue could be verified in the mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14383DOI Listing
August 2021

Three-dimensional MR Elastography Depicts Liver Inflammation, Fibrosis, and Portal Hypertension in Chronic Hepatitis B or C.

Radiology 2021 Oct 10;301(1):154-162. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

From the Departments of Radiology (Y.S., G.Y.L., X.Y.Z., R.Y.J., Y.J.M.), Pathology (Y.F.Q.), Clinical Epidemiology (Q.W.), and Neurosurgery (Y.H.), Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No. 36, Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang 110004, People's Republic of China; and Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, and Center of Evidence Based Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People's Republic of China (B.M.).

Background The value of measuring mechanical properties to categorize various pathophysiologic states of the liver is as yet undetermined in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) or C (CHC). Purpose To evaluate multiparametric three-dimensional (3D) MR elastography as a means of detecting early necroinflammation, distinguishing necroinflammation from fibrosis, and gauging the severity of portal hypertension (PH) in CHB or CHC. Materials and Methods From January 2015 to September 2019, participants with CHB or CHC were prospectively enrolled from a single institution and were divided into two groups: those with liver biopsy and no evidence of PH (group 1) and those with PH and a hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement (group 2). For group 3, healthy volunteers were separately recruited from a nearby community. Multiple viscoelastic parameters (shear stiffness [SS], storage modulus, loss modulus, and damping ratio [DR]) were determined at 3D MR elastography at 60 Hz, and multivariable logistic or linear regression analysis was used to assess associations of mechanical parameters with histologic scores and HVPG. Results A total of 155 participants (median age, 41 years [interquartile range, 32-48 years]; 85 women) were in group 1 (training set: = 78, validation set: = 77), 85 participants (median age, 57 years [interquartile range, 43-61 years]; 51 women) in group 2, and 60 healthy volunteers (median age, 49 years [interquartile range, 27-64 years]; 38 men) in group 3. The liver DR was higher in participants with necroinflammation (DR, 0.13 ± 0.03) versus those without (at liver fibrosis stage F0) (DR, 0.10 ± 0.02; < .001). Liver DR and SS together performed well in the diagnosis of necroinflammation (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.88 [95% CI: 0.79, 0.96]) and the scoring of moderate to severe activity (AUC, 0.88 [95% CI: 0.81, 0.95]) in the validation data set. Liver DR (regression coefficient [β] = -30.3 [95% CI: -58.0, -2.5]; = .03) and splenic SS (β = 2.3 [95% CI: 1.7, 2.9]; < .001) were independently associated with HVPG. Conclusion Three-dimensional MR elastography may detect early necroinflammation, distinguish necroinflammation from liver fibrosis, and correlate with hepatic venous pressure gradient in chronic hepatitis B and C. © RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by Reeder in this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2021202804DOI Listing
October 2021

Elevation-related climate trends dominate fungal co-occurrence network structure and the abundance of keystone taxa on Mt. Norikura, Japan.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 31;799:149368. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

School of Geography and Oceanography, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Soil fungi play an important role in promoting nutrient cycling and maintaining ecosystem stability. Yet, there has been little understanding of how fungal co-occurrence networks differ along elevational climate gradients, a topic of interest to both macroecology and climate change studies. Based on high-throughput sequencing technology, we investigated the trend in co-occurrence network structure of soil fungal communities at 11 elevation levels along a 2300 m elevation gradient on Mt. Norikura, Japan, and identified the keystone taxa in the network, hypothesizing a progressive decline in network connectivity with elevation due to decreased plant diversity and enhanced environmental stress caused by changes in climate and soil characteristics. Our results demonstrated that network-level topological features such as network size, average degree, clustering coefficient, and modularity decreased significantly with increasing elevation, indicating that the fungal OTUs at low elevation were more closely associated and the network structure was more compact at low elevations. This conclusion was verified by the negative correlation between positive cohesion, negative cohesion and elevation. Moreover, the negative/positive cohesion ratio reached its peak value in mid-elevations with moderate environmental stress, indicating that the fungal community structure in mid-elevations was more stable than that at other elevations. We also found that the keystone taxa were more abundant at lower elevations. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed that against a background of uniform geology, climate may play a dominant role in determining the properties and intensity of soil fungal networks, and significantly affect the abundance distribution of keystone taxa. These findings enhance understanding of the pattern and mechanism of the fungal community co-occurrence network along elevation, as well as the responses of microorganisms to climate change on a vertical scale in montane ecosystems. IMPORTANCE: Exploration of the elevational distribution of microbial networks and their driving factors and mechanisms may provide opportunities for predicting potential impacts of environmental changes, on ecosystem functions and biogeographic patterns at a broad scale. Although many studies have explored patterns of fungal community diversity and composition along various environmental gradients, it is unclear how the topological structure of co-occurrence networks shifts along elevational temperature gradients. In this study, we found that the connectivity of the fungal community decreased with increasing elevation and that climate was the dominant factor regulating co-occurrence patterns, apparently acting indirectly through soil characteristics. Our results also suggest that higher elevations on mountains have fewer keystone taxa than low elevations. These patterns may be related to the decrease of plant diversity and the increase of environmental stress along elevation gradients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149368DOI Listing
July 2021

Ginkgolide B protects against cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated P8 mice by mitigating oxidative stress, inflammation and ferroptosis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Oct 28;572:7-14. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology, Xuzhou Hospital Affiliated to Jiangsu University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, 221005, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a destructive neurodegenerative disease that currently has no effective treatment option available. Ginkgolide B (GB) is a terpene lactone derivative of Ginkgo biloba that possesses neuroprotective effects in various diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether GB protects against cognitive impairment in AD by mitigating oxidative stress, inflammation and ferroptosis using senescence-accelerated P8 (SAMP8) mice. The results showed that GB improved the cognitive dysfunction of SAMP8 mice in the Morris water maze and novel object recognition test, which was associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) pathway-mediated ferroptosis. Furthermore, Ras-selective lethal small molecule 3, a GPX4 inhibitor and ferroptosis inducer, compromised GB-induced cognitive performance in SAMP8 mice. These findings suggested that GB alleviated AD-induced cognitive defects by mitigating oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and ferroptosis, and that the inhibition of ferroptosis is required for GB to have beneficial effects in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.07.081DOI Listing
October 2021

Hybrid model of photon propagation based on the analytical and Monte Carlo methods for a dual-head PET system.

Phys Med Biol 2021 08 24;66(17). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Engineering Research Center of Molecular and Neuro Imaging, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710071, People's Republic of China.

The construction of photon propagation has a close relationship with the quality of reconstructed images. The classical Monte Carlo (MC) based method can model the photon propagation precisely, but it is time-consuming. The analytical method can often quickly construct a model, but its precision is a problem. How to fully exploit the advantages of the MC simulation and analytical model is an open problem. Inspired by the characteristics of the depth of interaction (DOI) detectors, which can help confirm the deposited position of a photon with DOI-encoding technology, we virtually discretize each crystal into several subcrystals to obtain the statistical distribution by MC-based simulation. Then, the statistical distribution is combined with a spatially variant solid-angle model. This combination strategy provides a hybrid model to describe photon propagation with relatively high accuracy and low computational cost. Three discretization schemes are compared to optimize the constructed photon propagation model. Several experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed hybrid method. The metrics of full width at half maximum (FWHM), contrast recovery (CR), and coefficient of variation (COV) are adopted to quantitate the imaging results. The classical MC-based method is compared as a gold-standard reference. When a crystal is divided into two discretized positions, the convergent tendencies of CRs and COVs are consistent with that based on MC simulation method, respectively. In terms of FWHMs, the resolutions of using the MC-based model and the proposed hybrid model are 0.71 mm and 0.68 mm in the direction parallel to the detector head, respectively. This indicates the potential of the proposed method in positron emission tomography imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ac195bDOI Listing
August 2021

Geographical variations in cardiovascular health in China: A nationwide population-based survey of 74,726 adults.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2020 Oct 30;3:100033. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 27# Nanwei Rd, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050, China.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of cardiovascular health among Chinese adults and to understand the geographic pattern of cardiovascular health.

Methods: In 2015, a total of 74,726 respondents aged ≥ 20 years with no history of cardiovascular disease were randomly sampled from 298 counties/districts of 31 provinces in mainland China and were interviewed. Seven metrics, including smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose, were determined. Ideal cardiovascular health was defined as the simultaneous presence of all metrics at the ideal level. A score ranging from 0 to 14 was calculated as the sum of all seven metrics for each province. Scores for cardiovascular health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity and diet) and those for cardiovascular health factors (smoking, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose) were also calculated.

Findings: The mean age was 44.4 ± 15.9 years, and 49.3% were women. The age-sex-standardized prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was universally poor, ranging from 0.02% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0%, 0.05%] in Tibet to 2.76% (95% CI: 0.45%, 5.07%) in Heilongjiang. Ideal diet (7.1%) was the least common factor of the seven metrics in each province and varied considerably across provinces. Other component metrics of ideal cardiovascular health were also spatially patterned. In all provinces, women had higher scores than men for cardiovascular health, health behaviors and health factors. Differences in cardiovascular health and health behavior scores between urban and rural areas were associated with levels of socio-economic development.

Interpretation: Strategies for addressing poor cardiovascular health require geographic targeting and localized consideration.

Funding: This research was supported by National Key R&D Program, the Shenzhen Strategic Emerging Industry Development Special Fund, and the Fund of "Sanming" Project of Medicine in Shenzhen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2020.100033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315622PMC
October 2020
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