Publications by authors named "Yu Seol Lee"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ezetimibe ameliorates lipid accumulation during adipogenesis by regulating the AMPK-mTORC1 pathway.

FASEB J 2020 01 27;34(1):898-911. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Adipogenesis, a critical process that converts adipocyte precursors into adipocytes, is considered a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. Ezetimibe, a drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, is used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Recently, it was reported to ameliorate high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia in mice and reduce lipid accumulation in hepatocytes through the activation of AMPK. However, the anti-adipogenic effects of ezetimibe and the underlying molecular mechanism have not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that ezetimibe reduced lipid accumulation via activating AMPK during the early phase of adipogenesis. We also observed that ezetimibe inhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, which is a major transcription factor of adipogenesis. Furthermore, ezetimibe-mediated AMPK activation reduced lipid accumulation by inhibiting mTORC1 signaling, leading to the downregulation of lipogenesis-related genes. Mitotic clonal expansion, required for adipogenesis, accelerates cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. We additionally observed that ezetimibe prevented the progression of mitotic clonal expansion by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, which was followed by the inhibition of cell proliferation. Collectively, ezetimibe-mediated inhibition of adipogenesis is dependent on the AMPK-mTORC1 pathway. Thus, we suggest that ezetimibe might be a promising drug for the treatment of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201901569RDOI Listing
January 2020

SQSTM1/p62 activates NFE2L2/NRF2 via ULK1-mediated autophagic KEAP1 degradation and protects mouse liver from lipotoxicity.

Autophagy 2020 11 10;16(11):1949-1973. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine , Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Lipotoxicity, induced by saturated fatty acid (SFA)-mediated cell death, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The KEAP1 (kelch like ECH associated protein 1)-NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2) pathway is a pivotal defense mechanism against lipotoxicity. We previously reported that SQSTM1/p62 has a cytoprotective role against lipotoxicity through activation of the noncanonical KEAP1- NFE2L2 pathway in hepatocytes. However, the underlying mechanisms and physiological relevance of this pathway have not been clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate that NFE2L2-mediated induction of SQSTM1 activates the noncanonical KEAP1-NFE2L2 pathway under lipotoxic conditions. Furthermore, we identified that SQSTM1 induces ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1) phosphorylation by facilitating the interaction between AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and ULK1, leading to macroautophagy/autophagy induction, followed by KEAP1 degradation and NFE2L2 activation. Accordingly, the activity of this SQSTM1-mediated noncanonical KEAP1-NFE2L2 pathway conferred hepatoprotection against lipotoxicity in the livers of conventional - and liver-specific -knockout mice. Moreover, this pathway activity was evident in the livers of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver. This axis could thus represent a novel target for NAFLD treatment. ACACA: acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha; ACTB: actin beta; BafA1: bafilomycin A; CM-H2DCFDA:5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate; CQ: chloroquine; CUL3: cullin 3; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; FASN: fatty acid synthase; GSTA1: glutathione S-transferase A1; HA: hemagglutinin; Hepa1c1c7: mouse hepatoma cells; HMOX1/HO-1: heme oxygenase 1; KEAP1: kelch like ECH associated protein 1; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MEF: mouse embryonic fibroblast; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; NAC: N-acetyl-L-cysteine; NAFLD: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NASH: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NFE2L2/NRF2: nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2; NQO1: NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1; PA: palmitic acid; PARP: poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1; PRKAA1/2: protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunits alpha1/2; RBX1: ring-box 1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SESN2: sestrin 2; SFA: saturated fatty acid; siRNA: small interfering RNA; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; SREBF1: sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1; TBK1: TANK binding kinase 1; TUNEL: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1712108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7595589PMC
November 2020

Repositioning of niclosamide ethanolamine (NEN), an anthelmintic drug, for the treatment of lipotoxicity.

Free Radic Biol Med 2019 06 26;137:143-157. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common liver disease associated with metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite its worldwide prevalence, there are no effective drugs for the treatment of NASH. The progression of NASH is mainly accelerated by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced lipotoxicity. The transcription factor known as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is pivotal for the elimination of ROS. Accordingly, activators of Nrf2 have been implicated as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of NASH. Niclosamide (ethanolamine salt; NEN), a drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), is currently used as an anthelmintic drug for the treatment of parasitic infections. Recently, NEN was shown to improve hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, the underlying mechanism of its antioxidant function in NASH remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that NEN induces AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of p62 at S351 that can lead to noncanonical Nrf2 activation. We also demonstrate that NEN protects cells and mouse liver from acute lipotoxic stress through activating p62-dependent Keap1-Nrf2 pathway. Taken together, NEN can be used for clinical applications and has the potential to provide a new therapeutic option for NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.04.030DOI Listing
June 2019

Dual roles of ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1) in cytoprotection against lipotoxicity.

Autophagy 2020 01 9;16(1):86-105. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Saturated fatty acid (SFA)-induced lipotoxicity is caused by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is associated with damaged mitochondria. Moreover, lipotoxicity is crucial for the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Autophagy is required for the clearance of protein aggregates or damaged mitochondria to maintain cellular metabolic homeostasis. The NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2)-KEAP1 (kelch like ECH associated protein 1) pathway is essential for the elimination of ROS. ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; yeast Atg1) is involved in the initiation of autophagy; however, its role in lipotoxicity-induced cell death in hepatocytes and mouse liver has not been elucidated. We now show that ULK1 potentiates the interaction between KEAP1 and the autophagy adaptor protein SQSTM1/p62, thereby mediating NFE2L2 activation in a manner requiring SQSTM1-dependent autophagic KEAP1 degradation. Furthermore, ULK1 is required for the autophagic removal of damaged mitochondria and to enhance binding between SQSTM1 and PINK1 (PTEN induced kinase 1). This study demonstrates the molecular mechanisms underlying the cytoprotective role of ULK1 against lipotoxicity. Thus, ULK1 could represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of NASH.: ACTB: actin beta; CM-HDCFDA:5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate; CQ: chloroquine; CUL3: cullin 3; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; GSTA1: glutathione S-transferase A1; HA: hemagglutinin; Hepa1c1c7: mouse hepatoma cells; HMOX1/HO-1: heme oxygenase 1; KEAP1: kelch like ECH associated protein 1; LPS: lipopolysaccharides; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAPK8/JNK: mitogen-activated protein kinase 8; MEF: mouse embryonic fibroblast; MFN1: mitofusin 1; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; NASH: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NFE2L2/NRF2: nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2; NQO1: NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1; PA: palmitic acid; PARP: poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKAA1/2: protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunits alpha1/2; PRKN/PARK2: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; PRKC/PKC: protein kinase C; RBX1: ring-box 1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SFA: saturated fatty acid; siRNA: small interfering RNA; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TOMM20: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; TUBA: tubulin alpha; TUNEL: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2019.1598751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6984596PMC
January 2020

The Antidiabetic Drug Lobeglitazone Protects Mice From Lipogenesis-Induced Liver Injury via Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Inhibition.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 21;9:539. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a metabolic disorder closely linked with type II diabetes (T2D). The progression of NAFLD is associated with the induction of lipogenesis through hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway. An increase in lipogenesis induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and accelerates oxidative liver injury in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Lobeglitazone, one of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), is used as an antidiabetic drug to lower serum glucose level through an increase in insulin sensitivity. It is known to improve pathological symptoms in animals and humans with NAFLD. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the protective effects of lobeglitazone against NAFLD has not been elucidated. Here, we show that under the physiological condition of acute lipogenesis, lobeglitazone inhibits hepatic lipid synthesis, the subsequent ER stress, and ω-oxidation of fatty acids by inhibiting the mTORC1 pathway. As a result, lobeglitazone protected mice from lipogenesis-induced oxidative liver injury. Taken together, lobeglitazone might be a suitable drug for the treatment of patients with diabetes and NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161559PMC
September 2018

Inactivation of Sirtuin2 protects mice from acetaminophen-induced liver injury: possible involvement of ER stress and S6K1 activation.

BMB Rep 2019 Mar;52(3):190-195

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose can cause hepatotoxicity by inducing mitochondrial damage and subsequent necrosis in hepatocytes. Sirtuin2 (Sirt2) is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase that regulates several biological processes, including hepatic gluconeogenesis, as well as inflammatory pathways. We show that APAP decreases the expression of Sirt2. Moreover, the ablation of Sirt2 attenuates APAP-induced liver injuries, such as oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in hepatocytes. We found that Sirt2 deficiency alleviates the APAP-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and phosphorylation of the p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). Moreover, Sirt2 interacts with and deacetylates S6K1, followed by S6K1 phosphorylation induction. This study elucidates the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective role of Sirt2 inactivation in APAP-induced liver injuries. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(3): 190-195].
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6476489PMC
March 2019

The hypertension drug, verapamil, activates Nrf2 by promoting p62-dependent autophagic Keap1 degradation and prevents acetaminophen-induced cytotoxicity.

BMB Rep 2017 Feb;50(2):91-96

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea.

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) provides a cellular defense against oxidative stress by inducing the expression of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes. The calcium antagonist, verapamil, is an FDA-approved drug prescribed for the treatment of hypertension. Here, we show that verapamil acts as a potent Nrf2 activator without causing cytotoxicity, through degradation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), a Nrf2 repressor. Furthermore, verapamilinduced Keap1 degradation is prominently mediated by a p62-dependent autophagic pathway. Correspondingly, verapamil protects cells from acetaminophen-induced oxidative damage through Nrf2 activation. These results demonstrated the underlying mechanisms for the protective role of verapamil against acetaminophen-induced cytotoxicity. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(2): 91-96].
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5342872PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.5483/bmbrep.2017.50.2.188DOI Listing
February 2017

p62/SQSTM1 is required for the protection against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptotic cell death.

Free Radic Res 2016 Dec 23;50(12):1408-1421. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

a Severance Biomedical Science Institute , Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine , Seoul , Republic of Korea.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is triggered by various cellular stresses that disturb protein folding or calcium homeostasis in the ER. To cope with these stresses, ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, but unresolved ER stress induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation leading to apoptotic cell death. However, the mechanisms that underlie protection from ER stress-induced cell death are not clearly defined. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway plays a crucial role in the protection of cells against ROS-mediated oxidative damage. Keap1 acts as a negative regulator of Nrf2 activation. In this study, we investigated the role of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in protection from ER stress-induced cell death using tunicamycin (TM) as an ER stress inducer. We found that Nrf2 is an essential protein for the prevention from TM-induced apoptotic cell death and its activation is driven by autophagic Keap1 degradation. Furthermore, ablation of p62, an adapter protein in the autophagy process, attenuates the Keap1 degradation and Nrf2 activation that was induced by TM treatment, and thereby increases susceptibility to apoptotic cell death. Conversely, reinforcement of p62 alleviated TM-induced cell death in p62-deficient cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that p62 plays an important role in protecting cells from TM-induced cell death through Nrf2 activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715762.2016.1253073DOI Listing
December 2016

Ezetimibe, an NPC1L1 inhibitor, is a potent Nrf2 activator that protects mice from diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

Free Radic Biol Med 2016 10 12;99:520-532. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress is important for the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a chronic disease that ranges from hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Nrf2-Keap1) pathway is essential for cytoprotection against oxidative stress. In this study, we found that oxidative stress or inflammatory biomarkers and TUNEL positive cells were markedly increased in NASH patients compared to normal or simple steatosis. In addition, we identified that the hepatic mRNA levels of Nrf2 target genes such as Nqo-1 and GSTA-1 were significantly increased in NASH patients. Ezetimibe, a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, improves NAFLD and alleviates oxidative stress. However, the precise mechanism of its antioxidant function remains largely unknown. We now demonstrate that ezetimibe activates Nrf2-Keap1 pathway which was dependent of autophagy adaptor protein p62, without causing cytotoxicity. Ezetimibe activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which in turn phosphorylates p62 (p-S351) via their direct interaction. Correspondingly, Ezetimibe protected liver cells from saturated fatty acid-induced apoptotic cell death through p62-dependent Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, its role as an Nrf2 activator was supported by methione- and choline- deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH mouse model, showing that ezetimibe decreased the susceptibility of the liver to oxidative injury. These data demonstrate that the molecular mechanisms underlying ezetimibe's antioxidant role in the pathogenesis of NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.09.009DOI Listing
October 2016