Publications by authors named "Yu Qiu"

302 Publications

Debating the embolization of a large aberrant systemic artery for pulmonary sequestration using an Amplatzer duct occluder: a case report and literature review.

Cardiol Young 2021 Jul 29:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children of MOE, Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan610041, China.

Here, we report two rare cases of pulmonary sequestration that were fed by large systemic arteries and embolized with a large Amplatzer duct occluder and their 3-year follow-up, and we discuss the efficacy and safety of the embolization of a large aberrant systemic artery to pulmonary sequestration using an Amplatzer duct occluder. A 9-year-old boy complained of chest pain for 1 month, and a 6-year-old boy initially complained of recurrent cough for 3 months. A series of examinations was launched to evaluate any possible malformation or abnormalities in the patients. Chest CT and CTA identified a right lower pulmonary sequestration with infection. After admission, transcatheter device occlusion was planned after essential antibiotic treatment, and postoperative infection prevention and anti-inflammatory treatment were given. In the following 2 years of follow-up, neither of the children had recurrent chest pain, cough or other related symptoms. However, the CT follow-up demonstrated that a residual mass was visible in both patients. The same chest scan section revealed slight reductions in lung lesions from 38.344 cm2 to 37.119 cm2 (3% reduction) and 14.243 cm2 to 13.178 cm2 (7.5% reduction) for each patient. No follow-up data demonstrated the long-term clinical outcomes of the residual lesion. We do not recommend that embolization be performed for large pulmonary sequestration lesions with an aberrant artery larger than 6 mm that is planned to receive a device larger than 10 mm, as their outcomes showed a higher possibility of rebuilding the vascularization network feeding the pulmonary sequestration, indicating a higher risk for long-term complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951121002924DOI Listing
July 2021

NDMA formation during ozonation of metformin: Roles of ozone and hydroxyl radicals.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 13;796:149010. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Metformin, a high-consumed pharmaceutical for diabetes, has been reported to generate carcinogenic nitroso-dimethylamine (NDMA) during treatment of its containing wastewater. However, whether it would produce NDMA during ozonation or not is unclear, let alone discriminate roles of ozone (O) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). In this paper, effects of ozonation on NDMA formation from metformin were investigated, roles of O and OH were also distinguished by adding tert-butyl alcohol (tBA) as OH scavenger. Moreover, various influencing factors and reaction mechanisms were demonstrated. The results indicated that NDMA could be directly formed from metformin during ozonation, the addition of OH scavenger significantly enhanced its formation (0-46.2 ng/L vs 0-139.1 ng/L). The formation of NDMA by O and OH was more affected by bromide and HCO than those with only O; while the impacts of pH and sulphate on the latter were more notable. No matter without/with tBA in the solution, the formed NDMA during ozonation of metformin increased with raising pH (from 5 to 9) and achieved the maximum 69.6 ng/L and 235.9 ng/L at pH 9, respectively; small amount of bromide (0.1 μM) promoted NDMA production, high levels of bromide (10 μM) inhibited its formation; the existence of HCO enhanced the amounts of NDMA from 44.5 to 73.5 ng/L (raised by 65.2%) by O and OH and from 102.9 to 130 ng/L with only O (raised by 26.3%); with the addition of sulphate, NDMA concentration raised by 43.8% by O and OH, while the value was high up to 134.6% with only O. Based on the result of UPLC-Q-TOF and density functional theory, the oxidation intermediates were identified and possible transformation pathways of metformin during ozonation were proposed. The findings in this paper would provide reference when treating metformin-containing water in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149010DOI Listing
July 2021

Mechanism of tumor‑derived extracellular vesicles in regulating renal cell carcinoma progression by the delivery of MALAT1.

Oncol Rep 2021 Sep 19;46(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Nangang, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150086, P.R. China.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a major healthcare burden globally. Tumor‑derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) contribute to the formation of a pro‑metastatic microenvironment. In the present study, we explored the role and mechanism of RCC cell 786‑O‑derived EVs (786‑O‑EVs) in RCC. First, 786‑O‑EVs were extracted and identified, and EV internalization of RCC cells was observed. RCC cell malignant behaviors and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis‑associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) expression patterns were detected before and after 786‑O‑EV treatment. MALAT1 was intervened to evaluate RCC cell behaviors. The downstream mechanism involving MALAT1 was predicted. In addition, the relationship among MALAT1, transcription factor CP2 like 1 (TFCP2L1) and ETS proto‑oncogene 1, transcription factor (ETS1) was analyzed. TFCP2L1 expression patterns were measured after 786‑O‑EV exposure. Tumor xenograft formation assay and lung metastasis model were adopted to verify the role of 786‑O‑EVs in RCC. It was found that 786‑O‑EVs could be internalized by RCC cells. 786‑O‑EVs promoted RCC cell malignant behaviors, accompanied by elevated MALAT1 expression levels. The 786‑O‑EVs with MALAT1 knockdown attenuated the promotive effect of sole 786‑O‑EVs on RCC cells. MALAT1 located ETS1 in the TFCP2L1 promoter and negatively regulated TFCP2L1, and ETS1 protein could specifically bind to MALAT1. 786‑O‑EVs enhanced the binding of ETS1 and the TFCP2L1 promoter and decreased TFCP2L1 expression. , 786‑O‑EVs promoted tumor growth and RCC lung metastasis, which was suppressed following inhibition of MALAT1. Our findings indicated that 786‑O‑EVs promoted RCC invasion and metastasis by transporting MALAT1 to promote the binding of transcription factor ETS1 and TFCP2L1 promoter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2021.8138DOI Listing
September 2021

Detachable Liposomes Combined Immunochemotherapy for Enhanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treatment through Reprogramming of Tumor-Associated Macrophages.

Nano Lett 2021 07 9;21(14):6031-6041. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive disease with a high recurrence rate and poor outcomes in clinic. In this study, inspired by the enriched innate immune cell type tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in TNBC, we proposed a matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2) responsive integrated immunochemotherapeutic strategy to deliver paclitaxel (PTX) and anti-CD47 (aCD47) by detachable immune liposomes (ILips). In the TNBC microenvironment, the "two-in-one" ILips facilitated MMP2-responsive release of aCD47 to efficiently polarize M2 macrophages toward the M1 phenotype to enhance phagocytosis against tumor cells and activate the systemic T cell immune response. Together with the immune effect, the detached PTX-loaded liposomes were internalized in MDA-MB-231 cells to synergistically inhibit tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. In the TNBC-bearing mouse model, PTX-loaded ILips demonstrated superior antitumor efficacy against TNBC and inhibited tumor recurrence. Our integrated strategy represents a promising approach to synchronously enhance immune response and tumor-killing effects, improving the therapeutic efficacy against TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c01210DOI Listing
July 2021

Tantalum-Doped TiO Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition and Its Application in Perovskite Solar Cells.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jun 7;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Opto-Electronic and Communication Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024, China.

Tantalum (Ta)-doped titanium oxide (TiO) thin films are grown by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), and used as both an electron transport layer and hole blocking compact layer of perovskite solar cells. The metal precursors of tantalum ethoxide and titanium isopropoxide are simultaneously injected into the deposition chamber. The Ta content is controlled by the temperature of the metal precursors. The experimental results show that the Ta incorporation introduces oxygen vacancies defects, accompanied by the reduced crystallinity and optical band gap. The PEALD Ta-doped films show a resistivity three orders of magnitude lower than undoped TiO, even at a low Ta content (0.8-0.95 at.%). The ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy spectra reveal that Ta incorporation leads to a down shift of valance band and conduction positions, and this is helpful for the applications involving band alignment engineering. Finally, the perovskite solar cell with Ta-doped TiO electron transport layer demonstrates significantly improved fill factor and conversion efficiency as compared to that with the undoped TiO layer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11061504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226548PMC
June 2021

Association Between Rare Earth Element Cerium and the Risk of Oral Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Southeast China.

Front Public Health 2021 25;9:647120. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Cerium (Ce), the most abundant of rare earth elements in the earth's crust, has received much health concerns due to its wide application in industry, agriculture, and medicine. The current study aims to evaluate whether there is an association between Ce exposures and the risk of developing oral cancer. Serum Ce level of 324 oral cancer patients and 650 matched healthy controls were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Association between Ce level and the risk of oral cancer was estimated with an unconditional logistic regression model. Serum Ce concentrations in the oral cancer patients and controls were 0.57 (0.21-3.02) μg/L and 2.27 (0.72-4.26) μg/L, respectively. High level of Ce was associated with a decreased risk of oral cancer (OR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.43-0.84). Stronger inverse associations between high level of Ce and oral cancer risk were observed among those with smoking (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27-0.79), drinking (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.26-0.96), limited intake of leafy vegetables (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.22-0.71) and fish (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33-0.83). There were significant multiplicative interactions between Ce level and alcohol drinking or intake of leafy vegetables and fish (all P <0.05). This preliminary case-control study suggests an inverse association between high serum Ce level and the risk of oral cancer. Further prospective studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm the findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.647120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186664PMC
June 2021

Closed bipolar electrode based fluorescence visualization biosensor for anti-interference detection of T-2 toxin.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul;57(53):6511-6513

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, P. R. China. and Key Laboratory of Sensor Analysis of Tumor Marker, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, P. R. China.

A closed bipolar electrode (BPE) based fluorescence visualization biosensor was successfully constructed and used for anti-interference detection of T-2 toxin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02588kDOI Listing
July 2021

Quantitative analysis of source and fate of N-nitrosamines and their precursors in an urban water system in East China.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 22;415:125700. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 100084; Research Institute for Environmental Innovation (Suzhou), Tsinghua, Suzhou, China, 215163. Electronic address:

The source and fate of N-nitrosamines and their precursors in terms of formation potential (FP) was investigated quantitatively in the city level for the first time. Different sources of nitrosamines and their precursors were investigated in one city in the Yangtze River delta, China. The source water located downstream of the city contained 8.4 ng/L of N-nitrosodimethyamine (NDMA) and 153 ng/L of NDMA FP. The contribution of each discharge source was evaluated based on the concentration, the river water flux, and the amount of wastewater discharges. Textile printing and dyeing wastewater, and electroplating industrial wastewater contained high concentration of nitrosamines and were important discharge sources. Taking NDMA and NDMA FP attenuation by photolysis and biodegradation into consideration, the mass load calculation showed upstream surface water brought about 13 ± 4% of NDMA and 21 ± 3% of NDMA FP to downstream source water. Local wastewater discharges contributed 30 ± 8% of NDMA and 17 ± 2% of NDMA FP to downstream source water. Endogenous formation via amino acids metabolism could contribute 36% of NDMA FP (maximum) to downstream source water. Overall, this study provides a protocol for quantitative evaluation of the nitrosamine contribution to urban water supply from different contamination sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125700DOI Listing
August 2021

The Gene, a New Player of - Interaction Maps on Chromosome C03 in Canola.

Front Plant Sci 2021 12;12:654604. Epub 2021 May 12.

Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Canola exhibits an extensive genetic variation for resistance to blackleg disease, caused by the fungal pathogen . Despite the identification of several effectors and (race-specific) genes, specific interactions between genes are not yet fully understood in the pathosystem. In this study, we investigated the genetic basis of resistance in an F population derived from Australian canola varieties CB-Telfer ()/ATR-Cobbler () using a single-spore isolate of , PHW1223. A genetic linkage map of the CB-Telfer/ATR-Cobbler population was constructed using 7,932 genotyping-by-sequencing-based DArTseq markers and subsequently utilized for linkage and haplotype analyses. Genetic linkage between DArTseq markers and resistance to PHW1223 isolate was also validated using the 60K Illumina Infinium array. Our results revealed that a major locus for resistance, designated as , maps on chromosome C03. To date, no gene for resistance to blackleg has been reported on the C subgenome in . Twenty-four candidate genes were predicted to reside within the quantitative trait locus (QTL) region. We further resequenced both the parental lines of the mapping population (CB-Telfer and ATR-Cobbler, > 80 × coverage) and identified several structural sequence variants in the form of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions/deletions (InDels), and presence/absence variations (PAVs) near . Comparative mapping revealed that is located within the homoeologous A03/C03 region in ancestral karyotype block "R" of . Our results provide a "target" for further understanding the gene interaction as well as a valuable tool for increasing resistance to blackleg in canola germplasm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.654604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150007PMC
May 2021

Post-transcriptional regulation of α7 nAChR expression by miR-98-5p modulates cognition and neuroinflammation in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

FASEB J 2021 06;35(6):e21658

Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complicated neurodegenerative disease and therefore addressing multiple targets simultaneously has been believed as a promising therapeutic strategy against AD. α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), which plays an important role in improving cognitive function and alleviating neuroinflammation in central nervous system (CNS), has been regarded as a potential target in the treatment of AD. However, the regulation of α7 nAChR at post-transcriptional level in mammalian brain remains largely speculated. Herein, we uncovered a novel post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of α7 nAChR expression in AD and further demonstrated that miR-98-5p suppressed α7 nAChR expression through directly binding to the 3'UTR of mRNA. Knockdown of miR-98-5p activated Ca signaling pathway and consequently reversed cognitive deficits and Aβ burden in APP/PS1 mice. Furthermore, miR-98-5p downregulation increased α7 nAChR expression, and ameliorated neuroinflammation via inhibiting NF-κB pathway and upregulating Nrf2 target genes. Our findings illustrate a prominent regulatory role of miR-98-5p in targeting inflammation and cognition, and provide an insight into the potential of miR-98-5p/α7 nAChR axis as a novel therapeutic strategy for AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100257RDOI Listing
June 2021

Spinal endomorphins attenuate burn-injury pain in male mice by inhibiting p38 MAPK signaling pathway through the mu-opioid receptor.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jul 30;903:174139. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Key Laboratory of Preclinical Study for New Drugs of Gansu Province, And Institute of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, 199 Donggang West Road, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000, China. Electronic address:

Burn injury is one of the main causes of mortality worldwide and frequently associated with severe and long-lasting pain that compromises the quality of patient life. Several studies have shown that the mu-opioid system plays an important role in burn pain relief. In this study, we investigated the spinal antinociception induced by the endogenous mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists endomorphins and explored their mechanisms of actions in burn injury-induced pain model. Our results showed that intrathecal injection of endomorphin-1 and -2 dose-dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia via the mu-opioid receptor in mice on day 3 after burn injury, which was consistent with the data obtained from the mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. Western blot showed that the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in ipsilateral spinal cord tissues were significantly up-regulated after burn injury. Intrathecal injection of endomorphins selectively inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK on day 3 after burn injury via the mu-opioid receptor. Further studies found that repeated application of the specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 dose-dependently inhibited burn-injury pain, as well as the activation of spinal p38 MAPK. Taken together, our present study demonstrates that intrathecal injection of endomorphins attenuates burn-injury pain in male mice by affecting the spinal activation of p38 MAPK via the mu-opioid receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174139DOI Listing
July 2021

Application of UV radiation for in-situ Cr(VI) reduction from contaminated soil with electrokinetic remediation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 6;416:125806. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China; College of Resource and Safety Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China. Electronic address:

Restoring hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) to trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) from contaminated soil is a cost-effective alternative for attenuating Cr(VI) toxicity to the ecosystem. A new electrokinetic remediation (EKR) system with UV light was explored to overcome an energy barrier to catalyze Cr(VI) reduction from the surface soil near the anodic reservoir. Natural organic matters and minerals from the contaminated soil acted as electron donors and catalysts for Cr(VI) photo-reduction and no additional chemical reagent. There was almost no residual Cr(VI) in anolyte after UV/EKR compared with the conventional EKR. The reduction improved the efficiency of EKR in the soil near the anodic reservoir by dropped the Cr(VI) negative mass flux caused by electroosmosis advection and concentration diffusion. The pathways of Cr(VI) photo-reduction are possibly dominated by ligand-to-metal charge transfer, i.e., photocatalytic cyclic reduction by Fe(III)/Fe(II) complexes on the surface of the minerals and in soil pore fluid and the photo-induced decomposition of chromate ester. It is concluded that UV/EKR is a clean, efficient, and low-cost method for remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125806DOI Listing
August 2021

B7 Family Members in Lymphoma: Promising Novel Targets for Tumor Immunotherapy?

Front Oncol 2021 31;11:647526. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

T cells play a vital role in the immune responses against tumors. Costimulatory or coinhibitory molecules regulate T cell activation. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown remarkable benefits in patients with various tumor, but few patients have displayed significant immune responses against tumors after PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy and many have been completely unresponsive. Thus, researchers must explore novel immune checkpoints that trigger durable antitumor responses and improve clinical outcomes. In this regard, other B7 family checkpoint molecules have been identified, namely PD-L2, B7-H2, B7-H3, B7-H4 and B7-H6. The aim of the present article was to address the expression, clinical significance and roles of B7 family molecules in lymphoma, as well as in T and NK cell-mediated tumor immunity. B7 family checkpoints may offer novel and immunotherapeutic strategies for patients with lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.647526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044412PMC
March 2021

Pollutants removal, greenhouse gases emission and functional genes in wastewater ecological soil infiltration systems: influences of influent surface organic loading and aeration mode.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Apr;83(7):1619-1632

College of Life Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034, China E-mail:

The influences of influent surface organic loading rate (SOLR) and aeration mode on matrix oxygen, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus removal, greenhouse gases emission and functional gene abundances in lab-scale wastewater ecological soil infiltration systems (WESISs) were investigated. In WESISs, intermittent or continuous aeration improved oxygen supply at 50 cm depth and hardly changed anaerobic condition below 80 cm depth, which enhanced chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH-N, total nitrogen (TN) removal, the abundances of bacterial 16S rRNA, amoA, nxrA, narG, napA, nirK, nirS, qnorB, nosZ genes and reduced CH, NO conversion efficiencies with SOLR of 16.9 and 27.6 g BOD/(m d) compared with non-aeration. Increased SOLR resulted in high TN removal, low NO emission in aeration WESIS, which was different from non-aeration WESIS. High average COD removal efficiency of 90.7%, NH-N removal efficiency of 87.0%, TN removal efficiency of 84.6%, total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency of 93.1% and low average NO emission rate of 12.8 mg/(m d) were achieved with SOLR of 16.9 g BOD/(m d) in intermittent aeration WESIS. However, continuous aeration WESIS obtained high average removal efficiencies of 90.1% for COD, 87.5% for NH-N, 84.1% for TN, 92.9% for TP and low average emission rate of 13.1 mg/(m d) for NO with SOLR of 27.6 g BOD/(m d). Aeration could be an optional strategy for WESISs to achieve high pollutants removal and low CH, NO emission when treating wastewater with high SOLR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.087DOI Listing
April 2021

Association between serum arsenic and oral cancer risk: A case-control study in southeast China.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Environment Factors and Cancer, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Objectives: Evidence on serum arsenic and oral cancer risk was limited. We aimed to evaluate the association between serum arsenic and the risk of oral cancer in a southeast China population.

Methods: Serum arsenic was determined for 325 oral cancer patients and 648 controls using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Logistic regression and restricted cubic spline were analysed the association between serum arsenic level and oral cancer risk, and crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Factors adjusted for included age, gender, BMI, smoking, drinking, education, residence, marital status and dietary factors. Stratification analysis was further performed according to drinking, smoking and dietary characteristics.

Results: Serum arsenic level was lower in the case group (P  = 19.2μg/L, IQR = 11.6 ~ 26.4μg/L) than in the control group (P  = 30.2 μg/L, IQR = 25.0 ~ 36.4 μg/L). An inverse but nonlinear association was observed between arsenic level and oral cancer risk by restricted cubic spline. These with moderate serum arsenic levels had a lower risk of oral cancer than those with low levels (OR = 0.11; 95%CI: 0.07-0.18), after adjusting for demographic and dietary intake factors. We also kept serum arsenic as a continuous variable in a regression model, where a similar inverse association between arsenic and oral cancer was observed, with OR = 0.86 (95%CI: 0.84-0.88). Stratification analysis revealed no significant multiplicative interactions between serum arsenic and smoking, drinking or dietary intake.

Conclusion: Serum arsenic is inversely related to oral cancer risk. Relative to those with low levels of arsenic, people with moderate serum arsenic levels had a lower risk of oral cancer. If confirmed, serum arsenic level may be a useful predictive marker for oral cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12633DOI Listing
March 2021

A Fluorescent Metal-Organic Framework for Food Real-Time Visual Monitoring.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 10;33(15):e2008020. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 78249, USA.

Due to increasing food-safety issues, exploiting efficient approaches for food quality assessment and instrumentation has attracted concerns worldwide. Herein, a smart evaluation system based on a fluorescent metal-organic framework (MOF) is developed for real-time visual monitoring of food freshness. Via post-synthetic modification, a ratiometric fluorescent MOF probe is constructed by covalently coupling fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate (5-FITC) with NH -rich lanthanide MOF. The probes exhibit a dual-emissive-responsive to biogenic amine, resulting in an increase in FITC emission along with a decrease in Eu emission accompanied by a clear distinguishable color transition from orange red to green. After doping the probes on a flexible substrate, the obtained MOF composite film can be integrated with a smartphone-based portable platform easily. It is proved that this smart evaluation system can be used for on-site inspection of the freshness of raw fish samples. This work develops a fluorescent MOF-based smart evaluation system as a novel platform for application in food monitoring, which not only has enormous economic value but also holds great public health significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202008020DOI Listing
April 2021

Broad neutralization of H1 and H3 viruses by adjuvanted influenza HA stem vaccines in nonhuman primates.

Sci Transl Med 2021 03;13(583)

Sanofi, 640 Memorial Drive, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Seasonal influenza vaccines confer protection against specific viral strains but have restricted breadth that limits their protective efficacy. The H1 and H3 subtypes of influenza A virus cause most of the seasonal epidemics observed in humans and are the major drivers of influenza A virus-associated mortality. The consequences of pandemic spread of COVID-19 underscore the public health importance of prospective vaccine development. Here, we show that headless hemagglutinin (HA) stabilized-stem immunogens presented on ferritin nanoparticles elicit broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) responses to diverse H1 and H3 viruses in nonhuman primates (NHPs) when delivered with a squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, AF03. The neutralization potency and breadth of antibodies isolated from NHPs were comparable to human bnAbs and extended to mismatched heterosubtypic influenza viruses. Although NHPs lack the immunoglobulin germline VH1-69 residues associated with the most prevalent human stem-directed bnAbs, other gene families compensated to generate bnAbs. Isolation and structural analyses of vaccine-induced bnAbs revealed extensive interaction with the fusion peptide on the HA stem, which is essential for viral entry. Antibodies elicited by these headless HA stabilized-stem vaccines neutralized diverse H1 and H3 influenza viruses and shared a mode of recognition analogous to human bnAbs, suggesting that these vaccines have the potential to confer broadly protective immunity against diverse viruses responsible for seasonal and pandemic influenza infections in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abe5449DOI Listing
March 2021

Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used clinically, improves bladder function in a mouse model of moderate spinal cord injury.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Oct;16(10):2093-2098

Department of Urology, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

After spinal cord injury, the upward conduction of the spinal cord is lost, resulting in the loss of micturition control, which manifests as detrusor sphincter dyssynergia and insufficient micturition. Studies have shown that serotonergic axons play important roles in the control of the descending urination tract. In this study, mouse models of moderate spinal cord contusions were established. The serotonin agonists quipazine (0.2 mg/kg), 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DAPT, 0.1 mg/kg), buspirone (1 mg/kg), sumatriptan (1 mg/kg), and rizatriptan (50 mg/kg), the serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and duloxetine (1 mg/kg), and the dopamine receptor agonist SKF-82197 (0.1 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered to the model mice 35 days post-injury in an acute manner. The voided stain on paper method and urodynamics revealed that fluoxetine reduced the amount of residual urine in the bladder and decreased bladder and external urethral sphincter pressure in a mouse model of moderate spinal cord injury. However, fluoxetine did not improve the micturition function in a mouse model of severe spinal cord injury. In contrast, the other serotonergic drugs had no effects on the micturition functions of spinal cord injury model mice. This study was ethically approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine (approval No. 2020DW-20-02) on September 11, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.308667DOI Listing
October 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Textile-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Wearable Self-Powered Microsystems.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Feb 5;12(2). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

School of Electronic Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China.

In recent years, wearable electronic devices have made considerable progress thanks to the rapid development of the Internet of Things. However, even though some of them have preliminarily achieved miniaturization and wearability, the drawbacks of frequent charging and physical rigidity of conventional lithium batteries, which are currently the most commonly used power source of wearable electronic devices, have become technical bottlenecks that need to be broken through urgently. In order to address the above challenges, the technology based on triboelectric effect, i.e., triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG), is proposed to harvest energy from ambient environment and considered as one of the most promising methods to integrate with functional electronic devices to form wearable self-powered microsystems. Benefited from excellent flexibility, high output performance, no materials limitation, and a quantitative relationship between environmental stimulation inputs and corresponding electrical outputs, TENGs present great advantages in wearable energy harvesting, active sensing, and driving actuators. Furthermore, combined with the superiorities of TENGs and fabrics, textile-based TENGs (T-TENGs) possess remarkable breathability and better non-planar surface adaptability, which are more conducive to the integrated wearable electronic devices and attract considerable attention. Herein, for the purpose of advancing the development of wearable electronic devices, this article reviews the recent development in materials for the construction of T-TENGs and methods for the enhancement of electrical output performance. More importantly, this article mainly focuses on the recent representative work, in which T-TENGs-based active sensors, T-TENGs-based self-driven actuators, and T-TENGs-based self-powered microsystems are studied. In addition, this paper summarizes the critical challenges and future opportunities of T-TENG-based wearable integrated microsystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12020158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915559PMC
February 2021

Determining the leading sources of N-nitrosamines and dissolved organic matter in four reservoirs in Southern China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 26;771:145409. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Institute of Environmental Engineering & Nano-Technology, Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China; Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Centre for Urban Water Recycling and Environmental Safety, Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

The presence of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in freshwater is a significant concern from the perspective of public health and drinking water treatment plant operation. This study investigated the N-nitrosamines concentration and their precursors' distributions, and DOM composition in four reservoirs located in a southern city of China. A total of 22 renowned precursors were identified. Precursors from industrial and pharmaceutical origins were found to be dominant in all reservoirs; however, traces of pesticide-based precursors, i.e. pirimicarb and cycluron were also found. The distribution of nine N-nitrosamines was substantially different among the reservoirs. N-Nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA), N-Nitrosopiperidine (NPIP), N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and N-Nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) were abundantly present in all reservoirs. Most of N-nitrosamines except NDMA and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were far below the generally accepted cancer risk of 10, and NDMA/NDEA were found close to the risk level (10). Anthropogenic DOM was dominant in three reservoirs as depicted by a higher biological index (BIX) than the humification index (HIX). By the principle component analysis, BIX appeared as an indicator of N-nitrosamines (except NDEA and NPIP). A strong and direct relationship was observed between the NDMA-formation potential (FP) and concentration of total N-nitrosamines (∑NA), and BIX. These results confirmed that the anthropogenic activities were the leading source of DOM and N-nitrosamines in this city based on land-use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145409DOI Listing
June 2021

Metabolic utilization of human osteoblast cell line hFOB 1.19 under normoxic and hypoxic conditions: A phenotypic microarray analysis.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 May 3;246(10):1177-1183. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

Osteoblasts play an important role in bone regeneration and repair. The hypoxia condition in bone occurs when bone undergoes fracture, and this will trigger a series of biochemical and mechanical changes to enable bone repair. Hence, it is interesting to observe the metabolites and metabolism changes when osteoblasts are exposed to hypoxic condition. This study has looked into the response of human osteoblast hFOB 1.19 under normoxic and hypoxic conditions by observing the cell growth and utilization of metabolites via Phenotype MicroArrays™ under these two different oxygen concentrations. The cell growth of hFOB 1.19 under hypoxic condition showed better growth compared to hFOB 1.19 under normal condition. In this study, osteoblast used glycolysis as the main pathway to produce energy as hFOB 1.19 in both hypoxic and normoxic conditions showed cell growth in well containing dextrin, glycogen, maltotriose, D-maltose, D-glucose-6-phospate, D-glucose, D-mannose, D-Turanose, D-fructose-6-phosphate, D-galactose, uridine, adenosine, inosine and α-keto-glutaric acid. In hypoxia, the cells have utilized additional metabolites such as α-D-glucose-1-phosphate and D-fructose, indicating possible activation of glycogen synthesis and glycogenolysis to metabolize α-D-glucose-1-phosphate. Meanwhile, during normoxia, D-L-α-glycerol phosphate was used, and this implies that the osteoblast may use glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle and oxidative phosphorylation to metabolize glycerol-3-phosphate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1535370220985468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142111PMC
May 2021

Simvastatin suppresses renal cell carcinoma cells by regulating DDX5/DUSP5.

Scand J Urol 2021 Feb 1:1-7. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Urology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Objectives: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has the highest mortality rate of genitourinary cancers and the incidence of RCC has risen steadily. Simvastatin has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity in a variety of cancers; however, its roles and molecular mechanisms in RCC remain unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on RCC.

Methods: We used a variety of methods to test the changes of RCC cell lines' viability, migration, invasion, cell cycle and apoptosis after treatment with simvastatin.

Results: We found that simvastatin not only inhibited RCC cell viability, migration, and invasion, but also regulated the cell cycle and induced apoptosis. We also observed abnormal expression of DDX5 and DUSP5 in RCC cell lines. Mechanistic investigation showed that simvastatin significantly suppressed DDX5 and promoted DUSP5 expression.

Conclusion: Together, these results provide a novel mechanism underlying simvastatin-induced inhibition of RCC via regulation of the DDX5/DUSP5 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21681805.2021.1876163DOI Listing
February 2021

Multifunctional Nanostructure RAP-RL Rescues Alzheimer's Cognitive Deficits through Remodeling the Neurovascular Unit.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jan 10;8(2):2001918. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes Shanghai Universities Collaborative Innovation Center for Translational Medicine Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine 280 South Chongqing Road Shanghai 200025 China.

Cerebrovascular dysfunction characterized by the neurovascular unit (NVU) impairment contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, a cerebrovascular-targeting multifunctional lipoprotein-biomimetic nanostructure (RAP-RL) constituted with an antagonist peptide (RAP) of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), monosialotetrahexosyl ganglioside, and apolipoprotein E3 is developed to recover the functional NVU and normalize the cerebral vasculature. RAP-RL accumulates along the cerebral microvasculature through the specific binding of RAP to RAGE, which is overexpressed on cerebral endothelial cells in AD. It effectively accelerates the clearance of perivascular A, normalizes the morphology and functions of cerebrovasculature, and restores the structural integrity and functions of NVU. RAP-RL markedly rescues the spatial learning and memory in APP/PS1 mice. Collectively, this study demonstrates the potential of the multifunctional nanostructure RAP-RL as a disease-modifying modality for AD treatment and provides the proof of concept that remodeling the functional NVU may represent a promising therapeutic approach toward effective intervention of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202001918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816710PMC
January 2021

A novel prognostic score based on systemic inflammatory biomarkers for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Oral Dis 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Environment Factors and Cancer, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fujian, China.

Objective: To explore the prognostic value of systemic inflammatory biomarkers (albumin/globulin ratio [AGR], neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio [NLR], and platelet/lymphocyte ratio [PLR]) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and further develop a novel prognostic score (AGR-NLR).

Methods: A large-scale prospective study enrolling 792 eligible patients from December 2002 to June 2018 was carried out at the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University. Three multivariate Cox regression models were performed to assess the association of overall survival (OS) with systemic inflammatory biomarkers, quantified by Akaike information criterion (AIC). Then, a novel AGR-NLR score was established and incorporated into a prognostic nomogram.

Results: In the univariate analysis, the increased AGR was associated with a reduced risk of death. Conversely, the higher NLR and PLR, the worse the OS. In the multivariate Cox regression models, AGR and NLR were stably independent prognostic indicators in all models, with Model 2 showing a lowest AIC (AGR: HR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.41-0.78; NLR: HR = 1.80, 95%CI: 1.07-3.04). Then, a novel AGR-NLR score was established, which showed a more excellent performance than either AGR or NLR alone (area under curve [AUC]: 0.589, 0.559, and 0.556, respectively). The C-index of the nomogram based on AGR-NLR was superior to that of traditional TNM staging system (C-index: 0.658 versus. 0.596, p < .001). Similar results were also showed by decision curve analysis, indicating the nomogram had more positive net benefit compared to TNM staging system.

Conclusion: The novel AGR-NLR score is strongly associated with outcome in patients with OSCC and could be serve as a useful tool to accurately predict the OS of OSCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13774DOI Listing
January 2021

The effect of formal statistical courses attitudes on learning outcomes in a cohort of undergraduate dental students.

Eur J Dent Educ 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Introduction: Whilst statistical knowledge is essential for dental students' academic or professional careers, only a few studies have measured the attitudes of these students towards statistics courses. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes of a cohort of dental students towards a formal statistical course and explore the factors that are potentially related to these attitudes.

Methods: A survey was performed amongst dental students of 2017 entry at Fujian Medical University, China. The questionnaire covers three aspects: demographic characteristics, educational background and attitudes towards formal statistics courses.

Results: A total of 103 dental students enrolled for the survey, and the response rate was 100.0%. 44.7% of dental students had positive attitudes towards formal statistics courses with an overall average of 25.7 (SD = 2.2, out of 30). Students' computer skills, expectations of course achievement, attention in class and learning atmosphere of the class were significantly associated with the attitudes towards formal statistics courses. Moreover, students with positive attitudes experienced a greater improvement in the statistical cognition and application ability of statistical methods after the course than those with negative/neutral attitudes. Additionally, a positive correlation was observed between students' attitudes and achievement in the examination.

Conclusion: These results suggest that attitudes are critical to the learning effectiveness in formal statistics courses amongst undergraduate dental students. All the educators involved should monitor the students' attitudes in the teaching process and make effective interventions to improve students' attitudes towards formal statistics courses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eje.12660DOI Listing
January 2021

Synergistic Effect of ,-Dimethylformamide and Hydrochloric Acid on the Growth of MAPbI Perovskite Films for Solar Cells.

ACS Omega 2020 Dec 8;5(50):32295-32304. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Key Laboratory of Green Perovskites Application of Fujian Province Universities, Fujian Jiangxia University, Fuzhou 350108, China.

Perovskite solar cells have emerged as a promising next-generation electrical power generating tool. However, imperfections in perovskite films are one of the crucial factors preventing the commercialization of perovskite solar cells. Passivation has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce the density of defect states in perovskite crystals and inhibit ion migration. Although significant work on chloride ion and ,-dimethylformamide (DMF) has shown that the additives are able to passivate different types of trap defects, systematic studies on the effects of DMF and HCl on perovskite crystallization when used in conjunction with each other are elusive. Here, we systematically investigated the synergistic effect of DMF and hydrochloric acid (HCl) on methylammonium (MA)-based perovskite films with the two-step spin-coating method. As a Lewis base, DMF coordinates well with Pb to facilitate a decrease in the number of defects, thereby improving the carrier separation and transport, while HCl improves the overall perovskite film morphology. Addition of 20 μL HCl/20 μL DMF to 10 mL of methylammonium iodide/isopropyl alcohol solution afforded ca. 500 nm thick perovskite films with no observable defects within the grains. The process allowed fabrication of devices with an active area of 0.16 cm, which produced power conversion efficiencies up to 18.37% with minimal hysteresis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c04102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758882PMC
December 2020

Dihydroartemisinin Ameliorates Decreased Neuroplasticity-Associated Proteins and Excessive Neuronal Apoptosis in APP/PS1 Mice.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2020 ;17(10):916-925

Neuroscience Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the worst neurodegenerative disorders worldwide, with extracellular senile plaques (SP), subsequent intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and final neuron loss and synaptic dysfunction as the main pathological characteristics. Excessive apoptosis is the main cause of irreversible neuron loss. Thus, therapeutic intervention for these pathological features has been considered a promising strategy to treat or prevent AD. Dihydroartemisin (DHA) is a widely used first-line drug for malaria. Our previous study showed that DHA treatment significantly accelerated Aβ clearance, improved memory and cognitive deficits in vivo and restored autophagic flux both in vivo and in vitro.

Methods: The present study intended to explore the neuroprotective effect of DHA on neuron loss in APP/PS1 double-transgenic mice and the underlying mechanisms involved. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis showed that DHA significantly reduced the swollen endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in APP/PS1 mice. Western blot analysis indicated that DHA upregulated the level of NeuN, NeuroD, MAP2, and synaptophysin and promoted neurite outgrowth. Meanwhile, DHA greatly corrected the abnormal levels of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and rescued the neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 area. Western blot analysis revealed that DHA notably down-regulated the protein expression of full length caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3 and Bax. In parallel, the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 increased after oral DHA treatment.

Results: Altogether, these results indicate that DHA protected AD mice from neuron loss via promoting the expression of BDNF and other neuroplasticity-associated proteins and suppressing the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567205017666201215124746DOI Listing
January 2020

Dynamics of HIV-1 Molecular Networks Reveal Effective Control of Large Transmission Clusters in an Area Affected by an Epidemic of Multiple HIV Subtypes.

Front Microbiol 2020 13;11:604993. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

NHC Key Laboratory of AIDS Immunology (China Medical University), National Clinical Research Center for Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

This study reconstructed molecular networks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission history in an area affected by an epidemic of multiple HIV-1 subtypes and assessed the efficacy of strengthened early antiretroviral therapy (ART) and regular interventions in preventing HIV spread. We collected demographic and clinical data of 2221 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected patients in a long-term cohort in Shenyang, Northeast China, between 2008 and 2016. HIV pol gene sequencing was performed and molecular networks of CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC, and subtype B were inferred using HIV-TRACE with separate optimized genetic distance threshold. We identified 168 clusters containing ≥ 2 cases among CRF01_AE-, CRF07_BC-, and subtype B-infected cases, including 13 large clusters (≥ 10 cases). Individuals in large clusters were characterized by younger age, homosexual behavior, more recent infection, higher CD4 counts, and delayed/no ART ( < 0.001). The dynamics of large clusters were estimated by proportional detection rate (PDR), cluster growth predictor, and effective reproductive number (R ). Most large clusters showed decreased or stable during the study period, indicating that expansion was slowing. The proportion of newly diagnosed cases in large clusters declined from 30 to 8% between 2008 and 2016, coinciding with an increase in early ART within 6 months after diagnosis from 24 to 79%, supporting the effectiveness of strengthened early ART and continuous regular interventions. In conclusion, molecular network analyses can thus be useful for evaluating the efficacy of interventions in epidemics with a complex HIV profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.604993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691493PMC
November 2020

A novel nutritional risk score and prognosis of oral cancer patients: A prospective study.

Oral Dis 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Environment Factors and Cancer, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the prognostic performance of a novel nutritional risk score based on serum iron, hemoglobin, and body mass index (BMI) in oral cancer patients, and to predict the response to chemotherapy in patients with different nutritional status.

Methods: X-tile analysis was performed to determine the optimal cutoff values of serum iron, hemoglobin, and BMI. A nutritional risk score was established by using the HR values of serum iron, hemoglobin, and BMI. Kaplan-Meier curve and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the prognostic value of the nutritional risk score in overall survival (OS) and oral cancer-specific survival (OCSS).

Results: Serum iron, hemoglobin, and body mass index were all inversely related to the prognosis of oral cancer. The adjusted HR of serum iron, hemoglobin, and BMI were 1.562, 1.886, and 1.465 for OS, and 1.653, 1.865, and 1.443 for OCSS. Patients with higher nutritional risk score had a poorer OS and OCSS. Additionally, chemotherapy was only associated with improved OCSS in patients with the lowest nutritional risk score, but not in patients with higher one.

Conclusions: Nutritional risk score is of prognostic value in oral cancer patients. Favorable response to chemotherapy may only be observed in well-nourished oral cancer patients with lower nutritional risk score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13733DOI Listing
November 2020
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