Publications by authors named "Yu Liu"

5,955 Publications

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Metabolome and transcriptome analyses of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway for the efficient accumulation of anthocyanins and other flavonoids in a new duckweed variety (68-red).

J Plant Physiol 2022 Jun 11;275:153753. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

Duckweed is a kind of aquatic plant with the characteristics of high nutritional value and medicinal benefits. However, most researches focused on the natural germplasms. The underlying metabolic pathway remains to be systematically elaborated in duckweed. In our laboratory, one reddish-purple mutant with high-flavonoids was screened from a mutant library of Spirodela polyrhiza 6068, named 68-red. The content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in 68-red mutant increased by 563.47% and 231.19%, respectively, compared to wild type. It is interesting that cynaroside and orientin content were significantly increased, in contrast, apigetrin and vitexin were decreased in 68-red mutant. Considering this, metabolome and transcriptome were employed to explore the flavonoids biosynthetic pathway. Here, a total of 734 metabolites were identified in the wild type and 68-red mutant. Among which, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)glucoside were significantly accumulated, which were positively correlated with deep reddish-purple of 68-red mutant. In addition, proanthocyanidins (B1, B2, B3, B4, C1, C2), flavonoid and its glycosides (11 luteolin and its glycosides, 14 quercetin and its glycosides, 14 kaempferol and its glycosides, 2 apigenin glycosides) were significantly accumulated, 2 apigenin glycosides were down-regulated in 68-red mutant. The transcriptome data and qRT-PCR indicated that 16 enzyme genes in flavonoids biosynthetic pathway (PAL, C4H, CHSs, F3H, ANS, ANR, F3'Hs, DFRs, LAR, GT1, BZ1) were significantly up-regulated in 68-red mutant. Correlation analysis found that three copies of F3'H gene play important roles in the synthesis of anthocyanins, luteolin and apigenin glycosides. In conclusion, the 68-red mutant is a high quality germplasm resources for food and medical industry. Metabolome and transcriptome provide new insight for exploring the enzyme genes and functional metabolites in duckweed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2022.153753DOI Listing
June 2022

Echinacoside Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Bladder Damage in Mice.

J Med Food 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Interstitial cystitis (IC) is featured by apoptosis and chronic inflammation in bladder tissue. We aimed to evaluate the effect of echinacoside (ECH), which is known to modulate inflammation and apoptosis on IC using relevant models. We established a mouse model of cystitis using cyclophosphamide (CYP) and treated human urothelium cells (SV-HUC-1) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + ATP as model. The bladder function was tested by urodynamics. Apoptosis of bladder cells was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay. Expressions of apoptosis-associated and inflammation-related proteins were assessed using western blotting. Treatment with ECH significantly improved bladder function, reduced inflammatory damage, and decreased apoptosis in the models. Furthermore, ECH decreased the phosphorylation levels of IB and NF-B(p65), and upregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR), which are related to apoptosis and inflammation in CYP-induced mouse cystitis. Moreover, ECH did not reduce apoptosis of urothelial cells after treatment with PPAR antagonist GW9662. Our findings suggest that ECH might have protective effect against IC in bladder and be mediated through modulation of the PPAR/NF-B pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2021.K.0194DOI Listing
June 2022

Integrins in the Immunity of Insects: A Review.

Front Immunol 2022 9;13:906294. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Integrins are a large group of cell-surface proteins that are classified as transmembrane proteins. Integrins are classified into different types based on sequence variations, leading to structural and functional diversity. They are broadly distributed in animals and have a wide range of biological functions such as cell-to-cell communication, intracellular cytoskeleton organization, cellular signaling, immune responses, etc. Integrins are among the most abundant cell surface proteins in insects, exhibiting their indispensability in insect physiology. Because of their critical biological involvement in physiological processes, they appear to be a novel target for designing effective pest control strategies. In the current literature review, we first discuss the discovery and expression responses of integrins against various types of pathogens. Secondly, we examine the specific biological roles of integrins in controlling microbial pathogens, such as phagocytosis, encapsulation, nodulation, immune signaling, and so on. Finally, we describe the possible uses of integrins to control agricultural insect pests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.906294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218073PMC
June 2022

Comparison of Post-operative Outcomes Between Direct Axillary Artery Cannulation and Side-Graft Axillary Artery Cannulation in Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 10;9:925709. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: There is a growing perception of using axillary artery cannulation to improve operative outcomes in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Two techniques, direct cannulation or side-graft cannulation, can be used for axillary artery cannulation, but which technique is better is controversial.

Methods: A meta-analysis of comparative studies reporting operative outcomes using direct cannulation vs. side-graft cannulation was performed. We searched the PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Outcomes of interest were neurological dysfunction, cannulation-related complications and early mortality. The fixed effects model was used.

Results: A total of 1,543 patients were included in the final analysis. Direct cannulation was used in 846 patients, and side-graft cannulation was used in 697 patients. Meta-analysis showed a higher occurrence of neurological Complication in direct cannulation group [odds ratio, 1.45, 95% CI (1.00, 2.10), χ = 4.40, = 0.05] and a significantly higher incidence of cannulation-related complications in the direct cannulation group [odds ratio, 3.12, 95% CI (1.87, 5.18), χ = 2.54, < 0.0001]. The incidence of early mortality did not have a difference [odds ratio, 0.95, 95% CI (0.64, 1.41), χ = 6.35, = 0.79].

Conclusions: This study suggests that side-graft axillary artery cannulation is a better strategy as it reduces the incidence of neurological dysfunction and cannulation-related complications.

Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier: CRD42022325456.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.925709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9226477PMC
June 2022

The Organ Size and Morphological Change During the Domestication Process of Soybean.

Front Plant Sci 2022 9;13:913238. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Plant Resources and Sustainable Use, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Soybean is one of the most important legume crops that can provide the rich source of protein and oil for human beings and livestock. In the twenty-one century, the total production of soybean is seriously behind the needs of a growing world population. Cultivated soybean [ (L.) Merr.] was domesticated from wild soybean ( Sieb. and Zucc.) with the significant morphology and organ size changes in China around 5,000 years ago, including twisted stems to erect stems, small seeds to large seeds. Then it was spread worldwide to become one of the most popular and important crops. The release of the reference soybean genome and omics data provides powerful tools for researchers and breeders to dissect the functional genes and apply the germplasm in their work. Here, we summarized the function genes related to yield traits and organ size in soybean, including stem growth habit, leaf size and shape, seed size and weight. In addition, we also summarized the selection of organ traits during soybean domestication. In the end, we also discussed the application of new technology including the gene editing on the basic research and breeding of soybean, and the challenges and research hotspots in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.913238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9221068PMC
June 2022

Membranes for the life sciences and their future roles in medicine.

Chin J Chem Eng 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China.

Since the global outbreak of COVID-19, membrane technology for clinical treatments, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and protective masks and clothing, has attracted intense research attention for its irreplaceable abilities. Membrane research and applications are now playing an increasingly important role in various fields of life science. In addition to intrinsic properties such as size sieving, dissolution and diffusion, membranes are often endowed with additional functions as cell scaffolds, catalysts or sensors to satisfy the specific requirements of different clinical applications. In this review, we will introduce and discuss state-of-the-art membranes and their respective functions in four typical areas of life science: artificial organs, tissue engineering, blood diagnosis and medical support. Emphasis will be given to the description of certain specific functions required of membranes in each field to provide guidance for the selection and fabrication of the membrane material. The advantages and disadvantages of these membranes have been compared to indicate further development directions for different clinical applications. Finally, we propose challenges and outlooks for future development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjche.2022.04.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9212902PMC
June 2022

Network-Based Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation May Modulate Gait Variability in Young Healthy Adults.

Front Hum Neurosci 2022 9;16:877241. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, United States.

Purpose: Previous studies have linked gait variability to resting-state functional connectivity between the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the default network (DN) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a novel transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) paradigm designed to simultaneously facilitate the excitability of the DAN and suppress the excitability of the DN (i.e., DAN+/DN-tDCS) on gait variability and other gait characteristics in young healthy adults.

Methods: In this double-blinded randomized and sham-controlled study, 48 healthy adults aged 22 ± 2 years received one 20-min session of DAN+/DN-tDCS ( = 24) or no stimulation (the Sham group, = 24). Immediately before and after stimulation, participants completed a gait assessment under three conditions: walking at self-selected speed (i.e., normal walking), walking as fast as possible (i.e., fast walking), and walking while counting backward (i.e., dual-task walking). Primary outcomes included gait stride time variability and gait stride length variability in normal walking conditions. Secondary outcomes include gait stride time and length variability in fast and dual-task conditions, and other gait metrics derived from the three walking conditions.

Results: Compared to the Sham group, DAN+/DN-tDCS reduced stride length variability in normal and fast walking conditions, double-limb support time variability in fast and dual-task walking conditions, and step width variability in fast walking conditions. In contrast, DAN+/DN-tDCS did not alter average gait speed or the average value of any other gait metrics as compared to the sham group.

Conclusion: In healthy young adults, a single exposure to tDCS designed to simultaneously modulate DAN and DN excitability reduced gait variability, yet did not alter gait speed or other average gait metrics, when tested just after stimulation. These results suggest that gait variability may be uniquely regulated by these spatially-distinct yet functionally-connected cortical networks. These results warrant additional research on the short- and longer-term effects of this type of network-based tDCS on the cortical control of walking in younger and older populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2022.877241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9220095PMC
June 2022

The Association Between Bronchoscopy and the Prognoses of Patients With Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Intensive Care Units: A Retrospective Study Based on the MIMIC-IV Database.

Front Pharmacol 2022 8;13:868920. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

In intensive care units (ICUs), the morbidity and mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are relatively high, and this condition also increases medical expenses for mechanically ventilated patients, which will seriously affect the prognoses of critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of bronchoscopy on the prognosis of patients with VAP undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). This was a retrospective study based on patients with VAP from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care IV database. The outcomes were ICU and in-hospital mortality. Patients were divided based on whether or not they had undergone bronchoscopy during IMV. Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to analyze the association between groups and outcomes. Propensity score matching (PSM) and propensity score based inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) were used to further verify the stability of the results. The effect of bronchoscopy on prognosis was further analyzed by causal mediation analysis (CMA). This study enrolled 1,560 patients with VAP: 1,355 in the no-bronchoscopy group and 205 in the bronchoscopy group. The KM survival curve indicated a significant difference in survival probability between the two groups. The survival probabilities in both the ICU and hospital were significantly higher in the bronchoscopy group than in the no bronchoscopy group. After adjusting all covariates as confounding factors in the Cox model, the HRs (95% CI) for ICU and in-hospital mortality in the bronchoscopy group were 0.33 (0.20-0.55) and 0.40 (0.26-0.60), respectively, indicating that the risks of ICU and in-hospital mortality were 0.67 and 0.60 lower than in the no-bronchoscopy group. The same trend was obtained after using PSM and IPTW. CMA showed that delta-red blood cell distribution width (RDW) mediated 8 and 7% of the beneficial effects of bronchoscopy in ICU mortality and in-hospital mortality. Bronchoscopy during IMV was associated with reducing the risk of ICU and in-hospital mortality in patients with VAP in ICUs, and this beneficial effect was partially mediated by changes in RDW levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.868920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9214225PMC
June 2022

Evidence and implication of interventions across various socioecological levels to address pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and adherence among men who have sex with men in the United States: a systematic review.

AIDS Res Ther 2022 Jun 26;19(1):28. Epub 2022 Jun 26.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represents a proven biomedical strategy to prevent HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States (US). Despite the design and implementation of various PrEP-focus interventions in the US, aggregated evidence for enhancing PrEP uptake and adherence is lacking. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize and evaluate interventions aimed to improve PrEP uptake and adherence among MSM in the US, and identify gaps with opportunities to inform the design and implementation of future PrEP interventions for these priority populations.

Methods: We followed the PRISMA guidelines and conducted a systematic review of articles (published by November 28, 2021) with a focus on PrEP-related interventions by searching multiple databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science and PsycINFO). Details of PrEP interventions were characterized based on their socioecological level(s), implementation modalities, and stage(s) of PrEP cascade continuum.

Results: Among the 1363 articles retrieved from multiple databases, 42 interventions identified from 47 publications met the inclusion criteria for this review. Most individual-level interventions were delivered via text messages and/or apps and incorporated personalized elements to tailor the intervention content on participants' demographic characteristics or HIV risk behaviors. Interpersonal-level interventions often employed peer mentors or social network strategies to enhance PrEP adoption among MSM of minority race. However, few interventions were implemented at the community-, healthcare/institution- or multiple levels.

Conclusions: Interventions that incorporate multiple socioecological levels hold promise to facilitate PrEP adoption and adherence among MSM in the US given their acceptability, feasibility, efficacy and effectiveness. Future PrEP interventions that simultaneously address PrEP-related barriers/facilitators across multiple socioecological levels should be enhanced with a focus to tackle contextual and structural barriers (e.g., social determinants of health, stigma or medical mistrust) at the community- and healthcare/institution-level to effectively promote PrEP use for MSM of color.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-022-00456-1DOI Listing
June 2022

Diagnostic accuracy of DNA-based SDC2 methylation test in colorectal cancer screening: a meta-analysis.

BMC Gastroenterol 2022 Jun 26;22(1):314. Epub 2022 Jun 26.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130041, China.

Background: A growing body of research suggests that methylated genes can be used as early diagnostic markers for cancer. Some studies on methylated Syndecan 2 (SDC2) have shown that it has a great diagnostic ability in colorectal cancer. This meta-analysis was aimed to estimate the diagnostic performance of methylated SDC2 as a potential novel biomarker to screen for the colorectal cancer.

Methods: Two independent researchers conducted a comprehensive literature search to identify all relevant studies on SDC2 methylation for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer from inception to March 1, 2021. By using STATA and Revman software, the data were analyzed using a Bivariate mixed model. The quality of each study was also evaluated.

Results: A total of 12 studies comprised of 1574 colorectal cancer patients and 1945 healthy people were included in our meta-analysis. Bivariate analysis showed a pooled sensitivity of 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.86], specificity of 0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.96), positive likelihood ratio of 15.29 (95% CI 10.83-21.60), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.21 (95% CI 0.15-0.27). The diagnostic odds ratio and the area under the summary ROC curve for diagnosing colorectal cancer were 74.42 (95% CI45.44-121.89) and 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.97), respectively. For adenomas, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.47 (95% CI 0.34-0.61) and 0.95 (95% CI 0.92-0.97), respectively.

Conclusions: Our analysis revealed that methylated SDC2 could be considered as a potential novel biomarker to screen for colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-022-02395-7DOI Listing
June 2022

Spatial-temporal evolution and driving factors of grey water footprint efficiency in the Yangtze River Economic Belt.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 23:156930. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

School of Business, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China. Electronic address:

At present, the deterioration of the water ecosystem has constituted a bottleneck for the further development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB). As a crucial indicator for evaluating the degree of water pollution, grey water footprint (GWF) is of great significance for rationally evaluating the water environment of the YREB. In this study, we calculated the GWF efficiency of the YREB based on the panel data of 9 provinces and 2 cities from 2005 to 2019. On this basis, spatiotemporal methods and Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) model were adopted to analyze the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics and driving factors of GWF efficiency in the YREB. This study drew the following conclusions: (1) the GWF efficiency in the YREB was on an uptrend, with the average annual growth rates of the upstream, midstream and downstream being 17.35 %, 18.31 % and 17.8 % respectively from 2005 to 2019. (2) The GWF efficiency in the YREB showed a weak trend of polarization and the gap between different regions continued to widen. Besides, it was characterized by stability and owned a positive spatial correlation in both geographic distance and economic distance. (3) The improvement of the technology level, water use efficiency, wastewater treatment capacity, economic development level and the reduction in the industrial pollution intensity contributed positively to boosting the GWF efficiency. Meanwhile, the effect of environmental regulation made a significant negative contribution to GWF efficiency. Therefore, in the process of building the YREB, while emphasizing the coordinated development of the economy, all regions should also carry out joint pollution control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156930DOI Listing
June 2022

Plasticity changes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex associated with procedural sequence learning are hemisphere-specific.

Neuroimage 2022 Jun 22:119406. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

School of Psychology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Corticocortical neuroplastic changes from higher-order cortices to primary motor cortex (M1) have been described for procedural sequence learning. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays critical roles in cognition, including in motor learning and memory. However, neuroplastic changes in the DLPFC and their influence on M1 and on motor learning are not well understood. The present study examined bilateral DLPFC-M1 changes in plasticity induced by procedural motor sequence learning in a serial reaction time task. DLPFC plasticity induced by procedural sequence learning was examined by comparing before vs. after training assessments of ipsilateral/contralateral DLPFC-M1 interactions between sequence order and random order trials performed using either the left or right hand. Intra-hemispheric (inter-stimulus interval [ISI] = 10 ms) and inter-hemispheric (ISI = 10 or 50 ms) DLPFC-M1 interactions and single-pulse motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The reaction times of participants measured during motor training were faster for sequence learning than for random learning with either hand. Paired-pulse TMS induced DLPFC-M1 interactions that were disinhibited after motor sequence learning, especially for left DLPFC-left M1 interactions with right hand task performance and for left DLPFC-right M1 interactions with left hand task performance. These findings indicate that motor sequence learning induces neuroplastic changes to enhance DLPFC-M1 interactions. This manifestation of plasticity showed hemispheric specificity, favoring the left DLPFC. DLPFC plasticity may be a useful index of DLPFC function and may be a treatment target for enhancing DLPFC function and motor learning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119406DOI Listing
June 2022

Application of a microplastic trap to the determination of the factors controlling the lakebed deposition of microplastics.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 22:156883. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Lammi Biological Station, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Helsinki University, Lammi FI-16900, Finland.

Microplastics (MPs) in aquatic environments are hard to degrade, easy to transport, and potentially hazardous to biota. Previous studies of MPs in lakes have shown that their deposition is a significant process controlling both their lateral dispersal from a source, and their concentration within the water column. However, the lakebed depositional rates of MPs have predominantly been determined using laboratory experiments and/or through model simulations that may not fully reflect field conditions. In this paper, lacustrine depositional rates in Lake Ulansuhai were documented using an MP trap that allowed for the assessment and quantification of the depositional rates of MPs of differing size, density, and shape at three sampling sites over five different time periods. The results showed that the downward flux for all types of MPs near the lakebed was correlated with wind speed. Higher wind speeds led to the resuspension of greater amounts of MPs in the lakebed sediments and the transport of greater amounts of MPs from the lake inlet to the lake interior and outlet along the hydrologic flow directions. Consequently, higher wind speeds increased the abundance of MPs at the sediment-water interface and intensified the vertical mixing of MPs in the lake water, resulting in a higher depositional flux of MPs. Particles of differing size, shape, and density exhibited different depositional rates. In general, fragmentary, larger size, and higher density MPs were more likely to be deposited. Thus, size and shape have a strong effect on the migration and deposition of HDMPs in Lake Ulansuhai.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156883DOI Listing
June 2022

The effect of the NLRP1 inflammasome on methamphetamine-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2022 Jun 12;237:109537. Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, 818 Fenghua Road, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211, PR China. Electronic address:

Methamphetamine (METH) use disorder has been shown to be in high comorbidity with cognitive deficits. METH-induced cognitive deficits are accompanied by neurotoxicity which could result from neuroinflammation. The potential role of NLRP1 inflammasome (NLRP1) and the downstream signalling pathway in METH-induced cognitive impairment was explored in the current study. Cognitive functions and the changes of NLRP1/Caspase-1/GSDMD signalling pathway were firstly determined in rats receiving daily injections of METH. Subsequently, the effects of aspirin-triggered-lipoxin A4 (ATL), a potent anti-inflammatory mediator, and NLRP1 siRNA was investigated were investigated in both METH-treated rats and HT22 cells. METH induces significant cognitive deficits in rats, using the NOR test. METH-induced cognitive impairment was in line with increased activities of NLRP1, cleaved-Caspase-11, IL-1β and TNF-α and the presence of GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis in the hippocampus of rats. NLRP1 inhibition by ATL significantly attenuated METH-induced cognitive impairment, in conjunction with the decreased activities of NLRP1 and cleaved-Caspase-1, IL-1β and TNF-α. ATL and NLRP1 siRNA also prevented the presence of apoptosis in the hippocampus of METH-treated rats and the cell death in METH-treated HT22 cells. These results reveal a novel role of NLRP1 and the downstream signaling pathways in the complex actions of METH-induced cognitive deficits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109537DOI Listing
June 2022

Aberrant APOBEC3C expression induces characteristic genomic instability in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Oncogenesis 2022 Jun 24;11(1):35. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 200032, Shanghai, China.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a well-known lethal and heterogeneous disease. Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) is an important mutagenic driver that has seldom been investigated in PDAC. Therefore, this study investigated the significance of APOBEC3C in PDAC. First, cytosine deamination-associated mutation signatures were identified in the PDAC cohorts from TCGA and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) datasets, and C > X-enriched kataegis regions were identified in the FUSCC cohort (12 to 27 counts per sample). Patients were stratified according to APOBEC3C expression, and high APOBEC3C expression was found to correlate with a higher motif enrichment score of 5'-CC-3' and an elevated kataegis count within PCSK5 and NES genes. Second, we compared APOBEC expression in PDAC and normal pancreatic tissues and found that APOBEC3C was substantially upregulated in PDAC. APOBEC3C-overexpressing cell lines were generated to substantiate the effects of APOBEC3C on PDAC genome, including alterations in single-nucleotide variant (SNV) classes (higher proportion of C > T conversions) and the formation of kataegis regions (newly occurring kataegis regions detected in ACHE and MUC6 genes). Three different PDAC cohorts (FUSCC, TCGA, and QCMG) were analysed to evaluate the prognostic value of APOBEC3C, and APOBEC3C overexpression predicted shorter survival. Finally, the APOBEC3C overexpression correalted with the PDAC tumour microenvironment (TME) remodelling, APOBEC3C expression was associated with the invasion of CD4 + T lymphocytes and CD8 + T lymphocytes (cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CTLs), indicating enhanced immune activity and validating the practicality of APOBEC3C for guiding immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41389-022-00411-9DOI Listing
June 2022

Study on the effects of different postprandial positions on blood pressure and heart rate in older adults with primary hypertension and postprandial hypotension.

Geriatr Nurs 2022 Jun 21;46:199-205. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

School of Nursing, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, No.11 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100029 China. Electronic address:

This randomized controlled trial explored the effects of a supine position or a semi-fowler position on postprandial blood pressure (BP) of older adults with primary hypertension and postprandial hypotension (PPH). Ninety-six participants were divided into the supine group, the semi-fowler group, and the control group with block-randomization. After a meal, the patients were placed in a supine position, a 45° semi-fowler position, or allowed daily activities, respectively. BP, heart rate and PPH symptoms were measured 5 times in 120 minutes after the meal. Repeated measurement analysis showed no statistical difference in BP, heart rate and PPH symptom scores among the three groups. BP in all groups decreased rapidly at the 30-minute point, and then moved steadily downward. Taking a supine position or semi-fowler position after meals had no effect on postprandial BP and heart rate after meals in older adults with hypertension and PPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2022.05.016DOI Listing
June 2022

The Association Between High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio and Cardiovascular Prognosis in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Angiology 2022 Jun 24:33197221110715. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Cardiology and Institute of Vascular Medicine, 66482Peking University Third Hospital; Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Science, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.

Limited studies have focused on the impact of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) to albumin ratio (CAR) on cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Hence, the present study evaluates the association between CAR and cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. We consecutively enrolled 9375 CHD patients undergoing DES implantation. All patients were divided into 3 groups according to their CAR: tertile 1 (CAR ≤.02, n=3125), tertile 2 (.02.06, n = 3125). The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that the incidences of MACCE and MI increased with high tertiles of the CAR (MACCE: 8.7 vs 10.5 vs 12.3%, log-rank P < .001; MI: 3.3 vs 4.0 vs 4.7%, long-rank P = .015). Cox regression analysis suggested that CAR was an independent risk factors for MACCE (HR per standard deviation (SD) increase: 1.07, 95% CI, 1.01-1.14, P = .024), and MI (HR per SD increase: 1.11, 95% CI, 1.01-1.22, P = .028). In conclusion the CAR is an independent predictor of MACCE and MI in CHD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00033197221110715DOI Listing
June 2022

Associations of Two Common Polymorphisms in MTHFR Gene with Blood Lipids and Therapeutic Efficacy of Simvastatin.

Curr Pharm Des 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.

Background And Purpose: Cardio-cerebrovascular disease is an important public health challenge worldwide, and its complex etiology has not been elucidated fully. The study was to investigate the relationship between two common polymorphisms C677T and A1298C in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, baseline lipids and the lipid-lowering efficacy of simvastatin in a Chinese hyperlipidemic population.

Methods: All participants were recruited from Anhui, China. By the extreme sampling method, we selected subjects with low response (n=108) and high response (n=106) based on their adjusted lipid-lowering response to simvastatin administrated for 8 consecutive weeks. Both MTHFR C677T and A1298C loci were genotyped by MALDI-TOF MS platform. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of oral 20 mg/d tablet of simvastatin.

Results: Patients with the 677TT genotype had significantly higher baseline TC, HDL-C, and change in HDL-C (ΔHDL-C) levels after treatment than those with 677CC+CT genotypes (β = 0.207, P = 0.045; β = 0.182, P = 0.026; and β = 0.16, P = 0.002, respectively). Patients with 1298AC+CC genotypes had significantly higher baseline LDL-C and change in LDL-C (ΔLDL-C) levels (β = 0.276, P =0.043; β = 0.359, P = 0.025, respectively) than those with 1298AA genotype. We found statistical interactions between the two SNPs in association with baseline HDL-C (P for interaction = 0.034), TC (P for interaction = 0.069), and TG (P for interaction = 0.034). Baseline TC (P = 0.027) and HDL-C (P = 0.046) and change in HDL-C (P = 0.019) were different among those with the MTHFR A-T haplotype compared with A-C.

Conclusions: Our major findings suggest that both MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms could be important genetic determinants of lipid traits and drug efficacy of simvastatin. This will contribute to a better understanding of strategies for personalized medication in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612828666220623102537DOI Listing
June 2022

Efficacy and Safety of Rupatadine Fumarate Combined with Acupoint Application in Allergic Rhinitis Complicated with Diabetes.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 14;2022:6935758. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Otolaryngology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029, China.

The prevalence of allergic rhinitis has exhibited an upward trend, and diabetes is a common endocrine metabolic disorder. Treatment of allergic rhinitis complicated with diabetes has been marginally explored. This study aimed to observe the effect of rupatadine fumarate combined with acupoint application in the treatment of allergic rhinitis complicated with diabetes and its effect on serum IgE levels. Totally 80 patients with allergic rhinitis complicated with diabetes admitted to our hospital from December 2019 to December 2020 were recruited and assigned to receive either rupatadine fumarate (control group) or rupatadine fumarate plus acupoint application (research group). The clinical observation indexes of the two groups of patients before and after treatment were analyzed, and the clinical efficacy of the two groups was evaluated. Rupatadine fumarate plus acupoint application was associated with a significantly higher efficacy (23 cases of markedly effective, 14 cases of effective, and 3 cases of ineffective) versus rupatadine fumarate alone (14 cases of markedly effective, 16 cases of effective, and 10 cases of ineffective) (  = 4.501,  = 0.034). The immunoglobulin E (IgE) and nasal mucosal eosinophils (EOS) levels of the two groups of patients after treatment decreased significantly, and the research group had lower results ( < 0.05). Patients in the research group showed significantly lower syndrome scores than those in the control group ( < 0.05). Rupatadine fumarate plus acupoint application resulted in significantly lower physical sign scores and interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels and higher levels of interferon-gamma (INF-) versus rupatadine fumarate alone ( < 0.05). The two groups showed a similar incidence of adverse events ( > 0.05). Rupatadine fumarate plus acupoint application may offer a viable alternative for the treatment of allergic rhinitis as it alleviates the clinical symptoms, improves the treatment efficiency, and enhances the anti-allergic effect of the drug, with a high safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6935758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9213154PMC
June 2022

Study on Solidification Process and Residual Stress of SiCp/Al Composites in EDM.

Micromachines (Basel) 2022 Jun 19;13(6). Epub 2022 Jun 19.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028, China.

To study the change of residual stress during heating and solidification of SiCp/Al composites, a one-way FSI (Fluid Structure Interaction) model for the solidification process of the molten material is presented. The model used process parameters to obtain the temperature distribution, liquid and solid-state material transformation, and residual stress. The crack initiated by the thermal stress in the recast layer was investigated, and a mathematical model of crack tip stress was proposed. The results showed a wide range of residual stresses from 44 MPa to 404 MPa. The model is validated using experimental data with three points on the surface layer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi13060972DOI Listing
June 2022

Pickering Emulsion Stabilized by Tea Seed Cake Protein Nanoparticles as Lutein Carrier.

Foods 2022 Jun 10;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, China.

To effectively deliver lutein, hydrothermally prepared tea seed cake protein nanoparticles (TSCPN) were used to fabricate Pickering emulsion, and the bioaccessibility of lutein encapsulated by Pickering emulsion and the conventional emulsion was evaluated in vitro. The results indicated that the average size and absolute value of zeta potential of TSCPN increased along with the increase in the protein concentration, and 2% protein concentration was adopted to prepare TSCPN. With the increase in the concentration of TSCPN, the size of Pickering emulsion decreased from 337.02 μm to 89.36 μm, and when the TSCPN concentration was greater than 0.6%, all emulsions exhibited good stability during the 14 days storage. Combined with the microstructure result, 1.2% TSCPN was used to stabilize Pickering emulsion. With the increase in ionic concentration (0-400 mM), the particle size of the emulsions increased while the absolute value of zeta potential decreased. TSCPN-based Pickering emulsion was superior to the conventional emulsion for both lutein encapsulation (96.6 ± 1.0% vs. 82.1 ± 1.4%) and bioaccessibility (56.0 ± 1.1% vs. 35.2 ± 1.2%). Thus, TSCPN-based Pickering emulsion in this study have the potential as an effective carrier for lutein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11121712DOI Listing
June 2022

Sarcoidosis Mimicking Primary Lung Cancer on Tc-3PRGD2 Scintigraphy in a PTC Patient.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Jun 8;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Sarcoidosis is a multi-system disease of unknown etiology that typically occurs in middle-aged adults, often presenting as the formation of granulomas in various organs, including the lungs. Non-typical pulmonary sarcoidosis is rare, and it isnecessary to distinguish its imaging features from lung cancer and tuberculosis. They may appear as an irregular mass with multiple nodules on thoracic computed tomography (CT). In this case, primary lung cancer was suspected in a 57-year-old papillary thyroid carcinoma patient, as the pulmonary lesions were non-radioiodine avid and progressed shortly afterward. The asymmetrical focal uptake that was demonstrated in integrin receptor imaging (Tc-PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2 (Tc-3PRGD2)) warranted flexible-bronchoscope biopsy. Meanwhile, no evidence of malignancy was found, and pathological manifestations led to the subsequent six months of anti-tuberculosis treatment. Combined with the fact that standard anti-tuberculosis showed no improvement, and the patient's condition was stabilized by corticosteroid treatment alone, a final diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made by an MDT (multidisciplinary consultation). Reported herein is the first case of a hyper vascularization condition within the non-typical asymmetrical sarcoidosis lesions, which should help to establish that the uptake of 3PRDG2 in sarcoidosis can avoid imaging pitfalls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12061419DOI Listing
June 2022

Ru-doping modulated cobalt phosphide nanoarrays as efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution rection.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Jun 16;625:457-465. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China. Electronic address:

Electrochemical water splitting is regarded as a prospective means for H production. The lack of efficient active sites and the sluggish kinetics in alkaline media remain the major obstacles for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, a rational construction of Ru-doped cobalt phosphide leaf-like nanoarrays supported on carbon cloth (Ru-CoP NAs) was designed via a MOF-derived route and subsequent phosphating treatment for accelerating HER in the alkaline. The unique hierarchical structure is conductive to exposing more active sites and accelerating the diffusion of electrolyte and the release of H bubble. The optimized Ru-CoP-2.5 NAs exhibits a small overpotential of 52 mV to drive 10 mA cm for HER and a low Tafel slope of 39.7 mV dec in 1 M KOH, which outperforms most of other reported CoP-based electrocatalysts. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations unveil that Ru dopants can modulate the electron environment around pure CoP and optimize the adsorption energy of H*, accelerating the reaction kinetics. This work provides an insight to promote the electrocatalytic activity of metal phosphide for hydrogen production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2022.06.059DOI Listing
June 2022

A Perilipin Affects Lipid Droplet Homeostasis and Aerial Hyphal Growth, but Has Only Small Effects on Virulence in the Insect Pathogenic Fungus .

J Fungi (Basel) 2022 Jun 15;8(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Biotechnology Research Center, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400716, China.

Lipid assimilation, storage, and turnover impact growth, development, and virulence in many microbial pathogens including fungi. Perilipins are proteins associated with lipid droplets (LDs) that mediate their assembly and turnover. Here, we characterized the () perilipin. expression was higher in minimal media than in rich media, and, using a BbPlin1::eGFP fusion protein, the protein was shown to be co-localized to LDs, with the high expression seen during infection and proliferation within the insect () host that dramatically decreased to almost no expression during fungal outgrowth on cadavers including in conidia, but that production resumed in the conidia once placed in nutrient-containing media allowing for germination and growth. Characterization of a targeted gene deletion strain (Δ) revealed a dramatic (>30%) reduction in cellular LD content, promotion of aerial hyphal growth, and a small decrease in virulence, with little to no effects on vegetative growth and stress responses. However, in the Δ strain, expression of the complementary LD-associated caleosin gene, , was enhanced under nutrient-poor conditions, although no changes in expression were seen in a Δ strain and the expression of in the Δ strain did not change LD patterns in cells. Transcriptome and RT-PCR analyses indicated increased expression of lipid metabolism-related genes, including triacylglyercol lipase 3, enoyl-CoA isomerase, and diacylglycerol-O-acetyl transferase in the deletion mutant. Lipid profile analyses confirmed that the loss of significantly reduced the cellular levels of contents of triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine as compared to the wild-type strain. These results demonstrate the involvement of the perilipin in mediating lipid homeostasis, fungal aerial hyphal growth, and virulence, revealing critical cycling from high expression during nutrient utilization within host cadavers to low expression during growth on the surface of the cadaver during the infection process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof8060634DOI Listing
June 2022

Lipid metabolism-related lncRNA SLC25A21-AS1 promotes the progression of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma by regulating the NPM1/c-Myc axis and SLC25A21 expression.

Clin Transl Med 2022 Jun;12(6):e944

Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Obesity alters metabolic microenvironment and is thus associated with several tumours. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role, molecular mechanism of action, and potential clinical value of lipid metabolism-related long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) SLC25A21-AS1 in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

Methods: A high-fat diets (HFDs)-induced obesity nude mouse model was established, and targeted metabolomics analysis was used to identify critical medium-long chain fatty acids influencing the growth of ESCC cells. Transcriptomic analysis of public dataset GSE53625 confirmed that lncRNA SLC25A21-AS1 was a lipid metabolism-related lncRNA. The biological function of lncRNA SLC25A21-AS1 in ESCC was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation(ChIP)assay, RNA-pull down, mass spectrometry, co-IP, and RNA IP(RIP) were performed to explore the molecular mechanism. Finally, an ESCC cDNA microarray was used to determine the clinical prognostic value of SLC25A21-AS1 by RT-qPCR.

Results: Palmitic acid (PA) is an important fatty acid component of HFD and had an inhibitory effect on ESCC cell lines. LncRNA SLC25A21-AS1 expression was downregulated by PA and associated with the proliferation and migration of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, SLC25A21-AS1 interacted with nucleophosmin-1 (NPM1) protein to promote the downstream gene transcription of the c-Myc in the nucleus. In the cytoplasm, SLC25A21-AS1 maintained the stability of SLC25A21 mRNA and reduced the intracellular NAD /NADH ratio by influencing tryptophan catabolism. Finally, we demonstrated that high expression of SLC25A21-AS1 promoted resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and was correlated with poor tumour grade and overall survival.

Conclusions: HFD/PA has an inhibitory effect on ESCC cells and SLC25A21-AS1 expression. SLC25A21-AS1 promotes the proliferation and migration of ESCC cells by regulating the NPM1/c-Myc axis and SLC25A21 expression. In addition, lncRNA SLC25A21-AS1 may serve as a favourable prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.944DOI Listing
June 2022

microRNA-301a-3p is a potential biomarker in venous ulcers vein and gets involved in endothelial cell dysfunction.

Bioengineered 2022 Jun;13(6):14138-14158

Department of Vascular Surgery, Heilongjiang Provincial Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Venous ulcer is a common contributor to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) of lower limbs, which seriously affects the life quality of patients. In this study, we researched the expression characteristics of microRNA-301a-3p (miR-301a-3p) in patients with CVI and investigated the impact of miR-301a-3p on the dysfunction of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The plasma level of miR-301a-3p in normal controls, patients with varicose great saphenous vein, and patients with the venous ulcer of lower limbs were measured. We adopted Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), HO, and oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) to induce endothelial cell injury . In this way, we evaluated the influence of miR-301a-3p on HUVEC viability, apoptosis, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress. Our data showed that miR-301a-3p was substantially overexpressed in patients with lower limb venous ulcers. The viability of HUVECs decreased, and miR-301a-3p was up-regulated after IL-1β, HO, and OGD treatment. miR-301a-3p inhibition greatly ameliorated the dysfunction and cell damage of HUVECs, promoted IGF1/PI3K/Akt/PPARγ, and down-regulated NF-κB/MMPs. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) or the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) inhibitor (GW9661) reversed the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects mediated by miR-301a-3p down-regulation. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor lessened cell injury mediated by miR-301a-3p overexpression. In terms of the mechanism, miR-301a-3p targeted the 3'UTR of Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and repressed the profile of IGF1. Thus, miR-301a-3p mediates venous endothelial cell damage by targeting IGF1 and regulating the IGF1/PI3K/Akt/PPARγ/NF-κB/MMPs pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2022.2083821DOI Listing
June 2022

Oleaginous Microalga as a Highly Effective Cell Factory for CO Fixation and High-Protein Biomass Production by Optimal Supply of Inorganic Carbon and Nitrogen.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 6;10:921024. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Microalgae used for CO biofixation can effectively relieve CO emissions and produce high-value biomass to achieve "waste-to-treasure" bioconversion. However, the low CO fixation efficiency and the restricted application of biomass are currently bottlenecks, limiting the economic viability of CO biofixation by microalgae. To achieve high-efficient CO fixation and high-protein biomass production, the oleaginous microalga () was cultivated autotrophically through optimizing inorganic carbon and nitrogen supply. 0.42 g L NaHCO supplemented with 2% CO as a hybrid carbon source resulted in high biomass concentration (3.89 g L) and productivity (318.33) with CO fixation rate 544.21 mg L d in shake flasks. Then, used in a 5-L photo-fermenter, the maximal protein content (60.93% DW) in batch 1, and the highest CO fixation rate (1043.95 mg L d) with protein content (58.48% DW) in batch 2 of repeated fed-batch cultures were achieved under 2.5 g L nitrate. The relative expression of key genes involved in photosynthesis, glycolysis, and protein synthesis showed significant upregulation. This study developed a promising approach for enhancing carbon allocation to protein synthesis in oleaginous microalga, facilitating the bioconversion of the fixed carbon into algal protein instead of oil in green manufacturing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.921024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207446PMC
June 2022

Nurses' perceptions of continuing professional development: a qualitative study.

BMC Nurs 2022 Jun 23;21(1):162. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Nursing, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1095 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Background: Continuing professional development is regarded as one of the important approaches to maintaining skills and motivation for work. However, there is a lack of qualitative studies to explore Chinese nurses' continuing professional development. The study aims to explore Chinese nurses' perceptions of continuing professional development and challenges they face.

Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary hospital located in the central region of China from July to August 2020. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 14 nurses and face to face semi-structured interviews were conducted from July to August 2020. Then the recorded data were analysed and collated according to the thematic analysis. This study followed the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ).

Results: Four themes were extracted: improving specialty ability; different development phases; the importance of personal effort; the obstacle of work-family conflict.

Conclusions: This study contributed to our understandings of nurses' continuing professional development. Nurses held a positive attitude towards continuing professional development and they faced challenges in the meantime. Special attention and targeted supports should be provided to promote the continuing professional development of nursing staff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12912-022-00940-zDOI Listing
June 2022

Modifiable risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in China: a PURE substudy.

Eur Heart J 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

The Red Cross hospital of Shenyang, Shenyang, China.

Aims: To examine the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in China and in key subpopulations, and to estimate the population-level risks attributable to 12 common modifiable risk factors for each outcome.

Methods And Results: In this prospective cohort of 47 262 middle-aged participants from 115 urban and rural communities in 12 provinces of China, it was examined how CVD incidence and mortality rates varied by sex, by urban-rural area, and by region. In participants without prior CVD, population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for CVD and for death related to 12 common modifiable risk factors were assessed: four metabolic risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, abdominal obesity, and lipids), four behavioural risk factors (tobacco, alcohol, diet quality, and physical activity), education, depression, grip strength, and household air pollution. The mean age of the cohort was 51.1 years. 58.2% were female, 49.2% were from urban areas, and 59.6% were from the eastern region of China. The median follow-up duration was 11.9 years. The CVD was the leading cause of death in China (36%). The rates of CVD and death were 8.35 and 5.33 per 1000 person-years, respectively, with higher rates in men compared with women and in rural compared with urban areas. Death rates were higher in the central and western regions of China compared with the eastern region. The modifiable risk factors studied collectively contributed to 59% of the PAF for CVD and 56% of the PAF for death in China. Metabolic risk factors accounted for the largest proportion of CVD (PAF of 41.7%), and hypertension was the most important risk factor (25.0%), followed by low education (10.2%), high non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (7.8%), and abdominal obesity (6.9%). The largest risk factors for death were hypertension (10.8%), low education (10.5%), poor diet (8.3%), tobacco use (7.5%), and household air pollution (6.1%).

Conclusion: Both CVD and mortality are higher in men compared with women, and in rural compared with urban areas. Large reductions in CVD could potentially be achieved by controlling metabolic risk factors and improving education. Lowering mortality rates will require strategies addressing a broader range of risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehac268DOI Listing
June 2022
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