Publications by authors named "Yu Lei"

2,181 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Functional regulations between genetic alteration-driven genes and drug target genes acting as prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 23;12(1):10641. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

College of Bioinformatics Science and Technology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150081, China.

Differences in genetic molecular features including mutation, copy number alterations and DNA methylation, can explain interindividual variability in response to anti-cancer drugs in cancer patients. However, identifying genetic alteration-driven genes and characterizing their functional mechanisms in different cancer types are still major challenges for cancer studies. Here, we systematically identified functional regulations between genetic alteration-driven genes and drug target genes and their potential prognostic roles in breast cancer. We identified two mutation and copy number-driven gene pairs (PARP1-ACSL1 and PARP1-SRD5A3), three DNA methylation-driven gene pairs (PRLR-CDKN1C, PRLR-PODXL2 and PRLR-SRD5A3), six gene pairs between mutation-driven genes and drug target genes (SLC19A1-SLC47A2, SLC19A1-SRD5A3, AKR1C3-SLC19A1, ABCB1-SRD5A3, NR3C2-SRD5A3 and AKR1C3-SRD5A3), and four copy number-driven gene pairs (ADIPOR2-SRD5A3, CASP12-SRD5A3, SLC39A11-SRD5A3 and GALNT2-SRD5A3) that all served as prognostic biomarkers of breast cancer. In particular, RARP1 was found to be upregulated by simultaneous copy number amplification and gene mutation. Copy number deletion and downregulated expression of ACSL1 and upregulation of SRD5A3 both were observed in breast cancers. Moreover, copy number deletion of ACSL1 was associated with increased resistance to PARP inhibitors. PARP1-ACSL1 pair significantly correlated with poor overall survival in breast cancer owing to the suppression of the MAPK, mTOR and NF-kB signaling pathways, which induces apoptosis, autophagy and prevents inflammatory processes. Loss of SRD5A3 expression was also associated with increased sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. The PARP1-SRD5A3 pair significantly correlated with poor overall survival in breast cancer through regulating androgen receptors to induce cell proliferation. These results demonstrate that genetic alteration-driven gene pairs might serve as potential biomarkers for the prognosis of breast cancer and facilitate the identification of combination therapeutic targets for breast cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-13835-5DOI Listing
June 2022

Evaluation of Six Constitutive Strong Promoters by Fluorescent-Auxotrophic Selection Coupled with Flow Cytometry: A Case for Citric Acid Production.

J Fungi (Basel) 2022 May 26;8(6). Epub 2022 May 26.

Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin 300308, China.

is an important industrial workhorse for the biomanufacturing of organic acids, proteins, etc. Well-controlled genetic regulatory elements, including promoters, are vital for strain engineering, but available strong promoters for are limited. Herein, to efficiently assess promoters, we developed an accurate and intuitive fluorescent-auxotrophic selection workflow based on , , CRISPR/Cas9 system, and flow cytometry. With this workflow, we characterized six endogenous constitutive promoters in . The endogenous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter P showed a 2.28-fold increase in promoter activity compared with the most frequently used strong promoter P from . Six predicted conserved motifs, including the -box, were verified to be essential for the P activity. To demonstrate its application, the promoter P was used for enhancing the expression of citrate exporter in a citric acid-producing isolate D353.8. Compared with the controlled by P, the transcription level of the gene driven by P increased by 2.19-fold, which is consistent with the promoter activity assessment. Moreover, following overexpression, several genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism were synergically upregulated, resulting in up to a 2.48-fold increase in citric acid titer compared with that of the parent strain. This study provides an intuitive workflow to speed up the quantitative evaluation of promoters and strong constitutive promoters for fungal cell factory construction and strain engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof8060568DOI Listing
May 2022

3d transition metal coordination on monolayer MoS: a facile doping method to functionalize surfaces.

Nanoscale 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Two-dimensional materials (2DM) have attracted much interest due to their distinct optical, electronic, and catalytic properties. These properties can be tuned by a range of methods including substitutional doping and, as recently demonstrated, by surface functionalization with single atoms, thus increasing the 2DM portfolio. We theoretically and experimentally describe the coordination reaction between MoS monolayers and 3d transition metals (TMs), exploring their nature and MoS-TM interactions. Density functional theory calculations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy point to the formation of MoS-TM coordination complexes, where the adsorption energy for 3d TMs resembles the crystal-field (CF) stabilization energy for weak-field complexes. Pearson's theory for hard-soft acid-base and ligand-field theory were used to discuss the periodic trends of 3d TM coordination on MoS monolayer surfaces. We found that softer acids with higher ligand field stabilization energy, such as Ni, tend to form bonds with more covalent character with MoS, which can be considered a soft base. On the other hand, harder acids, such as Cr, tend to form more ionic bonds. Additionally, we studied the trends in charge transfer and doping observed from XPS and PL results, where metals like Ni led to n-type doping. In contrast, Cu functionalization results in p-type doping. Therefore, the formation of coordination complexes on TMD's surface is a potentially effective way to control and understand the nature of single-atom functionalization of TMD monolayers without relying on or creating new defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2nr01132hDOI Listing
June 2022

Molecular and cellular pathways in colorectal cancer: apoptosis, autophagy and inflammation as key players.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2022 Jun 22:1-12. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Radiotherapy, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Background: Colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC) is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, particularly in developing countries. It accounts for the second and third-highest reason for cancer-induced lethality in women and men respectively. CRC involves genetic and epigenetic modifications in colonic epithelium, leading to colon adenocarcinoma. The current review highlights the pathogenic mechanisms and multifactorial etiology of CRC, influenced by apoptosis, inflammation, and autophagy pathways.

Methods: We have carried out a selective literature review on mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of CRC.

Results: Resistance to senescence and apoptosis of the mesenchymal cells, which play a key role in intestinal organogenesis, morphogenesis and homeostasis, appears important for sporadic CRC. Additionally, inflammation-associated tumorigenesis is a key incident in CRC, supported by immune disruptors, adaptive and innate immune traits, environmental factors, etc. involving oxidative stress, DNA damage and epigenetic modulations. The self-digesting mechanism, autophagy, also plays a twin role in CRC through the participation of LC3/LC3-II, Beclin-1, ATG5, other autophagy proteins, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) susceptibility genes. It facilitates the promotion of effective surveillance pathways and stimulates the generation of malignant tumor cells. The autophagy and apoptotic pathways undergo synergistic or antagonistic interactions in CRC and bear a critical association with IBD that results from the pro-neoplastic effects of persistent intestinal inflammation. Conversely, pro-inflammatory factors stimulate tumor growth and angiogenesis and inhibit apoptosis, suppressing anti-tumor activities.

Conclusion: Hence, research attempts for the development of potential therapies for CRC are in progress, primarily based on combinatorial approaches targeting apoptosis, inflammation, and autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2022.2088247DOI Listing
June 2022

Empathy alleviates the learning burnout of medical college students through enhancing resilience.

BMC Med Educ 2022 Jun 20;22(1):481. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Objective: The problem of learning burnout of medical students is becoming prominent, and empathy can play a good predictive role in learning burnout. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between empathy and learning burnout, as well as the mediation effect of resilience in this relation.

Methods: Five hundred and eighty-eighth college students from a key medical university in Yunnan Province was investigated using the Basic Empathy Scale, Learning Burnout Scale, and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. All the measures showed good reliability and validity in the present study. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23.0 and Amos 22.0.

Results: Using structural equation modeling, we tested a conceptual model indicated that: (1) medical students' empathy negatively and significantly predicted learning burnout; (2) medical students' empathy positively predicts mental resilience; (3) resilience of medical students negatively predicts learning burnout; (4) resilience partially mediated the relationship between empathy and learning burnout of medical students, while also controlling for family socioeconomic status.

Conclusion: These findings highlight the mediating role of resilience in the effect of empathy on learning burnout of medical college students. It may contribute to a better understanding of the effect of empathy. Moreover, it can also provide constructive suggestions for protecting and improve empathy and resilience of medical college students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-022-03554-wDOI Listing
June 2022

Relationship Between Family Socioeconomic Status and Learning Burnout of College Students: The Mediating Role of Subjective Well-Being and the Moderating Role of Resilience.

Front Psychol 2022 27;13:844173. Epub 2022 May 27.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Objective: Learning burnout affects the positive development of college students. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between family socioeconomic status (FSES) and learning burnout, as well as the mediation effect of subjective well-being and the moderation effect of resilience in this relation.

Methods: A total of 550 Chinese college students from Yunnan completed a questionnaire measuring the research variables in this study.

Results: (1) After controlling for participants' gender and age, FSES negatively, and significantly predicted learning burnout; (2) subjective well-being partially mediated the relationship between FSES and learning burnout; and (3) the direct effect of FSES on learning burnout and the mediation effect of subjective well-being was moderated by resilience. The level of learning burnout of individuals with low resilience increased significantly with the decrease of FSES, and the level of learning burnout of individuals with high resilience decreased significantly with the increase in subjective well-being.

Conclusion: The present findings support the moderated mediation model underlying the relationship between FSES and learning burnout. This also has significant implications for formulating prevention and intervention measures on learning burnout among college students.

Limitations: First of all, this study used the cross-sectional study design, which cannot make a causal inference. In addition, the sample in this study is university students from Kunming, which may affect the popularity of the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.844173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9198660PMC
May 2022

Discovery of a potent and selective proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) degrader of NSD3 histone methyltransferase.

Eur J Med Chem 2022 Jun 13;239:114528. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 ZuChongZhi Road, Shanghai, 201203, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, NO. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049, PR China; School of Chinese Materia Medica, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Qixia District, Nanjing, 210023, PR China. Electronic address:

Nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 3 (NSD3) is an attractive potential target in the therapy for human cancers. Herein, we report the discovery of a series of small-molecule NSD3 degraders based on the proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) strategy. The represented compound 8 induces NSD3 degradation with DC values of 1.43 and 0.94 μM in NCI-H1703 and A549 lung cancer cells, respectively, and shows selectivity over two other NSD proteins. 8 reduces histone H3 lysine 36 methylation and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in lung cancer cells. Moreover, the RNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry assays showed that 8 downregulates NSD3-associated gene expression. Significantly, 8, but not 1 (a reported NSD3-PWWP antagonist) could inhibit the cell growth of NCI-H1703 and A549 cells. A single administration of 8 effectively decreases the NSD3 protein level in lung cancer xenograft models. Therefore, this study demonstrated that inducing NSD3 degradation is a more effective approach inhibiting the function of NSD3 than blocking the NSD3-PWWP domain, which may provide a potential therapeutic approach for lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2022.114528DOI Listing
June 2022

Mesocosm constructed wetlands to remove micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluent: Effect of matrices and pre-treatments.

Chemosphere 2022 Jun 14;305:135306. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Environmental Technology, Wageningen University & Research, 6700 AA, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The contamination of the aquatic environment by micropollutants (MPs) brings risks for the ecosystem and human health. Constructed wetlands (CWs) were an eco-friendly technology to remove MPs from wastewater treatment plant effluent. In this study, the removal of MPs was evaluated in seven vertical flow mesocosm CWs with different configurations, including different support matrices (sand and a combination of bark-biochar), light pre-treatments (UVC and sunlight) or bioaugmentation in support matrices (activated sludge). The CWs with bark-biochar as support matrix significantly enhanced the removal of irbesartan and carbamazepine (>40 %), compared to the CW filled with the conventional support matrix sand. UVC irradiation as pre-treatment was more efficient in removing MPs than sunlight irradiation. After UVC pre-treatment, less MPs accumulated in the plants in the subsequent CW unit compared to the CW unit without any pre-treatment. Moreover, in the UVC combined CW system, less sulfamethoxazole, furosemide, mecoprop and diclofenac were accumulated in the plants (<0.5 μg) than other MPs (>3 μg). The addition of 0.5 % activated sludge combined with the aeration of influent did not improve MP removal in the CW. Considering the application, a bark-biochar based CW combined with UVC pre-treatment will result in more MP removal than a conventional sand CW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135306DOI Listing
June 2022

TMEM106A transcriptionally regulated by promoter methylation is involved in invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University & State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Expression of transmembrane protein 106A (TMEM106A) has been reported to be dysregulated in several types of cancers. However, the role of TMEM106A in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that TMEM106A is markedly downregulated in HCC compared with normal liver tissue. In particular, tumor-specific DNA methylation of TMEM106A is frequently observed in tumor tissues from HCC patients. Immunohistochemistry and pyrosequencing reveal a significant relationship between TMEM106A methylation and downregulation of protein expression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis reveals that methylation of TMEM106A in tumor samples is different from that in non-malignant adjacent tissues of HCC patients. Moreover, HCC patients with TMEM106A hypermethylation have a poor clinical prognosis. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidin treatment of hypermethylated TMEM106A in highly metastatic HCC cells increases the expression of TMEM106A. Functional assays reveal that overexpression of TMEM106A significantly suppresses the malignant behavior of HCC cells in vitro and decreases tumorigenicity and lung metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, TMEM106A inhibits epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC cells through inactivation of the Erk1/2/Slug signaling pathway. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that TMEM106A is an inhibitor of HCC EMT and metastasis, and TMEM106A is often transcriptionally downregulated by promoter methylation, which results in reduced levels of TMEM106A protein and predicts poor survival outcomes for HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/abbs.2022069DOI Listing
May 2022

Comparison of COVID-19 Induced Respiratory Failure and Typical ARDS: Similarities and Differences.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 27;9:829771. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory for Human Disease Gene Study, Chengdu, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a predominantly respiratory infectious disease caused by novel coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV-2), respiratory failure is the main clinical manifestation and the leading cause of death. Even though it can meet the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Berlin definition, only some clinical features of COVID-19 are consistent with typical ARDS, and which has its own peculiar phenotypes. When compared with typical ARDS, in addition to the typical diffuse alveolar injury, COVID-19 has unique pathological and pathophysiological features, such as endothelial injury, extensive microthrombus, and pulmonary capillary hyperplasia. The clinical features of patients with respiratory failure caused by COVID-19 are heterogeneous and can be generally divided into two phenotypes: progressive respiratory distress and unique "silent hypoxemia". The "H-type" characteristics of reduced lung volume, decreased lung compliance, and unmatched ventilator-perfusion ratio. While some patients may have close to normal lung compliance, that is "L-type". Identifying the exact phenotype in whom are suffered with COVID-19 is crucial to guide clinicians to adopt appropriate treatment strategies. This review discussed the similarities and differences in the pathogenesis, pathophysiology, clinical features and treatment strategies of COVID-19 induced acute respiratory failure and typical ARDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.829771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9196311PMC
May 2022

Childhood socioeconomic status interacts with cognitive function to impact scam susceptibility among community-dwelling older adults.

Aging Ment Health 2022 Jun 13:1-6. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Objectives: We examined whether childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is related to scam susceptibility in old age and tested the hypothesis that childhood SES interacts with cognitive function to impact scam susceptibility.

Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design. All data were collected in participants' community-based residences. Participants were 1071 older adults (mean age = 81.05 years, SD = 7.53) without dementia (median MMSE score = 28.29, IQR = 27.86-30.00). Participants completed assessments of childhood SES, cognitive function, and scam susceptibility. We used linear regression models to examine the associations of childhood SES and cognitive function with scam susceptibility.

Results: In a regression model adjusted for age, gender, and education, poorer cognitive function was associated with higher scam susceptibility, but childhood SES was not. However, in an additional model that included the interaction of childhood SES and cognitive function, the interaction was significant, such that lower childhood SES was associated with higher scam susceptibility among participants with lower cognitive function.

Conclusion: Lower childhood SES is associated with higher scam susceptibility among older adults with lower levels of cognitive function. Thus, older adults who experienced limited resources in childhood and have lower cognitive function may represent a specific group for interventions to increase scam awareness and prevent financial exploitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2022.2087206DOI Listing
June 2022

CD20-specific chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cells as salvage therapy in rituximab-refractory/relapsed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Cytotherapy 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Hematology, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Background Aims: The infusion of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells that target specific tumor-associated antigens is a promising strategy that has exhibited encouraging results in clinical trials. However, few studies have focused on the effectiveness and safety of CD20 CAR T cells in rituximab-refractory/relapsed (R/R) B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) patients, particularly those treated with rituximab for a short time. This prospective study aimed to assess the effectiveness and toxicity of CD20 CAR T cells in R/R B-NHL patients previously treated with rituximab.

Methods: The authors conducted a prospective, single-center phase I study on the effectiveness and toxicity of CD20 CAR T cells in rituximab-treated R/R B-NHL patients (no. ChiCTR2000036350). A total of 15 patients with R/R B-NHL were enrolled between November 21, 2017, and December 1, 2021.

Results: An overall response rate of 100% was shown in enrolled patients, with 12 (80%) achieving complete remission and three (20%) achieving partial remission for the best response. The median follow-up time was 12.4 months. Progression-free survival and overall survival were not yet reached by the data cutoff day. No patient developed grade 4 cytokine release syndrome, and only one patient had immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome.

Conclusions: All enrolled B-NHL patients who were previously R/R to rituximab achieved different degrees of clinical response with tolerable toxicities. Notably, patients who had received rituximab within 3 months had a poorer prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcyt.2022.05.001DOI Listing
June 2022

Application of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor antagonists in fibrotic diseases.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Aug 9;152:113236. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of ICU, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Fibrosis can occur in various organs, leading to structural destruction, dysfunction, and even organ failure. Hence, organ fibrosis is being actively researched worldwide. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a naturally occurring hormone, binds to a G-protein-coupled receptor widely distributed in the pancreas, kidney, lung, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs. Synthetic GLP-1 analogs can be used as GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) for treating diabetes mellitus. In recent years, GLP-1RAs have also been found to exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cardiovascular protective effects. GLP-1RAs have also been shown to inhibit fibrosis of solid organs, such as the lung, heart, liver, and kidney. In this review, we discuss the advancements in research on the role of GLP-1RAs in the fibrosis of the heart, lung, liver, kidney, and other organs to obtain new clues for treating organ fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113236DOI Listing
August 2022

The diagnostic value of pepsin concentration in saliva for laryngopharyngeal reflux disease.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050000, China.

Objective: To explore the diagnostic efficacy of pepsin concentration in saliva for laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) disease.

Methods: In this study, we recruited 40 participants with abnormal sensation of throat into the study who visited our hospital from March 2020 to December 2020. The 24 h multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (24 h MII-pH), reflux symptom index (RSI) and reflux finding score (RFS), pepsin concentration in saliva were collected. The Cohen's kappa test and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to determine and compare the sensitivity and specificity of five diagnostic methods: RSI; RFS, pepsin concentration, RSI + RFS, RSI + RFS + pepsin concentration.

Results: The area under the curve (AUC) of RSI, RFS, pepsin concentration, RSI + RFS, RSI + RFS + pepsin concentration were 0.767, 0.733, 0.870, 0.750,0.867, respectively. That is, the pepsin concentration has maximum AUC (the cutoff point is 219.47 (ng/mL); the sensitivity and 1-specificity is 0.300, 0.933, respectively.). The positive predictive value was 90.3% (28/31), and the negative predictive value was 77.8% (7/9). The Cohen's kappa coefficients of the five diagnostic subgroups were: RSI 0.486 (95% CI 0.207-0.764, P = 0.001); RFS 0.333 (95% CI 0.021-0.644, P = 0.032); RSI + RFS: 0.517 (95% CI 0.205-0.829, P = 0.001); pepsin concentration: 0.699 (95% CI 0.379-0.931, P = 0.001); RSI + RFS + pepsin concentration: 0.500 (95% CI 0.181-0.819, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The pepsin concentration has the maximum AUC area and highest consistency with the 24 h MII-pH. Therefore, it has certain value in the screening and diagnosis of diseases related to LPR disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-022-07472-xDOI Listing
June 2022

Whole-Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the White-Rot Fungus Reveals Its Phylogenetic Status and the Genetic Basis of Lignocellulose Degradation and Terpenoid Synthesis.

Front Microbiol 2022 24;13:880946. Epub 2022 May 24.

Tianjin Key Laboratory for Industrial Biological Systems and Bioprocessing Engineering, Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, China.

is an endophytic white-rot fungus that has lignocellulolytic and terpenoid-biosynthetic abilities. However, little is known about the genomic architecture of this fungus, even at the genus level. In this study, we present the first genome assembly of (CGMCC No. 10485), based on PacBio long-read and Illumina short-read sequencing. The size of the genome is approximately 36 Mb (N50, 3.4 Mb). It encodes a total of 13,243 genes, with further functional analysis revealing that these genes are primarily involved in primary metabolism and host interactions in this strain's saprophytic lifestyle. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS demonstrated a primary evolutionary position for , while the phylogenetic analysis based on orthogroup inference and average nucleotide identity revealed high-resolution phylogenetic details in which , , and belong to the same evolutionary clade within the order Polyporales. Annotation of carbohydrate-active enzymes across the genome yielded a total of 806 genes encoding enzymes that decompose lignocellulose, particularly ligninolytic enzymes, lytic polysaccharides monooxygenases, and enzymes involved in the biodegradation of aromatic components. These findings illustrate the strain's adaptation to woody habitats, which requires the degradation of lignin and various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The terpenoid-production potential of was evaluated by comparing the genes of terpenoid biosynthetic pathways across nine Polyporales species. The shared genes highlight the major part of terpenoid synthesis pathways, especially the mevalonic acid pathway, as well as the main pathways of sesquiterpenoid, monoterpenoid, diterpenoid, and triterpenoid synthesis, while the strain-specific genes illustrate the distinct genetic factors determining the synthesis of structurally diverse terpenoids. This is the first genomic analysis of a species from this genus that we are aware of, and it will help advance functional genome research and resource development of this important fungus for applications in renewable energy, pharmaceuticals, and agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.880946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9171200PMC
May 2022

In Situ Observation of Thermoelastic Martensitic Transformation of Cu-Al-Mn Cryogenic Shape Memory Alloy with Compressive Stress.

Materials (Basel) 2022 May 26;15(11). Epub 2022 May 26.

Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

The thermoelastic martensitic transformation and its reverse transformation of the Cu-Al-Mn cryogenic shape memory alloy, both with and without compressive stress, has been dynamically in situ observed. During the process of thermoelastic martensitic transformation, martensite nucleates and gradually grow up as they cool, and shrink to disappearance as they heat. The order of martensite disappearance is just opposite to that of their formation. Observations of the self-accommodation of martensite variants, which were carried out by using a low temperature metallographic in situ observation apparatus, showed that the variants could interact with each other. The results of in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray and metallographic observation also suggested there were some residual austenites, even if the temperature was below M, which means the martensitic transformation could not be 100% accomplished. The external compressive stress would promote the preferential formation of martensite with some orientation, and also hinder the formation of martensite with other nonequivalent directions. The possible mechanism of the martensitic reverse transformation is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15113794DOI Listing
May 2022

A Heterogeneity Study of Carbon Emissions Driving Factors in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, China, Based on PGTWR Model.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 May 29;19(11). Epub 2022 May 29.

School of Economics, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China.

The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is an important economic growth pole in China and achieving carbon emission reduction in the region is of great practical significance. Studying the heterogeneity of the influencing factors of carbon emission in this region contributes to formulating targeted regional carbon emission reduction policies. Therefore, this paper adopted thirteen cities as individuals of cross-section and conducted spatial and temporal heterogeneity analysis of the influencing factors of converted carbon emissions in the region with panel data from 2013 to 2018 based on the PGTWR model. From a space-time perspective, the regression coefficient of each influencing factor in this region has obvious heterogeneity, which is mainly reflected in the time dimension. In the study period, the impact of industrial structure, the level of urbanization, energy intensity, and the level of economic growth on carbon emission showed a decline curve, while the impact of the level of opening up and the size of population was on the rise, indicating that more attention should be paid to the latter two factors for the time to come. In terms of space, the differences in the influence of industrial structure and energy intensity on carbon emission vary significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116644DOI Listing
May 2022

Human parainfluenza 3 and respiratory syncytial viruses detected in pangolins.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2022 Dec;11(1):1657-1663

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, P. R. People's Republic of China.

Pangolins have gained increasing global attention owing to their public health significance as potential zoonotic hosts since the identification of SARS-CoV-2-related viruses in them. Moreover, these animals could carry other respiratory viruses. In this study, we investigated the virome composition of 16 pangolins that died in 2018 with symptoms of pneumonia using metagenomic approaches. A total of eight whole virus sequences belonging to the or families were identified, including one human parainfluenza virus 3, one human respiratory syncytial virus A, and six human respiratory syncytial virus B. All of these sequences showed more than 99% nucleotide identity with the virus isolated from humans at the whole-genome level and clustered with human viruses in the phylogenetic tree. Our findings provide evidence that pangolins are susceptible to HPIV3 and HRSV infection. Therefore, public awareness of the threat of pangolin-borne pathogens is essential to stop their human consumption and to prevent zoonotic viral transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2022.2086071DOI Listing
December 2022

Effect of Bacterial Wilt on Fungal Community Composition in Rhizosphere Soil of Tobaccos in Tropical Yunnan.

Plant Pathol J 2022 Jun 1;38(3):203-211. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Lincang Company of Yunnan Tobacco Company, Lincang 677000, China.

Bacterial wilt, which is a major soil-borne disease with widespread occurrence, poses a severe danger in the field of tobacco production. However, there is very limited knowledge on bacterial wilt-induced microecological changes in the tobacco root system and on the interaction between Ralstonia solanacearum and fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil. Thus, in this study, changes in fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil of tobaccos with bacterial wilt were studied by 18S rRNA gene sequencing. The community composition of fungi in bacterial wilt-infected soil and healthy soil in two tobacco areas (Gengma and Boshang, Lincang City, Yunnan Province, China) was studied through the paired comparison method in July 2019. The results showed that there were significant differences in fungal community composition between the rhizosphere soil of diseased plants and healthy plants. The changes in the composition and diversity of fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil of tobaccos are vital characteristics of tobaccos with bacterial wilt, and the imbalance in the rhizosphere microecosystem of tobacco plants may further aggravate the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.03.2022.0035DOI Listing
June 2022

Origin of structural degradation in Li-rich layered oxide cathode.

Nature 2022 06 8;606(7913):305-312. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL, USA.

Li- and Mn-rich (LMR) cathode materials that utilize both cation and anion redox can yield substantial increases in battery energy density. However, although voltage decay issues cause continuous energy loss and impede commercialization, the prerequisite driving force for this phenomenon remains a mystery Here, with in situ nanoscale sensitive coherent X-ray diffraction imaging techniques, we reveal that nanostrain and lattice displacement accumulate continuously during operation of the cell. Evidence shows that this effect is the driving force for both structure degradation and oxygen loss, which trigger the well-known rapid voltage decay in LMR cathodes. By carrying out micro- to macro-length characterizations that span atomic structure, the primary particle, multiparticle and electrode levels, we demonstrate that the heterogeneous nature of LMR cathodes inevitably causes pernicious phase displacement/strain, which cannot be eliminated by conventional doping or coating methods. We therefore propose mesostructural design as a strategy to mitigate lattice displacement and inhomogeneous electrochemical/structural evolutions, thereby achieving stable voltage and capacity profiles. These findings highlight the significance of lattice strain/displacement in causing voltage decay and will inspire a wave of efforts to unlock the potential of the broad-scale commercialization of LMR cathode materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04689-yDOI Listing
June 2022

Neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular brain pathologies are differentially associated with declining grip strength and gait in older adults.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Understanding the pathologic bases underlying the heterogeneity of motor decline in old age may lead to targeted treatments. We examined whether different brain pathologies are related to declining grip strength and gait function.

Methods: We examined postmortem brains of older adults who underwent annual motor testing. Postmortem exam measured six neurodegenerative and five cerebrovascular disease (CVD) pathologies. Grip strength was measured twice bilaterally using a hand-held dynamometer and gait function was a composite measure based on time and steps taken to walk 8 ft and perform a 360 o turn twice.

Results: In separate linear mixed effects models including all autopsied adults (N=1217), neurodegenerative pathologies including tau tangles, TDP-43, and nigral neuronal loss were associated with declining grip strength, but not CVD pathologies. In contrast, while both CVD and neurodegenerative pathologies were associated with declining gait function, CVD pathologies accounted for 75% of the variance of declining rate of gait function explained by brain pathologies and neurodegenerative pathologies accounted for 25%. These findings were unchanged in adults (n=970) without a history of stroke. Restricting analyses to only adults without dementia (n=661), CVD pathologies continued to account for the majority of the variance of declining gait. However, we failed to detect in this subgroup variance of declining grip strength explained by neurodegenerative or CVD pathologies.

Conclusion: Different pathologies accumulating in aging brains may contribute to the phenotypic heterogeneity of motor decline. Larger studies are needed in older adults without dementia to assess differences in the motor consequences of varied brain pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glac128DOI Listing
June 2022

Clinical Application of C-TIRADS Category and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Differential Diagnosis of Solid Thyroid Nodules Measuring ≥1 cm.

Med Sci Monit 2022 Jun 7;28:e936368. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Ultrasound, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang, Liaoning, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of Chinese Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (C-TIRADS) category combined with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in diagnosing thyroid cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS From October 2020 to March 2021, 116 thyroid nodules from 113 patients who underwent conventional ultrasound and CEUS examinations at the General Hospital of Northern Theater Command were reviewed. In the conventional ultrasound examination, thyroid nodules were categorized by C-TIRADS. The nodules were reclassified based on CEUS scoring, then a combined diagnosis was made. The pathological results were taken as the criterion standard. To compare the diagnostic performance of the 3 methods according to the receiver operating characteristic curves produced for thyroid nodules. RESULTS After chi-square test, the 7 characteristics of enhancement patterns, internal homogeneity, wash-in, wash-out, ring enhancement, morphology, and contrast agent retention characteristics (CAR) were statistically different between malignant and benign tumors; A high diagnostic performance was demonstrated by C-TIRADS combined with CEUS in diagnosing thyroid cancer. The area under the curve (AUC), the sensitivity, and the specificity of C-TIRADS combined with CEUS for diagnosing thyroid cancer were 0.918 (95% CI: 0.852-0.961), 80.9% (95% CI: 69.1-89.8%), and 90.6% (95% CI: 79.3-96.9%), respectively. The AUC of C-TIRADS alone was significantly lower than that of C-TIRADS combined with CEUS (P=0.0056), while there was no significant difference between CEUS and C-TIRADS combined with CEUS (P=0.59). CONCLUSIONS The combined method of C-TIRADS and CEUS, with reduced rate of thyroid nodule biopsy and clinical application value, has higher diagnostic accuracy than the single diagnosis method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.936368DOI Listing
June 2022

Health and Human Wellbeing in China: Do Environmental Issues and Social Change Matter?

Front Psychol 2022 17;13:860321. Epub 2022 May 17.

School of Public Administration, Xiangtan University, Hunan, China.

How to mitigate greenhouse gas emission and achieve human development remain major sustainability issues, particularly in China. Empirical research on the effects of climate warming and social change on human health and wellbeing is quite fragmented. This study examines the impact of environmental issues and social changes on health and human wellbeing using a time series data of China from 1991 to 2020. Findings show that environmental issues have a negative impact on health and human wellbeing in long run. While the internet is a form of social change that tends to improve health and human wellbeing in the long run. FDI exerts a positive effect on human health, but it does not improve wellbeing in the long run. In contrast, financial development does not improve human health but it has a significant positive impact on wellbeing in the long run. Our empirical insights have important implications for achieving human wellbeing through the pursuit of environmental sustainability and social change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.860321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9157178PMC
May 2022

A systematic assessment of city-level climate change mitigation and air quality improvement in China.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 27;839:156274. Epub 2022 May 27.

Institute of Environment and Sustainability, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States. Electronic address:

China is facing dual challenges of air pollution and climate change. By using city-level data, we comprehensively assessed air quality and CO emission changes from 2015 to 2019 for 335 Chinese cities. We selected important regions for air pollution control and categorized all cities into different classes according to their development levels. Our novel approach revealed new insights on different patterns of changes of PM, O, and CO by region and city class. We found that PM concentrations decreased remarkably due to mandatory city-level reduction targets, especially in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (-27%) region. Nonetheless, O concentrations and CO emissions increased in 91% and 69% of Chinese cities, respectively. Observed CO emission reductions in more developed cities were mainly due to prominent energy intensity reduction and energy structure improvement. Our study indicates a lack of synergy in air pollution control and CO mitigation under current policies in China. To address both challenges holistically, we suggest setting mandatory city-level CO emission reduction targets and reinforcing clean energy and energy efficiency measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156274DOI Listing
September 2022

Prevalence of depression and anxiety and their predictors among patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in Northern China: a cross-sectional study.

Ren Fail 2022 Dec;44(1):933-944

Department of Nephrology, the Attached Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot, China.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) in Hohhot, a large city on the northern border of China, and to identify independent risk factors for depression and anxiety in these patients.

Methods: Patients receiving MHD for >3 months were enrolled in the four largest hemodialysis centers between September 2020 and December 2020. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Zung self-rated depression scale (SDS) and Zung self-rated anxiety scale (SAS), respectively, with demographic and other data collected for logistic regression analyses.

Results: Among 305 MHD patients included in this study, the prevalence of depression was 55.1%, including 27.5%, 21.0%, and 6.6% with mild, moderate and severe cases, respectively. The prevalence of anxiety was 25.9%, with 20.0%, 4.6%, and 1.3% having mild, moderate, and severe cases, respectively. An independent protective factor for depression was family income of ≥1415 US dollars/month relative to <157 US dollars/month (odds ratio [OR] 0.209, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.065-0.673), and predictors of depression included ≥3 comorbidities (OR 18.527, 95% CI 1.674-205.028) and severe pruritus (OR 15.971, 95% CI 5.173-49.315). Independent predictors of anxiety included infrequent exercise (OR 3.289, 95% CI 1.411-7.664) and severe pruritus (OR 5.912, 95% CI 1.733-20.168). The correlation between depression and anxiety in these patients was significant ( = 0.775,  < 0.001).

Conclusion: MHD patients in Northern China had high prevalence rates of depression (55.1%) and anxiety (25.9%). Lower family income, more comorbidities, and a higher degree of pruritus were predictors of depression, while infrequent exercise and severe pruritus were predictors of anxiety. Depression correlated significantly with anxiety. Attention should be given to family income, comorbidity, exercise, and pruritus severity for improved management of depression and anxiety among MHD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2022.2077761DOI Listing
December 2022

Degraded Rationality and Suboptimal Decision-Making in Old Age: A Silent Epidemic With Major Economic and Public Health Implications.

Public Policy Aging Rep 2022 26;32(2):45-50. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ppar/prac003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9118064PMC
April 2022

Correction to: Human papillomavirus drove cervical cancer: a study of the therapeutic potential of the combination of interferon with zinc.

Mol Cell Biochem 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130022, Jilin, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-022-04453-wDOI Listing
May 2022

[Comprehensive Analysis of the Relationship between m6A Methylation Patterns and Immune Microenvironment in Lung Adenocarcinoma].

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2022 May;25(5):311-322

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China.

Background: m6A RNA methylation modification plays an important role in the occurrence and progression of lung cancer and regulates tumor immunity. Current studies mostly focus on the differential expression of some specific m6A effectors and infiltrating immune cell. m6A methylation modification is the result of mutual adjustment and balance between effectors, and changes in the expression of one or two effectors are far from enough to reflect the panorama of m6A methylation. The role of m6A in the immune microenvironment of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different m6A modification patterns in immune microenvironment of LUAD.

Methods: LUAD data was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), University of California Santa Cruz Xena (UCSC Xena) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. Gene mutation, differential expression and survival analysis were performed for 24 m6A effectors. The m6A modification pattern was constructed by unsupervised clustering method, and the m6A clusters survival analysis, gene set variation analysis, immune score and immune cell infiltration analysis were performed. The association between LRPPRC protein expression levels and infiltration of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages in the tumor microenvironment was validated by immunohistochemistry in LUAD tissue microarray with 68 cases.

Results: The mutations of m6A effector were found in 150 of 567 LUAD cases with a frequency of 26.46%. 6 readers and 3 writers were significantly up regulated in LUAD tissues compared with normal tissues. IGF2BP1 and HNRNPC are the independent risk factors for prognosis of LUAD. Abundant cross-talks among writers, erasers and readers were demonstrated. Three m6A modification patterns with different immune cell infiltration characteristics and clinical prognosis were established. Among m6A effectors, LRPPRC was found to be inversely associated with the infiltration of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages, and was validated in 68 LUAD tissues.

Conclusions: m6A modification patterns play non-negligible roles in regulating the immune microenvironment. LRPPRC has potential to be a new biomarker for checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2022.103.02DOI Listing
May 2022

Rhein activated Fas-induced apoptosis pathway causing cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.

Toxicol Lett 2022 Jun 16;363:67-76. Epub 2022 May 16.

State Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources in Southwest China, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610075, China; Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Drug-Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Education Ministry, Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University,Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

Rhein, one of the main active components of rhubarb (Dahuang) and Polygonum multiflorum (Heshouwu), has a wide range of effective pharmacological effects. Recently, increasing studies have focused on its potential hepatorenal toxicity, but the cardiotoxicity is unknown. In this study, we found that the IC of rhein to H9c2 cells at 24 h and 48 h were 94.5 and 45.9μmol/L, respectively, with positive correlation of dose-toxicity and time-toxicity. After the treatment of rhein (106, 124 and 132μmol/L), the number of H9c2 cells decreased significantly, and the morphology of H9c2 cells showed atrophy, round shape and wall detachment. Moreover, the proportion of apoptotic cells in H9c2 cells treated with rhein was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. And rhein induced S phase arrest of H9c2 cells and inhibited cell proliferation. Rhein up-regulated ROS, LDH levels and low MMP but down-regulated SOD content in H9c2 cells. Additionally, the results showed that the cardiac function LVEF and LVFS of rhein high-medium-low dose groups (350, 175, 87.5 mg/kg) were significantly reduced. And the contents of Ca, cTnT, CK and LDH in serum of KM mice were significantly up-regulated by rhein. Furthermore, western blot results suggested that rhein the above effects via promoting Fas-induced apoptosis pathway in vitro and in vivo. In general, rhein may cause cardiotoxicity via Fas-induced apoptosis pathway in vivo and in vitro, which provides reference for the safe use of medicinal plant containing rhein and its preparations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2022.04.006DOI Listing
June 2022

Mitigating China's Ozone Pollution with More Balanced Health Benefits.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

China is confronting the challenge of opposite health benefits (OHBs) during ambient ozone (O) mitigation because the same reduction scheme might yield opposite impacts on O levels and associated public health across different regions. Here, we used a combination of chemical transport modeling, health benefit assessments, and machine learning to capture such OHBs and optimize O mitigation pathways based on 121 control scenarios. We revealed that, for the China mainland, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and its surroundings ("2 + 26" cities), Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta, there could be at most 2897, 920, 1247, and 896 additional O-related deaths in urban areas, respectively, accompanying 21,512, 3442, 5614, and 642 avoided O-related deaths in rural areas, respectively, at the same control stage. Additionally, potential disbenefits during O mitigation were "pro-wealthy", that is, residents in developed regions are more likely to afford additional health risks. In order to avoid OHBs during O abatement, we proposed a two-phase control strategy, whereby the reduction ratio of NO (nitrogen oxide) to VOCs (volatile organic compounds) was adjusted according to health benefit distribution patterns. Our study provided novel insights into China's O attainment and references for other countries facing the dual challenges of environmental pollution and associated inequality issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c00114DOI Listing
May 2022
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