Publications by authors named "Yu He"

815 Publications

Guhong Injection Alleviates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via the PKC/HIF-1α Pathway in Rats.

Front Pharmacol 2021 2;12:716121. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

Guhong injection (GHI) is a drug for ischemic stroke created by combining safflower, a traditional Chinese medicine, and aceglutamide, a Western medicine. In this study, we investigated the curative effect of GHI on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury via the PKC/HIF-1α pathway in rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups: sham-operated, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), GHI, nimodipine injection (NMDP), MCAO + LY317615 (PKC inhibitor), GHI + LY317615, and NMDP + LY317615. After establishing an MCAO rat model, we performed neurological deficit testing, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and q-PCR to detect the brain damage in rats. Compared with the MCAO group, the GHI and GHI + LY317615 group showed neurological damage amelioration as well as decreases in serum hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), protein kinase C (PKC), and erythropoietin levels; brain HIF-1α and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression; and brain HIF-1α and NOX-4 mRNA expression. These effects were similar to those in the positive control groups NMDP and NMDP + LY317615. Thus, our results confirmed GHI can ameliorate cerebral I/R injury in MCAO rats possibly via the PKC/HIF-1α pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.716121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8443782PMC
September 2021

In-silico-library-based method enables rapid and comprehensive annotation of cardiolipins and cardiolipin oxidation products using high resolution tandem mass spectrometer.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Oct 26;1180:338879. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Disease, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Accumulated evidences suggest that cardiolipins (CLs) and cardiolipin oxidation products (oxCLs) are a class of essential molecules that play critical roles in many physiological functions. Diversity of four acyl chains leads to high structure complexity for cardiolipin species including CLs, monolysocardiolipins (MLCLs) and their oxCLs. The ability to rapidly identify CL species can be implemented by the match of mass spectrometry (MS)-based in-silico spectral database. In this study, after optimizing the chromatography conditions and MS detection, an in-silico library containing 377,754 simulated tandem mass spectra deducing from 31,578 CLs to 52,160 of MLCLs was successfully augmented based on LipidBlast templates. For the construction of the oxCLs' library, twenty-five fatty acyls oxidation products relating to nine oxidation types were permuted and combined. A total of 42,180 oxCL spectra were predicted based on the experimental measurements of oxCLs forming by artificially oxidation. Applying the in-silico database to murine mitochondria and cell samples enabled the sensitive and comprehensive annotation of 86 MLCLs, 307 CLs and 112 oxCLs with high annotation confidence. Compared to the conventional method, our proposed in-silico database provides a more comprehensive interpretation for CL species' characterization with high throughput and sensitivity in nontarget lipidomic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338879DOI Listing
October 2021

Health-seeking behavior and barriers to treatment of patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer detected by screening in rural China: real-world evidence from the ESECC trial.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Jul 9;12:100181. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Laboratory of Genetics, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: To fully realize efficacy in cancer screening, timely and appropriate treatment for participants with malignant lesions is critical. However, the health-seeking behavior of patients with upper gastrointestinal (G.I.) cancer identified in population-level screening programs in China is unknown.

Methods: A community-based real-world investigation was conducted with 136 upper G.I. cancer patients detected in a large screening cohort in an area of high-risk for upper G.I. cancer in China. Using local medical claims data and semi-structured face-to-face interview, we collected information regarding the clinical treatment regimen and factors which result in the lack of timely and appropriate treatment.

Findings: The treatment records for 133 upper G.I. cancer patients were acquired. Among these, 48 (36•09%) patients did not receive treatment within three months of initial diagnosis, and treatment of early-stage cancer was more likely to be delayed. Sixteen patients did not seek further diagnostic testing due to their low health-awareness and socio-economic status. Another 20 participants proactively sought further diagnostic evaluation in health care facilities but were prevented from receiving further treatment due to low sensitivity of given diagnostic test(s), failure to recognize the significance of screening results, and/or lack of basic knowledge of diagnosis and treatment for early cancer on the part of clinicians. The treatment regimen offered to patients depended largely on the level of health care facilities they visited, and non-medical factors were the main reasons for choice of health care facilities.

Interpretation: A coordinated, system-based management strategy is urgently needed to support the design of upper G.I. cancer screening programs in rural populations in China.

Funding: The Charity Project of the National Ministry of Health (201202014), the National Key R & D Program of China (2016YFC0901404), the National Science & Technology Fundamental Resources Investigation Program of China (2019FY101102), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82073626).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8356128PMC
July 2021

Analysis of aristolochic acid I in mouse serum and tissues by using magnetic solid-phase extraction and UHPLC-MS/MS.

Talanta 2021 Dec 8;235:122774. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, 224 Waterloo Road, Kowloon Tong, 999077, SAR, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

A method combining magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) and ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the analysis of aristolochic acids I (AAI) in mouse serum and tissues. The magnetic covalent organic frameworks ([email protected])-based MSPE exhibited high adsorption capacity towards AAI (93.1 mg/g) in optimal conditions. After MSPE extraction, AAI was separated with C18 column using gradient elution and quantified (m/z 342.21 → 298.13) by UHPLC-MS/MS with monitor reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. This MSPE-based UHPLC-MS/MS method was validated with respected to lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), linearity, recovery, precision and accuracy of intra- and inter-day, and matrix effect. Good calibration linearities at the range of 1-500 ng/L for AAI in biological matrices (serum, kidney, and liver) with high correlation coefficient (R) > 0.9970, and high enrichment factors (mean values from 1038 to 1045) were obtained. This method was highly sensitive to determine AAI with LLOQ within the range of 4.62-5.24 ng/L in extracted serum, kidney, and liver samples. Recoveries at 5, 50, 100 and 300 ng/L in biological samples ranged from 93.2 to 104.0%, and intra- and inter day accuracy and precision (defined as bias and coefficient of variation, respectively) were below ± 15%. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of biological samples collected from mice exposed with AAI with concentrations range of 0.007-0.041 μg/L for consecutive four days. The established method might be applied for the investigation of risk assessment and toxicity induced by long-time use of AAI-containing herbs or dietary supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122774DOI Listing
December 2021

Context-Consistent Generation of Indoor Virtual Environments based on Geometry Constraints.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Sep 10;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

In this paper, we propose a system that can automatically generate immersive and interactive virtual reality (VR) scenes by taking real-world geometric constraints into account. Our system can not only help users avoid real-world obstacles in virtual reality experiences, but also provide context-consistent contents to preserve their sense of presence. To do so, our system first identifies the positions and bounding boxes of scene objects as well as a set of interactive planes from 3D scans. Then context-compatible virtual objects that have similar geometric properties to the real ones can be automatically selected and placed into the virtual scene, based on learned object association relations and layout patterns from large amounts of indoor scene configurations. We regard virtual object replacement as a combinatorial optimization problem, considering both geometric and contextual consistency constraints. Quantitative and qualitative results show that our system can generate plausible interactive virtual scenes that highly resemble real environments, and have the ability to keep the sense of presence for users in their VR experiences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TVCG.2021.3111729DOI Listing
September 2021

Detection of magneto-optical Kerr signals via weak measurement with frequency pointer.

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(17):4140-4143

Detection of the magneto-optical Kerr effect with high precision is of great significance but has challenges in the field of magnetic physics and spintronic devices. Kerr rotation angle and Kerr ellipticity always coexist and are difficult to distinguish, which jointly determines the light intensity received by the detector and limits the improvement of measurement precision. In this Letter, a nonlinear weak measurement scheme for magneto-optical Kerr signals with a frequency pointer is proposed. The Kerr rotation and Kerr ellipticity can be separately detected by constructing different pre-selections and choosing the appropriate coupling strength. Moreover, two signals obtained through the weak measurement scheme have higher precision and signal-to-noise ratio compared with the standard polarimetry scheme. Our method may have important applications in the field of magneto-optic parameters measurement or magnetic sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.428486DOI Listing
September 2021

Customized treatment protocols for patients with closed fracture in hospitals at varying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) risk.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Aug 30;22(1):743. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1277 Jiefang Avenue, 430022, Wuhan, P.R. China.

Background: To determine an optimized treatment protocol during the COVID-19 epidemic for patients with closed fracture and delayed surgery.

Methods: The epidemic data of three hospitals, randomly selected from different administrative regions of Wuhan, were analyzed retrospectively from 23 January to 31 March 2020. Changes in the number of confirmed cases per day (cumulative and new) of each region were tracked as a reflection of changing epidemic risk levels. The risk level map was drawn. The epidemic status, treatment protocols, and treatment efficiencies for patients with closed fracture in the three hospitals were compared.

Results: Overall, 138 patients with closed fracture were admitted. Each hospital had established its own protocol, according to the initial perceived risk. Based on the risk level map, over the study period, the risk levels of the three regions changed independently and were not in sync. All patients recovered and were timely discharged. No staff member was detected with COVID-19.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 risk level of each area is dynamic. To optimize medical resources, avoid cross-infection, and improve efficiency, changes in epidemic risk should be monitored. For patients with closed fracture, treatment protocols should be adjusted according to changes in epidemic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04614-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8405043PMC
August 2021

Blood Urea Nitrogen to Serum Albumin Ratio (BAR) Predicts Critical Illness in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Int J Gen Med 2021 21;14:4711-4721. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medical Laboratory, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: We sought to explore the prognostic value of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) to serum albumin ratio (BAR) and further develop a prediction model for critical illness in COVID-19 patients.

Patients And Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter, observational study on adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients from three provinces in China between January 14 and March 9, 2020. Primary outcome was critical illness, including admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), or death. Clinical data were collected within 24 hours after admission to hospitals. The predictive performance of BAR was tested by multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and then a nomogram was developed.

Results: A total of 1370 patients with COVID-19 were included and 113 (8.2%) patients eventually developed critical illness in the study. Baseline age (OR: 1.031, 95% CI: 1.014, 1.049), respiratory rate (OR: 1.063, 95% CI: 1.009, 1.120), unconsciousness (OR: 40.078, 95% CI: 5.992, 268.061), lymphocyte counts (OR: 0.352, 95% CI: 0.204, 0.607), total bilirubin (OR: 1.030, 95% CI: 1.001, 1.060) and BAR (OR: 1.319, 95% CI: 1.183, 1.471) were independent risk factors for critical illness. The predictive AUC of BAR was 0.821 (95% CI: 0.784, 0.858; P<0.01) and the optimal cut-off value of BAR was 3.7887 mg/g (sensitivity: 0.690, specificity: 0.786; positive predictive value: 0.225, negative predictive value: 0.966; positive likelihood ratio: 3.226, negative likelihood ratio: 0.394). The C index of nomogram including above six predictors was 0.9031125 (95% CI: 0.8720542, 0.9341708).

Conclusion: Elevated BAR at admission is an independent risk factor for critical illness of COVID-19. The novel predictive nomogram including BAR has superior predictive performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S326204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387643PMC
August 2021

N130, N175 and N207 are N-linked glycosylation sites of duck Tembusu virus NS1 that are important for viral multiplication, viremia and virulence in ducklings.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Oct 25;261:109215. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Research Center of Avian Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, 611130, China; Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, 611130, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Wenjiang District, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, 611130, China. Electronic address:

Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused acute egg-drop syndrome in egg-laying ducks. DTMUV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) contains three potential predicted N-linked glycosylation sites at residues 130, 175 and 207. In this study, we found that mutations at these sites affect the molecular weight of recombinant NS1, as assessed by western blot assays; however, the mutations do not affect their subcellular localization in the cytoplasm, as assessed by colocalization assays. Four recombinant viruses substituting the asparagine (N) residues at N130, N175, N207 or N130/N175/N207 of NS1 with alanine (A) residues were generated using rDTMUV-i, an infectious cDNA clone of the DTMUV CQW1 strain. Deglycosylation assays of the mutant virus NS1 were performed using endoglycosidases Endo H or PNGase F treatment in both mammalian and avian cells. The NS1-WT, NS1-N130A, NS1-N175A and NS1-N207A showed a shift in migration to 37 kDa after digestion with both endoglycosidases, which further confirmed that N130, N175 and N207 were the glycosylation sites of DTMUV NS1. Compared to the parental rDTMUV, the single mutants impaired viral multiplication in vitro, while the nonglycosylated virus rDTMUV-NS1-N130A/N175A/N207A showed a 5-fold to 178-fold decrease in viral titers and smaller plaque sizes. Notably, all mutant viruses were still highly virulent to duck embryos, but the embryos inoculated with rDTMUV-NS1-N130A/N175A/N207A started to die on the fourth day, which exhibited a prolonged time to death compared to that of rDTMUV. Moreover, rDTMUV-NS1-N130A/N175A/N207A was attenuated in vivo, showing no mortality and producing significantly lower viral titers in heart, spleen, kidney, brain and thymus as well as 2-fold to 3-fold lower viremia at 3 and 5 days post infection. Overall, our results indicated that N130, N175 and N207 are N-linked glycosylation sites of DTMUV NS1, which play crucial roles in viral multiplication, viremia and virulence in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2021.109215DOI Listing
October 2021

Danhong injection enhances the therapeutic effect of mannitol on hemispheric ischemic stroke by ameliorating blood-brain barrier disruption.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 19;142:112048. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China. Electronic address:

Mannitol, a representative of hyperosmolar therapy, is indispensable for the treatment of malignant cerebral infarction, but its therapeutic effect is limited by its exacerbation of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. This study was to explore whether Danhong injection (DHI), a standardized product extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Carthamus tinctorius L., inhibits the destructive effect of mannitol on BBB and thus enhancing the treatment of hemispheric ischemic stroke. SD rats were subjected to pMCAO followed by intravenous bolus injections of mannitol with/without DHI intervention. Neurological deficit score, brain edema, infarct volume at 24 h after MCAO and histopathology, microvascular ultrastructure, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining of endothelial cell junctions, energy metabolism in the ischemic penumbra were assessed. Intravenous mannitol after MCAO resulted in a decrease in 24 h mortality and cerebral edema, whereas no significant benefit on neurological deficits, infarct volume and microvascular ultrastructure. Moreover, mannitol led to the loss of endothelial integrity, manifested by the decreased expression of occludin, junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAM-1) and zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) and the discontinuity of occludin staining around the periphery of endothelial cells. Meanwhile, after mannitol treatment, energy-dependent vimentin and F-actin, ATP content, and ATP5D expression were down-regulated, while MMP2 and MMP9 expression increased in the ischemic penumbra. All the insults after mannitol treatment were attenuated by addition of intravenous DHI. The results suggest DHI as a potential remedy to attenuate mannitol-related BBB disruption, and the potential of DHI to upregulate energy metabolism and inhibit the activity of MMPs is likely attributable to its effects observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112048DOI Listing
August 2021

Exogenous Autoinducer-2 Rescues Intestinal Dysbiosis and Intestinal Inflammation in a Neonatal Mouse Necrotizing Enterocolitis Model.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 5;11:694395. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Neonatal Diagnosis and Treatment Center of Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is believed to be a bacterial interspecies signaling molecule that plays an important role in the regulation of the physiological behaviors of bacteria. The effect of AI-2 on the process of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is unknown, and the aim of this study was to study the effect of AI-2 in a mouse NEC model. C57BL/6 mouse pups were randomly divided into three groups: the control group, the NEC group, and the NEC+AI-2 (NA) group. Exogenous AI-2 (500 nM) was added to the formula milk of the NA group. The concentrations of fecal AI-2 and flora were tested. The expression of cytokines, TLR4 and NF-κB in intestinal tissue was detected. The AI-2 level was significantly decreased in the NEC group (<0.05). Compared with the NEC group, the intestinal injury scores, expression of TLR4, NF-kB, and proinflammatory factors (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) were reduced, and expression of anti-inflammatory factor (IL-10) was increased in the NA group mice (<0.05). At the phylum level, the Proteobacteria abundance in the NA group was significantly increased, while the Bacteroidota abundance in the control group was significantly increased (<0.05). At the genus level, Helicobacter and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 exhibited significantly greater abundance in the NEC group than in the other two groups, while Lactobacillus had the opposite trend (<0.05). In addition, the abundances of Klebsiella, Rodentibacter and Enterococcus were significantly higher in the NA group than in the NEC and control groups ( < 0.05). Exogenous AI-2 partially reverses flora disorder and decreases inflammation in an NEC mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.694395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375469PMC
August 2021

Replication/Assembly Defective Avian Flavivirus With Internal Deletions in the Capsid Can Be Used as an Approach for Living Attenuated Vaccine.

Front Immunol 2021 4;12:694959. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Avian Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a novel flavivirus causing severe egg drop and fatal encephalitis in avian in Asia. In the present study, we screened the structural and functional requirements of TMUV capsid protein (CP) for viral morphogenesis using reverse genetics methods in combination with replicon packaging assays. TMUV-CP showed dramatic functional and structural flexibility, and even though 44 residues were removed from the N-terminus, it was still capable of packaging replicon RNA; in addition, 33 residues were deleted from the C-terminus (containing nearly the entire α4-helix), and infectious particles were still produced, although α4-α4' is supposedly vital for CP dimerization and nucleocapsid formation. We further analyzed two mutants (ΔC20-43 and ΔC64-96 viruses) with relatively large deletions that still replicated well in BHK-21 cells. Our data indicate that internal deletions within CP impaired viral replication or assembly, resulting in attenuated virus proliferation in cells and attenuated virulence in duck embryos, and these deletion mutations are quite stable in cell culture. An assay indicated that both ΔC20-43 virus and ΔC64-96 virus were highly attenuated in ducklings but still immunogenic. Single-dose immunization with ΔC20-43 virus or ΔC64-96 virus could protect ducklings from a lethal challenge with good antigen clearance. Together, our data shed light on replication/assembly defective TMUV with internal deletions in CP and provide an effective approach to attenuate viral virulence in live vaccines without changing the antigen composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.694959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371329PMC
August 2021

miR-26a enhances colorectal cancer cell growth by targeting RREB1 deacetylation to activate AKT-mediated glycolysis.

Cancer Lett 2021 Aug 19;521:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, And Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, PR China. Electronic address:

We previously reported the inhibitory effects of microRNA-26a (miR-26a) on the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A in glucose metabolism by directly targeting pyruvate dehydrogenase protein X component in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (Chen B et al., BMC Cancer 2014). Here, using microRNA in situ hybridization, we confirmed that miR-26a levels were elevated in 77 human CRC tissue samples and further investigated the key miR-26a-mediated metabolic regulation elements and signaling pathways in CRC cells through quantitative proteomic dissection combined with cancer cell biology and biochemical loss-of-function analysis. We found that AKT transcription signaling was a target pathway via miR-26a-mediated deacetylation modification of Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB1) at the Lys-60 residue. miR-26a improved the deacetylation level of RREB1, thus contributing to RREB1 binding to the AKT1 promoter to activate AKT transcription and its related signaling pathway in glycolysis. Moreover, miR-26a promoted CRC tumorigenesis in CRC cells and subcutaneous xenograft mice. Thus, miR-26a is a key regulator of CRC tumorigenesis that mediates the deacetylation modification of RREB1 to enhance AKT1 transcription and downstream target gene expression in glycolysis for CRC growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.08.017DOI Listing
August 2021

Nontarget and high-throughput screening of pesticides and metabolites residues in tea using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Aug 8;1179:122847. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

The Peoples Hospital of Liupanshui City, Liupanshui 553001, China.

A Sin-QuEChERS, coupled to UHPLC Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS, was used for nontargeted high-throughput rapid screening and quantitative analysis of residual pesticides and metabolites in green teas. The sample was extracted with 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile with shaking, salted out and centrifuged, and purified with Sin-QuEChERS Nano solid phase extraction column; with Full MS/ddMS2 as the data collection mode, the database containing 384 pesticides combined with Trace Finder 3.0 software, In the absence of standard products, rapid screening and confirmation of potential pesticide residues in tea samples with accurate mass, isotope abundance ratio, secondary fragment ions, etc. 20 pesticides were used as quality controls to verify the screening method, and the linearity of these pesticides was between 1 and 200 μg/L, and the correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.9922. Moreover, the LOQ was between 0.002 and 0.01 mg/kg. The average recoveries of spiked tea samples were 74%-111%. Efficiency and reliability of this method were investigated by the analysis of 38 Chinese green tea samples. 18 potential residual pesticides were detected by non-targeted screening. The researchers then conducted a quantitative analysis of the 18 potential residual pesticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2021.122847DOI Listing
August 2021

Remote-controllable bone-targeted delivery of estradiol for the treatment of ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Aug 18;19(1):248. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Osteoporosis (OP) is a systemic skeletal disease marked by bone mass reduction and bone tissue destruction. Hormone replacement therapy is an effective treatment for post-menopausal OP, but estrogen has poor tissue selectivity and severe side effects.

Results: In this study, we constructed a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs)-based drug delivery system to co-load 17β estradiol (E) and iron oxide (FeO) together, modified with alendronate (AL) to achieve bone targeting and realize a magnetically remote-controllable drug release. The NPs were fabricated through the emulsion solvent diffusion method. The particle size was approximately 200 nm while the encapsulation efficiency of E was 58.34 ± 9.21%. The NPs were found to be spherical with a homogenous distribution of particle size. The NPs showed good stability, good biocompatibility, high encapsulation ability of E and excellent magnetic properties. The NPs could be effectively taken up by Raw 264.7 cells and were effective in enriching drugs in bone tissue. The co-loaded NPs exposed to an external magnetic field ameliorated OVX-induced bone loss through increased BV/TV, decreased Tb.N and Tb.Sp, improved bone strength, increased PINP and OC, and downregulated CTX and TRAP-5b. The haematological index and histopathological analyses displayed the NPs had less side effects on non-skeletal tissues.

Conclusions: This study presented a remote-controlled release system based on bone-targeted multifunctional NPs and a new potential approach to bone-targeted therapy of OP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00976-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371851PMC
August 2021

[Study on antidepressant effect of total alkaloids of Fibraurea recisa].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Jul;46(14):3678-3686

College of Chinese Medicinal Materials,Jilin Agricultural University Changchun 130118,China Key Laboratory of Animal Production,Product Quality and Security,Ministry of Education of China Changchun 130118,China Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center for Efficient Breeding and Product Development of Sika Deer of China Changchun 130118,China.

This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effects of total alkaloids of Fibraurea recisa in HT22 cells damaged by corticosterone (CORT) in vitro and in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) as well as the underlying mechanisms.In cellular experiments,the viability of CORT-damaged HT22 cells was detected using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8),and the cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining.In animal experiments,C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into the control group,model group,low (100 mg·kg~(-1)),medium (200 mg·kg~(-1)) and high (400 mg·kg~(-1))-dose of total alkaloids of F.recisa groups,and positive control group.After 21 days of CUMS exposure,their depressive behaviors were observed in behavioral and Morris water maze tests.The serum levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT),dopamine (DA),and norepinephrine (NE) were assessed by ELISA.The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2,Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in HT22 cells and mouse hippocampus were detected by Western blot.The results suggested that total alkaloids of F.recisa alleviated the damage of HT22 cells induced by CORT in a dose-dependent manner.The Hoechst 33258 staining uncovered that total alkaloids of F.recisa better reduced the blue spots and inhibited cell apoptosis.The results of animal experiments showed that total alkaloids of F.recisa significantly improved the depression-like behaviors of mice and increased the serum levels of 5-HT,DA and NE as compared with those in the model group.The Western blot assays revealed a significant up-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression,but an obvious reduction in Bax and cleaved caspase-3protein expression in the total alkaloids of F.recisa group.In conclusion,total alkaloids of F.recisa inhibited depression possibly by regulating the apoptosis-related protein expression or elevating the monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210406.403DOI Listing
July 2021

Performance of cropland low-carbon use in China: Measurement, spatiotemporal characteristics, and driving factors.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 8;800:149552. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

College of Business and Tourism, Sichuan Agricultural University, Dujiangyan 611830, China. Electronic address:

Low-carbon cropland use is of significant importance in addressing global warming. Most research has paid attention to measuring cropland use efficiency under carbon emission constraints to reconcile carbon mitigation and food security. However, there are limitations with carbon accounting, approach selection, and subsequent regression. To extend existing research, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of cropland low-carbon use (PCLU) and determine the driving factors. In this study, carbon emissions and sequestration of cropland use in Chinese provinces from 2000 to 2019 were calculated. Based on the carbon accounting, an extended slack-based efficiency measurement was applied to evaluate the provincial PCLU. Besides, spatiotemporal characteristics of the PCLU were portrayed. Owing to spatial correlation, the spatial Durbin model was employed to elucidate the driving factors. The results indicate that: (1) cropland use systems acted as net carbon sinks in China with sequestration and emissions of 5.624 t/hm and 1.980 t/hm, respectively. (2) In China, the average PCLU was 0.727, whereas the provinces had values ranging from 0.2-1.2, with significant gaps. (3) PCLU evolved stably in northeastern China and fluctuated in the other three regions. Meanwhile, provinces with high PCLU shifted from the south to the north of the country during the study period. The global Moran's index demonstrated that a positive spatial correlation existed. (4) Agricultural structure adjustment and urbanization can promote PCLU, whereas investment and disaster can undermine it. PCLU of a province would be affected by the agricultural structure and disaster in its nearby provinces owing to spillover effects. Consequently, it is suggested that emissions in provinces should be mitigated according to the local carbon structure. Harnessing the key factors and spatial interactions can potentially help achieve regional low-carbon cropland use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149552DOI Listing
August 2021

Microbial food: microorganisms repurposed for our food.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Metabolic and Biomolecular Engineering National Research Laboratory, Systems Metabolic Engineering and Systems Healthcare Cross Generation Collaborative Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 Plus Program), Institute for the BioCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, Korea.

Sustainable food production is a key to solve complicated and intertwined issues of overpopulation, climate change, environment and sustainability. Microorganisms, which have been routinely consumed as a part of fermented foods and more recently as probiotic dietary supplements, can be repurposed for our food to present a sustainable solution to current food production system. This paper begins with three snapshots of our future life with microbial foods. Next, the importance, possible forms, and raw materials (i.e. microorganisms and their carbon and energy sources) of microbial foods are discussed. In addition, the production strategies, further applications and current limitations of microbial foods are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13911DOI Listing
August 2021

Water-Tolerant -Acylation of Phenols.

Org Lett 2021 Aug 11;23(16):6594-6598. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing 211816, P. R. China.

A metal-free, water-tolerant, and one-pot process for -acylation of phenols promoted by the iodine source/hydrogen peroxide system has been developed. This transformation undergoes ether formation, iodocyclization, C-C bond cleavage, and oxidative hydrolysis in a one-step manner, which is supported by control experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c02583DOI Listing
August 2021

Giant hemangioma of the caudate lobe of the liver with surgical treatment: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jul;9(21):5980-5987

Department of General Surgery, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu Province, China.

Background: Caudate lobe hemangioma of the liver is relatively rare. Due to the unique anatomical location of the caudate lobe, the caudate lobectomy accounts for only 0.5% to 4% of hepatic resection, which is difficult to operate and takes a long time, and even has many postoperative complications.

Case Summary: A 34-year-old female presented with a 1 year history of intermittent pain in the right side of the waist without obvious inducement. All laboratory blood tests were within normal limits. Indocyanine green 15 min retention was rated 2.9%, and Child-Pugh was rated A. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosed giant hemangioma of the caudate lobe with hemangioma of left lobe of liver. After discussion, surgical treatment was performed, which lasted 410 min, with intraoperative bleeding of about 600 mL and postoperative pathological findings of cavernous hemangioma. There were no obvious postoperative complications, and the patient was discharged 10 d after surgery.

Conclusion: Caudate lobectomy is difficult due to its special anatomical location. Under the condition of fully exposing the anatomy of the first porta hepatis, the second porta hepatis, the third porta hepatis, the fourth porta hepatis and middle hepatic vein and combining with the Pringle maneuver, caudate lobectomy can be performed in a precise and safe process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i21.5980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316955PMC
July 2021

A post processing strategy to score and rank the annotation confidence of saponins in natural products by integrating MS spectral similarity and fragment interpretation.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Sep 30;204:114291. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Tandem mass spectrometry-spectra-based annotation in natural products challenges a lot because of ambiguous structural characterization. It still lacks an efficiency method to score and rank the annotation confidence. Herein, we develop a novel approach to rank the annotation confidences of saponins. Annotations were accomplished according to fragmentation patterns. The corresponding diagnostic fragments and their abundances were recorded. Average abundances were taken as a reference spectrum, and the cosine similarity score (CSS) was calculated to measure how well the spectral matched. According to CSS values, statistic description for confidence levels can be effectively provided. Next, the fragment interpretation score (FIS) was proposed to investigate the deviators' characteristic fragmentation. FIS offset the effect from the deviators' unique fragments. Suspicious annotations involving low CSS and high FIS, may derived from the MS spectral background interferences or co-elution. Annotations with low CSS and FIS rank as low confidences, as these annotations need more attention. Using this method, novel saccharide sequences, specific fragmentation preferences, undistinguished precursors, even new structures can also be well traced. By proposed new scoring system, confidence evaluations can be ranked, resulting in significantly enhanced annotation reliability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114291DOI Listing
September 2021

Stool culture for diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria pulmonary disease: An indirect evidence.

J Infect 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Shandong Key Laboratory of Infectious Respiratory Disease, Jinan, Shandong, China; Department of Lab Medicine, Shandong Public Health Clinical Center, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250013, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2021.08.002DOI Listing
August 2021

Composite Elastomer-Enabled Rapid Photofabrication of Microfluidic Devices.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 30;13(31):37589-37597. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Research Center for Analytical Instrumentation, Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310023, China.

Microfluidics, as an emerging technology, is highly dependent on the evolution of device materials and fabrication techniques. While replica molding of polydimethylsiloxane and hot embossing/injection molding of thermoplastics are most popular, they are either hard to scale up or inappropriate for laboratory-scale prototyping. Recently, photocurable resins, as a huge class of materials, have attracted extensive interest. However, very few of them can now be used in device fabrication due to the challenge in machining these materials. In response, we herein propose a novel concept of composite elastomers, which can covalently link with and consequently offer a flexible support to photocured thin films. This effect would allow most photocurable resins to be used in microfluidic device fabrication, greatly enriching the material choices for diverse applications. Moreover, the whole fabrication process becomes very simple and rapid, with an impressive throughput of at least hundreds of replicas per day. With these features, it is reasonably expected that the composite elastomer-enabled rapid photofabrication method will be very competent for laboratory prototyping, providing not only the ease of fabrication but also a possibility to select the materials specifically for ultimate applications and promising potential for volume production without the redevelopment process. These may offer a good opportunity to narrow the current gap between academic research and industrial practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c06143DOI Listing
August 2021

Liver injury caused by fenofibrate within 48 h after first administration: a case report.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 29;21(1):298. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Geriatrics, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, 1 Dongjiaominxiang street, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, People's Republic of China.

Background: Fenofibrate is commonly used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. Fenofibrate is related to mild aminotransferase elevations and in some cases severe chronic injury such as fibrosis or cirrhosis, resulting in liver transplantation or death. The latency of disease has been reported to range between weeks to years.

Case Presentation: A 63 years old male with hypertriglyceridemia developed symptoms of fatigue and anorexia 48 h after taking fenofibrate for the first time. The patient's aminotransferase level was more than 10 times ULN. Immediately, fenofibrate was discontinued and aminotransferase level returned to normal 23 days later. To assess causality between the drug and liver damage, the standardized Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) was used. The patient's RUCAM score was 7, which fell in the group of "probable". Eight months later, follow-up examination suggested the liver function was normal.

Conclusions: Weakness, fatigue and abnormal liver function during fenofibrate therapy should be closely monitored and trigger prompt withdrawal if these symptoms occur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-021-01874-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323204PMC
July 2021

Performance of COPD population screener questionnaire in COPD screening: a validation study and meta-analysis.

Ann Med 2021 12;53(1):1198-1206

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

This study aimed to validate the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Population Screener (COPD-PS) questionnaire as a screening tool in a cohort of Chinese subjects who underwent a health examination, and to summarise its overall performance through a meta-analysis. We enrolled 997 subjects aged ≥40 years who underwent a health examination, both lung function and COPD-PS data were collected. The screening performance of COPD-PS was evaluated with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, using the area under the curve (AUC) to assess the screening accuracy. A standard diagnostic meta-analysis was used to summarise the screening performance of COPD-PS for COPD. Of the 997 subjects, 157 were identified as having COPD. The COPD-PS score was significantly higher in COPD patients than controls (5.03 ± 5.11 vs. 2.72 ± 1.80,  < .001). At a cut-off of 4, the sensitivity and specificity of COPD-PS for identifying COPD were 74.52 and 70.24%, respectively, with an AUC of 0.79. Eight studies (including this study) were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled estimates for COPD-PS were as follows: sensitivity of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.47-0.63), specificity of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.84-0.89), positive likelihood ratio of 3.00 (95% CI: 1.65-5.47), negative likelihood ratio of 0.43 (95% CI: 0.35-0.52) and diagnostic odds ratio of 7.24 (95% CI: 3.91-13.40). The AUC of the summary ROC curve was 0.78. COPD-PS appears to be a useful tool for screening individuals with a high risk of COPD and guiding the selection of individuals for subsequent spirometry examination.KEY MESSAGESCOPD-PS is a simple and useful method to screen COPD.The combination of COPD-PS with other tools may improve the screen performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.1949486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293944PMC
December 2021

Overexpression of MRP3 in HeLa-UGT1A9 Cells Enhances Glucuronidation Capability of the Cells.

Curr Drug Metab 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, 4849 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX77204, United States.

Background: The interplay between phase II enzymes and efflux transporters leads to extensive metabolism and low systemic bioavailability of flavonoids.

Objective: The study aims to investigate the dynamic interplay between multiple UGTs and multiple efflux transporters inside the cells.

Methods: A new HeLa-UGT1A9-MRP3 cell was established to overexpress two dominant efflux transporters MRP3 and BCRP, and two UGT isoforms UGT1A9 and UGT1A3. The metabolism and glucuronides excretion for a model flavonoid genistein were determined in HeLa-UGT1A9-MRP3 cells and HeLa-UGT1A9-Con cells that overexpressed one UGT (1A9) and one efflux transporter (BCRP).

Results: The excretion rate grew nearly 6-fold, cellular clearance of glucuronides increased about 3-fold, and a fraction of genistein metabolized (fmet) increased (14%, p<0.01) in the new cells. Small interfering (siRNA)-mediated MRP3 functional knockdown resulted in markedly decreases in the excretion rates (26%-78%), intracellular amounts (56%-93%), cellular clearance (54%-96%) in both cells, but the magnitude of the differences in HeLa-UGT1A9-Con cells were relatively small. Reductions in fmet values were similarly moderate (11%-14%). In contrast, UGT1A9 knockdown with siRNA caused large decreases in the excretion rates (46%-88%), intracellular amounts (80%-97%), cellular clearance (80%-98%) as well as fmet value (33%-43%, p<0.01) in both UGT1A9 cells. Comparisons of the kinetic parameters and profiles of genistein glucuronidation and UGT mRNA expression suggest that HeLa-UGT1A9-MRP3 has increased expression of both MRP3 and UGT1A3.

Conclusion: The newly engineered HeLa-UGT1A9-MRP3 cells are an appropriate model to study the kinetic interplay between multiple UGTs and efflux transporters. It's a promising biosynthetic tool to obtain flavonoids glucuronides of high purity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389200222666210716151520DOI Listing
July 2021

Chrysin induces autophagy through the inactivation of the ROS‑mediated Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in endometrial cancer.

Int J Mol Med 2021 09 19;48(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230601, P.R. China.

Endometrial cancer (EC) is widely known as an aggressive malignancy. Due to the limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis of patients with advanced‑stage EC, there is a need to identify effective alternative treatments. Chrysin is a naturally active flavonoid (5,7‑dihydroxyflavone), which has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects and may present a novel strategy for EC treatment. However, the role of chrysin in EC remains largely unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the anticancer effects of chrysin on EC. The results revealed that, in addition to apoptosis, chrysin increased the LC3II expression levels and markedly accelerated the autophagic flux, suggesting that chrysin induced both the autophagy and apoptosis of EC cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine enhanced the inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and the promotion of the chrysin‑induced apoptosis of EC cells, indicating that chrysin‑induced autophagy was a cytoprotective mechanism. Additionally, chrysin led to the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). ‑acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment significantly inhibited chrysin‑induced autophagy, suggesting that ROS activated autophagy induced by chrysin in EC cells. Furthermore, the phosphorylated (p‑)Akt and p‑mTOR levels were significantly decreased in a concentration‑dependent manner following treatment with chrysin, while NAC blocked these effects. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that chrysin‑induced autophagy via the inactivation of the ROS‑mediated Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in EC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.5005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285048PMC
September 2021

Genetic-algorithm-assisted coherent enhancement absorption in scattering media by exploiting transmission and reflection matrices.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(13):20353-20369

The investigations on coherent enhancement absorption (CEA) inside scattering media are critically important in biophotonics. CEA can deliver light to the targeted position, thus enabling deep-tissue optical imaging by improving signal strength and imaging resolution. In this work, we develop a numerical framework that employs the method of finite-difference time-domain. Both the transmission and reflection matrices of scattering media with open boundaries are constructed, allowing the studies on the eigenvalues and eigenchannels. To realize CEA for scattering media with local absorption, we develop a genetic-algorithm-assisted numerical model. By minimizing the total transmittance and reflectance simultaneously, different realizations of CEA are observed and, without setting internal monitors, can be differentiated with cases of light leaked from sides. By modulating the incident wavefront at only one side of the scattering medium, it is shown that for a 5-μm-diameter absorber buried inside a scattering medium of 15 μm × 12 μm, more than half of the incident light can be delivered and absorbed at the target position. The enhancement in absorption is more than four times higher than that with random input. This value can be even higher for smaller absorption regions. We also quantify the effectiveness of the method and show that it is inversely proportional to the openness of the scattering medium. This result is potentially useful for targeted light delivery inside scattering media with local absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.426496DOI Listing
June 2021

Amino Acids in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Redox Signaling.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1332:35-49

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Proteins are the chains of amino acids linked via peptide bonds. In cells, newly synthesized proteins are modified and folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and matured to be functional proteins before they are transported to other tissues or organs. In addition to protein synthesis, the ER is also a stress-sensing organelle for diverse biological functions, such as calcium storage, lipid synthesis, and cellular metabolism. Nutrient deprivation, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and other intracellular insults can activate ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore homeostasis. Dysfunction of the ER influences cellular physiology and metabolism, and contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases. Amino acids are the building blocks for proteins of eukaryotic organisms. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have found that amino acids can function as signaling molecules to regulate gene expression, cell proliferation and apoptosis, immune response, and antioxidant capacity in numerous biological processes. Importantly, several lines of studies have indicated that amino acids regulate the abundances of proteins implicated in UPR and the redox state, therefore restoring the intracellular homeostasis. Amino acids play an important role in regulating ER stress and redox homeostasis in animal cells for their survival, growth, and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-74180-8_3DOI Listing
July 2021

The characteristics and functions of GAPDH S-nitrosylation during controlled aging of elm and Arabidopsis seeds.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Institute of Tree Development and Genome Editing, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Tsinghua East Road, Beijing, 100083, China.

Seed aging is the gradual decline in seed vigor, during which programmed cell death (PCD) occurs. The functions of nitric oxide (NO) are exerted through protein S-nitrosylation, a reversible post-translational modification. During seed aging, more than 80 proteins are S-nitrosylated, but the particular role of individual proteins is unknown. Here, we showed that the S-nitrosylation level of elm GAPDH (UpGAPDH) increased after controlled deterioration treatment (CDT). UpGAPDH was S-nitrosylated at Cys154 during the GSNO treatment, and its oligomerization was triggered both in vitro and in elm seeds. Interestingly, UpGAPDH interacted with the mitochondrial protein UpVDAC in an S-nitrosylation-dependent way. Some UpGAPDH-GFP proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts co-localized with mitochondria during the GSNO treatment, while the S-nitrosylation-defected UpGAPDH C154S-GFP proteins did not. Seeds of the oxUpGAPDH lines showed cell death and lost seed vigor rapidly during CDT-triggered seed aging, while overexpression of S-nitrosylation-defected UpGAPDH-Cys154 did not. Our results suggest that S-nitrosylation of UpGAPDH may accelerate cell death and seed deterioration during CDT. These results provide insight into the effects of UpGAPDH S-nitrosylation on protein interactions and seed aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab322DOI Listing
July 2021
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