Publications by authors named "Yu Hao"

1,331 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of the modification of magnetic graphene oxide with ionic liquid on the adsorption of nonionic surfactant NP10EO.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266590, China.

The large-scale application of ionic surfactants in industrial and agricultural production has caused great harm to the environment due to by-products. In order to remove this pollutant from the environment, graphene oxide as an adsorption material has received extensive attention. However, practically, it is difficult to separate the GO from aqueous solutions, making water treatment on a large scale challenging. To allow the recycling of GO, as well as enhance its adsorption ability to remove surfactants from water, a composite of magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid (IL) was synthesized. The MGO was prepared by coprecipitation, and IL-MGO was prepared by ultrasonic impregnation. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption curves show that the specific surface area of the composite was increased by the addition of the IL, from 103.28 to 163.35 m/g. Finally, the adsorption ability of MGO and IL-MGO for the nonionic surfactant NP10EO was investigated. The results showed that the adsorption of MGO on NP10EO fits the Langmuir isothermal model and the quasi-second-order kinetic model. In addition, the equilibrium adsorption capacity of NP10EO by MGO at 298K, 308K, and 318K can reach 87.03 mg/g, 156.25 mg/g, and 214.13 mg/g. The adsorption is an endothermic reaction that occurs spontaneously and is governed by physical adsorption. The adsorption of IL-MGO on NP10EO conforms to the Langmuir isotherm model and the quasi-second-order kinetic model. At 298K, 308K, and 318K, the equilibrium adsorption capacity of NP10EO by MGO reached 261.02 mg/g, 280.24 mg/g, and 295.03 mg/g, respectively. Compared with the two results, the incorporation of IL greatly improved the adsorption capacity of MGO to NP10EO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14784-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparison of liver biochemical abnormality between COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis versus COVID-19 alone and liver cirrhosis alone: A STROBE observational study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(19):e25497

COVID-19 Study Group, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command.

Abstract: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients frequently develop liver biochemical abnormality. However, liver biochemical abnormality in COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis is under-recognized.Patients hospitalized during COVID-19 pandemic in China (ie, from February to April 2020) were screened. All of 17 COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis consecutively admitted to the Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital were identified. Meanwhile, 17 age-, sex-, and severity-matched COVID-19 patients without liver cirrhosis admitted to this hospital were selected as a control group; all of 14 cirrhotic patients without COVID-19 consecutively admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of the General Hospital of Northern Theater Command were selected as another control group. Incidence of liver biochemical abnormality and decompensated events were primarily compared.Among the COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis, the incidence of liver biochemical abnormality at admission and during hospitalization were 76.50% and 84.60%, respectively; 7 (41.20%) had decompensated events at admission; 1 was transferred to intensive care unit due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Among the COVID-19 patients without liver cirrhosis, the incidence of liver biochemical abnormality at admission and during hospitalization were 58.80% (P = .271) and 60.00% (P = .150), respectively. Among the cirrhotic patients without COVID-19, the incidence of liver biochemical abnormality at admission and during hospitalization were 69.20% (P = .657) and 81.80% (P = .855), respectively; 11 (78.60%) had decompensated events at admission (P = .036). None died during hospitalization among the three groups.Liver biochemical abnormality is common in COVID-19 patients with liver cirrhosis. Management of decompensated events in cirrhotic patients without COVID-19 should not be neglected during COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133226PMC
May 2021

A Prognostic Ferroptosis-Related lncRNAs Signature Associated With Immune Landscape and Radiotherapy Response in Glioma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 19;9:675555. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Recent studies have demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of tumor cell ferroptosis. However, the prognostic value of ferroptosis-related lncRNAs has never been comprehensively explored in glioma. In this study, the transcriptomic data and clinical information of glioma patients were downloaded from TCGA, CGGA and Rembrandt databases. We identified 24 prognostic ferroptosis-related lncRNAs, 15 of which (SNAI3-AS1, GDNF-AS1, WDFY3-AS2, CPB2-AS1, WAC-AS1, SLC25A21-AS1, ARHGEF26-AS1, LINC00641, LINC00844, MIR155HG, MIR22HG, PVT1, SNHG18, PAXIP1-AS2, and SBF2-AS1) were used to construct a ferroptosis-related lncRNAs signature (FRLS) according to the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression. The validity of this FRLS was verified in training (TCGA) and validation (CGGA and Rembrandt) cohorts, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier curves revealed a significant distinction of overall survival (OS) between the high- and low-risk groups. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves exhibited robust prognostic capacity of this FRLS. A nomogram with improved accuracy for predicting OS was established based on independent prognostic factors (FRLS, age, and WHO grade). Besides, patients in the high-risk group had higher immune, stroma, and ESTIMATE scores, lower tumor purity, higher infiltration of immunosuppressive cells, and higher expression of immune checkpoints. Patients in the low-risk group benefited significantly from radiotherapy, while no survival benefit of radiotherapy was observed for those in the high-risk group. In conclusion, we identified the prognostic ferroptosis-related lncRNAs in glioma, and constructed a prognostic signature which was associated with the immune landscape of glioma microenvironment and radiotherapy response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.675555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170051PMC
May 2021

TGFβ1 in Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Is Associated With Progression and Radiosensitivity in Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:667645. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Radiotherapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Objective: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is aggressive, with early metastasis. Cytokines secreted by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) within various tumors influences these features, but the function in particular of TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) is controversial and unknown in SCLC. This study explored the influence of TGFβ1 in CAFs on the development, immune microenvironment, and radiotherapy sensitivity of SCLC.

Methods: SCLC specimens were collected from 90 patients who had received no treatment before surgery. Tumor and tumor stroma were subjected to multiplex immunohistochemistry to quantitate TGFβ1 and other immune factors in CAFs. Cell proliferation and flow cytometry apoptosis assays were used to investigate associations between TGFβ1 and proliferation and radiotherapy sensitivity. The immune factors in tumors were detected by immunohistochemistry and (mice).

Results: TGFβ1 levels on CAFs lower or higher than the median were found, respectively, in 52.2 and 47.8% of patients; overall survival of patients with TGFβ1-high levels (53.9 mo) was significantly longer than that of the TGFβ1-low group (26.9 mo; = 0.037). The univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that a TGFβ1-high level was an independent predictor of increased survival time. TGFβ1-high levels in CAFs were associated with inhibition of growth, proliferation, antitumor immunity, and enhanced radiotherapeutic sensitivity and tumor immunity of tumor. TGFβ1-low levels promoted tumor cell growth and radiotherapy sensitivity and .

Conclusion: High levels of TGFβ1 in CAFs were associated with longer overall survival in patients with SCLC and enhanced radiotherapy sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.667645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172974PMC
May 2021

CDK5 Knockdown inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Glioblastoma.

J Cancer 2021 10;12(13):3958-3966. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.

Gliomas are the most common malignant brain neoplasms with high recurrence and lethality rates. Recently, studies have reported that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is involved in tumorigenesis. Herein, we applied bioinformatics analysis to determine the clinical value of CDK5 in patients with glioma and examined the effects of CDK5 on glioblastoma cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle . Gene expression profiles containing clinical data of low-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma cohorts were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database and analyzed to determine the association between CDK5 expression and glioma clinicopathological characteristics. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed for prognosis analysis. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to identify the biological pathways involved in differential CDK5 expression. experiments were performed to explore the effects of CDK5 on glioma cell functions. CDK5 expression was substantially higher in glioblastoma than in LGG. GSEA showed that some metabolism-related pathways were associated with the high CDK5 expression phenotype. experiments showed that CDK5 knockdown impaired cell proliferation and colony formation ability, and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. CDK5 may act as a potential biomarker of glioma progression and a valid target for glioma therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.53981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176241PMC
May 2021

Distinct durability of IgM/IgG antibody responses in COVID-19 patients with differing severity.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Center for Influenza Research and Early-warning (CASCIRE), CAS-TWAS Center of Excellence for Emerging Infectious Diseases (CEEID), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1947-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176871PMC
June 2021

Saturation mutagenesis defines novel mouse models of severe spine deformity.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Center for Pediatric Bone Biology and Translational Research, Scottish Rite for Children, Dallas, TX, USA.

Embryonic formation and patterning of the vertebrate spinal column requires coordination of many molecular cues. After birth, the integrity of the spine is impacted by developmental abnormalities of the skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems, which may result in deformities such as kyphosis and scoliosis. We sought to identify novel genetic mouse models of severe spine deformity by implementing in vivo skeletal radiography as part of a high-throughput saturation mutagenesis screen. We report selected examples of genetic mouse models following radiographic screening of 54,497 mice from 1,275 pedigrees. An estimated 30.44% of autosomal genes harbored predicted damaging alleles examined twice or more in the homozygous state. Of the 1,275 pedigrees screened, 7.4% presented with severe spine deformity developing in multiple mice, and of these, meiotic mapping implicated ENU alleles in 21% of pedigrees. Our study provides proof-of-concept that saturation mutagenesis is capable of discovering novel mouse models of human disease, including conditions with skeletal, neural, and neuromuscular pathologies. Furthermore, we report a mouse model of skeletal disease, including severe spine deformity, caused by recessive mutation in Scube3. By integrating results with a human clinical exome database, we identified a patient with undiagnosed skeletal disease who harbored recessive mutations in SCUBE3, and we demonstrated that disease-associated mutations are associated with reduced trans-activation of Smad signaling in vitro. All radiographic results and mouse models are made publicly available through the Mutagenetix online database with the goal of advancing understanding of spine development and discovering novel mouse models of human disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dmm.048901DOI Listing
June 2021

Genetic mapping of highly versatile and solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida B6-2 (ATCC BAA-2545) as a 'superstar' for mineralization of PAHs and dioxin-like compounds.

Environ Microbiol 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, and School of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxin-like compounds, including sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen heterocycles, are widespread and toxic environmental pollutants. A wide variety of microorganisms capable of growing with aromatic polycyclic compounds are essential for bioremediation of the contaminated sites and the Earth's carbon cycle. Here, cells of Pseudomonas putida B6-2 (ATCC BAA-2545) grown in the presence of biphenyl (BP) are able to simultaneously degrade PAHs and their derivatives, even when they are present as mixtures, and tolerate high concentrations of extremely toxic solvents. Genetic analysis of the 6.37 Mb genome of strain B6-2 reveals coexistence of gene clusters responsible for central catabolic systems of aromatic compounds and for solvent tolerance. We used functional transcriptomics and proteomics to identify the candidate genes associated with catabolism of BP and a mixture of BP, dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene and carbazole. Moreover, we observed dynamic changes in transcriptional levels with BP, including in metabolic pathways of aromatic compounds, chemotaxis, efflux pumps and transporters potentially involved in adaptation to PAHs. This study on the highly versatile activities of strain B6-2 suggests it to be a potentially useful model for bioremediation of polluted sites and for investigation of biochemical, genetic and evolutionary aspects of Pseudomonas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15613DOI Listing
May 2021

Corrigendum to "Removal and tolerance mechanism of Pb by a filamentous fungus: A case study" [Chemosphere 225 (2019) 200-208].

Chemosphere 2021 May 24:130938. Epub 2021 May 24.

College of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 450002, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130938DOI Listing
May 2021

Nuciferine improves high-fat diet-induced obesity reducing intestinal permeability by increasing autophagy and remodeling the gut microbiota.

Food Funct 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130000, China.

Nuciferine (NF) has received extensive attention due to its medicinal value in the treatment of metabolic diseases, such as obesity; however, to date, the effects of NF on obesity-related intestinal permeability, autophagy and the gut microbiota have not been investigated. Herein, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without NF for 8 weeks. The results showed that NF supplement reduced weight gain, fat accumulation and intestinal permeability in the HFD mice accompanied by improved autophagy. Subsequently, an in vitro experiment was performed using Caco-2 and HT-29 cells, which showed that NF supplement not only promoted the formation of autophagosomes and autophagolysosomes, but also alleviated LPS-increased intestinal permeability. Importantly, NF supplement protected from LPS-induced paracellular permeability impairment after the administration of autophagy-related gene (Atg) 5 small-interfering RNA (siRNA). These results demonstrate that NF exerts beneficial effects on the intestinal permeability by improving autophagy. Furthermore, we also found that NF supplement lowered the abundance of Butyricimonas and increased the abundance of Akkermansia, an anti-obesity bacterium. Thus, overall, we demonstrated that NF supplement confers reduced intestinal permeability by improving autophagy and alters the composition of the gut microbiota in HFD-fed mice, thereby producing an anti-obesity effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00367dDOI Listing
May 2021

Strontium ranelate promotes chondrogenesis through inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 May 20;12(1):296. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Prosthodontics, Shanghai Stomatological Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200001, China.

Background: Cartilage regeneration is a key step in functional reconstruction for temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) but is a difficult issue to address. Strontium ranelate (SrR) is an antiosteoporosis drug that has been proven to affect OA in recent years, but its effect on chondrogenesis and the underlying mechanism are still unclear.

Methods: Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced in chondrogenic differentiation medium with or without SrR, XAV-939, and LiCl. CCK-8 assays were used to examine cell proliferation, and alcian blue staining, toluidine blue staining, immunofluorescence, and PCR analysis were performed. Western blot (WB) analyses were used to assess chondrogenic differentiation of the cells. For an in vivo study, 30 male SD rats with cartilage defects on both femoral condyles were used. The defect sites were not filled, filled with silica nanosphere plus gelatine-methacryloyl (GelMA), or filled with SrR-loaded silica nanosphere plus GelMA. After 3 months of healing, paraffin sections were made, and toluidine blue staining, safranin O/fast green staining, and immunofluorescent or immunohistochemical staining were performed for histological evaluation. The data were analyzed by SPSS 26.0 software.

Results: Low concentrations of SrR did not inhibit cell proliferation, and the cells treated with SrR (0.25 mmol/L) showed stronger chondrogenesis than the control. XAV-939, an inhibitor of β-catenin, significantly promoted chondrogenesis, and SrR did not suppress this effect, while LiCl, an agonist of β-catenin, strongly suppressed chondrogenesis, and SrR reversed this inhibitory effect. In vivo study showed a significantly better cartilage regeneration and a lower activation level of β-catenin by SrR-loaded GelMA than the other treatments.

Conclusion: SrR could promote BMSCs chondrogenic differentiation by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and accelerate cartilage regeneration in rat femoral condyle defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02372-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139050PMC
May 2021

Brief Report: Medicaid Expansion and Growth in the Workforce for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Over 700,000 children throughout the U.S. have received insurance coverage through welcome mat effects of Medicaid expansion, including children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Utilizing health workforce data from the Health Resources and Services Administration, we examined workforce growth (2008-2017) among three types of health providers for children with ASD as a result of Medicaid expansion: child psychiatrists, board-certified behavioral analysts (BCBAs) and pediatricians. We found that state Medicaid expansion was associated with a 9% increase in BCBAs per 100,000 children one year after enactment, a 5% increase in child psychiatrists, and was not associated with growth in pediatricians. Results indicate the importance of new policies that directly address a shortage of providers for children with ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-021-05044-2DOI Listing
May 2021

MCTR1 Intervention Reverses Experimental Lung Fibrosis in Mice.

J Inflamm Res 2021 11;14:1873-1881. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a progressing lethal disease, effective curative therapies remain elusive and mortality remains high. Maresin conjugates in tissue regeneration 1 (MCTR1) is a DHA-derived lipid mediator promoting inflammation resolution produced in macrophage. However, the effect of MCTR1 on PF remains unknown.

Material And Methods: We established a lung fibrosis model in mice induced by intratracheal administration of bleomycin (BLM). On day 7 after lung fibrosis model establishment, treatment with MCTR1 up to day 21. The body weight of each mouse was recorded every day and survival curves were plotted. Histological staining was used to detect pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Lung sections were examined with transmission electron microscope to evaluate the ultrastructure of cells and deposit of collagen. Inflammatory cytokines in lung tissues were tested by ELISA. q-PCR and Western blot were used to evaluate the mRNA and the protein levels of EMT-related markers.

Results: We found that MCTR1 intervention attenuated BLM-induced lung inflammatory and fibrotic response. Furthermore, MCTR1 protected BLM-induced epithelial cell destroy and reversed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype into an epithelial one in lung fibrosis mice. Most importantly, post-treatment with MCTR1 restored BLM-induced lung dysfunction and enhanced survival rate significantly.

Conclusion: Posttreatment with MCTR1 attenuated BLM-induced inflammation and fibrosis changes in mice, suggested MCTR1 may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for fibrosis-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S304811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123946PMC
May 2021

Anlotinib vs placebo as third- or further-line treatment for patients with small cell lung cancer: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2 study.

Br J Cancer 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Medical Oncology, Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shenyang, China.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anlotinib as a third-line and subsequent treatment for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC).

Methods: We conducted this Phase 2 trial at 11 institutions in China. Patients with pathologically confirmed SCLC who failed at least two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either anlotinib 12 mg orally once daily for 14 days every 3 weeks or placebo. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: Between March 30, 2017 and June 8, 2018, a total of 82 and 38 patients were randomly assigned to receive anlotinib and placebo. The median PFS was significantly longer in the anlotinib group compared with the placebo group (4.1 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.8-4.2] vs 0.7 months [95% CI, 0.7-0.8]; hazard ratio (HR) 0.19 [95% CI, 0.12-0.32], p < 0.0001). Overall survival (OS) was significantly longer with anlotinib than placebo (7.3 months [95% CI, 6.1-10.3] vs 4.9 months [95% CI, 2.7-6.0]; HR 0.53 [95% CI, 0.34-0.81], p = 0.0029).

Conclusions: Anlotinib as a third-line or subsequent treatment for Chinese patients with SCLC showed improved PFS and OS than placebo with favourable safety profile.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03059797.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01356-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Disruption of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis exacerbates liver injury in clinically ketotic cows.

J Dairy Sci 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Changchun, Jilin Province, 130062, China. Electronic address:

Disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, a condition termed "ER stress," contributes to the development of liver injury in nonruminants. Because liver injury is a prominent pathological feature associated with overproduction of ketone bodies in dairy cows with ketosis, understanding the ER stress state and its functional consequences on liver injury is of particular interest. Here, 30 multiparous cows (within 3 wk postpartum) classified based on blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as healthy (n = 15, BHB <0.6 mM) or clinically ketotic (n = 15, BHB >3.0 mM) were used. Compared with healthy cows, ketotic cows had greater levels of serum fatty acids and activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase but lower serum glucose. Furthermore, dairy cows with ketosis had greater protein abundance of ER stress markers in liver tissue, including protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring protein-1α (IRE1α), and cleaved activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6). Cows with ketosis also had higher mRNA levels of hepatic 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and spliced X-box binding protein 1 (sXBP1). These data confirmed an enhanced ER stress state in clinically ketotic cows. To explore whether enhanced hepatic ER stress was induced by elevated ketone bodies and the possible contribution of ER stress to liver injury, in vitro experiments were then performed using isolated primary calf hepatocytes treated with incremental concentrations of BHB (0, 0.6, 1.2, 3.0, and 4.8 mM) for 12 h with or without overexpression of GRP78 (the master regulator of unfolded protein response). Phosphorylation levels of PERK and IRE1α proteins, level of cleaved ATF6 protein, and mRNA abundance of GRP78 and sXBP1 in hepatocytes increased after treatment with high (3.0 and 4.8 mM) BHB, indicating a mechanistic link between excessive BHB and enhanced hepatic ER stress. Furthermore, treatment with 3.0 and 4.8 mM BHB markedly elevated activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in cell supernatant, indicating exacerbated hepatocyte damage after ER stress was enhanced. Overexpression of GRP78 attenuated both BHB-induced ER stress and the ensuing cellular damage, suggesting that hepatocyte damage caused by excessive BHB can be mediated via enhanced ER stress. Overall, the present study revealed that ER stress may exacerbate liver injury development in clinically ketotic cows, underscoring the biological relevance of this pathway in the context of liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2021-20238DOI Listing
May 2021

Propionate alleviates palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress by enhancing autophagy in calf hepatic cells.

J Dairy Sci 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Changchun 130062, Jilin, China. Electronic address:

Negative energy balance-induced high blood concentrations of free fatty acids during the early postpartum period in dairy cows is a major cause of liver injury. Cows in severe negative energy balance often have suboptimal intakes of feed, which contributes to shortfalls in production of ruminal propionate and circulating glucose. Although increasing propionate production by the rumen through feed additives such as propylene glycol is effective in helping cows alleviate the shortfall in dietary energy supply, mechanisms whereby propionate affects liver function beyond gluconeogenesis are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether propionate could protect calf hepatic cells from palmitic acid (PA)-induced lipotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. Calf hepatic cells were isolated from 5 healthy calves (1 d old, female, 30-40 kg, fasting) and treated with various concentrations of PA (0, 100, 200, or 400 μM) and propionate (0, 1, 2, or 4 mM) after being administered with or without autophagic inhibitor. Propionate enhanced autophagic activity in calf hepatic cells, as indicated by elevated expression of autophagy markers LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II, encoded by MAP1LC3) and decreased expression of SQSTM1 (sequestosome-1, also called p62). Conversely, PA suppressed autophagic activity and decreased cell viability, which was improved by propionate in calf hepatic cells. In addition, propionate decreased the phosphorylation of proteins EIF2AK3 (kinase R/PKR like ER kinase) and ERN1 (inositol-requiring enzyme 1α) and cleaved ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) in PA-treated calf hepatic cells, indicating the suppression effect of propionate on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, inhibition of autophagic activity by chloroquine or bafilomycin A1 impede the beneficial effects of propionate on ER stress and cell viability. These results demonstrated that propionate alleviates ER stress and elevates cell viability in PA-treated calf hepatic cells by enhancing autophagy, which implies that autophagy may be a promising target in improving liver injury of dairy cows during transition period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19969DOI Listing
May 2021

Biological and Physiochemical Methods of Biofilm Adhesion Resistance Control of Medical-Context Surface.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 23;17(7):1769-1781. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Hwa Chong International School, Singapore, 269783, Singapore.

The formation of biofilms on medical-context surfaces gives the EPS embedded bacterial community protection and additional advantages that planktonic cells would not have such as increased antibiotic resistance and horizontal gene transfer. Bacterial cells tend to attach to a conditioning layer after overcoming possible electrical barriers and go through two phases of attachments: reversible and irreversible. In the first, bacterial attachment to the surface is reversible and occurs quickly whilst the latter is permanent and takes place over a longer period of time. Upon reaching a certain density in the bacterial community, quorum sensing causes phenotypical changes leading to a loss in motility and the production of EPS. This position paper seeks to address the problem of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation for the medical surfaces by comparing inhabiting physicochemical interactions and biological mechanisms. Several physiochemical methodologies (e.g. ultrasonication, alternating magnetic field and chemical surface coating) and utilizing biological mechanisms (e.g. quorum quenching and EPS degrading enzymes) were suggested. The possible strategical applications of each category were suggested and evaluated to a balanced position to possibly eliminate the adhesion and formation of biofilms on medical-context surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.59025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120469PMC
April 2021

The role of the HIF-1α/ALYREF/PKM2 axis in glycolysis and tumorigenesis of bladder cancer.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Urology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210000, P. R. China.

Background: As a rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis, pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2 (PKM2) participates in tumor metabolism and growth. The regulatory network of PKM2 in cancer is complex and has not been fully studied in bladder cancer. The 5-methylcytidine (m5C) modification in PKM2 mRNA might participate in the pathogenesis of bladder cancer and need to be further clarified. This study aimed to investigate the biological function and regulatory mechanism of PKM2 in bladder cancer.

Methods: The expression of PKM2 and Aly/REF export factor (ALYREF) was measured by Western blotting, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. The bioprocesses of bladder cancer cells were demonstrated by a series of experiments in vitro and in vivo. RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA-sequencing, and dual-luciferase reporter assays were conducted to explore the potential regulatory mechanisms of PKM2 in bladder cancer.

Results: In bladder cancer, we first demonstrated that ALYREF stabilized PKM2 mRNA and bound to its m5C sites in 3'-untranslated regions. Overexpression of ALYREF promoted bladder cancer cell proliferation by PKM2-mediated glycolysis. Furthermore, high expression of PKM2 and ALYREF predicted poor survival in bladder cancer patients. Finally, we found that hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) indirectly up-regulated the expression of PKM2 by activating ALYREF in addition to activating its transcription directly.

Conclusions: The m5C modification in PKM2 mRNA in the HIF-1α/ALYREF/PKM2 axis may promote the glucose metabolism of bladder cancer, providing a new promising therapeutic target for bladder cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12158DOI Listing
May 2021

Immunosuppressive Nanoparticles for Management of Immune-Related Adverse Events in Liver.

ACS Nano 2021 05 14;15(5):9111-9125. Epub 2021 May 14.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China.

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has been considered as an effective way to boost immune cells to recognize and attack tumors. However, side effects known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs) should be carefully managed. Here, we engineer immunosuppressive nanoparticles by coating PD-L1 overexpressed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) plasma membrane on poly lactic--glycolic acid nanoparticles (MSC-PD-L1 NPs) for managing and reducing irAEs induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors. The nanoparticles can enrich at liver site after intravenous administration. In the high dose of anti-PD-L1 mAb-induced irAEs clinically relevant mouse model, a low dose of MSC-PD-L1 NPs (2 mg/kg) sufficiently rescues hepatitis by inactivating T cells and macrophages in the liver tissue. More intriguingly, due to the dose threshold for nanoparticles to the tumor site, we unexpectedly find that the injected NPs do not affect the efficiency of ICB therapy to inhibit solid tumor growth. Such a strategy shows potential for managing the various cancer immunotherapy associated irAEs in clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c02391DOI Listing
May 2021

Speckled 100 kDa gene in pigs: Alternative splicing, subcellular localization, and response to interferon-α stimulation.

Gene 2021 Jul 11;791:145710. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Animal Husbandry, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150086, China. Electronic address:

Speckled 100 kDa (Sp100) plays an important role in the antiviral immune response, however, little is known about porcine Sp100. In this study, porcine Sp100 was cloned and its response to interferon (IFN) α was identified. We obtained the cDNA (V1) of the gene, SP100, and seven alternative splicing variants (V2-8). Isoform V1 encoded a 386 amino acid protein and contained a homogeneously-staining region (HSR) domain. Isoforms V3, 4, 6 and 7 were deletion/insertion variants and contained HSR domain as V1. The splicing of porcine SP100 was very complicated and many transcripts existed as revealed by cloning and minigene analyses. Using GFP-fusion constructs isoforms V1, 3, 4, 6 and 7 were localized to nucleus and the nuclear localization signal was identified as PSNRKRR at positions 331-337 of V1. Porcine SP100 was unevenly distributed in all tissues studied and differentially expressed between pigs with different disease-resistance/susceptibilities. Porcine SP100 was strongly increased by IFNα due to the existence of an IFN-stimulated response element in the promoter. A single nucleotide - 70A > C polymorphism enhanced promoter activity. The results provided the basis for determining the role of Sp100 in antiviral responses and may assist in breeding pigs with high disease-resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145710DOI Listing
July 2021

Proton conductive polyoxoniobate frameworks constructed from nanoscale {NbO} cages.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May;57(38):4702-4705

State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108, China.

Nanoscale {Nb68O200} cages have been successfully employed as flexible and stable secondary building units to combine with bridging copper-amine complexes to construct two proton conductive polyoxoniobate frameworks, demonstrating a promising strategy for making new porous materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc00388gDOI Listing
May 2021

sp. nov., the fifth species of -group from China (Araneae: Clubionidae).

Biodivers Data J 2021 29;9:e66260. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Radiation Chemistry and Functional Materials, School of Nuclear Technology and Chemistry & Biology, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning, China Hubei Key Laboratory of Radiation Chemistry and Functional Materials, School of Nuclear Technology and Chemistry & Biology, Hubei University of Science and Technology Xianning China.

Background: The -group is a relatively small species group, distributed exclusively in East Asia, with only three species clearly documented so far.

New Information: Dong & Zhang, 2016, which was previously placed in the -group, is assigned to the -group in the present paper. A new spider of the -group from Jiugong Mountain in China is described under the name of sp. nov. Detailed descriptions and photographs of the new species are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.9.e66260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102465PMC
April 2021

N-methyladenosine modification underlies messenger RNA metabolism and plant development.

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2021 May 6;63:102047. Epub 2021 May 6.

Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, National University of Singapore, 1 Research Link, 117604, Singapore; Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, 117543, Singapore. Electronic address:

RNA modifications constitute an essential layer of gene regulation in living organisms. As the most prevalent internal modification on eukaryotic mRNAs, N-methyladenosine (mA) exists in many plant species and requires the evolutionarily conserved methyltransferases, demethylases, and mA binding proteins for writing, erasing, and reading mA, respectively. In plants, mA affects many aspects of mRNA metabolism, including alternative polyadenylation, secondary structure, translation, and decay, which underlies various plant developmental processes and stress responses. Here, we discuss the recent progress in understanding the roles of mA modification in mRNA metabolism and their mechanistic link with plant development and stress responses. We also highlight some outstanding questions and provide an outlook on future prospects of mA research in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2021.102047DOI Listing
May 2021

Nuclear Translocation of OsMFT1 That is Impeded by OsFTIP1 Promotes Drought Tolerance in Rice.

Mol Plant 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Resources, Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Drought has been the leading environmental threat affecting the productivity of crops, and plants have evolved a series of mechanisms to adapt to drought stress. The FT-INTERACTING PROTEINs (FTIPs) and phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBPs) play key roles in developmental processes, whereas their roles in the regulation of stress response are still largely unknown. Here, we report that OsFTIP1 negatively affects drought response. Further study reveals that OsFTIP1 interacts with a PEBP, rice MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (OsMFT1), which promotes rice tolerance to drought treatment. OsMFT1 was found to interact with two key drought-related transcription factors, OsbZIP66 and OsMYB26, and regulates their binding capacity on drought-related genes, thus enhancing drought tolerance in rice. We further revealed that OsFTIP1 impedes the nucleocytoplasmic translocation of OsMFT1. These results demonstrate that dynamic modulation of drought responsive genes by OsMFT1-OsMYB26 complex and OsMFT1-OsbZIP66 complex is integral to OsFTIP1 effect on impeding nuclear translocation of OsMFT1. Our findings suggest that OsMFT1 acts as a hitherto unknown nucleocytoplasmic trafficking signal that regulates drought tolerance in rice in response to environmental signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2021.05.001DOI Listing
May 2021

Taxonomic studies on the sac spider genus (Araneae, Clubionidae) from Xishuangbanna Rainforest, China.

Zookeys 2021 26;1034:1-163. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

School of Biological Sciences, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang, Guizhou, China.

Spiders of the genus Latreille, 1804 from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China are studied. A total of 47 species is reported and illustrated, including 14 new species and two new synonyms. Twelve of the new species belong to four species groups: Yu & Li, , Yu & Li, , Yu & Li, , Yu & Li, , Yu & Li, , Yu & Li, , Yu & Li, and Yu & Li, from the group; Yu & Li, and Yu & Li, from the group; Yu & Li, from the group; and Yu & Li, from the group. The remaining two new species, Yu & Li, and Yu & Li, , are not readily assignable to any of the existing species groups. The female of Yu & Li, 2019, the female of Yu & Li, 2019, the female of Yu & Li, 2019, the male of Jäger & Dankittipakul, 2010 and the true female of Dankittipakul, 2008 are described for the first time. Two new synonyms are: Jäger & Dankittipakul, 2010 . = Zhang & Yin, 1998; Thorell, 1895 . = Thorell, 1890. A checklist of species from Xishuangbanna is provided. The DNA barcodes of almost all of the species were obtained for species delimitation, matching of sexes and future use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1034.59413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093189PMC
April 2021

Effects of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion on the Distribution of New General Internists Across States.

Med Care 2021 Jul;59(7):653-660

Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA.

Background: Some states expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act, boosting their low-income residents' demand for health care, while other states opted not to expand.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether the Medicaid expansion influenced the states selected by physicians just completing graduate medical education for establishing their first practices.

Research Design: Using 2009-2019 data from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and information on states' Medicaid expansion status, we estimated conditional logit models to compare where new physicians located during the 6 years following implementation of the expansion to where they located during the 5 years preceding implementation.

Subjects: The sample consisted of 160,842 physicians in 8 specialty groups.

Results: Thirty-three states and the District of Columbia expanded Medicaid by the end of the study period. Compared with preexpansion patterns, we found that physicians in one specialty group-general internal medicine-were increasingly likely to locate in expansion states with time after the expansion. The Medicaid expansion influenced the practice location choices of men and international medical graduates in general internal medicine; women and United States medical graduates did not alter their preexpansion location patterns. Simulations estimated that, between 2014 and 2019, nonexpansion states lost 310 general internists (95% confidence interval, 156-464) to expansion states.

Conclusions: The Medicaid expansion influenced the practice location choices of new general internists. States that opted not to expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act lost general internists to expansion states, potentially affecting access to care for all their residents irrespective of insurance coverage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0000000000001523DOI Listing
July 2021

Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) treatment of moyamoya syndrome: evaluation by computed tomography perfusion imaging.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, China.

Objective: To explore the value of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging for evaluating the efficacy of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) treatment of moyamoya syndrome (MMS).

Methods: Forty-three patients with MMS (48 hemispheres) who received EDAS treatment were examined using CTP and DSA before and after surgery. CTP of the ipsilateral cortex, contralateral mirror area, and pons region were measured, and the relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and volume (rCBV), mean transit time (rMTT), and time-to-peak (rTTP) were calculated. Based on postoperative DSA, 48 hemispheres were apportioned to two groups based on rich (grades 2, 3) or poor (grades 0, 1) collateral vessel formation, and the pre- and post-operative differences in perfusion changes were compared. The association between clinical outcome, CTP, and the degree of DSA collateral vessels was explored.

Results: rCBF and rMTT significantly improved in both the poor and rich collateral vessel formation groups (n = 21 and 27, respectively), while rTTP significantly improved only in the latter. Postoperative CTP improved in the rich and the grade 1 collateral vessel groups (p < 0.01). The clinical improvement was consistent with the improvement of CTP (p = 0.07), but less consistent with the degree of collateral angiogenesis (p = 0.003).

Conclusion: CTP can quantitatively evaluate the improvement of brain tissue perfusion in the operated area after EDAS. Brain tissue perfusion in operated areas improved regardless of postoperative rich or poor collateral vessel formation observed via DSA. A significant improvement in rTTP in the operated area may indicate the formation of abundant collateral vessels.

Key Points: • CTP showed that brain tissue perfusion in the operated area after EDAS improved regardless of rich or poor collateral vessel formation observed via DSA. • Significant improvement of rTTP in the operated area may indicate the formation of abundant collateral vessels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07960-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Synthesis of large-area monolayer and few-layer MoSe continuous films by chemical vapor deposition without hydrogen assistance and formation mechanism.

Nanoscale 2021 May;13(19):8922-8930

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China. and Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Function Materials Education, Institute of Functional Crystal, Tianjin University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384, China.

Two dimensional (2D) MoSe2 with a layered structure has attracted extensive research due to its excellent electronic and optical properties. The controlled synthesis of large-scale and high-quality MoSe2 is highly desirable but still remains challenging. Ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) is an excellent method for the synthesis of 2D materials but the inevitable use of hydrogen during the growth and the easy formation of cracks in the ultrathin films still need to be solved. In the present work, we reported the synthesis of large-area continuous MoSe2 films with different layers by the APCVD method without the assistance of hydrogen on SiO2/Si substrates just by raising the reaction temperature of Se. The synthesized continuous MoSe2 films can reach several centimeters, which can be seen clearly by naked eyes, and, more importantly, the size of the monolayer film can reach up to 3 mm. The morphology, structural characteristics, and optical properties of the synthesized MoSe2 films have been investigated, demonstrating good performance and high crystallinity of the films. Raman spectra give the empirical expression of the frequency difference between E2g1 and A1g dependence of the layer number (N = 1-10 L) for CVD grown MoSe2, which is useful in layer number identification. Further, the formation mechanism of the MoSe2 continuous film is of interest as a fundamental scientific problem and needs to be studied. We proposed the wing model, boundary layer theory, and diffusion theory to account quantitatively for the formation behavior of the MoSe2 film. The presented facile growth method and theoretical model are useful to synthesize other ultrathin transition metal dichalcogenide films and understand the formation behaviors of the systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr00552aDOI Listing
May 2021

Tumor-treating fields (TTFields)-based cocktail therapy: a novel blueprint for glioblastoma treatment.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(4):1069-1086. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan 430022, China.

Glioblastoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in the central nervous system. Due to the high plasticity, heterogeneity and complexity of the tumor microenvironment, these tumors are resistant to almost all therapeutic strategies when they reach an advanced stage. Along with being a unique and effective way to kill cancer cells, tumor-treating fields (TTFields) has emerged as a breakthrough among glioblastoma therapies since the advent of temozolomide (TMZ), and the combination of these treatments has gradually been promoted and applied in the clinic. The combination of TTFields with other therapies is particularly suitable for this type of "cold" tumors and has attracted a large amount of attention from clinicians and researchers in the era of cancer cocktail therapy. Here, we introduced the current treatment regimen for glioblastoma, highlighting the unique advantages of TTFields in the treatment of glioblastoma. Then, we summarized current glioblastoma clinical trials that combine TTFields and other therapies. In addition, the main and potential mechanisms of TTFields were introduced to further understand the rationale for each combination therapy. Finally, we focused on the most advanced technologies applied in glioblastoma research and treatment and the prospect of their combination with TTFields. This review provides a unique overview of glioblastoma treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085847PMC
April 2021

Minimum Radiant Exposure and Irradiance for Triggering Adequate Polymerization of a Photo-Polymerized Resin Cement.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Fujian Provincial Engineering Research Center of Oral Biomaterial, Stomatological Key Laboratory of Fujian College and University, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350000, China.

This study aimed to establish the minimum radiant exposure and irradiance to trigger an adequate polymerization of a photo-polymerized resin cement. In total, 220 disc-shaped specimens (diameter of 10 mm and thickness of 0.1 mm) were fabricated using a photo-polymerized resin cement (Variolink N-transparent, Ivoclar Vivadent). To investigate the minimum radiant exposure, the specimens were polymerized with radiant exposures of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 18 J/cm ( = 20). During polymerization, the irradiance was maintained at 200 mW/cm. To investigate the minimum irradiance, the specimens were polymerized with irradiances of 50, 100, 150, and 200 mW/cm ( = 20). During polymerization, the radiant exposure was maintained at the previously determined minimum radiant exposure. The Vickers microhardness (HV) and degree of conversion (DC) of the carbon double bond of the specimens were measured to determine the degree of polymerization of the specimens. The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test ( < 0.05). In the investigation of the minimum radiant exposure, the HV and DC of the specimens polymerized with a radiant exposure from 1 to 5 J/cm were significantly lower than those with 18 J/cm (all < 0.05). However, no significant difference in HV and DC was found between the specimens polymerized with 6 J/cm and 18 J/cm ( > 0.05). In the investigation of the minimum irradiance, the specimens polymerized with an irradiance of 50 mW/cm had significantly lower HV and DC than the specimens polymerized with an irradiance of 200 mW/cm ( < 0.05). However, no significant difference in the HV and DC was found among the specimens cured with irradiances of 100, 150, and 200 mW/cm ( > 0.05). In conclusion, the minimum radiant exposure and irradiance to trigger an adequate polymerization of the light-cured resin cement were 6 J/cm and 100 mW/cm, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124640PMC
April 2021