Publications by authors named "Yu Cao"

999 Publications

Wearable skin-like optoelectronic systems with suppression of motion artifacts for cuff-less continuous blood pressure monitor.

Natl Sci Rev 2020 May 14;7(5):849-862. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Key Laboratory of Applied Mechanics, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

According to the statistics of the World Health Organization, an estimated 17.9 million people die from cardiovascular diseases each year, representing 31% of all global deaths. Continuous non-invasive arterial pressure (CNAP) is essential for the management of cardiovascular diseases. However, it is difficult to achieve long-term CNAP monitoring with the daily use of current devices due to irritation of the skin as well as the lack of motion artifacts suppression. Here, we report a high-performance skin-like optoelectronic system integrated with ultra-thin flexible circuits to monitor CNAP. We introduce a theoretical model via the virtual work principle for predicting the precise blood pressure and suppressing motion artifacts, and propose optical difference in the frequency domain for stable optical measurements in terms of skin-like devices. We compare the results with the blood pressure acquired by invasive (intra-arterial) blood pressure monitoring for >1500 min in total on 44 subjects in an intensive care unit. The maximum absolute errors of diastolic and systolic blood pressure were ±7/±10 mm Hg, respectively, in immobilized, and ±10/±14 mm Hg, respectively, in walking scenarios. These strategies provide advanced blood pressure monitoring techniques, which would directly address an unmet clinical need or daily use for a highly vulnerable population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwaa022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288864PMC
May 2020

A targeted extraction with solvent-free pressurized method based on analyte-like oxonium salts: An example for simultaneous determination of bamboo-leaf flavonoids by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet detection.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Oct 5;1658:462595. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, PR China. Electronic address:

By using novel oxonium salts in "Sandwich" mode, an improved approach of targeted enrichment through a pressurized solvent-free extraction coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet detection (UPLC-UV) analysis was developed for main bioactive flavonoids in bamboo leaves. As solid extractants, these salts have the same structural nucleus with analytes. By comparison, the yield of this new method was higher than that of reported ways, and the highest enrichment factor reached 394.22. The whole process was more consistent with pseudo-second order model (R=0.9994) with the rate constant of 0.0537 (g/mg·min). Moreover, ideal selectivity, linearity, repeatability, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and recovery were all achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462595DOI Listing
October 2021

Dehydration of Electrochemically Protonated Oxide: SrCoO with Square Spin Tubes.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan.

Controlling oxygen deficiencies is essential for the development of novel chemical and physical properties such as high- superconductivity and low-dimensional magnetic phenomena. Among reduction methods, topochemical reactions using metal hydrides (e.g., CaH) are known as the most powerful method to obtain highly reduced oxides including NdSrNiO superconductor, though there are some limitations such as competition with oxyhydrides. Here we demonstrate that electrochemical protonation combined with thermal dehydration can yield highly reduced oxides: SrCoO thin films are converted to SrCoO by dehydration of HSrCoO at 350 °C. SrCoO forms square (or four-legged) spin tubes composed of tetrahedra, in contrast to the conventional infinite-layer structure. Detailed analyses suggest the importance of the destabilization of the SrCoO precursor by electrochemical protonation that can greatly alter reaction energy landscape and its gradual dehydration (HSrCoO) for the SrCoO formation. Given the applicability of electrochemical protonation to a variety of transition metal oxides, this simple process widens possibilities to explore novel functional oxides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c07043DOI Listing
October 2021

Alterations in the transcriptional landscape allows differential desiccation tolerance in different strains of .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Oct 13:AEM0083021. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

UCD-Centre for Food Safety, UCD School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Dublin D04 V1W8, Ireland.

is a typical example of a xerotolerant bacterium. It is epidemiologically linked to low moisture foods like powdered infant formula (PIF) and is associated with high fatality rates among neonates. We characterized the xerotolerance in a clinically isolated strain, ATCC™29544, and compared the desiccation tolerance with an environmental strain, SP291, whose desiccation tolerance was previously characterized. We found that, although the clinical strain was desiccation-tolerant, the level of tolerance was compromised when compared to the environmental strain. RNA-seq based deep transcriptomic characterization identified a unique transcriptional profile in the clinical strain compared to what was already known for the environmental strain. As RNA-seq was also carried out in different TSB growth conditions, genes that were expressed specifically under desiccated conditions were identified and denoted as desiccation responsive genes (DRGs). Interestingly, these DRGs included transcriptomic factors like , and genes associated with inositol metabolism, a phenotype as yet unreported in . Further, the clinical strain did not express the gene, which was previously reported to be very important for desiccation survival and persistence. Interestingly, analysis of the plasmid genes showed that the iron metabolism in desiccated ATCC™29544 cells specifically involved the siderophore cronobactin encoded by the genes. Confirmatory studies using qRT-PCR determined that, though the secondary desiccation response genes were upregulated in ATCC™29544, the level of up-regulation was lower compared to that in SP291. All these factors could collectively contribute to the compromised desiccation tolerance in the clinical strain. has in past led to outbreaks, particularly associated with food that are low in moisture content. This species has adapted to survive in low water conditions and can survive in such environments for long periods. These characteristics have enabled the pathogen to contaminate powder infant formula, a food matrix with which the pathogen has been epidemiologically associated. Even though clinically adapted strains can also be isolated, there is no information on how the clinical strains adapt to low moisture environments. Our research assessed the adaptation of a clinically isolated strain to low moisture survival on sterile stainless steel coupons and compared the survival to a highly desiccation-tolerant environmental strain. We found that, even though the clinical strain is desiccation-tolerant, the rate of tolerance was compromised compared to the environmental strain. A deeper investigation using RNA-seq identified that the clinical strain used pathways different from that of the environmental strain to adapt to low moisture conditions. This shows that the adaptation to desiccation conditions, at least for , is strain-specific and that different strains have used different evolutionary strategies for adaptation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00830-21DOI Listing
October 2021

Crystal faces-tailored oxygen vacancy in Au/CeO2 catalysts for the efficient oxidation of HMF to FDCA.

ChemSusChem 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Jiangsu University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, CHINA.

Developing an efficient catalyst to upgrade 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to high value-added downstream chemicals is of great significance in biomass conversion. Three crystal-faces controllable nanorod (110)-, nanocube (100)- and nanooctaheron (111)- CeO2 supported Au nanoparticles have been prepared to investigate the intrinsic effect of CeO2 crystal faces on the oxidation of HMF to 2, 5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). The experimental results and density functional theory calculation revealed that the concentration of oxygen vacancy (VO ) for exposed specific crystal faces was crucial to the oxygen adsorption ability, and Au/nanorod-CeO2 possesses the highest VO concentration promoted the formation of more oxygen active species (superoxide radical) on CeO2 (110) crystal face than (100) and (111) crystal faces. Besides, the higher VO concentration can provide a strong adsorption ability of HMF, greatly boosting the activation of HMF. Thus, these results led to a superior catalytic activity for the HMF oxidation over Au/nanorod-CeO2 (with the FDCA yield of 96.5%). In-situ FTIR test uncovered the HMF oxidation pathway, and the possible catalytic mechanism was proposed. A deep insight into the role of regulation for crystal faces provides a basis for the rational design of the highly active facets for the oxidation of HMF and related reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202101983DOI Listing
October 2021

Bioequivalence and Food Effect Assessment of 2 Rivaroxaban Formulations in Healthy Chinese Volunteers: An Open, Randomized, Single-Dose, and 4-Period Crossover Study.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Phase I Clinical Research Center, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Rivaroxaban is a direct factor Xa inhibitor used for the management of thromboembolic disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetic profile, and bioequivalence of a generic and a branded rivaroxaban formulation (Xarelto) under fasted and fed conditions in healthy Chinese volunteers. An open-label, randomized, single-dose, 4-period complete, and replicate crossover study in healthy Chinese volunteers was performed. A single oral dose of 20 mg of 2 rivaroxaban formulations was administered to 72 healthy volunteers, with 36 in the fasted group and 36 consuming a high-fat diet. The evaluated pharmacokinetic parameters, including maximum rivaroxaban concentration, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, and AUC from time 0 to infinity, were assessed for BE. The plasma concentrations of rivaroxaban were measured by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The geometric mean ratios with 90% confidence intervals of the maximum rivaroxaban concentration, AUC from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, and AUC from time 0 to infinity were all within the range of 80% to 125% under fasted and fed conditions. The within-subject variability of the test and reference products was compared, and the upper limit of the 90% confidence intervals for the test-to-reference ratio of the within-subject variability was <2.5, which indicated that the rivaroxaban test and the rivaroxaban reference formulation were bioequivalent. No serious adverse events were reported during either fasted or fed conditions of the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpdd.1031DOI Listing
October 2021

Cascading effects of benthic fish impede reinstatement of clear water conditions in lakes: A mesocosm study.

J Environ Manage 2021 Oct 7;301:113898. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Bioscience and WATEC, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej, Silkeborg, 8600, Denmark; Limnology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences and Centre for Ecosystem Research and Implementation, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, 06800, Turkey; Sino-Danish Centre for Education and Research (SDC), University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing, China; Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 33731, Erdemli-Mersin, Turkey. Electronic address:

In shallow eutrophic lakes, submersed macrophytes are essential for maintaining a clear water state, and they are affected markedly by fishes directly through herbivory and indirectly by fish-invertebrate-periphyton complexity, a pathway that presently is not well understood in subtropical lakes but probably vital to lake managements. We conducted a mesocosm study involving benthic fish (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), snails (Radix swinhoei) and submersed macrophyte (Vallisneria natans), aiming to examine whether benthic fish is detrimental to reestablishment of clear-water macrophyte-dominated state in eutrophic degraded lakes. In addition, we aimed to investigate the cascading effect that benthic fish might have on periphyton and phytoplankton and to what extent snails can alleviate this effect. Our results showed that benthic fish promoted nutrient release from the sediment and thereby facilitated the growth of phytoplankton and periphyton, leading to reduced growth of submerged macrophytes due to shading. Snails consumed the periphyton attached on the leaves of macrophytes, thereby being beneficial to the plant growth, albeit it could not fully counteract the adverse effects from benthic fish. The water quality indicators in terms of nutrients concentrations, phytoplankton biomass and light extinction coefficient along the water column was affected primarily by benthic fish, followed by macrophytes and snails. To target a clear-water condition, the water quality was best at the presence of macrophytes alone or in combination with snails, and worst at the presence of benthic fish. Our results implied that the removal of benthic fish should be a useful ecological restoration method for rehabilitation of submersed macrophytes and water quality improvement in subtropic, eutrophic, shallow lakes following external nutrient loading reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113898DOI Listing
October 2021

Pulse oximetry waveform: A non-invasive physiological predictor for the return of spontaneous circulation in cardiac arrest patients ---- A multicenter, prospective observational study.

Resuscitation 2021 Oct 6. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of pulse oximetry plethysmography (POP) for the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in cardiac arrest (CA) patients.

Methods: This was a multicenter, observational, prospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with cardiac arrest at 14 teaching hospitals cross China from December 2013 through November 2014. The study endpoint was ROSC, defined as the restoration of a palpable pulse and an autonomous cardiac rhythm lasting for at least 20 minutes after the completion or cessation of CPR.

Results: 150 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients and 291 in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) patients were enrolled prospectively. ROSC was achieved in 20 (13.3%) and 64 (22.0%) patients in these cohorts, respectively. In patients with complete end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO) and POP data, patients with ROSC had significantly higher levels of POP area under the curve (AUCp), wave amplitude (Amp) and ETCO level during CPR than those without ROSC (all p < 0.05). Pairwise comparison of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated no significant difference was observed between ETCO and Amp (p = 0.204) or AUCp (p = 0.588) during the first two minutes of resuscitation.

Conclusion: POP may be a novel and effective method for predicting ROSC during resuscitation, with a prognostic value similar to ETCO at early stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.09.032DOI Listing
October 2021

Suture ligation for submucosal hemostasis during hand-sewn side-to-side duodeno-ileostomy in simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation.

World J Gastrointest Surg 2021 Sep;13(9):988-999

Department of Kidney and Pancreas Transplant, Tianjin First Central Hospital, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300192, China.

Background: Enteric anastomotic (EA) bleeding is a potentially life-threatening surgical complication associated with enteric anastomosis during simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPKT).

Aim: To investigate whether suture ligation (SL) for submucosal hemostasis during hand-sewn enteric anastomosis could decrease the morbidity of early EA bleeding in SPKT.

Methods: We compared the outcomes of 134 patients classified into SL ( = 44) and no SL (NSL) groups ( = 90). This study adheres to the declarations of Istanbul and Helsinki and all donors were neither paid nor coerced.

Results: During the first postoperative week, the EA bleeding rate in the SL group was lower than that in the NSL group (2.27% 15.56%; = 0.021); no relationship was found between EA bleeding and donor age, mean pancreatic cold ischemia time, platelet count, prothrombin time international normalized rate, activated partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time. Anastomotic leakage was observed in one case in the SL group at postoperative day (POD) 14 and in one case at POD 16 in the NSL group ( = 0.754). No significant difference was found between the two groups in the patient survival, pancreas graft survival, or kidney graft survival.

Conclusion: SL for submucosal hemostasis during hand-sewn enteric anastomosis in SPKT can decrease the morbidity of early EA bleeding without increasing the anastomotic leakage rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4240/wjgs.v13.i9.988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462074PMC
September 2021

Efficient electrochemical reduction of CO promoted by the electrospun CuS/Cu tandem catalyst.

Nanoscale 2021 Oct 21;13(40):16986-16994. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China.

Coupled with renewable electricity, electrochemical reduction of CO (CORR) is one of the sustainable strategies for the production of value-added carbon-containing chemicals. Cu-based catalysts are by far the most widely studied electrocatalytic materials for CORR, although they exhibit poor performance in CO selectivity. In this work, we have designed a CuS/Cu tandem structure a combined electrospinning and calcination method. The catalyst enables CO reduction to CO with high selectivity >80% with a production rate of 34.6 μmol h cm at -0.68 V RHE, which is superior to most of the Cu-based catalysts under the same operation conditions. Theoretical simulations show that the improved CORR performance stems from the CuS/Cu tandem structure in which Cu acts as a *CO-producing site and the neighboring CuS facilitates the following *CO desorption step. This work opens new possibilities for exploiting tandem catalysis mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr04802cDOI Listing
October 2021

Interactions between glial cells and the blood-brain barrier and their role in Alzheimer's disease.

Ageing Res Rev 2021 Oct 2;72:101483. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Institute of Geriatrics, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100091, China. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder characterized by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, is the most common form of dementia worldwide. However, currently, there are no satisfying curative therapies for AD. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) acts as a selective physical barrier and plays protective roles in maintaining brain homeostasis. BBB dysfunction as an upstream or downstream event promotes the onset and progression of AD. Moreover, the pathogenesis of AD caused by BBB injury hasn't been well elucidated. Glial cells, BBB compartments and neurons form a minimal functional unit called the neurovascular unit (NVU). Emerging evidence suggests that glial cells are regulators in maintaining the BBB integrity and neuronal function. Illustrating the regulatory mechanism of glial cells in the BBB assists us in drawing a glial-vascular coupling diagram of AD, which may offer new insight into the pathogenesis of AD and early intervention strategies for AD. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge of glial-BBB interactions and their pathological implications in AD and to provide new therapeutic potentials for future investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2021.101483DOI Listing
October 2021

Population Performance of Thrips hawaiiensis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Different Vegetable Host Plants.

Neotrop Entomol 2021 Sep 29. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Rare Animal and Economic Insect of the Mountainous Region, Guizhou Provincial Engineering Research Center for Biological Resources Protection and Efficient Utilization of the Mountainous Region, Department of Biology and Engineering of Environment, Guiyang University, Guiyang, China.

Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan) is a flower-inhabiting thrips with a wide range of host plants, but little is known regarding its biological and ecological characteristics on vegetable hosts. Here, we evaluated the development, survival, and oviposition of T. hawaiiensis on five vegetable species (Capsicum annuum, Solanum melongena, Cucurbita moschata, Lablab purpureus, and Brassica oleracea), and constructed its life tables on these vegetables. There were significant differences in the development of T. hawaiiensis on the five vegetables, and the developmental times from egg to adult were 12.19 days, 11.59 days, 11.12 days, 10.78 days, and 10.51 days on C. moschata, B. oleracea, L. purpureus, C. annuum, and S. melongena, respectively. There were also significant differences in T. hawaiiensis' survival rate on these plants, with S. melongena (71.00%) > C. annuum (67.33%) > L. purpureus (63.33%) > B. oleracea (57.00%) > C. moschata (49.33%). The greatest and lowest fecundity levels of T. hawaiiensis were found on S. melongena (44.28) and C. moschata (30.16), respectively. T. hawaiiensis had the greatest net reproductive rate on S. melongena (19.22), followed by C. annuum (16.11), L. purpureus (15.17), B. oleracea (11.10), and C. moschata (8.47), and the intrinsic rate of increase showed a similar trend, with values of 0.140, 0.125, 0.121, 0.112, and 0.093, respectively. Thus, S. melongena and C. moschata were the most and least suitable hosts for the population development of T. hawaiiensis among the five tested vegetable hosts. This study could provide important information for the key control of T. hawaiiensis on different crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13744-021-00914-xDOI Listing
September 2021

Benefit-risk assessment for brincidofovir for the treatment of smallpox: U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Evaluation.

Antiviral Res 2021 Sep 25;195:105182. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Division of Antivirals, Office of Infectious Diseases, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

The development and approval of brincidofovir for the treatment of smallpox, a disease that was eradicated from the world over 40 years ago, has resulted in the second antiviral approved via the Medical Countermeasure Initiative (MCMi) to combat this disease. Approval of brincidofovir required a unique regulatory approach based on the FDA Animal Rule, and development was supported by many years of research and collaboration among academic investigators, the pharmaceutical industry and multiple government agencies. This article summarizes the FDA regulatory pathway and describes the challenges involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105182DOI Listing
September 2021

Life Table and Preference Choice of (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) for Kidney Bean Plants Treated by Exogenous Calcium.

Insects 2021 Sep 17;12(9). Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Rare Animal and Economic Insect of the Mountainous Region, Department of Biology and Engineering of Environment, Guiyang University, Guiyang 550005, China.

Exogenous calcium (Ca) has been used to induce host plant resistance in response to abiotic and biotic stresses, including from thrips attack. The aim of this study was to determine whether exogenously applied Ca affects the performance of . We assessed the development time, total longevity, reproduction, and population parameters of , and its preference choice on Ca-treated or untreated control kidney bean plants under laboratory conditions. The results showed that fed on Ca-treated leaves had a longer developmental time but lower longevity (female and male) and fecundity than fed on control leaves. Population parameters, including the intrinsic rate of increase (), finite rate of increase (), and net reproductive rate (), were all found higher in control leaves than in Ca-treated leaves, and the mean generation time () was shorter. In preference choices, the number of thrips on control plants was higher than the number of thrips on Ca-treated kidney bean plants. Overall, our results indicated that exogenous Ca pretreatment on kidney bean plants affected the life history and preference choice of , suggesting Ca might be used as a promising elicitor of inducible plant defense against thrips.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12090838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8471031PMC
September 2021

(±)-Caryopterisines A and B, dimeric monoterpene alkaloids with unprecedented 6/5/5/5/6 pentacyclic rings scaffold from Caryopteris glutinosa.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Nov 17;116:105364. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

(±)-Caryopterisines A (1) and B (2) featuring an unprecedented 6/5/5/5/6 pentacyclic rings system were isolated from Caryopteris glutinosa. The structures were determined by spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic data analyses as well as theoretical calculations. Chiral HPLC resolution of both racemic 1 and 2 afforded their corresponding enantiotropic enantiomers. A plausible biogenesis for 1 and 2 may be originated from Diels-Alder reaction between pyridine-containing oxerine derivatives. The enantiotropic conversion mechanism of the enantiomers was demonstrated by H-D exchange and O incorporation studies. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate inhibition of estrogen E2 biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells. These two alkaloids reduced kynurenine biosynthesis at moderate level via inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Alkaloid 2 exhibited moderate inhibition of the release of interleukin-1β.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105364DOI Listing
November 2021

Development of thermostable sucrose phosphorylase by semi-rational design for efficient biosynthesis of alpha-D-glucosylglycerol.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Oct 20;105(19):7309-7319. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, 214122, Jiangsu, China.

Sucrose phosphorylase (SPase) can specifically catalyze transglycosylation reactions and can be used to enzymatically synthesize α-D-glycosides. However, the low thermostability of SPase has been a bottleneck for its industrial application. In this study, a SPase gene from Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 12,291 (LmSPase) was synthesized with optimized codons and overexpressed successfully in Escherichia coli. A semi-rational design strategy that combined the FireProt (a web server designing thermostable proteins), structure-function analysis, and molecular dynamic simulations was used to improve the thermostability of LmSPase. Finally, one single-point mutation T219L and a combination mutation I31F/T219L/T263L/S360A (Mut4) with improved thermostability were obtained. The half-lives at 50 °C of T219L and Mut4 both increased approximately two-fold compared to that of wild-type LmSPase (WT). Furthermore, the two variants T219L and Mut4 were used to produce α-D-glucosylglycerol (αGG) from sucrose and glycerol by incubating with 40 U/mL crude extracts at 37 °C for 60 h and achieved the product concentration of 193.2 ± 12.9 g/L and 195.8 ± 13.1 g/L, respectively, which were approximately 1.3-fold higher than that of WT (150.4 ± 10.0 g/L). This study provides an effective strategy for improving the thermostability of an industrial enzyme. KEY POINTS: • Predicted potential hotspot residues directing the thermostability of LmSPase by semi-rational design • Screened two positive variants with higher thermostability and higher activity • Synthesized α-D-glucosylglycerol to a high level by two screened positive variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11551-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494705PMC
October 2021

S19W, T27W, and N330Y mutations in ACE2 enhance SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD binding toward both wild-type and antibody-resistant viruses and its molecular basis.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 09 16;6(1):343. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

West China Hospital Emergency Department (WCHED), State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

SARS-CoV-2 recognizes, via its spike receptor-binding domain (S-RBD), human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to initiate infection. Ecto-domain protein of ACE2 can therefore function as a decoy. Here we show that mutations of S19W, T27W, and N330Y in ACE2 could individually enhance SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD binding. Y330 could be synergistically combined with either W19 or W27, whereas W19 and W27 are mutually unbeneficial. The structures of SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD bound to the ACE2 mutants reveal that the enhanced binding is mainly contributed by the van der Waals interactions mediated by the aromatic side-chains from W19, W27, and Y330. While Y330 and W19/W27 are distantly located and devoid of any steric interference, W19 and W27 are shown to orient their side-chains toward each other and to cause steric conflicts, explaining their incompatibility. Finally, using pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viruses, we demonstrate that these residue substitutions are associated with dramatically improved entry-inhibition efficacy toward both wild-type and antibody-resistant viruses. Taken together, our biochemical and structural data have delineated the basis for the elevated S-RBD binding associated with S19W, T27W, and N330Y mutations in ACE2, paving the way for potential application of these mutants in clinical treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00756-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8444507PMC
September 2021

Jellyfish skin polysaccharides enhance intestinal barrier function and modulate the gut microbiota in mice with DSS-induced colitis.

Food Funct 2021 Oct 19;12(20):10121-10135. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

National Engineering Research Center of Seafood, School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian, Liaoning 116034, China.

Jellyfish skin polysaccharides (JSP) were isolated from Kishinouye and contained 55.11% polysaccharides and 2.26% uronic acid. To examine the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of JSP , C57BL/6 mice were induced to develop ulcerative colitis by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and the roles of dietary JSP supplementation in modulating colitis were explored. JSP supplementation reduced the symptoms of colitis in mice, increased colon length, protected goblet cells, and improved intestinal epithelial integrity and permeability. JSP modulated oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, which was demonstrated by reduced MPO activity, NO level, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in mice. JSP suppressed NF-κB signaling pathways as evidenced by lower levels of phosphorylated p65 and IKB. Moreover, JSP supplementation enhanced the expression of tight junction proteins and mucins, and modulated the composition of the gut microbiota and the production of short-chain fatty acids. Taken together, these results reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of dietary JSP , suggesting the potential of JSP as a nutritional supplement or adjunct strategy in preventing or ameliorating colitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo02001cDOI Listing
October 2021

Erasing mA-dependent transcription signature of stress-sensitive genes triggers antidepressant actions.

Neurobiol Stress 2021 Nov 4;15:100390. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan City, Hubei, 430030, China.

Emerging evidence has shown that stress responsivity and psychiatric diseases are associated with alterations in N-methyladenosine (mA) mRNA epigenetic modifications. Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) is an mA demethylase that has been linked to increased body mass and obesity. Here, we show that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) with weight-gain side effects, such as imipramine and amitriptyline, directly increased FTO expression and activated its epigenetic function in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). VTA-specific genetic disruption of FTO increased stress vulnerability and abolished the antidepressant activity of TCAs, whereas erasing mA modification in the VTA by FTO overexpression or cycloleucine led to significant antidepressant activity. Mechanistically, both transcriptome sequencing and quantitative PCR revealed that overexpression of FTO in the VTA decreased the transcription of stress-related neuropeptides, such as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide and urocortin, in the social defeat model, which was mimicked by imipramine, suggesting an mA-dependent transcription mechanism of stress-related neuropeptides may underlie the responses to antidepressant. Collectively, our results demonstrate that inhibiting mA-dependent transcription of stress-related genes may work as a novel antidepressant strategy and highlight a previously unrecognized activator of FTO-dependent epigenetic function that may be used for the treatment of other neurological diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2021.100390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430387PMC
November 2021

Synthesis of precision antibody conjugates using proximity-induced chemistry.

Theranostics 2021 27;11(18):9107-9117. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas, 77005, USA.

Therapeutic antibody conjugates allow for the specific delivery of cytotoxic agents or immune cells to tumors, thus enhancing the antitumor activity of these agents and minimizing adverse systemic effects. Most current antibody conjugates are prepared by nonspecific modification of antibody cysteine or lysine residues, inevitably resulting in the generation of heterogeneous conjugates with limited therapeutic efficacies. Traditional strategies to prepare homogeneous antibody conjugates require antibody engineering or chemical/enzymatic treatments, processes that often affect antibody folding and stability, as well as yield and cost. Developing a simple and cost-effective way to precisely couple functional payloads to native antibodies is of great importance. We describe a simple proximity-induced antibody conjugation method (pClick) that enables the synthesis of homogeneous antibody conjugates from native antibodies without requiring additional antibody engineering or post-synthesis treatments. A proximity-activated crosslinker is introduced into a chemically synthesized affinity peptide modified with a bioorthogonal handle. Upon binding to a specific antibody site, the affinity peptide covalently attaches to the antibody via spontaneous crosslinking, yielding an antibody molecule ready for bioorthogonal conjugation with payloads. We have prepared well-defined antibody-drug conjugates and bispecific small molecule-antibody conjugates using pClick technology. The resulting conjugates exhibit excellent cytotoxic activity against cancer cells and, in the case of bispecific conjugates, superb antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models. Our pClick technology enables efficient, simple, and site-specific conjugation of various moieties to the existing native antibodies. This technology does not require antibody engineering or additional UV/chemical/enzymatic treatments, therefore providing a general, convenient strategy for developing novel antibody conjugates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.62444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419051PMC
August 2021

Identification of the trade-offs/synergies between rural landscape services in a spatially explicit way for sustainable rural development.

J Environ Manage 2021 Dec 11;300:113706. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Land Management, School of Public Affairs, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Land Academy for National Development, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Rural problems are becoming increasingly prominent in sustainable development in China. Landscape services (LSs) are an emerging concept associated with ecosystem services and play an important role in promoting sustainable development. However, a comprehensive framework of rural LS and empirical research are still lacking. Here, we proposed a rural LSs system based on its multiple functions of "ecological maintenance, agricultural production and human living", including 9 LS types. Combined with the impact of landscape pattern on LSs, we optimized the assessment method of LS, and the LS capabilities were assessed at the village scale in Hangzhou city. Furthermore, we identified the spatial differentiation of rural LSs capabilities and trade-offs/synergies along urban-rural and terrain gradients. The results showed that the LSs capabilities of the rural landscape were greatly affected by the urban radiation and terrain, and we found that the turning point of LSs capabilities was 35 km from the urban fringe and the terrain gradient T5. The LSs in most villages (77%) revealed trade-offs, and the villages with LS synergies largely occurred in the middle and eastern regions of the study area. This study could improve our current understanding of LSs in regard to sustainable rural development, and identifying the trade-offs/synergies of LSs in a spatially explicit way can provide suggestions for the differentiated management of rural landscape sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113706DOI Listing
December 2021

Chemical trigger-enabled bioconjugation reaction.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Oct 6;19(38):8343-8351. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, MOE Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Development of conceptually novel and practically useful bioconjugation reactions has been an intense pursuit of chemical biology research. Herein, we report an unprecedented bioconjugation reaction that hinges on a chemical trigger-enabled inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) cycloaddition of -cycloheptene (TCH) with tetrazine. Unlike the conventional strain-promoted bioconjugation reactions that utilize built-in strained alkenes as reactants, the current one features a "trigger-release-conjugate" reaction model, in which a highly strained TCH species is released from a bench-stable bicyclic -nitrosourea (BNU) derivative upon treatment with an external stimulus. It is noteworthy that the reactivity-stability balance of BNU derivatives could be tuned by manipulating their N-1 substituents. As a proof-of-concept case, this new chemical trigger-enabled IEDDA reaction has been applied to protein labeling and pretargeted cell imaging. This work opens a new avenue to utilize BNU derivatives as a new class of chemical reporters in bioconjugate chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob01177dDOI Listing
October 2021

Expression, regulation, and function of exosome-derived miRNAs in cancer progression and therapy.

FASEB J 2021 10;35(10):e21916

Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Exosomes are a novel class of intercellular signal modulators that contain a wide range of molecules and deliver information between cells and tissues. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of regulatory non-coding RNA, are often incorporated into exosomes as signaling molecules. In this review, we discuss the expression of exosomal miRNAs from diverse origins such as tumor cells, solid tumor tissue, and biological fluids in various cancers (lung, breast, colorectal, liver, stomach, and pancreatic). We address the biological functions of exosome-derived miRNAs in processes such as tumor-cell proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance in the tumor microenvironment. In particular, we discuss three oncogenic miRNAs, miR-21, miR-141, and miR-451, which occur within exosomes, in terms of gene regulation and intercellular communication. We consider therapeutic miRNA-based nanoparticles, which are widely expressed in tumors and show promise in drug therapy. The review assesses the wide-ranging evidence for using exosomal miRNAs as tumor markers in molecular diagnosis. Further, we consider the use of nanoparticle platforms to transport miRNAs, in the targeted treatment of disease and tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100294RRDOI Listing
October 2021

Zn-Induced Defect Complexity for the High Thermoelectric Performance of n-Type PbTe Compounds.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 3;13(36):43134-43143. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

Although defect engineering is the core strategy to improve thermoelectric properties, there are limited methods to effectively modulate the designed defects. Herein, we demonstrate that a high value of 1.36 at 775 K and a high average value of 0.99 in the temperature range from 300 to 825 K are realized in Zncontaining PbTe by designing complex defects. By combining first-principles calculations and experiments, we show that Zn atoms occupy both Pb sites and interstitial sites in PbTe and couple with each other. The contraction stress induced via substitutional Zn on Pb sites alleviates the swelling stress by Zn atoms occupying the interstitial sites and promotes the solubility of interstitial Zn atoms in the structure of PbTe. The stabilization of Zn impurity as a complex defect extends the region of PbTe phase stability toward PbZnTe, while the solid solution region in the other direction of the ternary phase diagram is much smaller. The evolution of defects in PbTe was further explicitly corroborated by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-corrected STEM) and positron annihilation measurement. The Zn atoms compensate the Pb vacancies (V) and Zn interstitials (Zn) significantly improve the electron concentration, producing a high carrier mobility of 1467.7 cm V s for the PbZnTe sample. A high power factor of 4.11 mW m K is achieved for the PbZnTe sample at 306 K. This work provides new insights into understanding the nature and evolution of the defects in n-type PbTe as well as improving the electronic and thermal transport properties toward higher thermoelectric performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c14518DOI Listing
September 2021

The Impacts of Genetic and Environmental Factors on the Progression of Chronic Pancreatitis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Digestive Endoscopy Center, Changhai Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Institute of Pancreatic Diseases, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Both environmental factors, such as alcohol consumption and smoking, and genetic factors are strongly associated with the risk of developing chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, comprehensive understanding of their impacts on the progression of CP remains elusive.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed on a large cohort of CP patients with known genetic backgrounds. The cumulative incidence of pancreatic insufficiency after the onset of CP was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis also was performed.

Results: A total of 798 patients were enrolled in the study and followed up for 10.5 years. Rare pathogenic genotypes in the SPINK1, PRSS1, CTRC, or CFTR genes were identified in 410 (51.4%) patients. The development of pancreatic insufficiency was significantly earlier in patients with a history of smoking and/or alcohol consumption in both the positive (P < .001) and negative (P = .001) gene mutation groups. However, the development of pancreatic insufficiency did not differ significantly between patients with and without gene mutations despite alcohol and/or smoking status, with P values of .064 and .115, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age at onset of CP (hazard ratio, [HR], 1.02; P < .001) and alcohol consumption (HR, 1.86; P < .001) were independent risk factors for the development of diabetes, while male sex (HR, 1.84; P = .022) and smoking (HR, 1.56; P = .028) were predictors of steatorrhea.

Conclusions: Although rare pathogenic mutations in the 4 major susceptibility genes for CP were not correlated significantly with the development of pancreatic insufficiency, environmental factors (either alcohol consumption or smoking) significantly accelerated disease progression (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04574297).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2021.08.033DOI Listing
August 2021

Application of Ultrasound Virtual Reality in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases.

J Healthc Eng 2021 17;2021:9999654. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Cardiovascular Division, Affiliate Hospital of Gansu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou 730020, Gansu, China.

Cardiovascular disease is a common chronic disease in the medical field, which has a great impact on the health of Chinese residents (especially the elderly). At present, the effectiveness of the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in my country is not optimistic. Overall, the prevalence and mortality of CVD are still on the rise. The timely and effective detection and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are of great practical significance to improve the health of residents and to carry out prevention and treatment. This article aims to study the application of ultrasound-based virtual reality technology in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the diagnosis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases by medical staff. The focus is on the application of feature attribute selection related algorithms and classification related algorithms in medical and health diagnosis systems, and a cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease diagnosis system based on naive Bayes algorithm and improved genetic algorithm is designed and developed. The system builds a diagnostic model for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and diagnoses and displays the corresponding results based on the patient's examination data. This paper first puts forward the theoretical concepts of ultrasonic virtual reality technology, scientific computing visualization, genetic algorithm, naive Bayes algorithm, and surgery simulation system and describes them in detail. Then, we construct a three-dimensional ultrasonic virtual measurement system, from the collection and reconstruction of image data to the filtering and segmentation of image data, plus the application of three-dimensional visualization and virtual reality technology to construct a three-dimensional measurement system. The experimental results in this paper show that 10 isolated congenital heart disease models with atrial septal defect (ASD) established through the use of three-dimensional visualization and virtual reality technology measured the short diameter, long diameter, and area of the atrial septal defect in the left and right atria. Finally, a value of less than 0.05 indicates that the statistics are meaningful, and a value of generally greater than 0.9 indicates that the virtual measurement result is highly correlated with the real measurement result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9999654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387182PMC
August 2021

Comparison and Analysis on the Existing Single-Herbal Strategies against Viral Myocarditis.

Genet Res (Camb) 2021 7;2021:9952620. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 10 Poyanghu Road, Tianjin 301617, China.

Purpose: Herbal medicine is one of crucial symbols of Chinese national medicine. Investigation on molecular responses of different herbal strategies against viral myocarditis is immeasurably conducive to targeting drug development in the current international absence of miracle treatment.

Methods: Literature retrieval platforms were applied in the collection of existing empirical evidences for viral myocarditis-related single-herbal strategies. SwissTargetPrediction, Metascape, and Discovery Studio coordinating with multidatabases investigated underlying target genes, interactive proteins, and docking molecules in turn.

Results: Six single-herbal medicines consisting of Huangqi (), Yuganzi (), Kushen (), Jianghuang (), Chaihu (), and Jixueteng () meet the requirement. There were 11 overlapped and 73 unique natural components detected in these herbs. SLC6A2, SLC6A4, NOS2, PPARA, PPARG, ACHE, CYP2C19, CYP51A1, and CHRM2 were equally targeted by six herbs and identified as viral myocarditis-associated symbols. MCODE algorithm exposed the hub role of SRC and EGFR in strategies without Jianghuang. Subsequently, we learned intermolecular interactions of herbal components and their targeting heart-tissue-specific CHRM2, FABP3, TNNC1, TNNI3, TNNT2, and SCN5A and cardiac-myocytes-specific IL6, MMP1, and PLAT coupled with viral myocarditis. Ten interactive characteristics such as -alkyl and van der Waals were modeled in which ARG111, LYS253, ILE114, and VAL11 on cardiac troponin (TNNC1-TNNI3-TNNT2) and ARG208, ASN106, and ALA258 on MMP1 fulfilled potential communicating anchor with ellagic acid, 5, 9-dihydroxymatrine, and leachianone g via hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction, respectively.

Conclusions: The comprehensive outcomes uncover differences and linkages between six herbs against viral myocarditis through component and target analysis, fostering development of drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9952620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371739PMC
August 2021

Two-dimensional MOFs: Design & Synthesis and Applications.

Chem Asian J 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225000, P. R. China.

For the past few years, two-dimensional materials have attracted widespread attention owing to their special properties and potential applications. It is well-known that graphene, transition metal disulfide compounds (TMDC), carbon nitride, transition metal carbonitrides (Mxenes), silene and hexagonal boron nitride are typical two-dimensional materials. Compared with these traditional two-dimensional materials, two-dimensional MOF is favored by numerous researchers because of its unique structure. Based on the unique metal ion and organic ligand coordination of MOF and two-dimensional layered structure, the applications of two-dimensional MOF were getting serious, including catalysis, supercapacitor, gas adsorption/separation, sensors and so on. This review presents a relatively comprehensive summary of the design & synthesis and applications of two-dimensional MOF over the past few years. Furthermore, the opportunities and challenges have been discussed to supply a promising prospect to this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100884DOI Listing
August 2021

The diagnosis and management of intestinal obstruction after pediatric liver transplantation.

Pediatr Transplant 2021 Aug 24:e14123. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Organ Transplant Center, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors, causes, and management of intestinal obstruction after pediatric liver transplantation.

Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on pediatric liver transplantation recipients from January 1st 2013 to December 31st 2019 at Organ Transplant Center, Tianjin First Central Hospital. The cases of intestinal obstruction were analyzed.

Results: A total of 1034 pediatric liver transplantations were performed during the study period, 66 intestinal obstructions were diagnosed in 61 recipients. Three recipients suffered intestinal obstructions twice, and one recipient suffered three times. Forty of the 66 cases were treated with non-surgical treatment, including fasting, gastrointestinal decompression, purgation, enema, and parenteral nutrition. Surgical intervention was performed in 26 cases. Diaphragmatic hernia, intestinal inflammatory stenosis, PTLD, and intestine perforation are essential causes of intestinal obstruction in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Diaphragmatic hernia was independent risk factors for intestinal obstruction. The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rate of the recipients with or without intestinal obstruction were 98.4%, 96.5%, 96.5% and 95.3%, 94.4%, 94.0%, respectively, without significant difference.

Conclusions: Most cases of intestinal obstruction after liver transplantation in children can be remitted by non-surgical treatment, but there are still some cases need to be treated by surgery. Both measures are related to ideal outcomes, intestinal obstruction does not increase the mortality rate in pediatric liver transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.14123DOI Listing
August 2021

Unveiling the additive-assisted oriented growth of perovskite crystallite for high performance light-emitting diodes.

Nat Commun 2021 Aug 23;12(1):5081. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, China.

Solution-processed metal halide perovskites have been recognized as one of the most promising semiconductors, with applications in light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells and lasers. Various additives have been widely used in perovskite precursor solutions, aiming to improve the formed perovskite film quality through passivating defects and controlling the crystallinity. The additive's role of defect passivation has been intensively investigated, while a deep understanding of how additives influence the crystallization process of perovskites is lacking. Here, we reveal a general additive-assisted crystal formation pathway for FAPbI perovskite with vertical orientation, by tracking the chemical interaction in the precursor solution and crystallographic evolution during the film formation process. The resulting understanding motivates us to use a new additive with multi-functional groups, 2-(2-(2-Aminoethoxy)ethoxy)acetic acid, which can facilitate the orientated growth of perovskite and passivate defects, leading to perovskite layer with high crystallinity and low defect density and thereby record-high performance NIR perovskite LEDs (~800 nm emission peak, a peak external quantum efficiency of 22.2% with enhanced stability).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25407-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382739PMC
August 2021
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