Publications by authors named "Yu Bai"

842 Publications

Full-length transcriptome assembly of Andrias davidianus (Amphibia: Caudata) skin via hybrid sequencing.

Biosci Rep 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Guiyang University, Guiyang, China.

The Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus, is the largest amphibian species in the world; it is thus an economically and ecologically important species. The skin of A. davidianus exhibits complex adaptive structural and functional adaptations to facilitate survival in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we report the first full-length amphibian transcriptome from the dorsal skin of A. davidianus, which was assembled using hybrid sequencing and the PacBio and Illumina platforms. A total of 153,038 transcripts were hybrid assembled (mean length of 2,039 bp and N50 of 2,172 bp), and 133,794 were annotated in at least one database (nr, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, KOGs, GO, and nt). A total of 58,732, 68,742, and 115,876 transcripts were classified into 24 KOG categories, 1,903 GO term categories, and 46 KEGG pathways (level 2), respectively. A total of 207,627 protein-coding regions, 785 transcription factors, 27,237 potential long non-coding RNAs, and 8,299 simple sequence repeats were also identified. The hybrid-assembled transcriptome recovered more full-length transcripts, had a higher N50 contig length, and a higher annotation rate of unique genes compared with that assembled in previous studies using next-generation sequencing. The high-quality full-length reference gene set generated in this study will help elucidate the genetic characteristics of A. davidianus skin and aid the identification of functional skin proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20210511DOI Listing
July 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Chang, 1933) (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 30;6(8):2131-2133. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

College of Mathematics & Information Science, Guiyang University, Guiyang, China.

Complete mitochondrial genome (GenBank accession number MN073499) for (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae) was obtained with Sanger sequencing and assembled manually. The mitogenome consists of a circular DNA molecule of 16,288 bp, with 68.51% AT content. It comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. The protein-coding genes have typical ATN (Met) start codons, except (GTG as start codon), and are terminated by typical TAN stop codons, except (AGA as start codon).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1944368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253190PMC
June 2021

Effect of a Universal Postpartum Nurse Home Visiting Program on Child Maltreatment and Emergency Medical Care at 5 Years of Age: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2116024. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.

Importance: The Family Connects (FC) program, a community-wide nurse home visiting program for newborns, has been shown to provide benefits for children and families through the first 2 years of life. Potential longer-term outcomes for child well-being remain unknown.

Objective: To determine the effect of randomization to FC on child maltreatment investigations and emergency medical care through 5 years of age.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this randomized clinical trial, families of all 4777 resident births in Durham County, North Carolina, from July 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010, were randomly assigned to receive the FC program or treatment as usual. Impact evaluation was on an intent-to-treat basis and focused on a subsample of 549 families randomly selected from the full population and included review of hospital and Child Protective Services (CPS) administrative records. Statistical analysis was conducted from November 6, 2020, to April 25, 2021.

Interventions: The FC programs includes 1 to 3 nurse home visits beginning at the infant age of 3 weeks designed to identify family-specific needs, deliver education and intervention, and connect families with community resources matched to their needs. Ongoing program engagement with service professionals and an electronic resource directory facilitate effective family connections to the community.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Two primary trial outcomes were CPS-recorded child maltreatment investigations and emergency medical care use based on hospital records.

Results: Of the 4777 randomized families, 2327 were allocated to the intervention, and 2440 were allocated to services as usual. Among the children in the full study population, 2380 (49.8%) were female, 2397 (50.2%) were male, and 3359 (70.3%) were from racial/ethnic minority groups; of the 531 children included in the impact evaluation follow-up, 284 (53.5%) were female, 247 (46.5%) were male, and 390 (73.4%) were from racial/ethnic minority groups. Negative binomial models indicated that families assigned to FC had 39% fewer CPS investigations for suspected child maltreatment through 5 years of age (95% CI, -0.80 to 0.06; 90% CI, -0.73 to -0.01; control = 44 total investigations per 100 children and intervention = 27 total investigations per 100 children); intervention effects did not differ across subgroups. Families assigned to FC also had 33% less total child emergency medical care use (95% CI, -0.59 to -0.14; 90% CI, -0.55 to -0.18; control = 338 visits and overnight hospital stays per 100 children and intervention = 227 visits and overnight hospital stays per 100 children). Positive effects held across birth risk, child health insurance, child sex, single-parent status, and racial/ethnic groups. Effects were larger for nonminority families compared with minority families.

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of this randomized clinical trial suggest that, when implemented with high quality and broad reach, a brief postpartum nurse home visiting program can reduce population rates of child maltreatment and emergency medical care use in early childhood.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01406184.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.16024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264647PMC
July 2021

[Methods and applications of single-cell proteomics analysis based on mass spectrometry].

Se Pu 2021 Feb;39(2):142-151

College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Beijing 100871, China.

The cell is the smallest unit of living organisms. Although cells often assemble to serve a common function, intercellular heterogeneity often exists due to different genetic and environmental effects. Therefore, single-cell analysis has been regarded as an indispensable means to investigate cell heterogeneity, especially when researching cell differentiation, disease diagnosis, and therapy. As the chief factors influencing cell and biological activities, proteins have long been a major concern in biochemistry. However, due to their intrinsic lack of amplification characteristics, wide species variety, low abundance, and wide dynamic range, proteins are scarcely studied in single-cell research when compared with other biological macromolecules. Therefore, ultra-sensitive single-cell proteomics analysis methods are urgently required. Among all general measurement techniques, fluorescence methods possess high sensitivity and a capability of dynamic tracing, but low target numbers impose restrictions on their broad application in real "proteomic" studies. Similarly, electrochemical methods adapt to electrochemically active molecules, which miss the majority of proteins. Mass spectrometry (MS), as the core approach of proteomic studies, provides high-sensitivity and high-throughput analysis of proteins together with abundant structural information, which is unique in all the analytical instruments and has made great progress in single-cell proteomic research. Herein, the representative research methods for single-cell proteomics based on MS are reviewed. According to the different protein separation methods used prior to MS analysis, they are divided into three categories, including capillary electrophoresis (CE), liquid chromatography (LC), and direct infusion without the need for separation. First, CE has been widely used in the separation and analysis of complex biological samples owing to its low cost, high analysis speed, and high separation efficiency. Its unique feature is the extraction and transfer of contents from cellular or subcellular regions using capillaries smaller than a single cell size. This sampling method also offers less substrate interference and negligible oxidative damage to the cells. Nonetheless, single-cell analysis based on CE-MS mainly focuses on proteomic studies of large cells because of the considerable sample loss, interface instability, and reproducibility issues. Compared with CE, LC, especially nanoLC, is more widely used in single-cell proteomic research, which mainly depends on its good reproducibility, nanoliter injection volume, low flow rate, low sample loss, and good compatibility with mass spectrometry. In recent years, it has been increasingly applied in the study of large-volume embryos, germ cells, and even somatic cells. More than 1000 proteins have been identified in single HeLa cells using this state-of-the-art single-cell proteomics method. It is worth noting that the single-cell sampling volume based on LC gradually reduces to the nanoliter level, and that the sample loss can be reduced by integrating a series of proteomic sampling processes into small volumes, setting sealing conditions, and reducing washing steps. However, the adequacy of cell lysis, the completeness and efficiency of protein pretreatment, and the labeling of peptide segments are important factors affecting the number and types of protein identification. Compared with protein separation using CE or LC prior to MS analysis, the direct MS analysis, assisted by labelling and signal transformation, eliminates complicated sample pretreatment and simplifies the operation by reducing enzymatic hydrolysis and separation. It also renders higher resolution as well as multi-omics compatibility. So far, the number of proteins detected using this method is limited due to the complexity of the samples. In conclusion, the aspects of throughput, sensitivity, identified protein species, and applications are summarized for each method mentioned above, and the prospect of single-cell proteomic research based on MS in the future is also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2020.08030DOI Listing
February 2021

RNF43 is a Novel Tumor Suppressor and Prognostic Indicator in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Oncol Res 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Urology, the Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 29 Xinglong Road. Changzhou, Jiangsu 213000, China.

Identifying prognostic indicators of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and elucidating the mechanisms underlying ccRCC progression are crucial for improving ccRCC patient prognosis. This study investigated the clinical significance and biological role of Ring finger protein 43 ( RNF43) in ccRCC. Two independent cohorts of patients with ccRCC were employed to determine the prognostic significance of RNF43 by immunohistochemistry and statistical analyses. In vitro and in vivo experiments, RNA-seq, and other techniques were used to determine the biological role of RNF43 in ccRCC and related molecular mechanisms. RNF43 expression was commonly decreased in ccRCC specimens, and low expression of RNF43 indicated a higher TNM stage, SSIGN score, and WHO/ISUP grade and short survival in patients with ccRCC. Additionally, RNF43 overexpression suppressed the proliferation, migration, and targeted drug resistance of ccRCC cells, while the knockdown of RNF43 enhanced these characteristics of ccRCC. RNF43 knockdown activated YAP signaling by decreasing YAP phosphorylation by p-LATS1/2 and increasing the transcription and nuclear distribution of YAP. By contrast, RNF43 overexpression showed the opposite effects. Decreasing YAP abolished the effect of RNF43 knockdown in promoting the malignant features of ccRCC. Additionally, restoring RNF43 expression suppressed the resistance of the targeted drug pazopanib in in vivo orthotopic ccRCC. Furthermore, combining the expression of RNF43 andYAP with TNM stage or the SSIGN score exhibited greater accuracy than any of these indicators alone in assessing the postoperative prognosis of ccRCC patients. In summary, our study identified a novel tumor suppressor, RNF43, which is also a prognostic indicator and potential target for ccRCC potential target for ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/096504021X16252201000833DOI Listing
July 2021

Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 5 is Associated with Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Related Metabolic Syndrome Components Among Adolescents in Northeastern China.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 17;14:2735-2742. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Endocrinology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) is a novel anti-inflammatory adipokine that has been associated with various metabolic diseases. However, such relationship among adolescents remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between SFRP5 and the components of metabolic syndrome in Chinese adolescents.

Patients And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included a total of 684 adolescents aged 11-16 years old from Liaoyang city, Liaoning province, China. The ELISA kits were implemented to measure the plasma SFRP5 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum uric acid (UA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and fasting serum insulin (FINS) were also measured.

Results: The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low SFRP5 level were an independent risk factor of high FPG [odds ratio (OR)=5.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.85-15.22, <0.01] and high TC (OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.01-2.96, <0.05) when adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes, body mass index, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

Conclusion: The lower level of SFRP5 is strongly related to lipid and glucose metabolism among adolescents in Northeast China. The risk of high fasting plasma glucose and high total cholesterol increases significantly as the plasma SFRP5 level decreases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S301090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216697PMC
June 2021

One-step hexaplex immunoassays by on-line paper substrate-based electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for combined cancer biomarker screening.

Chem Sci 2021 Feb 17;12(13):4916-4924. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University Beijing 100871 P. R. China +86 10 6275 8198.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is attractive as a multiplexed immunoassay readout benefiting from its high sensitivity, speed and mass resolution. Here, a simple paper-based hexaplex immunoassay with an on-line MS readout was proposed, using functionalized paper as the immune substrates, along with rhodamine-based mass tags assembled on gold nanoparticles prepared as the mass probes (MPs). Simultaneous immune capture and labeling were conducted in one step on paper substrates in 96-well plates with a high throughput within 30 minutes, and the on-line efficient dissociation of the mass tags highly facilitated the hexaplex readout of the immune signals by a newly established on-line paper substrate-based electrospray ionization-MS setup. Six MPs were synthesized for the simultaneous quantification of six important cancer protein markers (cancer antigen 15-3, cancer antigen 19-9, carcinoma embryonic antigen, cancer antigen 125, human epididymis protein 4, and alpha fetoprotein) using only 10 μL serum, presenting satisfactory sensitivity, accuracy and specificity. This platform was further tested in screening for the six biomarkers in serum samples of patients with breast, liver and gastric cancers, showing its high potential for sensitive and specific early cancer diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc06784aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179536PMC
February 2021

Silencing of ANGPTL8 Alleviates Insulin Resistance in Trophoblast Cells.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 8;12:635321. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Endocrinology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

This study aims to investigate the effect of angiopoietin like 8 (ANGPTL8) on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and insulin resistance (IR). The GDM model was induced by high fat diet in mice, and IR was observed. The expression and secretion of ANGPTL8 were promoted in placenta of GDM mice. IR was induced in trophoblast cell HTR-8/SVneo by treatment of high concentration of insulin, and the expression levels of ANGPTL8 were increased. Silencing of ANGPTL8 alleviated IR and decreased glucose uptake in HTR-8/SVneo cells. However, the inflammation and oxidative stress in IR cells were not restrained by ANGPTL8 knockdown. In addition, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling was activated by IR, which was inhibited by silencing of ANGPTL8. The effect of ANGPTL8 knockdown on IR was attenuated by JNK antagonist, and aggravated by JNK agonist, suggesting that ANGPTL8 affected IR by regulating JNK signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the silencing of ANGPTL8 ameliorated IR by inhibiting JNK signaling in trophoblast cells. These findings may provide novel insights for diagnosis and treatment of GDM in clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.635321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215783PMC
June 2021

Prone position nursing combined with ECMO intervention prevent patients with severe pneumonia from complications and improve cardiopulmonary function.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):4969-4977. Epub 2021 May 15.

2A ICU, Shanghai General Hospital Shanghai 201620, China.

Objective: To study the application value of prone nursing combined with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with severe pneumonia.

Methods: Altogether 96 patients with severe pneumonia from December 2016 to June 2018 were selected as the research participants, and 48 patients were included in the observation group (OG) to receive prone nursing with ECMO, while the other 48 patients were included in the control group (CG) to receive routine nursing with ECMO. Complications, cardiopulmonary function, VAS, SAS, SDS, MMAS-8 scores and nursing satisfaction were compared.

Results: After nursing, the incidence of complications in the OG was lower than that in the CG, LVEDD and LVESD in OG were lower than those in CG, while LVEF, FEV1 and FVC were higher than those in CG. The scores of VAS, SAS and SDS in OG were lower than those in CG. The MMAS-8 score in the OG was higher than that in the CG. The total nursing satisfaction of the OG was higher than that of the CG (All P<0.05).

Conclusion: Prone nursing combined with ECMO can reduce the incidence of complications of severe pneumonia and improve the cardiopulmonary function of patients, which is worthy of clinical promotion.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205846PMC
May 2021

Effects of Berberine on Diabetes and Cognitive Impairment in an Animal Model: The Mechanisms of Action.

Am J Chin Med 2021 Jun 16:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, P. R. China.

Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders with an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. The hippocampus in the forebrain contains an abundance of insulin receptors related to cognitive function and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Berberine from traditional Chinese medicine has been used to treat diabetes and diabetic cognitive impairment, although its related mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, a STZ diabetes rat model feeding with a high-fat diet was used to test the effects of berberine compared with metformin. Oral glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp were used for glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. The Morris water maze was used to observe the compound effects on cognitive impairment. Serum and hippocampal [Formula: see text]-amyloid peptide (A[Formula: see text], Tau and phosphorylated Tau protein deposition in the hippocampi were measured. The TUNEL assay was used to detect the neuronal apoptosis, supported by histomorphological changes and transmissional electron microscopy (TEM) image. Our data showed that the diabetic rats had a significantly cognitive impairment. In addition to improving glucose metabolism and reducing insulin resistance, berberine significantly improved the cognitive function in the rat. Berberine also effectively decreased the expression of hippocampal tau protein, phosphorylated Tau, and increased insulin receptor antibodies. Moreover, berberine downregulated the abnormal phosphorylation of A[Formula: see text] and Tau protein and improved hippocampal insulin signaling. The TUNEL assay confirmed that berberine reduced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis supported by TEM. Thus, berberine significantly improved the cognitive function in diabetic rats by changing the peripheral and central insulin resistance. The reduction of neuronal injury, A[Formula: see text] deposition, abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein, and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus were observed as the related mechanisms of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X21500658DOI Listing
June 2021

Tailoring Electrochemical Performance of Perovskite Anodes through Exsolution of Nanocatalysts.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 17;13(25):29755-29763. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, People's Republic of China.

Perovskites are promising alternative materials for conventional Ni-based cermet anodes, benefitting from their mixed ionic and electronic conductivity properties and good structure stability. However, they generally show a commonplace electrochemical catalytic activity. Here, a novel anode material LaSrTiCoFeO (LSTCF) is successfully synthesized, and we report that the electrochemical performance of LSTCF can be commendably tuned by gas treatment, deriving from the exsolution of the impressively well-distributed Co-Fe alloy nanocatalyst with splendid catalytic activity for hydrogen electrochemical oxidation. At 900 °C, a power density value of 897 mW cm is achieved by the treated LSTCF anode when using hydrogen as fuel, which is almost three times higher than that of the fresh anode. Moreover, we show that the nanoparticle-modified LSTCF perovskite also exhibits fascinating electrochemical catalytic activity at low temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c08396DOI Listing
June 2021

The Association Between Clinical Characteristics and Motor Symptom Laterality in Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

Front Neurol 2021 31;12:663232. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Geriatrics, Nanjing Brain Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

The unilateral onset and persistent asymmetry of motor symptoms are important characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD). By using scales and wearable sensors, this study explored whether motor symptom laterality could affect non-motor symptom and gait performance. A total of 130 right-handed patients with PD were enrolled in our study and were divided into two groups according to the side of predominant motor symptom presentation by using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III. We measured the non-motor symptoms with the Non-motor symptoms Scale, sleep quality with the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale and Pittsburgh sleep quality index, cognitive function with the Mini-mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment, quality of life with the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39, and the severity of anxiety and depression with the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression Scale, respectively. All participants underwent the instrumented stand and walk test, and gait data were collected using a set of JiBuEn gait analysis system. We observed that left-dominant symptom PD patients (LPD) were associated with a greater impairment of sleep quality than right-dominant symptom PD patients (RPD). We found no difference between LPD and RPD in terms of gait performance. However, compared with the severe asymmetry RPD patients (RPD-S), severe asymmetry LPD patients (LPD-S) showed a shorter stride length and decreased range of motion of hip joints. In this study, LPD was associated with a more severe sleep-related dysfunction than RPD. In addition, LPD-S exhibited more gait impairments than RPD-S. Considering that motor symptom laterality may affect the non-motor symptom and gait performance, it should be taken into account when evaluating and treating PD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.663232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201506PMC
May 2021

Manipulations of glucose/lipid metabolism and gut microbiota of resistant starch encapsulated Ganoderma lucidum spores in T2DM rats.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 May 24;30(5):755-764. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

ARC Functional Grains Centre, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678 Australia.

Our team previously demonstrated that  spores (GLS) and resistant starch (RS) had hypoglycemic effects separately on type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) rats. This work was to explore the effects of administering encapsulated GLS within RS (referred to as EGLS) in the T2DM rats, which were induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The EGLS was orally administered to rats for 28 days. The parameters of glycometabolism and lipometabolism were evaluated, and fecal microbiota composition was investigated. The results showed that EGLS significantly enhanced glycometabolism and lipometabolism parameters in T2DM rats, which might be associate with the enhancement of the glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin secretion, and glycogen synthesis and reduced lipogenesis. Furthermore, the intervention of EGLS also reduced the community and improved dysfunctional gut microbiota. This study indicated EGLS may be a potential candidate for dietary intervention to modulate diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-021-00908-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144259PMC
May 2021

Poly (I: C) inhibits reticuloendothelial virus replication in chicken macrophage-like cells through the activation of toll-like receptor-3 signaling.

Mol Immunol 2021 Aug 4;136:110-117. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Laboratory Animals and Comparative Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathophysiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China. Electronic address:

Reticuloendothelial virus (REV) is widely found in many domestic poultry areas and results in severe immunosuppression of infected chickens. This increases the susceptibility to other pathogens, which causes economic losses to the poultry industry. The aim of our study was to determine whether polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly (I: C)] treatment could inhibit REV replication in chicken macrophage-like cell line, HD11. We found that Poly (I: C) treatment could markedly inhibit REV replication in HD11 from 24 to 48 h post infection (hpi). Additionally, Poly (I: C) treatment could switch HD11 from an inactive type into M1-like polarization from 24 to 48 hpi. Furthermore, Poly (I: C) treatment promoted interferon-β secretion from HD11 post REV infection. Moreover, Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3) mRNA and protein levels in HD11 treated with Poly (I: C) were markedly increased compared to those of HD11 not treated with Poly (I: C). The above results suggested that Poly (I: C) treatment switches HD11 into M1-like polarization to secret more interferon-β and activate TLR-3 signaling, which contributes to block REV replication. Our findings provide a theoretical reference for further studying the underlying pathogenic mechanism of REV and Poly (I: C) as a potential therapeutic intervention against REV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.05.013DOI Listing
August 2021

Bonded CFRP/Steel Systems, Remedies of Bond Degradation and Behaviour of CFRP Repaired Steel: An Overview.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 10;13(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.

This literature review has examined the use of FRP composite materials as a potential retrofitting technique for civil structures. Importantly, the various material properties, bond mechanisms, durability issues and fatigue resistance have been discussed. Studies exploring the performance of CFRP repaired steel have strongly indicated its potential as a rehabilitation material. These systems offer many improvements over the current bulky and less chemically resistant methods of bolting or welding steel plate patches. This review has established and highlighted the factors that affect CFRP/steel bond durability, namely surface preparation, curing, corrosion, fatigue loading, temperature and moisture ingress through studies that focus on their effect. These studies, however, often focus on a single influencing factor or design criteria. Only limited studies have investigated multiple parameters applied simultaneously, even though they commonly occur together in industrial practice. This review aimed to summarise the numerous influencing parameters to give a clearer understanding of the relevance of CFRP repaired steel structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13091533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126256PMC
May 2021

In Vitro Fermentation Characteristics and Fiber-Degrading Enzyme Kinetics of Cellulose, Arabinoxylan, -Glucan and Glucomannan by Pig Fecal Microbiota.

Microorganisms 2021 May 16;9(5). Epub 2021 May 16.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Non-digestible polysaccharides are of great significance to human and animal intestinal health. Cellulose, arabinoxylan, -glucan and glucomannan were selected in the present study to investigate the fermentation characteristics and fiber-degrading enzyme kinetics by inoculating pig fecal microbiota in vitro. Our results showed that fermentation of arabinoxylan and -glucan produced the highest amount of acetate and lactate, respectively. The abundance of was the highest in -glucan group and positively correlated with lactate and acetate. Glucomannan fermentation produced the highest amount of butyrate, and the abundance of and were the lowest. A significant negative correlation was found between , and butyrate. Exo-1,4-xylanase had the highest activity at 24 h during arabinoxylan fermentation. The activity of -glucosidase and -mannosidase at 36 h were higher than those at 15 h in the glucomannan group. The abundance of was positively correlated with -glucosidase while and were negatively correlated with -xylosidase. Our findings demonstrated the -glucan and arabinoxylan promote proliferation of , with the preference to secret -glucosidase, -mannosidase and the potential to produce lactate and acetate. Butyrate production can be improved by inhibiting the proliferation of and , which have the lack of potential to secret -xylosidase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156825PMC
May 2021

Dioscorea zingiberensis ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome and curbing the expression of p66Shc in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a severe diabetic complication. Dioscorea zingiberensis (DZ) possesses excellent pharmacological properties with lower toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of DZ in DN.

Methods: DN was established by the high-fat diet combining intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in mice. The DZ (125 and 250 mg/kg/day) were intragastrical administered for 8 consecutive weeks. After treatment, blood, urine and kidney tissue were collected for biological detection, renal morphology, fibrosis and molecular mechanism research, respectively.

Key Findings: This study has shown that DZ significantly ameliorated kidney hypertrophy, renal structural damage and abnormal function of the kidney indicators (creatinine, urinary protein and blood urea nitrogen). Further molecular mechanism data suggested that the NLRP3/Cleaved-caspase-1 signal pathway was remarkably activated in DN, and DZ treatment reversed these changes, which indicated that it effectively attenuated inflammatory response caused by hyperglycaemia. In addition, DN inhibits hyperglycaemia-induced activation of oxidative stress by suppressing the expression of p66Shc proteins.

Conclusions: DZ could efficiently suppress oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to postpone the development of DN, and its mechanism might be related to inhibition of NLRP3 and p66Shc activities. Thus, DZ could be developed into a new therapeutic agent for DN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgab053DOI Listing
June 2021

[Knowledge graph characteristics of sepsis research based on scientometric study].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Apr;33(4):433-437

Department of Anesthesiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang, China.

Objective: To illustrate a relatively complete knowledge system (e.g., research outputs, current hotspots, and future trends) in the sepsis field and to help scholars grasp the scientific research direction or clinical focus of treatment.

Methods: The relevant literatures of sepsis during the time from 1985 to 2019 in Web of Science database were collected. Sepsis-related research contents were generated using softwares (CiteSpace 5.6.R2 and VOSviewer 1.6.13), which using data mining, information processing and knowledge map methods, to analyze the historical evolution and predict the development trend.

Results: A total of 8 189 papers on sepsis were published. The volume of publications were increasing yearly from 1985 to 2019, and reached the top list of 1 276 in 2019. For research contents of sepsis, it has formed the basic characteristics of sepsis which focusing on epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Through cluster analysis, the researches mainly focused on six aspects: septic rat, necrotizingenterocolitis, sepsis-associated encephalopathy, acute kidney injury (AKI), gut-derived sepsis, and inflammatory mediator. And it presented the literature characteristics that related to the injury or dysfunction of intestines, brain, liver, kidney or other organs, but the heart and lung researches were more marginal. Additionally, based on the top key words with the strongest citation bursts, it reflected that the development trend of the continuous attention hotspots with "endotoxin" or "endotoxin shock", the significant attention hotspots with "inflammation", "immunity" and "multiple organ dysfunction syndrome" (MODS), and the novel burst attention hotspots with sepsis management including "diagnosis" and "chemotherapy".

Conclusions: Through the hotspots and trends visualization of sepsis, the current researches are prefer to animal experiments, epidemiology, or other basic scientific aspects. Meanwhile, the researches are mostly focusing on inflammatory reaction, immune function or organ dysfunctions. Integrating the knowledge maps of hotspots and trends, based on researches of epidemiology, diagnosis, risk factors, pathogenesis, or treatment, we predict that the future scientific topics will concentrating on childhood sepsis, organ injury mechanism or intervention relating to MODS, and integrated management of sepsis by combining traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20201009-00658DOI Listing
April 2021

Berberine and Ginsenoside Rb1 Ameliorate Depression-Like Behavior in Diabetic Rats.

Am J Chin Med 2021 27;49(5):1195-1213. Epub 2021 May 27.

Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, P. R. China.

(Huang-lian) and Asian have been widely used in the treatment of diabetes and other concurrent diseases with apparent effects. This study investigated the effects of the active ingredients of and , berberine and ginsenoside Rb1, on depression-like behavior in a rat diabetes model. The animal model was established via a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, while the animal's depression-like behavior was induced via chronic unpredictable mild stress. These experimental rats were divided into four groups: control, depression-like behavior (DLB), metformin plus fluoxetine hydrochloride (M+FH), and berberine plus ginsenoside Rb1 (B+GRb1) groups. Glucose metabolism and insulin resistance were evaluated by oral glucose test and glucose clamp study. Depression-like behavior was evaluated via behavioral analyses, including forced swim, sucrose preference, elevated plus maze, and open-field tests. HE and Nissl staining, plasma cortisol expression of adrenocorticotropic hormone, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assayed to explore the mechanisms of action. Compared with the control, rats in the DLB group had a significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and depression-like behavior. The B+GRb1 group significantly improved glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, reduced depression-like behavior, downregulated levels of plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone under stress, and upregulated BDNF protein expression compared to the DLB rats. HE and Nissl staining data revealed that B+GRb1 protected neurons from pathological and morphological changes. Thus, berberine and ginsenoside Rb1 not only improved glucose metabolism in diabetic rats but also ameliorated their depression-like behavior under chronic unpredictable stress. Mechanistically, studied data with plasma hormonal levels and brain neuronal pathological/morphological changes supported the observed effects. The combination of berberine and ginsenoside Rb1 may have a clinical value in the management of diabetic patients with depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X21500579DOI Listing
May 2021

MicroRNA‑153‑3p suppresses retinoblastoma cell growth and invasion via targeting the IGF1R/Raf/MEK and IGF1R/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.

Int J Oncol 2021 Jul 26;59(1). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, The First People's Hospital of Shangqiu, Shangqiu, Henan 476100, P.R. China.

Mounting evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play significant roles in various types of human tumors, including retinoblastoma (RB). However, the biological role and regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in RB remain to be fully elucidated. The present study was designed to identify the regulatory effects of miRNAs in RB and the underlying mechanisms. Differentially expressed miRNAs in RB tissue were screened out based on the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset, GSE7072, which revealed that miR‑153 in particular, displayed the highest fold change in expression. It was identified that miR‑153 was significantly downregulated in RB tissues, and its downregulation was closely associated with a larger tumor base and differentiation. Functional analysis revealed that the overexpression of miR‑153 inhibited RB cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and promoted the apoptosis of WERI‑RB‑1 and Y79 cells. In addition, insulin‑like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) was identified as a target of miR‑153 in RB cells. More importantly, it was demonstrated that miR‑153 upregulation inhibited the expression of its target gene, IGF1R, which inhibited the activation of the Raf/MEK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Collectively, the present study demonstrates for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that miR‑153 functions as a tumor suppressor in RB by targeting the IGF1R/Raf/MEK and IGF1R/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Collectively, the findings presented herein demonstrate that miR‑153 targets IGF1R and blocks the activation of the Raf/MEK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, thus preventing the progression of RB. Thus, this miRNA may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for RB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2021.5227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143749PMC
July 2021

A review on high velocity compaction mechanism of powder metallurgy.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211016945

School of Mechatronic Engineering, Xi'an Technological University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

High Velocity Compaction (HVC) is a key technology to realize the performance of powder metallurgy parts "three high and one low" (high density, high precision, high performance, and low cost). The main purpose of this paper is to summarize the research results at home and abroad on the forming mechanism, forming influencing factors and theoretical basis of high velocity compaction. This paper analyzes and summarizes the literature and monographs at home and abroad through literature research methods to obtain the research results of high velocity powder metallurgy compaction, so as to fully and correctly understand the research progress, development trends and application prospects of high velocity compaction. This paper expounds the technical characteristics, advantages and limitations of high velocity compaction, and analyzes and looks forward to its development trend, application prospect and expansion field, So as to provide reference and reference for the future research and application direction of high velocity compaction technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211016945DOI Listing
May 2021

Elevated temperatures accelerate the formation of toxic amyloid fibrils of hen egg-white lysozyme.

Vet Med Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Biological Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong, P.R. China.

The formation of amyloid fibrils is critical for neurodegenerative diseases. Some physiochemical conditions can promote the conversion of proteins from soluble globular shapes into insoluble well-organized amyloid fibrils. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperatures on amyloid fibrils formation in vitro using the protein model of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL). The HEWL fibrils were prepared at temperatures of 37, 45, 50 and 57°C in glycine solution of pH 2.2. Under transmission electron microscopy, we found the well-organized HEWL amyloid fibrils at temperatures of 45, 50 and 57°C after 10 days of incubation. Thioflavin T and Congo red florescence assays confirmed that the formation and growth of HEWL fibrils displayed a temperature-dependent increase, and 57°C produced the most amounts. Meanwhile, the surface hydrophobicity of aggregates was greatly increased by ANS binding assay, and β-sheet contents by circular dichroism analysis were increased by 17.8%, 22.0% and 34.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the HEWL fibrils formed at 57°C caused significant cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells after 48 hr exposure, and the cell viability determined by MTT assay was decreased, with 81.35 ± 0.29% for 1 μM, 61.45 ± 2.62% for 2 μM, and 11.58 ± 0.39% (p < .01) for 3 μM. Nuclear staining results also confirmed the apoptosis features. These results suggest that the elevated temperatures could accelerate protein unfolding of the native structure and formation of toxic amyloid fibrils, which can improve understanding the mechanisms of the unfolding and misfolding process of prion protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.522DOI Listing
May 2021

Vitamin D receptor and 1α-hydroxylase are highly expressed in lungs of mice infected with H9N2 avian influenza viruses.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jul 10;211:105907. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pathophysiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The H9N2 avian influenza viruses infect poultry worldwide, and can potentially cause a human pandemic without adaptation. Vitamin D3 (D3) is increasingly being recognized for its extra-skeletal roles, such as the inflammatory and immune responses to infection. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the lung tissues of mice infected with H9N2. The mice were intranasally inoculated with the appropriate dose of the virus, and various clinical indices were measured on days 3, 7, 14 and 21 post-infection. H9N2 infection significantly increased the expression levels of 1α-hydroxylase mRNA and protein, which is the activating enzyme of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), but had no significant effect on the 25(OH)D inactivating enzyme 24-hydroxylase, indicating that inactive D3 might be converted to its active form in the H9N2-infected lungs. Furthermore, a significant increase was also observed in the VDR mRNA and protein levels, suggesting enhanced responsiveness of the lung tissues to 1, 25(OH)D post H9N2 infection. In addition, daily 25(OH)D injection from day 2-14 post-infection did not affect the clinical signs, virus replication and cytokine (IL-1β and TNF-α) production in the lungs of the infected mice. Given that the biological effects of D3 rely on its activation, and the binding of 1, 25(OH)D to VDR in specific tissues, our findings provide novel insights into the possible role of vitamin D in the development and progression of influenza.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105907DOI Listing
July 2021

Transparent and flexible resins functionalized by lanthanide-based upconversion nanocrystals.

Dalton Trans 2021 May 5;50(19):6432-6436. Epub 2021 May 5.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Frontiers Science Center for Planetary Exploration and Emerging Technologies, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, and School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, P. R. China.

Functional resins with optical adjustment capability own great potential in multiple application scenarios. To this end, we functionalize resins with upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs), namely an UCNC-Au composite structure, to endow them with the unique ability of converting near-infrared (NIR) radiation into visible-light emission. Such UCNC-functionalized resins with high transparency and flexibility are expected to accelerate the development in the comprehensive utilization of NIR during practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00786fDOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of Ambient Air Quality Standards revision on the exposure-response of air pollution in Tianjin, China.

Environ Res 2021 07 1;198:111269. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070, China; Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Tianjin, 300011, China. Electronic address:

To improve air quality, China issued a new version of Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012, and Tianjin officially implemented these new standards in 2013. In order to observe whether the atmospheric quality and health had been improved after the release of the new standards, this study compared the exposure-response relationships between pollutant concentrations and daily deaths (and years of life lost, YLL) in the six central districts of Tianjin in 2007-2010 and 2014-2017, which were the two periods around the release of the new standards. The exposure-response coefficients were calculated by using the generalized additive model with the time series data. The results showed that the effects of PM and NO during 2014-2017 were lower than those during 2007-2010 (PM: 0.10<0.30, 2.07<4.52; NO2: 0.24<0.87, 6.39<11.98), while the results of SO were opposite (SO: 0.61>0.31, 10.31>1.64). And the excess deaths and YLL caused by the portion of the pollutants that exceeded the new standards also declined (PM: 156<206 persons, 3493<3913 person-years; NO: 64<136 persons, 1844<2895 person-years; SO did not exceed the new standards). The results proved that the new standards had a certain protective effect on the health of the population in the central districts of Tianjin. These findings may provide evidence for the formulation of public health policies and further improvement and development of the Ambient Air Quality Standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111269DOI Listing
July 2021

Plasma Free Amino Acids and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 14;11:519923. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Radiology, Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Dalian University, Dalian, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to explore associations between plasma free amino acids (PFAA) and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Chinese with Type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods: We retrieved 741 inpatients with T2D consecutively from tertiary hospital. Twenty-three PFAA were measured. CVD was defined as having coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke. Principal component analysis was used to extract factors of PFAA. Factors and their components were introduced into binary logistic regressions as continuous and tertiles to obtain OR (odds ratio) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for CVD (or its components) risk.

Results: Of 741 inpatients, 282 (38.1%) had CVD (CHD alone: 122, stroke alone: 109, both: 51). Five factors were extracted, accounting for 65% of the total variance. Factor 3 composed of glutamate and tryptophan was associated with increased CVD risk (ORs, 95%CI of top vs. bottom tertiles: 1.60, 1.02-2.50 for CVD; 2.19, 1.17-4.07 for stroke, 1.51, 0.83-2.73 for CHD); the ORs (top vs. bottom tertiles) of glutamate were 2.62 (95%CI, 1.18-5.84) for stroke and 1.44 (0.80-2.61) for CHD; the ORs (top vs. bottom tertiles) of tryptophan were 1.50 (0.81-2.75) for stroke and 1.07 (0.58-1.97) for CHD. Comparable results were observed according to important confounders (all P for interaction >0.05).

Conclusions: Elevated factor 3 composed of glutamate and tryptophan was associated with increased CVD, especially stroke in T2D in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.519923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081348PMC
May 2021

RNA-Seq Profiling of Circular RNAs During Development of Hindgut in Rat Embryos With Ethylenethiourea-Induced Anorectal Malformations.

Front Genet 2021 13;12:605015. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are among the most common congenital terminal digestive tract malformations. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel type of endogenous non-coding RNAs, play roles in the development of the digestive system; however, their contributions to the pathogenesis of ARMs are not well-established. In this study, we explored the mechanism underlying ethylenethiourea (ETU)-induced ARMs by profiling circRNA expression via RNA-seq and constructing a regulatory circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network. Nine pregnant rats were gavage-fed a single dose of 125 mg/kg 1% ETU (ARM group) on gestational day 10 (GD10), and another 9 pregnant rats received a similar dose of saline (normal group) as a control. Embryos were obtained by cesarean section on the key time-points of anorectal development (GD14, GD15, and GD16). Hindgut samples isolated from the fetuses were evaluated by high-throughput sequencing and differentially expressed circRNAs were validated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, agarose gel electrophoresis, and Sanger cloning and sequencing. A total of 18295 circRNAs were identified in the normal and ARM groups. Based on the 425 differentially expressed circRNAs (|Fc| > 2, p < 0.05), circRNA-miRNA and miRNA-mRNA pairs were predicted using miREAP, miRanda, and TargetScan. A total of 55 circRNAs (14 up- and 41 downregulated in the ARM group compared to the normal group) were predicted to bind to 195 miRNAs and 947 mRNAs. Competing endogenous RNA networks and a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that novel_circ_001042 had the greatest connectivity and was closely related to ARM-associated signaling pathways, such as the Wingless Type MMTV integration site family, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and transforming growth factor-β pathways. These results provide original insight into the roles of circRNAs in ARMs and provide a valuable resource for further analyses of molecular mechanisms and signaling networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.605015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076906PMC
April 2021

A correlation between grain boundary character and deformation twin nucleation mechanism in coarse-grained high-Mn austenitic steel.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8468. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA.

In polycrystalline materials, grain boundaries are known to be a critical microstructural component controlling material's mechanical properties, and their characters such as misorientation and crystallographic boundary planes would also influence the dislocation dynamics. Nevertheless, many of generally used mechanistic models for deformation twin nucleation in fcc metal do not take considerable care of the role of grain boundary characters. Here, we experimentally reveal that deformation twin nucleation occurs at an annealing twin (Σ3{111}) boundary in a high-Mn austenitic steel when dislocation pile-up at Σ3{111} boundary produced a local stress exceeding the twining stress, while no obvious local stress concentration was required at relatively high-energy grain boundaries such as Σ21 or Σ31. A periodic contrast reversal associated with a sequential stacking faults emission from Σ3{111} boundary was observed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) deformation experiments, proving the successive layer-by-layer stacking fault emission was the deformation twin nucleation mechanism, different from the previously reported observations in the high-Mn steels. Since this is also true for the observed high Σ-value boundaries in this study, our observation demonstrates the practical importance of taking grain boundary characters into account to understand the deformation twin nucleation mechanism besides well-known factors such as stacking fault energy and grain size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87811-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055962PMC
April 2021

Upregulation of PPPDE1 contributes to anorectal malformations via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway during hindgut development in rats.

Exp Cell Res 2021 May 29;402(2):112574. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No. 36 Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang, 110004, China. Electronic address:

Congenital anorectal malformations (ARMs) are among the most prominent deformities of the gastrointestinal tract; however, their precise aetiology remains obscure. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that, in the ARM group, the PPPDE1-positive cells were widely distributed in the hindgut epithelial tissue from GD13 to GD16. Immunofluorescence revealed that most TUNEL-, Bax-, and Cytochrome C (Cyt C)-positive cells overlapped with PPPDE1-positive cells in the urorectal septum (URS). Western blotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that PPPDE1 levels were significantly higher in the ARM group from GD13 to GD14 (p < 0.05). IEC-6 cells were transfected with PPPDE1 overexpression plasmid/NC (negative control) or si-PPPDE1/si-NC. Flow cytometry analysis and CCK-8 assay (used to detect apoptosis and proliferation, respectively), as well as western blotting, showed that the levels of PPPDE1 were positively correlated with the pro-apoptotic molecules Bax and Cyt C. Accordingly, aberrantly high expression of PPPDE1 caused a spatiotemporal imbalance in foetal rats with ARMs during hindgut development. Therefore, the upregulation of PPPDE1 may promote epithelial apoptosis and reduce proliferation in the hindgut via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This could affect the fusion of the URS and cloacal membrane, ultimately inhibiting the hindgut development and resulting in ARMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2021.112574DOI Listing
May 2021

Superficial CD34-Positive Fibroblastic Tumor on the Chest Wall of an 8-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr 1:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

This study reports a case of superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumor (SCPFT) in a child and analyze the major known clinicopathological features of SCPFT and other skin mesenchymal tumors, contributing to an accurate diagnosis of this rare disease. We summarize the clinicopathologic features of an 8-year-old girl who was diagnosed with SCPFT and 46 previously reported SCPFT cases. Post-operative histopathologic examination of the current case showed the tumor lesion was well-circumscribed; tumor cells were spindled-to-polygonal with a fascicular pattern; most nuclei displayed hyperchromasia and low mitotic rate; intranuclear pseudoinclusions could be found; and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and partial myxoid stroma were observed. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong and diffuse CD34-positivity, vimentin staining positively but no S-100, SMA, NSE, CD31, desmin, cytokeratin, STAT6, β-catenin, MDM2, or ERG expression. The Ki-67 and CD68 labeling indexes were approximately 1%. There were no rearrangements of or tested by FISH. After surgical resection, the patient had no signs of recurrence or metastasis at a 6-month follow-up. The present case is the first that describes SCPFT in children and has significant clinical implications. SCPFT should be differentiated from other skin mesenchymal tumors. The presented compilation of all so far published SCPFT cases will help in diagnosing successfully SCPFT and increasing awareness of this tumor to guide clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08880018.2020.1859659DOI Listing
April 2021