Publications by authors named "Yu Bai"

994 Publications

CircJag1 promotes apoptosis of ethylene thiourea-exposed anorectal malformations through sponging miR-137-3p by regulating Sox9 and suppressing Wnt/β-catenin pathway during the hindgut development of rat embryos.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No. 36 Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang, 110004, Liaoning, China.

Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are common birth defects involving congenital structural anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract. As an important component of non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs (circRNAs) widely participate in the digestive system development; however, the specific molecular mechanism of their involvement in ARM occurrence remains obscure. Herein, we generated rat models of ARMs induced by ethylene thiourea. A novel circRNA (circJag1) was screened and identified by RNA-Seq, which is remarkably upregulated in hindgut tissues of ARM rat embryos. In vivo experiments, colocation analysis via fluorescence in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence further demonstrated that the disordered circJag1/miR-137-3p/Sox9 expression caused a spatiotemporal imbalance in the urorectal septum (URS) of ARMs. In vitro, functional assays confirmed that circJag1 upregulation resulted in the degradation of nuclear β-catenin, C-myc, and Cyclin D1 in rat intestinal epithelial cells, as well as the promotion of apoptosis and suppression of cell proliferation. Mechanistically, dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay indicated that circJag1 acted as a miR-137-3p sponge, thereby inhibiting its repressive effect on its target Sox9. Further experiments showed that a loss of Sox9 abolished the circJag1-mediated increase in apoptosis. In conclusion, aberrantly high circJag1 expression promotes epithelial apoptosis by suppressing the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway via the miR-137-3p/Sox9 axis, which leads to fusion failure of the URS and cloacal membrane, and eventually contributed to ARMs. Our achievements might boost the comprehension of ARM pathogenesis and could provide a novel candidate target for the development of therapies for ARMs to complement surgical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10565-022-09750-0DOI Listing
August 2022

A self-amplifying USP14-TAZ loop drives the progression and liver metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Cell Death Differ 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Affiliated Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Ave, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei, China.

With a 5-year survival rate of approximately 10%, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal solid malignancies in humans. A poor understanding of the underlying biology has resulted in a lack of effective targeted therapeutic strategies. Tissue microarray and bioinformatics analyses have revealed that the downstream transcriptional coactivator of the Hippo pathway, transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), might be a therapeutic target in PDAC. Since pharmacological inhibition of TAZ is challenging, we performed unbiased deubiquitinase (DUB) library screening to explore the pivotal regulators of TAZ ubiquitination as potential targets in PDAC models. We found that USP14 contributed to Yes-associated protein (YAP)/TAZ transcriptional activity and stabilized TAZ but not YAP. Mechanistically, USP14 catalyzed the K48-linked deubiquitination of TAZ to promote TAZ stabilization. Moreover, TAZ facilitated the transcription of USP14 by binding to the TEA domain transcription factor (TEAD) 1/4 response element in the promoter of USP14. USP14 was found to modulate the expression of TAZ downstream target genes through a feedback mechanism and ultimately promoted cancer progression and liver metastasis in PDAC models in vitro and in vivo. In addition, depletion of USP14 led to proteasome-dependent degradation of TAZ and ultimately arrested PDAC tumour growth and liver metastasis. A strong positive correlation between USP14 and TAZ expression was also detected in PDAC patients. The small molecule inhibitor of USP14 catalytic activity, IU1, inhibited the development of PDAC in subcutaneous xenograft and liver metastasis models. Overall, our data strongly suggested that the self-amplifying USP14-TAZ loop was a previously unrecognized mechanism causing upregulated TAZ expression, and identified USP14 as a viable therapeutic target in PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-022-01040-wDOI Listing
July 2022

Complete mitochondrial genome of (Zhou, 2020) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and phylogenetic analysis.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2022 25;7(7):1352-1354. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Biology for Crop Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning, China.

(Zhou, 2020) is widely distributed from central to eastern Yunnan with distinct geographical variations in morphology. Beetles were collected in Manwan Town, and a mitochondrial genome sequence (GenBank accession number MZ298928) of this species was sequenced using the MGI-SEQ 2000 platform, assembled using NOVOPlasty v4.3.1, and characterized. The mitogenome was a circular DNA molecule of 15,690 bp with 64.710% AT content, which comprised 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one control region. The protein-coding genes showed the typical ATN (Met) and TTG (Met) start codons, except and (TTG as start codon), and were terminated by typical TAN stop codons. The maximum-likelihood polygenetic tree was generated using protein sequences of thirteen protein-coding regions of seventeen mitogenomes with mtREV + G + F + I with 1000 replicates under the Bayesian information criterion using MEGA 11, which showed that was the most closely related to . This study provides essential genetic and molecular data for phylogenetic analyses of the genus .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2022.2097030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9318264PMC
July 2022

Orphan nuclear receptor NUR77 relieves insulin resistance in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells through activation of autophagy and insulin signaling.

J Physiol Biochem 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Endocrinology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, 36 Sanhao Street, Shenyang, 110004, People's Republic of China.

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common pregnancy complication with a high incidence in women. Orphan nuclear receptor NUR77 is involved in regulating glucose metabolism. However, its role in GDM has not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, an animal model of GDM was established by feeding mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) before and during pregnancy. NUR77 expression was abnormally upregulated in placenta tissues of GDM mice. We performed gain- and loss-of-function studies of NUR77 in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Cells were incubated with 1 × 10 M insulin for 48 h to induce insulin resistance (IR). The expression of NUR77 was downregulated in HTR-8/SVneo cells following IR induction. Overexpression of NUR77 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Notably, NUR77 promoted glucose uptake and enhanced insulin sensitivity in vitro. NUR77 increased the ratio of p-insulin receptor β (IRβ)/IRβ, p-insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/IRS-1, p-Akt/Akt and decreased p-IRS-1/IRS-1, as well as lowered the expression of glucose transport protein type 1 (GLUT1) and elevated GLUT4. These results suggest the involvement of IRβ/IRS/Akt/GLUT4 signaling activation in the regulatory effects of NUR77 on IR in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Silencing of NUR77 displayed opposite effects. Besides, NUR77 enhanced the expression of autophagy-related protein Beclin 1 and the ratio of LC3II/LC3I. Further study demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of NUR77 on IR was partially attributed to the activation of autophagy. Therefore, we demonstrate that NUR77 enhances insulin sensitivity in HTR-8/SVneo cells likely through activating IRβ/IRS/Akt/GLUT4 pathway and regulating autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13105-022-00901-9DOI Listing
July 2022

[Blocking Adenosine/A2AR Pathway for Cancer Therapy].

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2022 Jul;25(7):460-467

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

Adenosine is a metabolite produced abundantly in the tumor microenvironment, dampening immune response in inflamed tissues via adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) which is widely expressed on immune cells, inhibiting anti-tumor immune response accordingly. Therefore, blocking adenosine signaling pathway is of potential to promote anti-tumor immunity. This review briefly introduces adenosine signaling pathway, describes its role in regulating tumor immunity and highlights A2AR blockade in cancer therapy. Prospective anti-tumor activity of adenosine/A2AR inhibition has been revealed by preclinical data, and a number of clinical trials of A2AR antagonists are under way. Primary results from clinical trials suggest that A2AR antagonists are well tolerated in cancer patients and are effective both as monotherapy and in combination with other therapies. In the future, finding predictive biomarkers are critical to identify patients most likely to benefit from adenosine pathway blockade, and further researches are needed to rationally combine A2AR antagonists with other anti-tumor therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2022.102.24DOI Listing
July 2022

Effect of different surgical positions on intraocular pressure: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Ophthalmol 2022 Jul 26;22(1):318. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China.

Background: Intraoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation is a risk factor for postoperative blindness. Surgical position is associated with intraoperative IOP elevation. In China, there are few studies on the effect of various surgical positions on intraoperative IOP. This study was conducted to explore IOP change and its related factors in four common surgical positions in China.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study. A total of 325 surgical patients who had non-ocular surgery from January 2019 to December 2019 in the hospital, were enrolled in this study. During their surgeries for general anesthesia, these participants were placed in lithotomy position/lateral position/prone position/supine position according to their surgery requirement. IOP was measured by icareTA03 handheld portable tonometer at 9 different time points from admission to exiting the operation room. And general information, postural position, and surgery information were collected through a uniform questionnaire. Multivariate analysis was performed to explore the related factors of IOP change.

Results: IOP of both eyes on lithotomy position, lateral position, and supine position showed statistical differences by ANOVA test at each time point (p < 0.05). IOP of both eyes in the prone position before exit from the operating room was significantly higher than IOP 10-min after anesthesia (p < 0.01). IOP under different postural angles showed statistical differences (F value = 4.85, P < 0.05), and the larger the head-down angle, the higher the IOP. IOP on the compressed side in the lateral position was higher than that on the non-compressed side (p < 0.01). In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted by other factors, postural position and baseline IOP were associated with IOP difference between before and after surgery (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: IOP in the four surgical positions showed different change patterns with the surgical process and position change. Nurses should assist the surgeon to reduce the head-down angle without interfering with the surgical operation and strengthen the inspection of IOP on patients with long-time surgery, to avoid intraoperative rapid IOP changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-022-02547-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9317174PMC
July 2022

Comparison of multidimensional mass transfer models of formaldehyde emissions originating from different surfaces of wood-based panels.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 22:157367. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Science, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Building Structure and Environment Remediation, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044, China.

Indoor decoration causes a large amount of formaldehyde to be concurrently released from different surfaces of wood-based panels. However, this phenomenon has rarely been described with two- or three-dimensional mass transfer models. In this paper, multidimensional mass transfer models of formaldehyde emissions originating from different surfaces of building materials are first established. Moreover, mass balance integral equation is introduced. Experiments of formaldehyde emissions in the environmental chambers are numerically simulated by combining the parameter estimation method, composite Simpson formula and finite difference method, whose convergence and stability are verified. The results indicated that the proposed models suitably agreed with the experimental and literature data. Furthermore, the multidimensional mass transfer model confirmed that formaldehyde released from sides should not be ignored. Compared with the one-dimensional model, the three-dimensional model can more accurately simulate the release data of formaldehyde from wood-based panels. Subsequently, the variation trend between the chemical reaction formation rate and physical diffusion rate of formaldehyde is revealed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157367DOI Listing
July 2022

Shaping Future Directions for Breakdance Teaching.

Front Psychol 2022 5;13:952124. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

Department of Dance, Xi'an Conservatory of Music, Xi'an, China.

This article reports on the evolution of breakdance. Given the inclusion of breakdancing in the 2024 Olympic Games in Paris, France, scholars have generated substantial international research related to breakdance teaching in recent years. However, few researchers have focused on the impact of formal formative assessment on breakdance teachers' teaching and students' learning. We wish to contribute to the quality of breakdance teaching and learning by identifying the positive impact of recent research on formative assessment on student learning and designing a formal formative assessment task related to breakdance. This article lays out a framework of formal formative assessment tasks and identifies the positive impact of formative assessment on dance education. Although our work is far from perfect, it does provide a general methodological framework for assessing breakdance students' abilities in formal educational settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.952124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9294731PMC
July 2022

Comparing the clinical utility of single-shot, readout-segmented and zoomit echo-planar imaging in diffusion-weighted imaging of the kidney at 3 T.

Sci Rep 2022 Jul 20;12(1):12389. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, No. 87 Xiangya Rd., Kai Fu District, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

We compared the clinical utility of single-shot echo-planar imaging (SS-EPI) using different breathing schemes, readout-segmented EPI and zoomit EPI in the repeatability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements, cortico-medullary contrast to noise ratio (c-mCNR) and image quality. In this institutional review board-approved prospective study, some common clinically applicable diffusion-weighted imaging (b = 50, 400, 800 s/mm) of kidney on 3.0 T MRI were performed on 22 volunteers using SS-EPI with breath-hold diffusion-weighted imaging (BH-DWI), free-breathing (FB-DWI), navigator-triggered (NT-DWI) and respiratory-triggered (RT-DWI), readout-segmented DWI (RS-DWI), and Zoomit DWI (Z-DWI). ADC and c-mCNR were measured in 12 anatomic locations (the upper, middle, and lower pole of the renal cortex and medulla), and image quality was assessed on these DWI sequences. A DWI with the optimal clinical utility was decided by systematically assessing the ADC repeatability, c-mCNR and image quality among the DWIs. For ADC measurements, Z-DWI had an excellent intra-observer agreement (intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs): 0.876-0.944) and good inter-observer agreement (inter-class ICCs: 0.798-0.856) in six DWI sequences. Z-DWI had the highest ADC repeatability in most of the 12 anatomic locations of the kidneys (mean ADC absolute difference: 0.070-0.111 × 10 mm/s, limit of agreement: 0.031-0.056 × 10 mm/s). In all DWIs, Z-DWI yielded a slightly higher c-mCNR than other DWIs in most representative locations (P > 0.05), which was significantly higher than BH-DWI and FB-DWI in the middle pole of both kidneys and the upper pole of the left kidney (P < 0.05). In addition, Z-DWI yielded image quality that was similar to RT-DWI and NT-DWI (P > 0.05) and superior to BH-DWI, FB-DWI and RS-DWI (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that Z-DWI provides the highest ADC reproducibility, better c-mCNR and good image quality on 3.0 T MRI, making it the recommended sequence for clinical DWI of the kidney.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-16670-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9300617PMC
July 2022

Amphiregulin regulates odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathways.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2022 07 15;13(1):304. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Stomatology, Air Force Medical Center, Air Force Medical University, 30 Fucheng Road, Beijing, 100142, People's Republic of China.

Background: Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) have received widespread attention in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Although amphiregulin (AREG) has been shown to play a vital function in the biological processes of various cell types, its effects on DPSCs remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the specific role of AREG as a biologically active factor in the regeneration of dental pulp tissue.

Methods: The growth of hDPSCs, together with their proliferation and apoptosis, in response to AREG was examined by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. We explored the effects of AREG on osteo/odontogenic differentiation in vitro and investigated the regeneration and mineralization of hDPSCs in response to AREG in vivo. The effects of AREG gain- and loss-of-function on DPSC differentiation were investigated following transfection using overexpression plasmids and shRNA, respectively. The involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways in the mineralization process and the expression of odontoblastic marker proteins after AREG induction were investigated by using Alizarin Red S staining and Western blotting, respectively.

Results: AREG (0.01-0.1 µg/mL) treatment of hDPSCs from 1 to 7 days increased hDPSCs growth and affected apoptosis minimally compared with negative controls. AREG exposure significantly promoted hDPSC differentiation, shown by increased mineralized nodule formation and the expression of odontoblastic marker protein expression. In vivo micro-CT imaging and quantitative analysis showed significantly greater formation of highly mineralized tissue in the 0.1 μg/mL AREG exposure group in DPSC/NF-gelatin-scaffold composites. AREG also promoted extracellular matrix production, with collagen fiber, mineralized matrix, and calcium salt deposition on the composites, as shown by H&E, Masson, and Von Kossa staining. Furthermore, AREG overexpression boosted hDPSC differentiation while AREG silencing inhibited it. During the differentiation of hDPSCs, AREG treatment led to phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and PI3K/Akt. Notably, a specific inhibitor of ERK, JNK, and PI3K/Akt signaling markedly reduced AREG-induced differentiation, as well as levels of phosphorylated ERK and JNK in hDPSCs.

Conclusions: The data indicated that AREG promoted odontoblastic differentiation and facilitated regeneration and mineralization processes in hDPSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-022-02971-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9284861PMC
July 2022

Does antibiotic therapy for chronic endometritis improve clinical outcomes of patients with recurrent implantation failure in subsequent IVF cycles? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2022 Jul 13. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

The Reproductive Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Purpose: This study aims to assess whether antibiotic therapy for chronic endometritis (CE) could improve subsequent IVF outcomes in patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF).

Methods: Studies that explore CE treatment in patients with RIF were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang, and Google Scholar up to Jan 31, 2022. All retrieved studies were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main outcome measures include implantation rate (IR), clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), ongoing pregnancy rate/live birth rate (OPR/LBR), and miscarriage rate (MR). Odds ratios (ORs) were analyzed for pregnancy outcomes with a 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: Nine articles were enrolled in this study. Patients receiving oral antibiotic administration (OAA) did not show any advantage over patients without CE with regard to IR, OPR/LBR, and MR, but they showed a higher CPR. Patients with cured CE after OAA therapy had significantly higher CPR, IR, and OPR/LBR compared with patients without CE. Patients with persistent CE after OAA therapy had significantly lower IR, CPR, and OPR/LBR compared with patients without CE. Patients with cured CE had significantly higher IR, CPR, and OPR/LBR compared with persistent CE patients.

Conclusions: Antibiotic treatment may improve the pregnancy outcomes of RIF patients in subsequent IVF cycles only if the condition of CE is confirmed cured in a control biopsy afterwards. Otherwise, no sufficient evidence has shown improvements in clinical outcomes in RIF patients with persistent CE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10815-022-02558-1DOI Listing
July 2022

Diagnostic and prognostic value of combined detection of serum Tg, IFN - γ and TgAb in thyroid adenoma.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2022 Feb 4;67(5):286-292. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Baoji People's Hospital, Baoji 721000, China.

This study aimed to explore the value of combined detection of serum thyroglobulin (Tg), interferon - γ (IFN - γ) and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) in the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid adenoma (TA). For this purpose, 100 patients with TA in our hospital from January 2017 to December 2020 were selected as the observation group, and they were divided into good prognosis group (83 cases) and poor prognosis group (17 cases) according to the surgical treatment; another 50 healthy people who received physical examination in our hospital. The levels of serum Tg, IFN - γ and TgAb in each group were detected and compared; the diagnostic and prognostic value of combined detection of serum Tg, IFN - γ and TgAb in thyroid adenoma were analyzed. Results showed that compared with the control group, the levels of Tg and TgAb in the observation group were significantly increased, and the levels of IFN - γ were significantly decreased (P < 0.05); compared with the poor prognosis group, the levels of Tg and TgAb in the good prognosis group were significantly decreased, and the levels of IFN - γ were significantly increased (P < 0.05); The area under curve (AUC) of the combined detection of serum Tg, IFN-γ and TgAb for TA diagnosis and prognosis assessment was significantly higher than the value detected by a single indicator. In general, the combined detection of serum Tg, IFN - γ and TgAb has high diagnostic and prognostic value for TA, and has high clinical reference value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14715/cmb/2021.67.5.39DOI Listing
February 2022

Nutrition-dependent juvenile hormone sensitivity promotes flight-muscle degeneration during the aphid dispersal-reproduction transition.

Development 2022 Aug 10;149(15). Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China.

In insects, the loss of flight typically involves a dispersal-reproduction transition, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the parthenogenetic pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, winged females undergo flight-muscle degeneration after flight and feeding on new host plants. Similarly, topical application of a juvenile hormone (JH) mimic to starved aphids also induces flight-muscle degeneration. We found that feeding preferentially upregulated the expression of the JH receptor gene Met and a JH-inducible gene, Kr-h1, in the flight muscles, and, thus, enhanced tissue-specific JH sensitivity and signaling. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Kr-h1 prevented flight-muscle degeneration. Likewise, blocking nutritional signals by pharmacological inhibition of the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) impaired JH sensitivity of the flight muscles in feeding aphids and subsequently delayed muscle degeneration. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that enhanced JH signaling inhibited the transcription of genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, likely resulting in reduction of the energy supply, mitochondrial dysfunction and muscle-fiber breakdown. This study shows that nutrient-dependent hormone sensitivity regulates developmental plasticity in a tissue-specific manner, emphasizing a relatively underappreciated mechanism of hormone sensitivity in modulating hormone signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.200891DOI Listing
August 2022

AHCC Supplementation to Support Immune Function to Clear Persistent Human Papillomavirus Infections.

Front Oncol 2022 22;12:881902. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, United States.

Objective: To determine the efficacy, safety, and durability of the use of AHCC supplementation for 6 months to support the host immune system to clear high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. The AHCC supplement is a proprietary, standardized extract of cultured lentinula edodes mycelia (AHCC, Amino Up, Ltd., Sapporo, Japan) that has been shown to have unique immune modulatory benefits.

Study Design: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (CTN: NCT02405533) in 50 women over 30 years of age with confirmed persistent high-risk HPV infections for greater than 2 years. Patients were randomized to placebo once daily for 12 months (N = 25) or AHCC 3-g supplementation by mouth once daily on empty stomach for 6 months followed by 6 months of placebo (N = 25). Every 3 months, patients were evaluated with HPV DNA and HPV RNA testing as well as a blood sample collected to evaluate a panel of immune markers including interferon-alpha, interferon-beta (IFN-β), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IgG1, T lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cell levels. At the completion of the 12-month study period, patients on the placebo arm were given the option to continue on the study to receive AHCC supplementation unblinded for 6 months with the same follow-up appointments and testing as the intervention arm.

Results: Fifty women with high-risk HPV were enrolled, and 41 completed the study. Fourteen (63.6%) of the 22 patients in the AHCC supplementation arm were HPV RNA/HPV DNA negative after 6 months, with 64.3% (9/14) achieving a durable response defined as being HPV RNA/HPV DNA negative 6 months off supplementation. On the placebo arm, two (10.5%) of 19 patients were HPV negative at 12 months. In the twelve placebo arm patients who elected to continue on the unblinded study, 50% (n = 6) were HPV RNA/HPV DNA negative after 6 months of AHCC supplementation. At the time of completion of the study, there were a total of 34 patients (22 blinded and 12 unblinded) who had received AHCC supplementation with an overall response rate of 58.8% that cleared HPV persistent infections. At the time of enrollment, the mean IFN-β level was 60.5 ± 37.6 pg/ml in women with confirmed persistent HPV infections. Suppression of IFN-β to less than 20 pg/ml correlated with an increase in T lymphocytes and IFN-γ and durable clearance of HPV infections in women who received AHCC supplementation.

Conclusion: Results from this phase II study demonstrated that AHCC 3 g once daily was effective to support the host immune system to eliminate persistent HPV infections and was well tolerated with no significant adverse side effects reported. The duration of AHCC supplementation required beyond the first negative result needs more evaluation to optimize success for durable outcomes. The suppression of the IFN-β level to less than 20 pg/ml correlated with clearance of HPV infections and merits further evaluation as a clinical tool for monitoring patients with HPV infections.

Clinical Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/, identifier NCT02405533.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.881902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9256908PMC
June 2022

Validation of T-MoCA in the Screening of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Chinese Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 22;9:896846. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing, China.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a high risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. However, feasible and simple instruments that facilitate the regular assessment of cognitive status in patients with AF remain underdeveloped.

Methods: Cognitive function was first evaluated using telephone Montreal cognitive assessment (T-MoCA), and then patients were invited for an in-person interview for cognitive assessment using both Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and mini-mental status evaluation (MMSE). Using CDR = 0.5 as a reference standard, the ability of T-MoCA and MMSE to discriminate cognitive dysfunction, stratified by education level, was tested by receiver-operating curve (ROC) analysis. The net reclassification index was calculated for comparison between the performance of T-MoCA and MMSE.

Results: One hundred and one patients completed both telephone and in-person interview. Thirty-five MCI patients were identified as MCI using the criteria of CDR = 0.5. The areas under the ROC curve of T-MoCA were 0.80 (0.71-0.89), 0.83 (0.71-0.95), and 0.85 (0.64-0.92) for all patients, patients with high educational level, and patients with low education level, respectively. The optimal threshold was achieved at 16/17 with a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 69.7% in overall patients, 15/16 with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 64.5% in the low educational level patients, and 16/17 with a sensitivity of 77.8% and a specificity of 87.9% in the high educational level patients. Compared to the criterion MMSE ≤ 27 and MMSE norms for the elderly Chinese community, the stratified T-MoCA threshold improves correct classification by 23.7% ( = 0.033) and 30.3% ( = 0.020), respectively.

Conclusion: T-MoCA is a feasible and effective instrument for MCI screening in patients with AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.896846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9257241PMC
June 2022

Erythrocyte Membrane-Coated Invisible Acoustic-Sensitive Nanoparticle for Inducing Tumor Thrombotic Infarction by Precisely Damaging Tumor Vascular Endothelium.

Small 2022 Jul 5;18(30):e2201933. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, China.

Selective induction of tumor thrombus infarction is a promising antitumor strategy. Non-persistent embolism due to non-compacted thrombus and activated fibrinolytic system within the tumor large blood vessels and tumor margin recurrence are the main therapeutic bottlenecks. Herein, an erythrocyte membrane-coated invisible acoustic-sensitive nanoparticle (TXA+DOX/PFH/[email protected]) is described, which can induce tumor thrombus infarction by precisely damaging tumor vascular endothelium. It is revealed that TXA+DOX/PFH/[email protected] can effectively accumulate on the endothelial surface of tumor vessels with the help of the red blood cell membrane (RBCM) stealth coating and RGD cyclic peptide (cRGD), which can be delivered in a targeted manner as nanoparticle missiles. As a kind of phase-change material, perfluorohexane (PFH) nanodroplets possess excellent acoustic responsiveness. Acoustic-sensitive missiles can undergo an acoustic phase transition and intense cavitation with response to low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU), damaging the tumor vascular endothelium, rapidly initiating the coagulation cascade, and forming thromboembolism in the tumor vessels. The drugs loaded in the inner water phase are released explosively. Tranexamic acid (TXA) inhibits the fibrinolytic system, and doxorubicin (DOX) eliminates the margin survival. In summary, a stealthy and acoustically responsive multifunctional nanoparticle delivery platform is successfully developed for inducing thrombus infarction by precisely damaging tumor vascular endothelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202201933DOI Listing
July 2022

Changhai advanced endoscopy courses for ERCP (CHANCE) training program: A short-term training model in China.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2022 Jun 28;46(7):101987. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Changhai Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: There is huge shortage of ERCP practitioners (ERCPists) in China, and ERCP training is urgently needed. ChangHai Advanced eNdoscopy Courses for ERCP (CHANCE) is a 4-month program for ERCP training since 2004. This study evaluated the efficiency of this short-term training model, and reported on the ERCP careers of the trainees following completion of the CHANCE program.

Methods: This study was a retrospective investigation included all the CHANCE trainees from Jan 2004 to Dec 2014. Questionnaires were sent to all trainees. The career competence percentage, ERCP careers and predictive factors of career competence were investigated and analyzed.

Results: A total of 413 trainees participated in the CHANCE program over 11 years covered by the survey and 258 questionnaires were valid for the study. The mean (SD) age of the trainees was 35.36 (4.17), and the male to female ratio was 4.4:1. The average follow-up time was 7.77 (3.44) years. A total of 173 (67.1%) trainees had achieved career competence. In terms of ERCP careers, the mean annual ERCP volume was 120.60 (96.67), with a complication percentage of 8.2%. Hospital qualification, compliance with follow-up learning guidance, participating academic activity, and practitioner type were identified predictive factors of career competence.

Conclusions: As a short-term training program, the CHANCE achieved an acceptable career competence percentage, providing endoscopists more chances to learn ERCP and giving them appropriate training guidance for career competence. This training mode is worth promoting in developing countries with shortage of ERCPists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2022.101987DOI Listing
June 2022

All-trans retinoic acid increases the pathogenicity of the H9N2 influenza virus in mice.

Virol J 2022 06 28;19(1):113. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Pathophysiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100193, People's Republic of China.

Background: The H9N2 virus can infect not only birds but also humans. The pathogenicity of H9N2 virus infection is determined by an excessive immune response in the lung. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, plays an important regulatory role and has been widely used in the clinical practice. This study was aimed to investigate whether ATRA could regulate the immune response to H9N2 virus infection in the lungs of mice, thereby reducing the pathogenicity of the H9N2 virus in mice.

Methods: Mice were infected intranasally with H9N2 virus, and injected intraperitoneally with 0.2 mL of ATRA at low (1 mg/kg), medium (5 or 10 mg/kg), or high therapeutic dose (20 mg/kg), and toxic dose (40, 60, or 80 mg/kg), once per day for 10 days. Clinical signs, survival rates, and lung gross pathology were compared between the ATRA-treated H9N2-infected group, the ATRA group, and the H9N2-infected group, to investigate the effect of different doses of ATRA on the pathogenicity of H9N2 virus. Additionally, the viral load and cytokine concentration of lungs were measured at 3, 5, 7, and 9 days after infection, to investigate the potential mechanism of ATRA in affecting the pathogenicity of the H9N2 virus. Expression levels of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 (CRABP1), cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2), and Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) were detected using Western blotting.

Results: The ATRA-treated H9N2-infected mice showed more severe clinical signs compared with the H9N2-infected group. The medium and high therapeutic doses of ATRA reduced the survival rates, aggravated lung tissue damage, decreased the expression of interferon beta (IFN-β), and increased the concentrations of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in the lungs of the H9N2-infected mice. At the same time, the expression patterns of CRABP1, CRABP2, and RIG-I were changed in mice infected by H9N2 and treated with different concentrations of ATRA.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the therapeutic dose of ATRA can increase the pathogenicity of the H9N2 virus. Therefore, the consequences of those infected by influenza virus would be more severe after ATRA treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-022-01809-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9238145PMC
June 2022

Ferric ion detection mechanism of a dicarboxylic cellulose nanocrystal and a 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin based fluorescent chemosensor.

RSC Adv 2022 Jun 7;12(26):16798-16804. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University No. 600 Changjiang Street Harbin 150030 China

As one of Earth's most widely distributed and abundant elements, iron impacts the natural environment and biological systems. Therefore, developing a simple, rapid, and accurate Fe detection method is vital. Fluorescent dicarboxylic cellulose nanocrystals (FDCN) with selective quenching of Fe were synthesized using 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC), and dicarboxylic cellulose nanocrystals (DCN) prepared by sequential periodate-chlorite oxidation. The sensing characteristics and detection mechanism of FDCN for Fe were studied by fluorescence spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the Stern-Volmer equation, Job's plot method, and the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The results showed that FDCN was highly selective for Fe, and other metal ions did not reduce the selectivity. High sensitivity with a detection limit of 0.26 μM and a Stern-Volmer quenching constant of 0.1229 were also achieved. The coordination between Fe and the carboxylic, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the surface of FDCN and the carbonyl of coumarin lactones to form FDCN/Fe complexes prevented the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process and led to the fluorescence quenching of FDCN. EDTA restored the fluorescence emission of quenched FDCN. The complexation stoichiometry of Fe to FDCN was 1 : 1, and the association constant was 3.23 × 10 M. The high hydrophilicity, sensitivity, and selectivity of FDCN for Fe make the chemosensor suitable for Fe trace detection in drinking water and biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra02303bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9170515PMC
June 2022

Assessment of vegetation change on the Mongolian Plateau over three decades using different remote sensing products.

J Environ Manage 2022 Sep 13;317:115509. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China. Electronic address:

As a major component of temperate steppes in the Eurasian continent, the Mongolian Plateau (MP) plays a pivotal role in the East Asian and global carbon cycles. This paper describes the use of five remote sensing indices derived from satellite data to characterize vegetation cover on MP, namely: gross primary production (GPP), net primary production (NPP), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI) and fractional vegetation cover (FVC). It is found that GPP, NPP, and NDVI exhibit increasing trends, whereas LAI and FVC present decreasing trends on the MP since 1982. The different indices highlight discrepancies in the spatial pattern of vegetation growth, with the greatest increase in the southeast of MP. Only 3.4% of the total land area of MP exhibited consistent trends in the indices (0.1% degradation and 3.3% growth, P < 0.01), with the synchronous change of both LAI and NPP exhibiting higher consistency than that of raw NDVI and NPP. Understanding of the characteristics and status of vegetation change on the MP has far-reaching implications for its ecological protection management, and climate change mitigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115509DOI Listing
September 2022

Consumption of Dietary Fiber with Different Physicochemical Properties during Late Pregnancy Alters the Gut Microbiota and Relieves Constipation in Sow Model.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 16;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Constipation is a common problem in sows and women during late pregnancy. Dietary fiber has potential in the regulation of intestinal microbiota, thereby promoting intestinal motility and reducing constipation. However, the effects of fibers with different physicochemical properties on intestinal microbe and constipation during late pregnancy have not been fully explored. In this study, a total of 80 sows were randomly allocated to control and one of three dietary fiber treatments from day 85 of gestation to delivery: LIG (lignocellulose), PRS (resistant starch), and KON (konjaku flour). Results showed that the defecation frequency and fecal consistency scores were highest in PRS. PRS and KON significantly increased the level of gut motility regulatory factors, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), motilin (MTL), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in serum. Moreover, PRS and KON promoted the IL-10 level and reduced the TNF-α level in serum. Furthermore, maternal PRS and KON supplementation significantly reduced the number of stillborn piglets. Microbial sequencing analysis showed that PRS and KON increased short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing genera and and decreased the abundance of endotoxin-producing bacteria and in feces. Moreover, the relative abundance of and the fecal butyrate concentration in PRS were the highest. Correlation analysis further revealed that the defecation frequency and serum 5-HT were positively correlated with and butyrate. In conclusion, PRS is the best fiber source for promoting gut motility, which was associated with increased levels of 5-HT under specific bacteria and butyrate stimulation, thereby relieving constipation. Our findings provide a reference for dietary fiber selection to improve intestinal motility in late pregnant mothers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14122511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9229973PMC
June 2022

The bacterial community structure in epiphytic biofilm on submerged macrophyte Potamogetom crispus L. and its contribution to heavy metal accumulation in an urban industrial area in Hangzhou.

J Hazard Mater 2022 05 9;430:128455. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Key Laboratory for Technology in Rural Water Management of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Hangzhou 310018, China; College of Water Conservancy and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Hangzhou 310018, China. Electronic address:

Submerged macrophytes and their epiphytic biofilms are important media for metal transport/transformation in aquatic environment. However, the bacterial community structure and the contribution of the epiphytic biofilm to the heavy metal accumulation remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, water, sediment, submerged macrophyte (Potamogeton crispus L.) and its epiphytic biofilm samples in three sites of the moat in the industrial area of Hangzhou were collected for analyzing. The bacterial community structure was significantly impacted by the TN concentrations, and Genus Aeromonas (24.5-41.8%), Acinetobacter (16.2-29.8%) and Pseudomonas (12.6-23.6%) dominated in all epiphytic biofilm samples, which had the heavy metal pollutant resistibility. The contents of Cr in biofilms (7.4-8.3 mg/kg, DW) were significantly higher than those in leaves (1.0-2.4 mg/kg, DW), while the contents of Cu (11.0-13.9 mg/kg, DW) in leaves were significantly higher than those in biofilms (0.7-3.9 mg/kg, DW) in all the three sites. The BCF values of metals in the biofilm were followed the order of YF < IC < ETS. The results indicated that the epiphytic biofilm had positive effects on the metal bioaccumulation, and the metal accumulation ability increased with the hydrodynamic forces. Bioaccumulation by the epiphytic biofilm may be an effective way for metal (especially Cr) remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.128455DOI Listing
May 2022

Fractional diffusion model for emission and adsorption prediction of TXIB from wallpaper.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

School of Science, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing, 100044, China.

Mercury injection test shows that wallpaper is a porous building material with a complex fractal mass transfer channel. Therefore, fractional Fick's law is employed to investigate sub-diffusion of 2,2,4 trimethy1-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB) from wallpaper. In view of the fact that a small amount of TXIB has been released from the wallpaper before the environmental chamber experiment, the non-uniform initial concentration is introduced. Based on fractional Fick's law, both fractional convective mass transfer equation and fractional mass balance equation have been firstly proposed. Combining the finite difference method and L1 algorithm, the fractional diffusion model is solved numerically. Numerical simulation results show that the present model matches well with the experimental data. Compared with the previous model based on Fick's law, the present model is in better agreement with experimental data of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) released from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring. The influence of key parameters on the concentration of TXIB is analyzed graphically. In addition, the absorption amount and absorption rate of TXIB on the environmental bulkhead are numerically simulated for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21436-yDOI Listing
June 2022

Privacy protection generalization with adversarial fusion.

Math Biosci Eng 2022 05;19(7):7314-7336

Beijing Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100050, China.

Several biometric privacy-enhancing techniques have been appraised to protect face image privacy. However, a face privacy protection algorithm is usually designed for a specific face recognition algorithm. When the structure or threshold of the face recognition algorithm is fine-tuned, the protection algorithm may be invalid. It will cause the network bloated and make the image distortion target multiple FRAs through the existing technology simultaneously. To address this problem, a fusion technology is developed to cope with the changeable face recognition algorithms via an image perturbation method. The image perturbation is performed by using a GAN-improved algorithm including generator, nozzles and validator, referred to as the Adversarial Fusion algorithm. A nozzle structure is proposed to replace the discriminator. Paralleling multiple face recognition algorithms on the nozzle can improve the compatibility of the generated image. Next, a validator is added to the training network, which takes part in the inverse back coupling of the generator. This component can make the generated graphics have no impact on human vision. Furthermore, the group hunting theory is quoted to make the network stable and up to 4.8 times faster than other models in training. The experimental results show that the Adversarial Fusion algorithm can not only change the image feature distribution by over 42% but also deal with at least 5 commercial face recognition algorithms at the same time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2022345DOI Listing
May 2022

One-Step Formation of Low Work-Function, Transparent and Conductive MgF O Electron Extraction for Silicon Solar Cells.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2022 Jun 17:e2202400. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Institute of Photovoltaics, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, 610500, China.

The development of high-performance dopant-free silicon solar cells is severely bottlenecked by opaque electron selective contact. In this paper, high transmittance (80.5% on glass) and low work function (2.92 eV) lithium fluoride (LiF )/MgF O electron contact stack by tailoring the composition of MgF O hybrid film is reported. This hybrid structure exhibits a high conductivity (2978.4 S cm ) and a low contact resistivity (2.0 mΩ cm ). The element profile of LiF /MgF O contact is measured and the reaction kinetics is analyzed. As a proof-of-concept, this electron selective contact is applied for dopant-free silicon solar cells. An impressive efficiency of 21.3% is achieved on dopant-free monofacial solar cell with molybdenum oxide (MoO )/zinc-doped indium oxide (IZO) hole contact. An efficiency bifaciality of 71% is obtained for dopant-free bifacial solar cell with full-area LiF /MgF O /ITO (tin-doped indium oxide) transparent electron contact. It is the highest efficiency bifaciality so far for dopant-free bifacial solar cells to the best knowledge. Both cell configurations with LiF /MgF O contacts show excellent environment stability. The cell efficiency maintains more than 95% of its initial value after keeping in air for 1500 h. This work provides a new idea to achieve transparent electron contact, showing a great potential for high-efficiency and low-cost optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202202400DOI Listing
June 2022

High-Efficiency CdSe Quantum Dots/[email protected]/SO Electrochemiluminescence System Based on a Microfluidic Analysis Platform for the Sensitive Detection of Neuron-Specific Enolase.

Anal Chem 2022 06 16;94(25):9176-9183. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Collaborative Innovation Center for Green Chemical Manufacturing and Accurate Detection, Key Laboratory of Interfacial Reaction & Sensing Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan, Shandong 250022, China.

In this work, based on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology and self-assembled portable disease detection chips, a bioactivity-maintained sensing platform was developed for the quantitative detection of neuron-specific enolase. First, we prepared [email protected] nanocomposites as an efficient catalyst to accelerate the reduction of persulfate (SO). Specifically, abundant sulfate radicals (SO) were generated because of cyclic conversion between Fe and Fe. Meanwhile, MoS nanoflowers with a high specific surface area could not only load more FeO but also solve its agglomeration problem, which greatly improved the catalytic efficiency. Moreover, a biosensor chip was constructed by standard lithography processes for disease detection, which had good sensitivity and portability. According to the above strategies, the developed portable sensing platform played the part of promoting the practical application of bioanalysis in early tumor screening and clinical diagnosis. In addition, we developed a short peptide ligand (NARKFYKG, NAR) to avoid the occupation of antigen binding sites by specifically connecting to Fc fragments in antibodies. Thus, the binding efficiency of antibodies and the activity of biosensors were improved due to the introduction of NAR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.2c01868DOI Listing
June 2022

Endoscopic management of pancreatic fluid collections with disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome.

Endosc Ultrasound 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University/Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome (DPDS) is an important and common complication of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Endoscopic approach has been established as the first-line treatment for pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) with less invasion and satisfactory outcome. However, the presence of DPDS significantly complicates the management of PFC; besides, there is no standardized treatment for DPDS. The diagnosis of DPDS presents the first step of management, which can be preliminarily established by imaging methods including contrast-enhanced computed tomography, ERCP, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and EUS. Historically, ERCP is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of DPDS, and secretin-enhanced MRCP is recommended as an appropriate diagnostic method in existing guidelines. With the development of endoscopic techniques and accessories, the endoscopic approach, mainly including transpapillary and transmural drainage, has been developed as the preferred treatment over percutaneous drainage and surgery for the management of PFC with DPDS. Many studies concerning various endoscopic treatment strategies have been published, especially in the recent 5 years. Nonetheless, existing current literature has reported inconsistent and confusing results. In this article, the latest evidence is summarized to explore the optimal endoscopic management of PFC with DPDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/EUS-D-21-00272DOI Listing
June 2022

Enzyme-Powered Micro/Nanomotors for Cancer Treatment.

Chem Asian J 2022 Jun 8:e202200498. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, P. R. China.

The incidence and lethal rate of cancers are rapidly rising recently, however current treatments of cancers, such as surgical resection, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy, usually require long treatment period and have more side effects and high recurrence rate. Enzyme-powered micro/nanomotors (EMNMs), with powerful self-propulsion, enhanced permeability and good biocompatibility, have shown great potential in crossing biological barrier and targeted drug transportation for cancer treatment; moreover, advanced approaches based on EMNMs such as photothermal therapy and starvation therapy have also been widely explored in cancer treatment. Although there are several review works discussing the progress of micro/nanomotors for biomedical applications, there is not one review paper with the focus on the cancer treatment based on EMNMs. Therefore, in this review, we try to concisely and timely summarize the recent progress of cancer treatment based on enzyme-driven micro/nanomotors, such as brain tumors, bladder cancer, breast cancer and others. Finally, the challenges and outlook of cancer therapy based on EMNMs are discussed, hoping to provide fundamental guidance for the future development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202200498DOI Listing
June 2022

Population-scale analysis of common and rare genetic variation associated with hearing loss in adults.

Commun Biol 2022 06 3;5(1):540. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Regeneron Genetics Center, Tarrytown, NY, 10591, USA.

To better understand the genetics of hearing loss, we performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis with 125,749 cases and 469,497 controls across five cohorts. We identified 53/c loci affecting hearing loss risk, including common coding variants in COL9A3 and TMPRSS3. Through exome sequencing of 108,415 cases and 329,581 controls, we observed rare coding associations with 11 Mendelian hearing loss genes, including additive effects in known hearing loss genes GJB2 (Gly12fs; odds ratio [OR] = 1.21, P = 4.2 × 10) and SLC26A5 (gene burden; OR = 1.96, P = 2.8 × 10). We also identified hearing loss associations with rare coding variants in FSCN2 (OR = 1.14, P = 1.9 × 10) and KLHDC7B (OR = 2.14, P = 5.2 × 10). Our results suggest a shared etiology between Mendelian and common hearing loss in adults. This work illustrates the potential of large-scale exome sequencing to elucidate the genetic architecture of common disorders where both common and rare variation contribute to risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-022-03408-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9166757PMC
June 2022

SARS-CoV-2 N Protein Antagonizes Stress Granule Assembly and IFN Production by Interacting with G3BPs to Facilitate Viral Replication.

J Virol 2022 06 2;96(12):e0041222. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing, China.

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and poses a significant threat to global health. N protein (NP), which is a major pathogenic protein among betacoronaviruses, binds to the viral RNA genome to allow viral genome packaging and viral particle release. Recent studies showed that NP antagonizes interferon (IFN) induction and mediates phase separation. Using live SARS-CoV-2 viruses, this study provides solid evidence showing that SARS-CoV-2 NP associates with G3BP1 and G3BP2 and . NP could efficiently suppress G3BP-mediated SG formation and potentiate viral infection by overcoming G3BP1-mediated antiviral innate immunity. G3BP1 conditional knockout mice (, -Cre) exhibit significantly higher lung viral loads after SARS-CoV-2 infection than wild-type mice. Our findings contribute to the growing body of knowledge regarding the pathogenicity of NP and provide insight into new therapeutics targeting NP. In this study, by assay and live SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, we provide solid evidence that the SARS-CoV-2 NP associates with G3BP1 and G3BP2 and . NP could efficiently suppress G3BP-mediated SG formation and potentiate viral infection by overcoming antiviral innate immunity mediated by G3BP1 in A549 cell lines and G3BP1 conditional knockout mice (-cKO) mice, which provide in-depth evidence showing the mechanism underlying NP-related SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis through G3BPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00412-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9215227PMC
June 2022
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