Publications by authors named "Young-Joo Yi"

41 Publications

extract causes precocious acrosome reaction and viability loss but low rate of membrane damage in mouse spermatozoa.

J Anim Sci Technol 2021 Jan 31;63(1):58-68. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Central Department of Biotechnology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu 44618, Nepal.

Several herbs including are known to possess conceptive property. In the present study, mouse spermatozoa were incubated with ethanol extract of leaves. The effect of extract on acrosome exocytosis was studied by labeling spermatozoa with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) peanut agglutinin and by staining with Coomassie blue. Viability and membrane integrity were studied by Trypan-blue staining and hypo-osmotic swelling test. extract at very low concentration caused precocious acrosome reaction and loss of sperm viability. Acrosome reaction increased remarkably from 22.63% to 88.42% with increasing extract concentration from 0 to 2,000 µg/mL. However, the viability loss of spermatozoa was increased from 11.71% in control to 63.73% in samples treated, evaluated by Trypan-blue staining method. Membrane damage caused by the extract, evaluated by hypo-osmotic swelling test was even low, ranging from 2.27% to only 24.23%. These results indicate that Artemisia extract might block fertilization by causing precocious acrosome exocytosis in spermatozoa. A direct contraceptive effect was tested by injecting the plant extract into the vagina of female mice and then allowing them to mate with normal males. The treated female mice delivered significantly fewer litters in comparison to the control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2021.e8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882851PMC
January 2021

Responses in growth performance and nutrient digestibility to a multi-protease supplementation in amino acid-deficient broiler diets.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 Nov 30;62(6):840-853. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of a multi-protease on production indicators of broiler chickens fed a crude protein and amino acid deficient-diets for 35 days immediately after hatch. A total of 448 one-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were allocated in a completely randomized design into one of eight dietary treatments (positive control [PC], negative control [NC: minus 0.5% from PC, and minus 2% of lysine, methionine, threonine and methionine plus cysteine], extreme negative control [ENC: minus 1% from PC, minus 4% of lysine, methionine, threonine and methionine plus cysteine], and plus multi-protease 150 or 300 g per ton [e. g., PC-150]; PC, PC-150, NC, NC-150, NC-300, ENC, ENC-150, ENC-300) to give eight replicates with seven birds in a battery cage. Body weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were measured every week. Carcass traits, proximate analysis of breast meat, and ileum digestibility were analyzed on day 21 and 35. Feeding a multi-protease (i.e., more than 150 g/ton) for 35 days immediately after hatching improved feed efficiency and ileum digestibility (i.e., dry matter, crude protein, and energy) compared to their counterparts (i.e., diets without multi-protease: PC, NC, and ENC). In conclusion, our results indicated that broiler chickens fed nutrients deficient-diet (i.e., crude protein and amino acids) supplemented a multi-protease had an ability to compensate and (or) improve their growth performance commensurate with increased ileal digestibility for 35 days immediately after hatch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.6.840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721581PMC
November 2020

Effect of calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate and lipase supplementation on growth performance, gut health, and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Jun 12;33(6):981-991. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: To evaluate calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate (CSL) performance as an exogenous emulsifier together with lipase for broiler diets.

Methods: In total, 252 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated in a completely randomized design to give 6 replications per treatment with 7 birds in each cage. There were six dietary treatments representing a 2×3 factorial arrangement consisted of two energy levels (standard energy [positive control, PC] and -100 kcal/kg of the requirement level [negative control, NC]) and three dietary treatments (without additives [CON], CON+CSL [CSL], and CON+CSL+lipase [CSL-Lipase]). Corn and soybean meal-based experimental diets containing vegetable oil were formulated. Growth performance, blood parameters, visceral organ weights, ileal morphology, nutrient digestibility, and cytokine gene expression were measured.

Results: Birds fed a diet including CSL increased (p<0.05) lipase level in blood compared to birds fed a diet including CSL-Lipase on day 21. Similarly, higher (p<0.05) liver weight was observed in birds fed a diet including either CSL or CSL-Lipase on day 21. Birds fed NC diet with CSL improved (p<0.05) nutrient digestibility compared to the NC diet on day 21. However, birds fed a diet supplemented with CSL or CSL-Lipase did not affect (p>0.05) the weight gain, feed efficiency, ileal morphology, and cytokine concentrations during the experiment period, regardless of dietary energy levels.

Conclusion: Our results indicated that CSL has a role in improving nutrient digestibility in young birds when supplemented to a corn-soybean meal based broiler diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206371PMC
June 2020

Physiological impact on layer chickens fed corn distiller's dried grains with solubles naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Feb 1;33(2):313-322. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the response of laying hens fed corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) that are naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON).

Methods: One hundred and sixty 52-week-old Lohmann Brown Lite hens were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with 8 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were formulated to provide a range of corn DDGS contaminated with DON from 0% to 20% (i.e., 5% scale of increment). All laying hens were subjected to the same management practices in a controlled environment. Body weight, feed intake and egg production were measured biweekly for the entire 8-week experiment. The egg quality was measured biweekly for 8 weeks. On weeks 4 and 8, visceral organ weights, blood metabolites, intestinal morphology, and blood cytokine concentrations were measured.

Results: The inclusion of corn DDGS contaminated with DON in the diet did not alter (p> 0.05) the body weight, feed intake, hen-day egg production, egg mass and feed efficiency of the laying hens. No difference was found (p>0.05) in the egg quality of hens that were fed the dietary treatments. Furthermore, hens that were fed a diet containing corn DDGS contaminated with DON showed no change (p>0.05) in the visceral organ weights, the blood metabolites, and the cytokine concentrations. The crypt depth increased (p<0.05) as the amount of corn DDGS contaminated with DON increased. Proportionately, the villus height to crypt depth ratio of the laying hens decreased (p<0.05) with the increasing level of corn DDGS contaminated with DON in the diet.

Conclusion: The inclusion of corn DDGS contaminated with DON up to 20% in layer diets did not cause changes in egg production performance and egg quality, which indicates that DON is less toxic at the concentration of 1.00 mg DON/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946975PMC
February 2020

A hot-water extract of Sanguisorba officinalis ameliorates endotoxin-induced septic shock by inhibiting inflammasome activation.

Microbiol Immunol 2018 Jan;62(1):44-54

Division of Biotechnology, College of Environmental and Bioresources, Chonbuk National University, Iksan-si, Jeollabuk-do 570-752, South Korea.

The inflammasome is a multiprotein signaling complex that mediates inflammatory innate immune responses through caspase 1 activation and subsequent IL-1β secretion. However, because its aberrant activation often leads to inflammatory diseases, targeting the inflammasome holds promise for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. In this study, it was found that a hot-water extract of Sanguisorba officinalis (HSO) suppresses inflammasome activation triggered by adenosine 5'-triphosphate, nigericin, microbial pathogens, and double stranded DNA in bone marrow-derived macrophages. HSO was found to significantly suppress IL-1β production in a dose-dependent manner; this effect correlated well with small amounts of caspase 1 and little ASC pyroptosome formation in HSO-treated cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of HSO was further confirmed in a mouse model of endotoxin-induced septic shock. Oral administration of HSO reduced IL-1β titers in the serum and peritoneal cavity, increasing the survival rate. Taken together, our results suggest that HSO is an inhibits inflammasome activation through nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain 3, nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat caspase recruitment domain 4 and absent in melanoma 2 pathways, and may be useful for treatment of inflammasome-mediated diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12557DOI Listing
January 2018

SIRT1-dependent modulation of methylation and acetylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9) in the zygotic pronuclei improves porcine embryo development.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2017 1;8:83. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 6-Suchdol, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: The histone code is an established epigenetic regulator of early embryonic development in mammals. The lysine residue K9 of histone H3 (H3K9) is a prime target of SIRT1, a member of NAD-dependent histone deacetylase family of enzymes targeting both histone and non-histone substrates. At present, little is known about SIRT1-modulation of H3K9 in zygotic pronuclei and its association with the success of preimplantation embryo development. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of SIRT1 activity on H3K9 methylation and acetylation in porcine zygotes and the significance of H3K9 modifications for early embryonic development.

Results: Our results show that SIRT1 activators resveratrol and BML-278 increased H3K9 methylation and suppressed H3K9 acetylation in both the paternal and maternal pronucleus. Inversely, SIRT1 inhibitors nicotinamide and sirtinol suppressed methylation and increased acetylation of pronuclear H3K9. Evaluation of early embryonic development confirmed positive effect of selective SIRT1 activation on blastocyst formation rate (5.2 ± 2.9% versus 32.9 ± 8.1% in vehicle control and BML-278 group, respectively;  ≤ 0.05). Stimulation of SIRT1 activity coincided with fluorometric signal intensity of ooplasmic ubiquitin ligase MDM2, a known substrate of SIRT1 and known limiting factor of epigenome remodeling.

Conclusions: We conclude that SIRT1 modulates zygotic histone code, obviously through direct deacetylation and via non-histone targets resulting in increased H3K9me3. These changes in zygotes lead to more successful pre-implantation embryonic development and, indeed, the specific SIRT1 activation due to BML-278 is beneficial for in vitro embryo production and blastocyst achievement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-017-0214-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5664433PMC
November 2017

Effects of difructose dianhydride (DFA)-IV on in vitro fertilization in pigs.

J Biomed Res 2017 Sep;31(5):453-461

Division of Biotechnology, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea.

Difructose dianhydride IV (DFA-IV) is produced from levan, which is a natural polysaccharide that belongs to the fructan family, through the activity of levan fructotransferase (LF) derived from microorganisms. Recently, DFA-IV has been expected to have diverse applications in the food and medical industry. Here, we examined the potential application of DFA-IV forin vitro fertilization (IVF) in pigs. In the assessment of acrosomal integrity during incubation, intact acrosomal or viable spermatozoa were highly sustained in 0.1% or 0.25% DFA-IV (69.8%-70.8%,P<0.05). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during sperm incubation decreased following the addition of DFA-IV, and 0.1%-0.5% DFA-IV in particular significantly decreased ROS production relative to that seen with no addition or 0.75% DFA-IV. Total fertilization (mono+ polyspermic oocyte) rate was significantly higher in the addition of 0.1% DFA-IV (94.2%) than with other concentrations (71.8%-86.7%,P<0.05). When using reduced IVF times and lower sperm numbers, we found that addition of 0.1%-0.5% DFA-IV significantly increased the fertilization rate (P<0.05). Fertilized oocytes treated with 0.1% DFA-IV exhibited higher embryonic development and blastocyst formation than those treated with other concentrations (P<0.05). Consequently, the addition of DFA-IV during IVF improved fertilization and embryonic development, suggesting the possible use of novel sugars for enhancement of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7555/JBR.31.20160115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5706438PMC
September 2017

Evaluation of dietary methionine requirement of male Korean native ducks for 3 weeks post-hatching.

Anim Sci J 2017 Oct 18;88(10):1595-1600. Epub 2017 May 18.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea.

A total of 336 1-day-old male Korean native ducks (KND) were used in a completely randomized design with seven dietary methionine levels (0.30-0.90% with 0.1% increment) to determine the methionine requirement of male Korean native ducks for 3 weeks after hatching. Each dietary treatment had six replicates with eight ducklings per pen. One duckling from each pen (n = 6) was sacrificed to weigh empty body and drumsticks at the end of the experiment. Final body weight and weight gain of 3 weeks old KND were increased with increasing dietary methionine levels up to 0.4%, and then decreased (P < 0.05) with a further increasing dietary methionine level. In contrast, feed conversion ratio of the KND decreased up to 0.4% and increased (P < 0.05) with the increasing dietary methionine level. Both empty body weight and proportions of empty body weight were linearly increased (P < 0.05) while the dietary methionine level elevated up to 0.4%. Estimated dietary methionine requirement for maximum body weights, daily gain and minimum feed conversion ratio were 0.36, 0.39 and 0.40%, respectively, when it was fitted into linear- and quadratic-plateau models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.12833DOI Listing
October 2017

Potential use of lactic acid bacteria Leuconostoc mesenteroides as a probiotic for the removal of Pb(II) toxicity.

J Microbiol 2017 Apr 31;55(4):296-303. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Division of Biotechnology, Chonbuk National University, Iksan, 54596, Republic of Korea.

It has been demonstrated that certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can sequester metal ions by binding them to their surfaces. In the present study, lead (Pb)-resistant LAB were isolated from kimchi, a Korean fermented food. A total of 96 different LAB strains were isolated, and 52 strains showed lead resistance. Among them, an LAB strain-96 (L-96) identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides showed remarkable Pb resistance and removal capacity. The maximum adsorption capacity of this strain calculated using the Langmuir isotherm was 60.6 mg Pb/g. In an in vivo experiment, young male mice were provided with water (A), Pb-water (B), or Pb-water+ L-96 (C) during puberty. Lower glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels in Pb-exposed male mice that received strain L-96 as a probiotic were suggestive of reduced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, feces from mice treated with L-96 contained more Pb than feces from untreated mice. Increased Pb elimination likely reduced internal accumulation, and this hypothesis was supported by significantly lower Pb concentrations in kidneys and testes of the mice treated with strain L-96. The motility and ATP content of epididymal spermatozoa were partially restored if strain L-96 was administered. In conclusion, isolated L-96 LAB had lead-biosorption activity and efficiently detoxified lead-poisoned male mice, resulting in recovering male reproductive function. These results suggest the potential use of LAB as a probiotic to protect humans from the adverse effects of Pb exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-017-6642-xDOI Listing
April 2017

The ART and science of sperm mitophagy.

Autophagy 2016 12 13;12(12):2510-2511. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

a Division of Animal Sciences , Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Missouri , Columbia , MO , USA.

This article discusses the historical perspective and the new findings of autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome system cooperation during the post-fertilization sperm mitophagy, a process that eliminates potentially damaged paternal mitochondrial DNA from an early embryo. New insight into the mechanism that promotes clonal, maternal inheritance of mitochondrial genes may be helpful for managing mitochondrial disease and infertility in humans, as well as reproductive performance and production traits in agriculturally important domestic animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2016.1239004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5173257PMC
December 2016

Autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome system contribute to sperm mitophagy after mammalian fertilization.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 09 22;113(36):E5261-70. Epub 2016 Aug 22.

Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211-5300; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211-5300

Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mtDNA is a universal principle in human and animal development, guided by selective ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the sperm-borne mitochondria after fertilization. However, it is not clear how the 26S proteasome, the ubiquitin-dependent protease that is only capable of degrading one protein molecule at a time, can dispose of a whole sperm mitochondrial sheath. We hypothesized that the canonical ubiquitin-like autophagy receptors [sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (GABARAP)] and the nontraditional mitophagy pathways involving ubiquitin-proteasome system and the ubiquitin-binding protein dislocase, valosin-containing protein (VCP), may act in concert during mammalian sperm mitophagy. We found that the SQSTM1, but not GABARAP or LC3, associated with sperm mitochondria after fertilization in pig and rhesus monkey zygotes. Three sperm mitochondrial proteins copurified with the recombinant, ubiquitin-associated domain of SQSTM1. The accumulation of GABARAP-containing protein aggregates was observed in the vicinity of sperm mitochondrial sheaths in the zygotes and increased in the embryos treated with proteasomal inhibitor MG132, in which intact sperm mitochondrial sheaths were observed. Pharmacological inhibition of VCP significantly delayed the process of sperm mitophagy and completely prevented it when combined with microinjection of autophagy-targeting antibodies specific to SQSTM1 and/or GABARAP. Sperm mitophagy in higher mammals thus relies on a combined action of SQSTM1-dependent autophagy and VCP-mediated dislocation and presentation of ubiquitinated sperm mitochondrial proteins to the 26S proteasome, explaining how the whole sperm mitochondria are degraded inside the fertilized mammalian oocytes by a protein recycling system involved in degradation of single protein molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1605844113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5018771PMC
September 2016

An Antioxidant Davallialactone from Phellinus baumii Enhances Sperm Penetration on In Vitro Fertilization of Pigs.

Mycobiology 2016 Mar 31;44(1):54-7. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Division of Biotechnology and Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea.

Davallialactone (DAVA) is a hispidin analogue derived from the medicinal fungus Phellinus baumii. We examined the effect of DAVA on in vitro fertilization (IVF) of pigs. Boar spermatozoa were incubated in fertilization medium with varying concentrations of DAVA, then sperm motility and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were evaluated. Higher sperm motility was found following the addition of 0.5 or 1 µM DAVA after incubation than addition of other concentrations or controls. ROS level decreased significantly with the addition of DAVA. The rate of normal fertilization was higher in the presence of 1 µM DAVA (65.1%) than were those of other concentrations or controls (45.4~59.4%), and the highest total fertilization rate (mono- and polyspermic oocytes) was observed at 1 µM DAVA (83%). In conclusion, addition of DAVA to fertilization medium improved sperm motility, and reduced ROS level so as to potentially improve sperm-oocyte binding in IVF, suggesting the potential of a compound isolated from mushrooms in assisted reproductive technology for humans and animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5941/MYCO.2016.44.1.54DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4838592PMC
March 2016

A hot water extract of Aralia cordata activates bone marrow-derived macrophages via a myeloid differentiation protein 88-dependent pathway and protects mice from bacterial infection.

Microbiol Immunol 2016 May;60(5):343-55

Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresources, Chonbuk National University, Iksan-si, Jeollabuk-do, 54596.

In traditional Asian medicine, Aralia cordata (AC) is a known as a pain reliever and anti-inflammatory drug. Although several of its biological activities have been reported, the immunomodulatory effects of a hot water extract of AC (HAC) have not yet been described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HAC modulates the activation of macrophages, which play important roles in innate immune responses against microbial pathogens, and if so, to determine the molecular mechanisms by which HAC mediates this process. It was found that HAC activates bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and increases amounts of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, HAC was found to induce phosphorylation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun N-terminal kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinases and p38. Interestingly, these effects were absent in BMDM prepared from myeloid differentiation protein 88-knockout mice. Polysaccharides from HAC exerted stronger immunostimulatory effects than HAC itself. Furthermore, orally administered HAC clearly enhanced clearance of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes by boosting innate immune responses. These results demonstrate that HAC exerts immunostimulatory effects through the TLR/MyD88 and NF-κB/MAPK signal transduction pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12376DOI Listing
May 2016

Differential Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production by and Antioxidant Activity of Fomentariol in RAW264.7 Cells.

Mycobiology 2015 Dec 31;43(4):450-7. Epub 2015 Dec 31.

Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresources, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea.

Medicinal mushrooms have been used worldwide to treat cancer and modulate the immune system. Over the last several years, there has been increasing interest in isolating bioactive compounds from medicinal mushrooms and evaluating their health beneficial effects. Fomes fomentarius is used in traditional oriental medicine and is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antitumor effects. In the present study, we isolated fomentariol from Fomes fomentarius and investigated its anti-inflammatory effect in murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) stimulated with lipopolysaccharides. Fomentariol inhibited the production of nitric oxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species triggered by lipopolysaccharides. Interestingly, fomentariol differentially regulated cytokine production triggered by lipopolysaccharides. Fomentariol effectively suppressed the production of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 but not tumor necrosis factor-α. The inhibitory effect of fomentariol against nitric oxide, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 production was possibly mediated by downregulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that fomentariol differentially modulated inflammatory responses triggered by lipopolysaccharides in macrophages and is one of the bioactive compounds that mediate the physiological effects of Fomes fomentarius.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5941/MYCO.2015.43.4.450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4731650PMC
December 2015

Methyl 9-Oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoate Isolated from Fomes fomentarius Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response by Blocking Phosphorylation of STAT3 in Murine Macrophages.

Mycobiology 2015 Sep 30;43(3):319-26. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental & Bioresources, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea.

Fomes fomentarius is a fungus of the Polyporaceae family and is used in traditional oriental therapies. Although the anti-inflammatory activities of this species have been previously reported, the identity of the bioactive compounds responsible for this activity remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether methyl 9-oxo-(10E,12E)-octadecadienoate (FF-8) purified from F. fomentarius exerts anti-inflammatory activity in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). FF-8 suppressed secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 through downregulation of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression induced by LPS. In addition, pretreatment of cells with FF-8 led to a reduction in levels of secreted inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in macrophages stimulated with LPS. Conversely, FF-8 did not affect nuclear factor κB, p38, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways. Instead, FF-8 specifically interfered with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation induced by LPS. Collectively, this study demonstrated that FF-8 purified from F. fomentarius suppresses inflammatory responses in macrophages stimulated with LPS by inhibiting STAT3 activation. Further studies will be required to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect of FF-8 in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5941/MYCO.2015.43.3.319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4630439PMC
September 2015

Erratum to: A review of canola meal as an alternative feed ingredient for ducks.

J Anim Sci Technol 2015 12;57:38. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 Republic of Korea.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s40781-015-0062-4.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40781-015-0071-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4603810PMC
October 2015

A review of canola meal as an alternative feed ingredient for ducks.

J Anim Sci Technol 2015 1;57:29. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Division of Animal and Dairy Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 Republic of Korea.

This review provides an overview of the published data on the canola meal and its suitability for duck as an alternative plant-origin protein source to soybean meal. Canola meal is a legume origin protein source containing comparable amino acid profile to soybean meal and rich in essential minerals and vitamins. Nonetheless, it is known to contain less in energy content than soybean meal. Factors like field conditions and processing methods creates compositional variations among canola meal. Presence of anti-nutritional factors such as phenolic substances, phytate and glucosinolates which are known to reduce growth performance in livestock animals, are the major drawbacks for canola meal to be a competitive plant-origin protein source in the feed industry. This review is focused to address i) nutritional characteristics and feeding value of canola meal for ducks and ii) impacts of feeding canola meal on performances of ducks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40781-015-0062-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4607012PMC
October 2015

Reduction of silver (I) using defatted cashew nut shell starch and its structural comparison with commercial product.

Carbohydr Polym 2015 Nov 10;133:39-45. Epub 2015 Jul 10.

Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-752, South Korea. Electronic address:

In this current study, we report on the reduction of noble metal silver into silver nanoparticles using defatted cashew nut shell (CNS) starch as both the reducing and capping agents. Furthermore, it was compared with commercially available silver nanopowder for the first time. Color changes, ultraviolet-visible spectra (433.76nm), X-ray diffraction peaks (2θ=37.8, 46.3, 66.2, and 77.92) revealed the face-centered cubic (fcc) geometry of silver nanoparticles, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the presence of elemental silver nanoparticles and the defatted CNS starch silver nanoparticle structures was in accordance to commercial silver nanopowder. The size of both the nanoparticles was found to be similar in the range of 10-50nm as analyzed using high resolution-transmission electron micrographs. The FT-IR spectroscopy revealed the shifting of NH and OH of defatted CNS starch, starch based silver nanoparticle and commercial silver nanopowder has parallel functional groups. The use of environmentally benign and renewable materials like defatted CNS starch offers an alternative to large scale synthesis of silver nanoparticle and includes numerous benefits like eco-friendly and compatibility for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.06.097DOI Listing
November 2015

Phytofabrication of bioinspired zinc oxide nanocrystals for biomedical application.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2016 Sep 26;44(6):1529-36. Epub 2015 Jul 26.

a Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University , Iksan, Jeonbuk , South Korea.

In the present study, we investigated a novel green route for synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using the extract of young cones of Pinus densiflora as a reducing agent. Standard characterization studies were carried out to confirm the obtained product using UV-Vis spectra, SEM-EDS, FTIR, and XRD. TEM images showed that various shapes of ZnO NPs were synthesized, including hexagonal (wurtzite), triangular, spherical, and oval-shaped particles, with average sizes between 10 and 100 nm. The synthesized ZnO NPs blended with the young pine cone extract have very good activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens, similar to that of commercial ZnO NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/21691401.2015.1058811DOI Listing
September 2016

Eco-friendly approach towards green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals and its potential applications.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2016 Sep 2;44(6):1537-43. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

a Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University , Iksan, Jeonbuk , South Korea.

In the present study, we investigated a novel green route for synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals using Prunus × yedoensis Matsumura leaf extract as a reducing agent without using any surfactant or external energy. Standard characterization studies were carried out to confirm the obtained product using UV-Vis spectra, SEM-EDS, FTIR, TEM, and XRD. In addition, the synthesized ZnO nanocrystals were coated onto fabric and leather samples to study their bacteriostatic effect against odor-causing bacteria Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Zinc oxide nanocrystal-coated fabric and leather showed good activity against both bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/21691401.2015.1059840DOI Listing
September 2016

Relative Expression of Low Molecular Weight Protein, Tyrosine Phosphatase (Wzb Gene) of Herbaspirillum sp. GW103 Toward Arsenic Stress and Molecular Modeling.

Curr Microbiol 2015 Sep 6;71(3):311-6. Epub 2015 Jun 6.

Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environment and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan, 570-752, South Korea.

This study investigated the expression rate and molecular modeling of Wzb gene, a low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase, under As stress in Herbaspirillum sp. GW103. Expression of Wzb gene was quantified at transcriptional level through real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed up- and down-regulations of Wzb gene in the presence of As (50 and 100 mg/L). The maximum Wzb transcript expression was 1.2-fold after 72 h exposure to 50 mg/L of As. However, the minimum expression was 0.1-fold after 48 h exposure to 100 mg/L of As. The Wzb protein sequence was retrieved from NCBI sequence database and was used for in silico analysis. 3D structure of Wzb gene was predicted by comparative modeling using modeler 9v9. Further, the model was validated for its quality by Ramachandran plot, ERRAT, Verify 3D, and SAVES server which revealed structure and quality of the Wzb gene model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-015-0850-6DOI Listing
September 2015

Regulation of mitochondrial genome inheritance by autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome system: implications for health, fitness, and fertility.

Biomed Res Int 2014 17;2014:981867. Epub 2014 Jun 17.

Division of Animal Science, and Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211-5300, USA.

Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART) such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), mitochondrial replacement (MR), and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/981867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4083708PMC
March 2015

Protein deubiquitination during oocyte maturation influences sperm function during fertilisation, antipolyspermy defense and embryo development.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2015 Nov;27(8):1154-67

Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, S141 ASRC, 920 East Campus Drive, Columbia, MO65211-5300, USA.

Ubiquitination is a covalent post-translational modification of proteins by the chaperone protein ubiquitin. Upon docking to the 26S proteasome, ubiquitin is released from the substrate protein by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). We hypothesised that specific inhibitors of two closely related oocyte DUBs, namely inhibitors of the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolases (UCH) UCHL1 (L1 inhibitor) and UCHL3 (L3 inhibitor), would alter porcine oocyte maturation and influence sperm function and embryo development. Aberrant cortical granule (CG) migration and meiotic spindle defects were observed in oocytes matured with the L1 or L3 inhibitor. Embryo development was delayed or blocked in oocytes matured with the general DUB inhibitor PR-619. Aggresomes, the cellular stress-inducible aggregates of ubiquitinated proteins, formed in oocytes matured with L1 inhibitor or PR-619, a likely consequence of impaired protein turnover. Proteomic analysis identified the major vault protein (MVP) as the most prominent protein accumulated in oocytes matured with PR-619, suggesting that the inhibition of deubiquitination altered the turnover of MVP. The mitophagy/autophagy of sperm-contributed mitochondria inside the fertilised oocytes was hindered by DUB inhibitors. It is concluded that DUB inhibitors alter porcine oocyte maturation, fertilisation and preimplantation embryo development. By regulating the turnover of oocyte proteins and mono-ubiquitin regeneration, the DUBs may promote the acquisition of developmental competence during oocyte maturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD14012DOI Listing
November 2015

Identification and characterization of RING-finger ubiquitin ligase UBR7 in mammalian spermatozoa.

Cell Tissue Res 2014 Apr 25;356(1):261-78. Epub 2014 Mar 25.

Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211-5300, USA.

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) controls intracellular protein turnover in a substrate-specific manner via E3-type ubiquitin ligases. Mammalian fertilization and particularly sperm penetration through the oocyte vitelline coat, the zona pellucida (ZP), is regulated by UPS. We use an extrinsic substrate of the proteasome-dependent ubiquitin-fusion degradation pathway, the mutant ubiquitin UBB(+1), to provide evidence that an E3-type ligase activity exists in sperm-acrosomal fractions. Protein electrophoresis gels from such de novo ubiquitination experiments contained a unique protein band identified by tandem mass spectrometry as being similar to ubiquitin ligase UBR7 (alternative name: C14ORF130). Corresponding mRNA was amplified from boar testis and several variants of the UBR7 protein were detected in boar, mouse and human sperm extracts by Western blotting. Genomic analysis indicated a high degree of evolutionary conservation, remarkably constant purifying selection and conserved testis expression of the UBR7 gene. By immunofluorescence, UBR7 was localized to the spermatid acrosomal cap and sperm acrosome, in addition to hotspots of proteasomal activity in spermatids, such as the cytoplasmic lobe, caudal manchette, nucleus and centrosome. During fertilization, UBR7 remained with the ZP-bound acrosomal shroud following acrosomal exocytosis. Thus, UBR7 is present in the acrosomal cap of round spermatids and within the acrosomal matrix of mature boar spermatozoa. These data provide the first evidence of ubiquitin ligase activity in mammalian spermatozoa and indicate UBR7 involvement in spermiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-014-1808-xDOI Listing
April 2014

Transgenic pig carrying green fluorescent proteasomes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Apr 2;110(16):6334-9. Epub 2013 Apr 2.

Division of Animal Sciences, National Swine Resource and Research Center, and Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.

Among its many functions, the ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates substrate-specific proteolysis during the cell cycle, apoptosis, and fertilization and in pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and liver cirrhosis. Proteasomes are present in human and boar spermatozoa, but little is known about the interactions of proteasomal subunits with other sperm proteins or structures. We have created a transgenic boar with green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged 20S proteasomal core subunit α-type 1 (PSMA1-GFP), hypothesizing that the PSMA1-GFP fusion protein will be incorporated into functional sperm proteasomes. Using direct epifluorescence imaging and indirect immunofluorescence detection, we have confirmed the presence of PSMA1-GFP in the sperm acrosome. Western blotting revealed a protein band corresponding to the predicted mass of PSMA1-GFP fusion protein (57 kDa) in transgenic spermatozoa. Transgenic boar fertility was confirmed by in vitro fertilization, resulting in transgenic blastocysts, and by mating, resulting in healthy transgenic offspring. Immunoprecipitation and proteomic analysis revealed that PSMA1-GFP copurifies with several acrosomal membrane-associated proteins (e.g., lactadherin/milk fat globule E8 and spermadhesin alanine-tryptophan-asparagine). The interaction of MFGE8 with PSMA1-GFP was confirmed through cross-immunoprecipitation. The identified proteasome-interacting proteins may regulate sperm proteasomal activity during fertilization or may be the substrates of proteasomal proteolysis during fertilization. Proteomic analysis also confirmed the interaction/coimmunoprecipitation of PSMA1-GFP with 13/14 proteasomal core subunits. These results demonstrate that the PSMA1-GFP was incorporated in the assembled sperm proteasomes. This mammal carrying green fluorescent proteasomes will be useful for studies of fertilization and wherever the ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a role in cellular function or pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1220910110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3631692PMC
April 2013

Identification of the inorganic pyrophosphate metabolizing, ATP substituting pathway in mammalian spermatozoa.

PLoS One 2012 2;7(4):e34524. Epub 2012 Apr 2.

Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri, United States of America.

Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) is generated by ATP hydrolysis in the cells and also present in extracellular matrix, cartilage and bodily fluids. Fueling an alternative pathway for energy production in cells, PPi is hydrolyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1) in a highly exergonic reaction that can under certain conditions substitute for ATP-derived energy. Recombinant PPA1 is used for energy-regeneration in the cell-free systems used to study the zymology of ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome system, including the role of sperm-borne proteasomes in mammalian fertilization. Inspired by an observation of reduced in vitro fertilization (IVF) rates in the presence of external, recombinant PPA1, this study reveals, for the first time, the presence of PPi, PPA1 and PPi transporter, progressive ankylosis protein ANKH in mammalian spermatozoa. Addition of PPi during porcine IVF increased fertilization rates significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. Fluorometric assay detected high levels of PPi in porcine seminal plasma, oviductal fluid and spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence detected PPA1 in the postacrosomal sheath (PAS) and connecting piece of boar spermatozoa; ANKH was present in the sperm head PAS and equatorial segment. Both ANKH and PPA1 were also detected in human and mouse spermatozoa, and in porcine spermatids. Higher proteasomal-proteolytic activity, indispensable for fertilization, was measured in spermatozoa preserved with PPi. The identification of an alternative, PPi dependent pathway for ATP production in spermatozoa elevates our understanding of sperm physiology and sets the stage for the improvement of semen extenders, storage media and IVF media for animal biotechnology and human assisted reproductive therapies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0034524PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3317647PMC
July 2012

The testicular and epididymal expression profile of PLCζ in mouse and human does not support its role as a sperm-borne oocyte activating factor.

PLoS One 2012 12;7(3):e33496. Epub 2012 Mar 12.

Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, School of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte activating factor (SOAF) which has recently received attention as a potential biomarker of human male infertility. However, important SOAF attributes of PLCζ, including its developmental expression in mammalian spermiogenesis, its compartmentalization in sperm head perinuclear theca (PT) and its release into the ooplasm during fertilization have not been established and are addressed in this investigation. Different detergent extractions of sperm and head/tail fractions were compared for the presence of PLCζ by immunoblotting. In both human and mouse, the active isoform of PLCζ was detected in sperm fractions other than PT, where SOAF is expected to reside. Developmentally, PLCζ was incorporated as part of the acrosome during the Golgi phase of human and mouse spermiogenesis while diminishing gradually in the acrosome of elongated spermatids. Immunofluorescence localized PLCζ over the surface of the postacrosomal region of mouse and bull and head region of human spermatozoa leading us to examine its secretion in the epididymis. While previously thought to have strictly a testicular expression, PLCζ was found to be expressed and secreted by the epididymal epithelial cells explaining its presence on the sperm head surface. In vitro fertilization (IVF) revealed that PLCζ is no longer detectable after the acrosome reaction occurs on the surface of the zona pellucida and thus is not incorporated into the oocyte cytoplasm for activation. In summary, we show for the first time that PLCζ is compartmentalized as part of the acrosome early in human and mouse spermiogenesis and is secreted during sperm maturation in the epididymis. Most importantly, no evidence was found that PLCζ is incorporated into the detergent-resistant perinuclear theca fraction where SOAF resides.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033496PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3299792PMC
August 2012

Sperm GIRK2-containing K+ inward rectifying channels participate in sperm capacitation and fertilization.

Syst Biol Reprod Med 2011 Dec 7;57(6):296-308. Epub 2011 Nov 7.

Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, USA.

The GIRK2-containing inward-rectifying K(+) ion channels have been implicated in mammalian spermatogenesis. While the Girk2 null mice are fertile, the male weaver transgenic mice carrying a gain-of-function mutation in the Girk2 gene are infertile. To establish the exact period of spermatogenesis affected by this mutation, we performed StaPut isolation and morphological characterization of the germ cells present in the weaver testis. Germ cells representing all periods of spermatogenesis were identified. However, no spermatozoa were present, suggesting that this mutation only affected the haploid phase of spermatogenesis. Real-time PCR studies performed on StaPut purified germ cells from wild-type mice indicated that the Girk2 transcripts were exclusively expressed in spermatids. Immunofluorescence studies of mouse and boar spermatids/spermatozoa localized the GIRK2 K(+) containing channels to the acrosomal region of the sperm plasma membrane. During porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF), GIRK2-containing channels remained associated with the acrosomal shroud following zona-induced acrosome reaction. Fertilization was blocked by tertiapin-Q (TQ), a specific inhibitor of GIRK channels, and by anti-GIRK2 antibodies. Altogether, studies in two different mammalian species point to a conserved mechanism by which the GIRK2 inward-rectifying K(+) ion channels support sperm function during fertilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19396368.2011.631685DOI Listing
December 2011

Sperm proteasomes degrade sperm receptor on the egg zona pellucida during mammalian fertilization.

PLoS One 2011 Feb 23;6(2):e17256. Epub 2011 Feb 23.

Division of Animal Science, and Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women's Health, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri, United States of America.

Despite decades of research, the mechanism by which the fertilizing spermatozoon penetrates the mammalian vitelline membrane, the zona pellucida (ZP) remains one of the unexplained fundamental events of human/mammalian development. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the 26S proteasome as a candidate for echinoderm, ascidian and mammalian egg coat lysin. Monitoring ZP protein degradation by sperm during fertilization is nearly impossible because those few spermatozoa that penetrate the ZP leave behind a virtually untraceable residue of degraded proteins. We have overcome this hurdle by designing an experimentally consistent in vitro system in which live boar spermatozoa are co-incubated with ZP-proteins (ZPP) solubilized from porcine oocytes. Using this assay, mimicking sperm-egg interactions, we demonstrate that the sperm-borne proteasomes can degrade the sperm receptor protein ZPC. Upon coincubation with motile spermatozoa, the solubilized ZPP, which appear to be ubiquitinated, adhered to sperm acrosomal caps and induced acrosomal exocytosis/formation of the acrosomal shroud. The degradation of the sperm receptor protein ZPC was assessed by Western blotting band-densitometry and proteomics. A nearly identical pattern of sperm receptor degradation, evident already within the first 5 min of coincubation, was observed when the spermatozoa were replaced with the isolated, enzymatically active, sperm-derived proteasomes. ZPC degradation was blocked by proteasomal inhibitors and accelerated by ubiquitin-aldehyde(UBAL), a modified ubiquitin protein that stimulates proteasomal proteolysis. Such a degradation pattern of ZPC is consistent with in vitro fertilization studies, in which proteasomal inhibitors completely blocked fertilization, and UBAL increased fertilization and polyspermy rates. Preincubation of intact zona-enclosed ova with isolated active sperm proteasomes caused digestion, abrasions and loosening of the exposed zonae, and significantly reduced the fertilization/polyspermy rates after IVF, accompanied by en-mass detachment of zona bound sperm. Thus, the sperm borne 26S proteasome is a candidate zona lysin in mammals. This new paradigm has implications for contraception and assisted reproductive technologies in humans, as well as animals.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0017256PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3044170PMC
February 2011

Carbohydrate-mediated binding and induction of acrosomal exocytosis in a boar sperm-somatic cell adhesion model.

Biol Reprod 2010 Oct 30;83(4):623-34. Epub 2010 Jun 30.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women's Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Research, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA

The molecular basis underlying the binding of spermatozoa to their homologous eggs and the subsequent induction of acrosomal exocytosis remain a major unresolved issue in mammalian fertilization. Novel cell adhesion systems are now being explored to advance this research. Triantennary and tetraantennary N-glycans have previously been implicated as the major carbohydrate sequences that mediate the initial binding of spermatozoa to the specialized egg coat (zona pellucida) in the murine and porcine models. Mouse spermatozoa also undergo binding to rabbit erythrocytes (rRBCs), presumably via the interaction of their lectin-like egg-binding proteins with branched polylactosamine sequences present on these somatic cells. Experiments presented in this study confirm that boar spermatozoa also bind to rRBCs. However, unlike mouse spermatozoa, boar spermatozoa also undergo acrosomal exocytosis within 30 min after binding to rRBCs. Both binding and induction of acrosomal exocytosis in this system did not require the participation of terminal Galalpha1-3Gal sequences that are found on rRBCs. Pronase glycopeptides derived from rRBCs inhibited the binding of boar sperm to porcine oocytes by 91% at a final concentration of 0.3 mg/ml under standard IVF conditions. Binding in this porcine cell adhesion model was also completely blocked at this concentration of glycopeptide. Thus, adhesion results from the interaction of the egg-binding protein expressed on the surface of boar spermatozoa with the glycans presented on rRBCs. This cell adhesion model will be useful for investigating the molecular basis of gamete binding and the induction of acrosomal exocytosis in the pig.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.110.084319DOI Listing
October 2010