Publications by authors named "Young Woon Lim"

96 Publications

Addition of various cellulosic components to bacterial nanocellulose: a comparison of surface qualities and crystalline properties.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jul 23;31(9):1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea.

Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a biocompatible material with a lot of potential. To make BNC commercially feasible, improvements in its production and surface qualities must be made. The in-situ fermentation and generation of BNC were investigated in this study by addition of different cellulosic substrates such as Avicel and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were performed using sp. SFCB22-18. The addition of cellulosic substrates improved BNC production by a maximum of about 5 times and slightly modified its structural properties. The changes in morphological and structural changes of BNC were investigated by using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, a type-A cellulose-binding protein, CtCBD3, was used in a novel biological analytic approach to measure the surface crystallinity of the BNC surface. Because Avicel and CMC may adhere to microfibrils during BNC synthesis or crystallization, cellulose-binding protein could be a useful tool for identifying the crystalline properties of BNC with high sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2106.06068DOI Listing
July 2021

Different patterns of belowground fungal diversity along altitudinal gradients with respect to microhabitat and guild types.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Fungi are key components of belowground ecosystems with various ecological roles in forests. Although the changes in the richness and composition of belowground fungi across altitudinal gradients have been widely reported, only a few studies have focused on the microhabitat types along altitudinal gradients. Here, we analysed the effect of altitude on the ectomycorrhizal and non-ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in belowground microhabitats. We collected root and soil samples from 16 Pinus densiflora forests at various altitudes across Korea, and measured the soil properties as potential factors. Fungal communities were analysed by high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. We found that altitude negatively affected the species richness of root-inhabiting fungi but did not influence that of soil-inhabiting fungi. In addition, the composition of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi was less influenced by altitude than non-ECM fungi. Most of the soil properties did not show a significant relationship with altitude, but the effect of soil properties was different across microhabitat types and ecological roles of fungi. Our results reveal that microhabitat types and altitudinal gradients differently affect the richness and composition of fungal communities associated with P. densiflora, providing a better understanding of plant-associated fungal communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12976DOI Listing
June 2021

The genus Arthrinium (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Apiosporaceae) from marine habitats from Korea, with eight new species.

IMA Fungus 2021 Jun 1;12(1):13. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Division of Environmental Science & Ecological Engineering, College of Life Science & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, South Korea.

Species of Arthrinium are well-known plant pathogens, endophytes, or saprobes found in various terrestrial habitats. Although several species have been isolated from marine environments and their remarkable biological activities have been reported, marine Arthrinium species remain poorly understood. In this study, the diversity of this group was evaluated based on material from Korea, using morphological characterization and molecular analyses with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, β-tubulin (TUB), and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF). A total of 41 Arthrinium strains were isolated from eight coastal sites which represented 14 species. Eight of these are described as new to science with detailed descriptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43008-021-00065-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168325PMC
June 2021

Reviewing the world's edible mushroom species: A new evidence-based classification system.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 03 18;20(2):1982-2014. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Wild mushrooms are a vital source of income and nutrition for many poor communities and of value to recreational foragers. Literature relating to the edibility of mushroom species continues to expand, driven by an increasing demand for wild mushrooms, a wider interest in foraging, and the study of traditional foods. Although numerous case reports have been published on edible mushrooms, doubt and confusion persist regarding which species are safe and suitable to consume. Case reports often differ, and the evidence supporting the stated properties of mushrooms can be incomplete or ambiguous. The need for greater clarity on edible species is further underlined by increases in mushroom-related poisonings. We propose a system for categorizing mushroom species and assigning a final edibility status. Using this system, we reviewed 2,786 mushroom species from 99 countries, accessing 9,783 case reports, from over 1,100 sources. We identified 2,189 edible species, of which 2,006 can be consumed safely, and a further 183 species which required some form of pretreatment prior to safe consumption or were associated with allergic reactions by some. We identified 471 species of uncertain edibility because of missing or incomplete evidence of consumption, and 76 unconfirmed species because of unresolved, differing opinions on edibility and toxicity. This is the most comprehensive list of edible mushrooms available to date, demonstrating the huge number of mushrooms species consumed. Our review highlights the need for further information on uncertain and clash species, and the need to present evidence in a clear, unambiguous, and consistent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12708DOI Listing
March 2021

A Biodegradable Secondary Battery and its Biodegradation Mechanism for Eco-Friendly Energy-Storage Systems.

Adv Mater 2021 Mar 2;33(10):e2004902. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

The production of rechargeable batteries is rapidly expanding, and there are going to be new challenges in the near future about how the potential environmental impact caused by the disposal of the large volume of the used batteries can be minimized. Herein, a novel strategy is proposed to address these concerns by applying biodegradable device technology. An eco-friendly and biodegradable sodium-ion secondary battery (SIB) is developed through extensive material screening followed by the synthesis of biodegradable electrodes and their seamless assembly with an unconventional biodegradable separator, electrolyte, and package. Each battery component decomposes in nature into non-toxic compounds or elements via hydrolysis and/or fungal degradation, with all of the biodegradation products naturally abundant and eco-friendly. Detailed biodegradation mechanisms and toxicity influence of each component on living organisms are determined. In addition, this new SIB delivers performance comparable to that of conventional non-degradable SIBs. The strategy and findings suggest a novel eco-friendly biodegradable paradigm for large-scale rechargeable battery systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202004902DOI Listing
March 2021

Species Prioritization Based on Spectral Dissimilarity: A Case Study of Polyporoid Fungal Species.

J Nat Prod 2021 02 2;84(2):298-309. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 04310, Korea.

Biological species collections are critical for natural product drug discovery programs. However, prioritization of target species in massive collections remains difficult. Here, we introduce an untargeted metabolomics-based prioritization workflow that uses MS/MS molecular networking to estimate scaffold-level distribution. As a demonstration, we applied the workflow to 40 polyporoid fungal species. Nine species were prioritized as candidates based on the chemical structural and compositional similarity (CSCS) metric. Most of the selected species showed relatively higher richness and uniqueness of metabolites than those of the others. , one of the prioritized species, was investigated further. The chemical profiles of the extracts of culture and fruiting bodies were compared, and it was shown that derivative-level diversity was higher in the fruiting bodies; meanwhile, scaffold-level diversity was similar. This showed that the compounds found from a cultured fungus can also be isolated in wild mushrooms. Targeted isolation of the fruiting body extract yielded three unknown (-) and six known (-) cryptoporic acid derivatives, which are drimane-type sesquiterpenes with isocitric acid moieties that have been reported in this species. Cryptoporic acid T () is a trimeric cryptoporic acid reported for the first time. Compounds and exhibited cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cell lines with IC values of 4.3 and 3.6 μM, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c00977DOI Listing
February 2021

Taxonomic Study of the Genus (Strophariaceae, Basidiomycota) in Korea.

Mycobiology 2020 Oct 22;48(6):476-483. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The genus (Strophariaceae, Basidiomycota) is made up of wood-rotting saprotrophic mushrooms characterized by a yellow or brown pileus with scales and/or slimy, and by a brownish smooth spore with a germ pore. However, these features are not enough to distinguish its species, or separate the genus from other brown-spored wood-rotting genera such as and . Although internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence-based identification has improved identification accuracy for species of , most species in Korea are reported based on morphological features. To evaluate the taxonomy of species, we investigated 62 specimens collected from 1999 to 2019 in Korea using ITS sequence analysis and morphological observation. Twelve of the 16 recorded species in Korea were identified. While eight species were clearly separated, the ITS analysis did not distinguish three in the complex. Therefore, further investigation is required to distinguish these three species. ITS sequences deposited in GenBank confirm that exists in Korea. The presence of the other four species could not be confirmed through specimens or sequence information in GenBank. A taxonomic key and the ITS sequence data for Korean species are included and can be good baselines for further research on taxonomy and diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2020.1831427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717605PMC
October 2020

from Rhizosphere Soil in Terrestrial and Coastal Environments in South Korea.

Mycobiology 2020 Oct 16;48(6):431-442. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

, the most common genus plays an important ecological role in various terrestrial and marine environments. However, only a few species have been reported from rhizosphere soil. As part of a project to excavate Korean indigenous fungi, we investigated rhizosphere soil of six plants in the forest (terrestrial habitat) and sand dunes (coastal habitat) and focused on discovering species. A total of 64 strains were isolated and identified as 26 species in nine sections based on morphological characteristics and the sequence analysis of β-tubulin and calmodulin. Although this is a small-scale study in a limited rhizosphere soil, eight unrecorded species and four potential new species have been identified. In addition, most species from rhizosphere soil were unique to each plant. , , , , and were commonly isolated from rhizosphere soil. Eight species, , and were recorded for the first time in Korea. Here, we provide the detailed morphological description of these unrecorded species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2020.1823611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717687PMC
October 2020

Taxonomic revision of Russula subsection Amoeninae from South Korea.

MycoKeys 2020 9;75:1-29. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, South Korea Seoul National University Seoul South Korea.

Russula subsection Amoeninae is morphologically defined by a dry velvety pileus surface, a complete absence of cystidia with heteromorphous contents in all tissues, and spores without amyloid suprahilar spot. Thirty-four species within subsection Amoeninae have been published worldwide. Although most species in South Korea have been assigned European or North American names, recent molecular studies have shown that species from different continents are not conspecific. Therefore, the present study aims to: 1) define which species of Russula subsection Amoeninae occur on each continent using molecular phylogenetic analyses; 2) revise the taxonomy of Korean . The phylogenetic analyses using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and multilocus sequences showed that subsection Amoeninae is monophyletic within subgenus Heterophyllidiae section Heterophyllae. A total of 21 Russula subsection Amoeninae species were confirmed from Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and Central America, and species from different continents formed separate clades. Three species were recognized from South Korea and were clearly separated from the European and North American species. These species are , also reported from Japan, a new species described herein, , and a new species undescribed due to insufficient material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.75.53673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7669817PMC
November 2020

Influence of Season and Soil Properties on Fungal Communities of Neighboring Climax Forests ( and ).

Front Microbiol 2020 28;11:572706. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Trees in forest ecosystems constantly interact with the soil fungal community, and this interaction plays a key role in nutrient cycling. The diversity of soil fungal communities is affected by both environmental factors and host tree species. We investigated the influence of both of these factors by examining the total fungal communities in the rhizospheric soil of climax tree species that have similar ecological roles (, an ectomycorrhizal [ECM] tree, and , an arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] tree) in temperate forests with continental climates of Mt. Jeombong, South Korea. Fungal communities were assessed by Illumina-MiSeq sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of environmental DNA, and comparing their environmental factors (season and soil properties). We found that soil fungi of the two forest types differed in terms of community structure and ecological guild composition. The total fungal community composition changed significantly with seasons and soil properties in the forest, but not in the forest. However, potassium and carbon were significantly correlated with fungal diversity in both forests, and a positive correlation was found only between symbiotrophs of and the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Thus, the effects of environmental factors on soil fungal communities depended on the host trees, but some factors were common in both forests. Our results indicate that individual tree species should be considered when anticipating how the fungal communities will respond to environmental change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.572706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655983PMC
October 2020

Successional Change of the Fungal Microbiome Pine Seedling Roots Inoculated With .

Front Microbiol 2020 25;11:574146. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

The pine mushroom (; Agaricales, Tricholomataceae) is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that produces a commercially valuable, edible mushrooms. Attempts to artificially cultivate has so far been unsuccessful. One method used to induce to produce fruiting bodies of in the wild is shiro (mycelial aggregations of ) transplantation. ectomycorrhization of with seedlings of has been successful, but field trials showed limited production of fruiting bodies. Few studies have been done to test what happens after transplantation in the wild, whether persists on the pine seedling roots or gets replaced by other fungi. Here, we investigated the composition and the interaction of the root fungal microbiome of seedlings inoculated with over a 3 year period after field transplantation, using high-throughput sequencing. We found a decline of colonization on pine roots and succession of mycorrhizal fungi as seedlings grew. Early on, roots were colonized by fast-growing, saprotrophic Ascomycota, then later replaced by early stage ectomycorrhiza such as . At the end, more competitive species dominated the host roots. Most of the major OTUs had negative or neutral correlation with , but several saprotrophic/plant pathogenic/mycoparasitic species in genera , , and had positive correlation with . Four keystone species were identified during succession; two species (, and ) had a positive correlation with , while the other two had a negative correlation (, ). These findings have important implications for further studies on the artificial cultivation of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.574146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7545793PMC
September 2020

Two New Species of (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) from Korea.

Mycobiology 2020 Jul 17;48(4):288-295. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Species of (Hydnangiaceae, Agaricales, and Basidiomycota) are well-known ectomycorrhizal symbionts of a broad range of hosts. species are characterized by brown, orange, or purple colored basidiocarps, and globose or oblong, echinulate and multinucleate basidiospores. While some species are easily identified at the species level using only the morphological characteristics, others are hard to distinguish at the species level due to small differences in morphology. Heretofore, ten species have been reported in Korea. While studying the fungal diversity in the National Parks of Korea, two new species were discovered. Species identification was done based on molecular analyses (ITS, 28S rDNA, 2, and 1), then were confirmed by their corresponding morphologies. The two newly discovered species are proposed here as and . The unique morphological characters of . that distinguish it from its closely related species are orange-brown colored basidiocarp, long basidia and the absence of cheilocystidia. is characterized by a light grayish lavender-colored pileus and the absence of cheilocystidia. Two new species are described and illustrated in the present paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2020.1786961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7476507PMC
July 2020

New Species of (Lyophyllaceae, Basidiomycota) from Sabah (Northern Borneo), Malaysia.

Mycobiology 2020 20;48(2):95-103. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

The genus (Lyophyllaceae, Basidiomycota) is often associated with fungus-feeding termites (Macrotermitinae) due to their strong symbiotic relationships. The genus is widely found exclusively in certain regions of Africa and Asia. They are recognized as edible mushroom within Southeast Asia as well. But it is often misidentified based on morphology by the local communities especially in Malaysia for which is a highly poisonous mushroom. Thus, it is necessary to study the genus for Malaysia with the synergy of using both morphological and molecular identification. In this study, we aim to describe another new species as an addition to the genus found within Sabah, Malaysia. We generated two new sequences (nrLSU and mtSSU) for the new species and a total of 28 nrLSU and mtSSU sequences were retrieved from GenBank for the phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences. We identified that the new collection from Sabah province is a new species and named as based on the termites found in the mound. A phylogeny tree made from the concatenated genes of LSU and mtSSU suggests that is closely related to from China. According to our results, the combination of molecular and morphology proved to be a robust approach to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of species in Malaysia. Additional surveys are needed to verify the species diversity and clarify their geographic distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2020.1738743DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178835PMC
March 2020

First Report of (Boletaceae), a Potentially Endangered Basidiomycete Species, in South Korea.

Mycobiology 2019 31;47(4):521-526. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Division of Forest Biodiversity, Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon, Korea.

During the 2014 survey of the mushroom flora of Gwangneung forest in South Korea, we collected two specimens of boletoid mushroom growing on a felled tree of . These specimens were characterized by a light brown to reddish-brown pileus with appressed tomentum, pore surface bluing instantly when bruised, golden-yellow mycelium at the base of stipe, and lignicolous habitat. Both specimens were identified as a rare basidiomycete, based on morphological characteristics and sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS; fungal barcode). Here, we describe these specimens and provide the first report of this genus in South Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2019.1682907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6968548PMC
October 2019

in Korea: New Records and a New Species.

Mycobiology 2019 18;47(4):368-377. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

The genus (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) is easy to recognize at the genus level because of big, fleshy basidiocarps with squamules covering the pileus; a single or double annulus; and big, thick-walled basidiospores with a germ pore. However, morphological identification is often unreliable in due to similar morphological features among species. Due to the uncertainty of previous morphological identification in the genus it is necessary to re-examine Korean using molecular data. We re-examined 34 specimens collected from 2012 to 2018 in Korea using a reverse taxonomic approach, whereby species identification was first done based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region analysis, followed by morphological confirmation. We identified the presence of four species: , . , . , and sp. nov. Two species ( and . ) were previously unrecorded from Korea and is a new species. Detailed descriptions of all four species and taxonomic key are provided in this study. and are distributed through the country, but and are distributed only in limited areas. According to our results, the combination of ITS locus and morphology proved to be a robust approach to evaluate the taxonomic status of species in Korea. Additional surveys are needed to verify the species diversity and clarify their geographic distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2019.1663122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6968693PMC
September 2019

A proposed stepwise screening framework for the selection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading white rot fungi.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2020 May 14;43(5):767-783. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea.

This study suggests a simple three-step screening protocol for the selection of white rot fungi (WRF) capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which combines easily applicable bioassay techniques, and verifies that protocol by evaluating the PAH degradation activity, ligninolytic enzyme secretion, and relevant gene expressions of the selected PAH-degraders. Using 120 fungal strains, a sequence of bioassay techniques was applied: Bavendamm's reaction (Step 1), remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) decolorization (Step 2); assays for tolerance to four mixed PAHs-phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene (Step 3). This stepwise protocol selected 14 PAH-degrading WRF, including Microporus vernicipes, Peniophora incarnata, Perenniporia subacida, Phanerochaete sordida, Phlebia acerina, and Phlebia radiata. Of these, P. incarnata exhibited the highest PAH degradative activity, ranging from 40 to > 90%, which was related to the time-variable secretions of three extracellular ligninolytic enzymes: laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Laccase and MnP production by P. incarnata tended to be greater in the early stages of PAH degradation, whereas its LiP production became intensified with decreasing laccase and MnP production. Pilc1 and pimp1 genes encoding laccase and MnP were expressed, indicating the occurrence of extracellular enzyme-driven biodegradation of PAH by the fungal strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-019-02272-wDOI Listing
May 2020

Phylogeny and taxonomy of and other related taxa and description of three new species.

Mycologia 2020 Jan-Feb;112(1):64-82. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan.

Species of (Irpicaceae, Basidiomycota) are saprotrophs or endophytes in forest ecosystems. To evaluate the taxonomy and generic relationships of and other related taxa, we used morphology and multigene phylogenetic analyses based on sequence data from nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS) region, nuc 28S rDNA (28S), and RNA polymerase II largest subunit (). Our results show that sensu lato is polyphyletic and distributed across multiple clades in the Irpicaceae, Phanerochaetaceae, and Meruliaceae. Some species previously considered in are now recovered in , resulting in four new combinations: , and . Two new species of are described: from northeast China and South Korea and from Taiwan. is described as a new species from Taiwan. and are newly recorded from Japan and Taiwan, and is recorded from Taiwan for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2019.1664097DOI Listing
September 2020

The diversity and ecological roles of Penicillium in intertidal zones.

Sci Rep 2019 09 19;9(1):13540. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, South Korea.

Members of the genus Penicillium are commonly isolated from various terrestrial and marine environments, and play an important ecological role as a decomposer. To gain insight into the ecological role of Penicillium in intertidal zones, we investigated the Penicillium diversity and community structure using a culture-dependent technique and a culture independent metagenomic approach using ITS (ITS-NGS) and partial β-tubulin (BenA-NGS) as targets. The obtained isolates were tested for halotolerance, enzyme activity, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation. A total of 96 Penicillium species were identified from the investigated intertidal zones. Although the BenA-NGS method was efficient for detecting Penicillium, some species were only detected using conventional isolation and/or the ITS-NGS method. The Penicillium community displayed a significant degree of variation relative to season (summer and winter) and seaside (western and southern coast). Many Penicillium species isolated in this study exhibited cellulase and protease activity, and/or degradation of PAHs. These findings support the important role of Penicillium in the intertidal zone for nutrient recycling and pollutant degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49966-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6753150PMC
September 2019

Three Unrecorded Species Belonging to Section from Marine Environments in Korea.

Mycobiology 2019 16;47(2):165-172. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Species that belong to section are commonly found in various terrestrial environments, but only a few have been reported in marine environments. Because the number of species reported in marine environments is increasing, we investigated the diversity of section in marine environments in Korea. Based on sequence analyses of β-tubulin and calmodulin loci, 21 strains of section were identified as , , , , cf. , , , and . Three of them were confirmed as new to Korea: , , and . Here, we have provided detailed morphological descriptions of these unrecorded species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2019.1601330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6691904PMC
April 2019

The Influence of Microfungi on the Mycelial Growth of Ectomycorrhizal Fungus .

Microorganisms 2019 Jun 7;7(6). Epub 2019 Jun 7.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Pine mushroom () is one of the most valued ectomycorrhizal fungi in Asia because of its unique pine-like aroma; however, due to exceptionally slow growth of its mycelia in artificial conditions, its cultivation has been largely deemed as not possible. Previous studies have shown that some bacteria and a few species associated with pine mushroom promoted the growth of isolate, but this effect is relatively unexplored. In this study, we investigated the diversity of microfungi in the fairy ring of and their effect on the growth of isolate. From 184 fungal isolates, 28 species were identified based on suitable molecular markers. was most frequently observed (16 species), followed by (4 species). Five Zygomycota species showed a high promoting effect on the growth of while the effects of ascomycetes were mixed. The microfungi that promote the growth of can be useful for forest nursery and artificial cultivation of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7060169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6617177PMC
June 2019

Fungal Diversity and Enzyme Activity Associated with the Macroalgae, .

Mycobiology 2019 Mar 1;47(1):50-58. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

a brown macroalgae species, has recently become a serious environmental problem on the coasts of Korea. In an effort to solve this problem, fungal diversity associated with decaying was investigated and related β-glucosidase and endoglucanase activities were described. A total of 233 fungal strains were isolated from . at 15 sites and identified 89 species based on morphology and a multigene analysis using the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and protein-coding genes including actin (), β-tubulin (), calmodulin (), and translation elongation factor (). , and were the dominant genera, and and were the dominant species. Fifty-one species exhibited cellulase activity, with , , , , and Pleosporales sp. Five showing the highest enzyme activities. Further enzyme quantification confirmed that these species had higher cellulase activity than . , a fungal species described in previous studies. This study lays the groundwork for bioremediation using fungi to remove decaying seaweed from populated areas and provides important background for potential industrial applications of environmentally friendly processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2019.1580464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452909PMC
March 2019

Cellulosic Nanomaterial Production Via Fermentation by sp. SFCB22-18 Isolated from Ripened Persimmons.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Apr;29(4):617-624

School of Biological Sciences and Institution of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) which is generally synthesized by several species of bacteria has a wide variety of industrial uses, particularly in the food and material industries. However, the low levels of BNC production during the fermentation process should be overcome to reduce its production cost. Therefore, in this study, we screened and identified a new cellulose-producing bacterium, optimized production of the cellulose, and investigated the morphological properties of the cellulosic materials. Out of 147 bacterial isolates from ripened fruits and traditional vinegars, strain SFCB22-18 showed the highest capacity for BNC production and was identified as sp. based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. During 6-week fermentation of the strain using an optimized medium containing 3.0% glucose, 2.5% yeast extract, 0.24% acetic acid, 0.27% NaHPO, and 0.5% ethanol at 30°C, about 5 g/l of cellulosic material was produced. Both imaging and IR analysis proved that the produced cellulose would be nanoscale bacterial cellulose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1801.01005DOI Listing
April 2019

Diversity and Ecology of Marine Algicolous Arthrinium Species as a Source of Bioactive Natural Products.

Mar Drugs 2018 Dec 14;16(12). Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Environmental Science & Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

In our previous study, all Arthrinium isolates from Sargassum sp. showed high bioactivities, but studies on marine spp. are insufficient. In this study, a phylogenetic analysis of 28 Arthrinium isolates from seaweeds and egg masses of Arctoscopus japonicus was conducted using internal transcribed spacers, nuclear large subunit rDNA, β-tubulin, and translation elongation factor region sequences, and their bioactivities were investigated. They were analyzed as 15 species, and 11 of them were found to be new species. Most of the extracts exhibited radical-scavenging activity, and some showed antifungal activities, tyrosinase inhibition, and quorum sensing inhibition. It was implied that marine algicolous Arthrinium spp. support the regulation of reactive oxygen species in symbiotic algae and protect against pathogens and bacterial biofilm formation. The antioxidant from Arthrinium sp. 10 KUC21332 was separated by bioassay-guided isolation and identified to be gentisyl alcohol, and the antioxidant of KUC21221 was identical. These results demonstrate that many unexploited Arthrinium species still exist in marine environments and that they are a great source of bioactive compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16120508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315899PMC
December 2018

Diversity and effect of Trichoderma isolated from the roots of Pinus densiflora within the fairy ring of pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake).

PLoS One 2018 7;13(11):e0205900. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Pine mushroom (PM, Tricholoma matsutake) is an important ectomycorrhizal fungus in Asia primarily due to its value as a food delicacy. Recent studies have shown that fairy rings of PM have distinctive fungal communities, which suggests that other fungi influence the growth of PM. Trichoderma is a well-known saprotrophic fungus commonly found in pine roots within PM fairy rings; however, little is known about the diversity of Trichoderma associated with PM and how these species influence PM growth. This study focused on diversity of Trichoderma isolated from pine roots within PM fairy rings and how these species affect the growth of PM isolate. Based on tef1a phylogenetic analyses, nine Trichoderma species (261 isolates) were identified. Trichoderma songyi and T. spirale were the dominant species, and Trichoderma community varied geographically. Growth experiments indicated that metabolites from five Trichoderma species had a significant influence on the growth of PM isolates. Metabolites of two Trichoderma species increased PM growth, while those of three Trichoderma species suppressed the growth. Within the fairy rings, Trichoderma that had a positive or neutral effect comprised the majority of Trichoderma communities. The results of this study suggest that various Trichoderma species co-exist within PM fairy rings and that these species influence PM growth.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0205900PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6221287PMC
April 2019

New Report of Three Unrecorded Species in Species Complex in Korea.

Mycobiology 2018 24;46(3):177-184. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Division of Environmental Science & Ecological Engineering, College of Life Science & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

The genus (Hypocreaceae, Ascomycota) consists of globally distributed fungi. Among them, , one of the most commonly collected species, had been known as a polyphyletic or aggregate species. However, a total of 19 species were determined from the polyphyletic groups of . Thus, we explored Korean "" specimens that were collected in 2013-2014. These specimens were re-examined based on a recent study with translate elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1α) sequences to reveal cryptic species in Korea. As a result, four different species, , and , were identified. Except , the other three species have not been reported in Korea. In this work, we describe these species and provide figures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2018.1497792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171446PMC
August 2018

A systematic revision of the ectomycorrhizal genus Laccaria from Korea.

Mycologia 2018 Sep-Oct;110(5):948-961. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

a School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University , Seoul 08826 , Republic of Korea.

Species of Laccaria (Hydnangiaceae, Basidiomycota) are important in forest ecosystems as ectomycorrhizal fungi. Nine of the 75 described Laccaria species worldwide been reported from Korea. Most of these have European and North American names, and their identities are based solely on morphological features. To evaluate the taxonomy of Korean Laccaria, we used 443 specimens collected between 1981 and 2016 in a phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data from nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA (ITS) region, nuc 28S rDNA (28S), RNA polymerase II subunit 2 (rpb2), and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1). Ten Laccaria species were identified. Three of these were previously reported from Korea: L. bicolor, L. tortilis, and L. vinaceoavellanea. Laccaria alba, L. japonica, and L. murina are confirmed as new reports from Korea. Lastly, four new Laccaria species are described: L. araneosa, L. parva, L. torosa, and L. versiforma. This study supports the general contention that Asian species of ectomycorrhizal fungi may not be conspecific with morphologically similar species from Europe and North America. Furthermore, identification based on morphology alone is often unreliable in Laccaria due to considerable overlap of characters among species. Thus, use of molecular methods is necessary for effective identification. Illustrations of the four newly described species and a taxonomic key to species of Laccaria in Korea are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2018.1507542DOI Listing
March 2019

Guild Patterns of Basidiomycetes Community Associated With in Mt. Jeombong, Republic of Korea.

Mycobiology 2018 29;46(1):13-23. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

School of Biological Sciences and Institution of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Depending on the mode of nutrition exploitation, major fungal guilds are distinguished as ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. It is generally known that diverse environmental factors influence fungal communities; however, it is unclear how fungal communities respond differently to environment factors depend on fungal guilds. In this study, we investigated basidiomycetes communities associated with using 454 pyrosequencing. We attempted to detect guild pattern (ectomycorrhizal or saprotrophic fungal communities) by comparing the influence of geography and source (root and surrounding soil). A total of 515 mOTUs were detected from root (321) and soil (394) of at three sites of Mt. Jeombong in Inje County. We found that patterns of diversity and community structure were different depending on the guilds. In terms of alpha diversity, only ectomycorrhizal fungi showed significant differences between sources. In terms of community structure, however, geography significantly influenced the ectomycorrhizal community, while source appeared to have a greater influence on the saprotrophic community. Therefore, a guild-based view will help to elucidates novel features of the relationship between environmental factors and fungal communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2018.1454009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037075PMC
March 2018

First Report of Eight Milkcap Species Belonging to and in Korea.

Mycobiology 2018 29;46(1):1-12. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

and are milkcaps that are characterized by the secretion of latex. These two genera are part of a globally distributed cosmopolitan group of ectomycorrhizal fungi that is an important food resource in various ecosystems. Recently, the taxonomy of and has been revised based on molecular phylogenetics. Despite the importance of these taxa, Korean species of both genera are poorly understood. In an effort to describe milkcap species that are indigenous to Korea, a long-term study has been initiated. During a recent survey, eight species of milkcaps that were previously unrecorded in Korea were detected based on morphological observation and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region: five species (, , , , and ) and three species (, and ). Detailed morphological descriptions and phylogenetic relationships of these species are provided in this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2018.1454012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037078PMC
March 2018

Root-associated bacteria influencing mycelial growth of Tricholoma matsutake (pine mushroom).

J Microbiol 2018 Jun 1;56(6):399-407. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal fungus usually associated with Pinus densiflora in South Korea. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) of T. matsutake are economically important due to their attractive aroma; yet, T. matsutake is uncultivatable and its habitat is rapidly being eradicated due to global climate change. Root-associated bacteria can influence the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi that co-exist in the host rhizosphere and distinctive bacterial communities are associated with T. matsutake. In this study, we investigated how these bacterial communities affect T. matsutake growth by isolating bacteria from the roots of P. densiflora colonized by ectomycorrhizae of T. matsutake and co-culturing rootassociated bacteria with T. matsutake isolates. Thirteen species of bacteria (27 isolates) were found in pine roots, all belonging to the orders Bacillales or Burkholderiales. Two species in the genus Paenibacillus promoted the growth of T. matsutake in glucose poor conditions, likely using soluble metabolites. In contrast, other bacteria suppressed the growth of T. matsutake using both soluble and volatile metabolites. Antifungal activity was more frequent in glucose poor conditions. In general, pine rhizospheres harbored many bacteria that had a negative impact on T. matsutake growth and the few Paenibacillus species that promoted T. matsutake growth. Paenibacillus species, therefore, may represent a promising resource toward successful cultivation of T. matsutake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-018-7491-yDOI Listing
June 2018

Effect of fairy ring bacteria on the growth of Tricholoma matsutake in vitro culture.

Mycorrhiza 2018 Aug 12;28(5-6):411-419. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Microbiology, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, South Korea.

Tricholoma matsutake (pine mushroom) (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) is a valuable edible fungal species that cannot be cultivated artificially. As an ectomycorrhizal fungus, T. matsutake interacts with trees belonging to the Pinaceae and Fagaceae, and forms fairy rings around host trees that are arc-shaped areas with dense hyphae of T. matsutake in the soil. Because the fairy rings maintain their dense hyphae for several years and form fruiting bodies, the characteristics of the fairy ring may be important in understanding the ecology of T. matsutake. Recent studies have shown that diverse bacteria co-exist in the fairy ring, and suggest that the fairy ring bacteria may influence on the growth of T. matsutake. However, the effect of the fairy ring bacteria on the growth of T. matsutake is largely unknown. In this study, we isolated fairy ring bacteria and investigated their effect on the growth of T. matsutake in co-culture experiments. In addition, the relationship between bacterial effects and nutrient conditions was tested using different media with varying glucose concentrations. A total of 237 bacteria (28 species) were isolated from fairy rings of four different T. matsutake producing areas: Proteobacteria (17 species), Firmicutes (7 species), and Actinobacteria (4 species). Burkholderiaceae (Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia) was most abundant in the fairy ring bacteria communities. Most bacteria showed a negative effect on the growth of T. matsutake when it grew on glucose rich medium (20 g/L). In glucose deficient medium (2 g/L), however, some bacteria promoted the growth of T. matsutake. In addition, the mode of interaction between bacteria and T. matsutake is different, depending on the glucose concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00572-018-0828-xDOI Listing
August 2018
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