Publications by authors named "Young Rong Bang"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lifestyle Changes that Impact Personal Quality of Life in the COVID-19 Pandemic in South Korea.

Psychiatry Investig 2021 Jul 22;18(7):701-707. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Psychiatry, Dong-A University Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Objective: We investigated which factors in psychological changes positively or negatively affect the quality of life to suggest desirable directions in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: Online survey was conducted with 1,011 adults more than 19 years old in Busan, South Korea. Quality of life was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF. Questions regarding the psychological changes were about COVID-19-related concerns, distress in complying with quarantine guidelines, and interest in seeking something to do alone.

Results: Quality of life was perceived to be below average (mean±SD, 2.86±0.53). The more economic worries there were, the lower the quality of life in psychological, social relationships and environmental domains. The more distress one experienced when maintaining their personal hygiene, the higher the quality of life related to their physical health. Likewise, the more difficult it was to maintain social distances, the higher the quality of life associated with psychological and social relationships. The more interested someone was in how to spend time alone, the higher the quality of life in all domains significantly.

Conclusion: We can minimize the negative impacts of COVID-19 by maintaining economic stability, maintaining prosocial behaviors related to personal hygiene and making good use of personal time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2021.0043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328828PMC
July 2021

The Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Associated Factors among the General Public during COVID-19 Pandemic: a Cross-sectional Study in Korea.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Jul 26;36(29):e214. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Dong-A University Hospital, Busan, Korea.

Background: Since its first case confirmed on January 20, 2020, Korea has been through three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Fears of the fourth wave persist as new cases continue to emerge. In such unpredictable times, the mental well-being of people is of crucial importance. This study examined the levels of depression and anxiety and their predictors among the Korean general public in Busan, Korea, during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study via a self-reported questionnaire administered to 2,288 adult residents (aged 19-60 years) of Busan, Korea. Participants' depression and anxiety were assessed using the Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4), which consists of PHQ-2 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2), with the cutoff score of 3.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 39.71 years. COVID-19 had several psychosocial impacts on people. It was revealed that 80.3% had restrictions in outside activities, 47.3% reported financial difficulties, and 53.6% had a fear of death or fatal outcome when infected with COVID-19. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify the factors associated with depression and anxiety. A total of 30.7% participants were classified as at risk of depression based on cutoff score of 3 on PHQ-2. Logistic regression analysis revealed that changes in sleep pattern due to COVID-19 were most strongly associated with depression, followed by restrictions in outside activities due to social distancing and increased family conflicts due to COVID-19. Also, 22.6% participants were classified as at risk of anxiety based on a cutoff score of 3 on GAD-2. Analysis revealed that changes in sleep pattern due to COVID-19 were most strongly associated with anxiety, followed by spending a lot of time searching for COVID-19-related information and having a fear of death or fatal outcome when infected with COVID-19.

Conclusion: The results are alarming; 30.7% had a PHQ-2 score of 3 or higher, indicating depression, and 22.6% had a GAD-2 score of 3 or higher, indicating anxiety. Changes in sleep pattern had the strongest association with both depression and anxiety. Our results can be used to formulate mental health policies tailored to the context of the city. Our findings suggest the high prevalence of depression and anxiety in the society during the COVID-19 pandemic, which places growing importance on early intervention for mental health problems during these times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313395PMC
July 2021

Preliminary Investigation of Association between Methylphenidate and Serum Growth Markers in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study.

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2020 Jul;31(3):154-160

Department of Psychiatry, Dong-A University Hospital, Busan, Korea.

Objectives: It remains unclear whether methylphenidate (MPH) has yadverse effects on growth in children. This study aimed to investigate the association of MPH with serum biological markers of growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Methods: The present study included 103 children with ADHD (64 drug-naive children, 39 MPH-treated children) and 112 control subjects. Children with ADHD were diagnosed on the basis of a semi-structured interview. Levels of biochemical markers of growth, including insulin-like growth factor-I, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D, hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, and hematocrit were measured in these individuals.

Results: Except in case of TSH, no intergroup differences were found in the levels of the growth markers. The levels of TSH were found to be lower in the MPH-treated boys with ADHD than in the drug-naive and control groups (p < 0.05), although the levels of TSH in all the groups were within normal limits.

Conclusion: In this cross-sectional study, no significant association was found between MPH and growth markers. This calls for the need to carry out prospective longitudinal research studies in the future that investigate the effect of MPH on the growth trajectory in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.200014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7350546PMC
July 2020

Minimal Effects of Binaural Auditory Beats for Subclinical Insomnia: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Study.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2019 Sep/Oct;39(5):499-503

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam.

Background: Auditory binaural beat (BB) stimulation is known to modulate electroencephalographic activity by brain entrainment, but few studies have established whether BB can affect the sleep state. We examined the effect of θ BB in improving sleep disturbances and daytime alertness.

Methods: We conducted double-blind and sham-controlled randomized trial. Subjects with subclinical insomnia were randomly assigned and listened to music for 2 weeks with or without θ BB for 30 minutes before going to sleep.

Results: There were 43 participants (32 female; mean age, 34.3 ± 10.4 years) who finished the trial. The insomnia severity decreased at 2 weeks in both groups without significant differences in Insomnia Severity Index score (4.41 ± 4.32 vs 2.71 ± 4.66, P = 0.656), although the effect was much stronger for the music with the BB group than for the music-only group (Cohen d = 1.02 vs 0.58). In awake electroencephalographic analysis, the relative β power after 2 weeks was higher in the music with the BB group than in the music-only group (0.2 ± 7.02 vs -3.91 ± 6.97, P = 0.041).

Conclusions: Auditory θ BB with music does not induce evident improvement of sleep disturbances more than does pure music, but could alter brain activity toward increasing daytime alertness in subclinical insomnia, which needs to be corroborated in a clinical population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000001097DOI Listing
January 2020

Multidimensional Comparison of Cancer-Related Fatigue and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: The Role of Psychophysiological Markers.

Psychiatry Investig 2019 Jan 7;16(1):71-79. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The present study compared cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) using multidimensional measurements with the aim of better understanding characteristics and exploring markers of two similar fatigue syndromes.

Methods: Twenty-five patients with CRF and twenty patients with CFS completed questionnaires, including the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Additionally, levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), heart rate variability (HRV), and electroencephalography (EEG) were obtained. Neurocognitive functioning was also evaluated.

Results: Both groups showed comparable levels of psychological variables, including fatigue. Compared to CFS subjects, CRF patients had significantly higher hs-CRP levels and a reduced HRV-index. The within-group analyses revealed that the FSS score of the CRF group was significantly related to scores on the HADS-anxiety, HADS-depression, and PSQI scales. In the CFS group, FSS scores were significantly associated with scores on the PSS and the absolute delta, theta, and alpha powers in frontal EEG.

Conclusion: Findings indicate that different pathophysiological mechanisms underlie CFS and CRF. Inflammatory marker and HRV may be potential biomarkers for distinguishing two fatigue syndromes and frontal EEG parameters may be quantitative biomarkers for CFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2018.10.26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354035PMC
January 2019

A validation study on three screening questionnaires for obstructive sleep apnea in a Korean community sample.

Sleep Breath 2019 Sep 17;23(3):969-977. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 463-707, 166 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.

Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent and causes serious cardiovascular complications. Several screening questionnaires for OSA have been introduced, but only few validation studies have been conducted in general population. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of three OSA screening questionnaires (Berlin Questionnaire, BQ; STOP-Bang Questionnaire, STOP-B; Four-Variable Screening Tool, Four-V) in a Korean community sample.

Methods: A total of 1148 community-dwelling participants completed the BQ, STOP-B, and Four-V. An overnight in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) was conducted in randomly selected 116 participants. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated.

Results: The Four-V with cutoff ≥ 8 showed high sensitivity for overall OSA (69.4%), and the Four-V with cutoff ≥ 9 showed high specificity for both overall OSA (81.5%) and moderate to severe OSA (69.0%). On the other hand, the STOP-B showed acceptable sensitivity and specificity for both overall OSA (61.3 and 79.6%, respectively) and moderate to severe OSA (72.4 and 67.8%, respectively). The STOP-Bang also showed the largest area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve for both overall OSA (0.752) and moderate to severe OSA (0.750). The BQ showed the lowest performance in predicting OSA.

Conclusions: Among the three questionnaires, the STOP-B was revealed as the most useful screening tool for OSA in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve in the population of South Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-018-1748-xDOI Listing
September 2019

Symptom Persistence after Iron Normalization in Women with Restless Legs Syndrome.

Psychiatry Investig 2018 Apr 28;15(4):390-395. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical course of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and potential risk factors for the persistence of RLS symptoms after iron normalization in women with RLS and low serum ferritin (<50 μg/L).

Methods: We reviewed 39 women with RLS and iron deficiency, who achieved iron normalization after oral iron replacement for three months. Risk factors contributing to symptom persistence were estimated by logistic regression analyses. Remission was defined as no RLS symptoms for at least 6 months after the iron normalization.

Results: Over the observation period of 2.5±1.4 years, 15 patients reported no RLS symptom whereas 24 patients still complained of RLS symptoms. The remission rate of RLS with iron replacement was 38.5%. The relative risk of symptom persistence was increased by the duration of RLS symptoms (OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.01-3.49) or by the age at RLS diagnosis (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.56).

Conclusion: Almost two-third of RLS patients with iron deficiency showed persistence of the symptom even after iron normalization. Considering that longer duration of RLS symptoms and older age at RLS diagnosis were risk factors for symptom persistence, early intervention of iron deficiency in RLS is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2017.08.21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5912484PMC
April 2018

Modest Improvement of Untreated Severe Sleep-Disordered Breathing in the Middle-Aged and Elderly.

Psychiatry Investig 2017 Sep 11;14(5):662-668. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seungnam, Republic of Korea.

Objective: It has been reported that untreated sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) deteriorates over time, however this remains contentious. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical course of SDB in middle-aged and older SDB patients, and to identify how relevant factors contribute to the change in SDB severity.

Methods: Baseline and follow-up polysomnographic data of 56 untreated SDB patients (mean age, 61.2±5.71) were obtained retrospectively and the mean interval was 62.4±22.0 months. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the baseline severity, and the factors associated with the course of SDB were analyzed.

Results: At the baseline, 13 subjects were simple snorers, 15 had mild to moderate SDB, and 28 were severe SDB patients. While there was no significant change in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as a whole, subgroup analysis showed decrease of AHI in severe SDB patients (43.9±10.6 to 35.6±20.0, p=0.009). The change in supine time percent and baseline AHI were associated with the change in AHI (β=0.387, p=0.003; β=-0.272, p=0.037).

Conclusion: Untreated SDB did not deteriorate over time with modest improvement in severe SDB. A proportion of severe SDB patients might expect decrease in SDB severity irrespective of changes in sleep position or body weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4306/pi.2017.14.5.662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5639135PMC
September 2017

Modest Improvement of Untreated Severe Sleep-Disordered Breathing in the Middle-Aged and Elderly.

Psychiatry Investig 2017 Sep 11;14(5):662-668. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seungnam, Republic of Korea.

Objective: It has been reported that untreated sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) deteriorates over time, however this remains contentious. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical course of SDB in middle-aged and older SDB patients, and to identify how relevant factors contribute to the change in SDB severity.

Methods: Baseline and follow-up polysomnographic data of 56 untreated SDB patients (mean age, 61.2±5.71) were obtained retrospectively and the mean interval was 62.4±22.0 months. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the baseline severity, and the factors associated with the course of SDB were analyzed.

Results: At the baseline, 13 subjects were simple snorers, 15 had mild to moderate SDB, and 28 were severe SDB patients. While there was no significant change in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as a whole, subgroup analysis showed decrease of AHI in severe SDB patients (43.9±10.6 to 35.6±20.0, p=0.009). The change in supine time percent and baseline AHI were associated with the change in AHI (β=0.387, p=0.003; β=-0.272, p=0.037).

Conclusion: Untreated SDB did not deteriorate over time with modest improvement in severe SDB. A proportion of severe SDB patients might expect decrease in SDB severity irrespective of changes in sleep position or body weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4306/pi.2017.14.5.662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5639135PMC
September 2017

Differential effects of circadian typology on sleep-related symptoms, physical fatigue and psychological well-being in relation to resilience.

Chronobiol Int 2017 27;34(6):677-686. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

b Department of Neuropsychiatry , Seoul National University Bundang Hospital , Seongnam , Korea.

Various physiological and psychological functions are influenced by circadian typology (CT), which was reported to be related to resilience. However, few studies have assessed the effects of CT in relation to resilience. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of CT on sleep-related symptoms, physical fatigue and psychological well-being in relation to resilience. The present study included a total of 1794 healthy hospital employees, and they completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version. Subjects with evening type showed lower sleep quality, more daytime sleepiness and physical fatigue than neither types and morning types. Additionally, evening types were more depressed and anxious and reported a poorer quality of life. CT was found to be a significant predictor of sleep quality, but CT was minimally associated with physical fatigue and psychological well-being in the regression analysis. Instead, resilience was substantially related to all of the variables measured. In conclusion, CT independently predicts sleep quality, but the effects of CT on physical fatigue and psychological well-being are negligible compared to those of resilience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2017.1309425DOI Listing
April 2018

Alterations of awake EEG in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder without cognitive impairment.

Neurosci Lett 2017 01 25;637:64-69. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea; Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to find electroencephalographic (EEG) changes in subjects with drug-naïve idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) who had no cognitive impairment. A total of 57 iRBD patients confirmed by polysomnography (PSG) and 33 sex and age-matched healthy controls were included and their waking EEG was recorded from five cortical regions for 15min. Power spectral analyses by fast Fourier transforms were performed on EEG data. In PSG data, the iRBD patients showed sleep disturbances of short total sleep time, decreased sleep efficiency, increased sleep latency and frequent awakening compared to controls. After adjusting for sleep parameters, the absolute alpha power in frontal region in iRBD patients was higher than that in controls (1.2±0.3 vs. 0.9±0.3, p=0.037). Dominant occipital frequency (DOF) was lower in iRBD patients than in controls after adjusting for the sleep covariates (9.2±0.3Hz vs. 9.5±0.4Hz, F=8, p=0.006). iRBD patients without cognitive impairment also showed EEG alteration in frontal and occipital cortex at wakefulness, which could be an early marker of cerebral dysfunction in iRBD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2016.11.052DOI Listing
January 2017

Blood lead concentrations and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Korean children: a hospital-based case control study.

BMC Pediatr 2016 Sep 22;16(1):156. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Dong-A University Hospital, 26 Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan, 602-715, Republic of Korea.

Background: Because the developing brain of a child is vulnerable to environmental toxins, even very low concentration of neurotoxin can affect children's neurodevelopment. Lead is a neurotoxic heavy metal which has the harmful effect on the striatal-frontal circuit of brain. This area of the brain is known to be closely related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pathophysiology. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate whether elevated blood lead concentration is a risk factor for ADHD. The secondary objective was to examine the association between blood lead concentration and symptom severity.

Methods: We conducted a frequency-matched, hospital-based case-control study with 114 medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 114 controls. The participants were matched for age and sex. The diagnoses of ADHD were assessed with semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The participants completed the continuous performance test (CPT), and their parents completed the ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS). Blood lead concentrations were measured by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry featuring Zeeman background correction.

Results: Children with ADHD exhibited blood lead concentrations that were significantly higher than those of the controls ( 1.90 ± 086 μg/dℓ vs. 1.59 ± 0.68 μg/dℓ, p = 0.003). The log transformed total blood lead concentration was associated with a higher risk of ADHD (OR: 1.60, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.45, p < 0.05). The analysis also revealed that the children with blood lead concentrations above 2.30 μg/dℓ were at a 2.5-fold (95 % CI: 1.09-5.87, p < 0.05) greater risk of having ADHD. After adjusting for covariates, our multivariate regression models indicated that blood lead concentrations were not significantly associated with ADHD-RS or CPT profiles among the ADHD cases.

Conclusion: Even low blood lead concentrations are a risk factor for ADHD in children. This study warrants primary prevention policies to reduce the environmental lead burden. Future studies may be required to ascertain the effects of lead on symptom severity in ADHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-016-0696-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5034496PMC
September 2016

Symptom Severity of Restless Legs Syndrome Predicts Its Clinical Course.

Am J Med 2016 Apr 7;129(4):438-45. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea; Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objective: This study examines the clinical course of restless legs syndrome according to its severity and factors associated with the remission of restless legs syndrome symptoms.

Methods: The remission or persistence of restless legs syndrome symptoms was investigated by considering patients with restless legs syndrome at the sleep clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. All subjects were observed for at least 18 months, and an incidence of remission was defined as having no restless legs syndrome symptoms for at least 1 year. Restless legs syndrome severity was evaluated by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group Rating Scale.

Results: A total of 306 patients participated in this study. Over the observation periods of 4.1 ± 1.6 years, the cumulative incidence of remission is 32.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.0-38.0) and decreased with baseline restless legs syndrome severity (P < .001): 60% (95% CI, 44.9-75.1), 44% (95% CI, 34.4-53.6), and 16.7% (95% CI, 10.6-22.8) in mild, moderate, and severe to very severe restless legs syndrome cases, respectively. Most cases of remission (82/96) were observed within 1 year, and the remission occurred sooner for mild restless legs syndrome. The hazard ratios of remission by Cox proportional hazards model were lower for moderate (0.556; 95% CI, 0.340-0.909) and severe to very severe (0.193; 95% CI, 0.108-0.343) restless legs syndrome than for mild restless legs syndrome. The remission incidence was lower for those patients who had a family history of restless legs syndrome and were older at restless legs syndrome diagnosis.

Conclusions: Mild restless legs syndrome severity, no family history, and young age at restless legs syndrome diagnosis were significant predictors of restless legs syndrome remission. More than 80% of patients with severe restless legs syndrome showed a chronic clinical course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.12.020DOI Listing
April 2016

Cut-Off Scores of the Children's Depression Inventory for Screening and Rating Severity in Korean Adolescents.

Psychiatry Investig 2015 Jan 12;12(1):23-8. Epub 2015 Jan 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The aim was to establish an optimal cut-off score of the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) for detecting depression and rating severity in Korean adolescents.

Methods: A total of 468 students aged 12-16 years from 8 middle schools in Busan, Korea participated in this study. The Korean version of the CDI and Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version were used to evaluate depressive symptoms. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were conducted to evaluate case-finding performance and set the cut-off scores.

Results: ROC analyses demonstrated that the overall discrimination power of the CDI is good enough to evaluate adolescent depression. The CDI sum score of 20 was identified as the optimal screening cut-off score, where sensitivity was 0.83 and specificity was 0.89. This cut-off score could apply regardless of subjects' gender. The cut-off scores were examined in order of the depression severity: 15 for mild, 20 for moderate, and 25 for severe depression with high sensitivity and specificity.

Conclusion: The CDI cut-off scores of our study can be recommended for screening depressed youth and rating the severity of depressive symptoms. The high negative predictive value suggested that the cut-off score of 20 would result in a small number of missed cases. Further studies are needed to ascertain these CDI cut-off scores for different age groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4306/pi.2015.12.1.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4310917PMC
January 2015

Sex and Age Differences in Psychiatric Disorders among Children and Adolescents: High-Risk Students Study.

Psychiatry Investig 2014 Jul 21;11(3):251-7. Epub 2014 Jul 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The aims of the present study are to investigate the rate of the psychiatric disorders in psychiatrically high-risk children and adolescents and to examine sex and age differences in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders.

Methods: The participants included students aged 6-16 from the 27 elementary and the 45 middle schools in Busan, Korea. We screened psychopathology using the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) or the Youth Self Report (K-YSR). A total of 2,912 students were selected as high-risk students on the basis of cut-off scores (T-score ≥60) for a total behavior problem score of K-CBCL/K-YSR. Of these high-risk students, 1,985 students participated in and completed individual diagnostic interviews. Psychiatric diagnosis was assessed using a Korean version of the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine sex and age differences of psychiatric diagnosis.

Results: Based on sex, boys were more likely to have ADHD and girls were more likely to have depression. Based on age, children were more likely to have ADHD and adolescents were more likely to have affective disorder, conduct disorder, psychotic disorder, and anxiety disorders except separation anxiety disorder.

Conclusion: This is the largest study to conduct face-to-face interviews with subjects and parent(s) among Korean studies in this field. The present study revealed significant differences across sex and age among specific psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Future population-based studies will be required to ascertain the sex- and age-related differences of psychiat prevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4306/pi.2014.11.3.251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4124183PMC
July 2014
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