Publications by authors named "Young Jun Kim"

408 Publications

Graphene collage on Ni-rich layered oxide cathodes for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 9;12(1):2145. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

The energy storage performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) depends on the electrode capacity and electrode/cell design parameters, which have previously been addressed separately, leading to a failure in practical implementation. Here, we show how conformal graphene (Gr) coating on Ni-rich oxides enables the fabrication of highly packed cathodes containing a high content of active material (~99 wt%) without conventional conducting agents. With 99 wt% LiNiCoAlO (NCA) and electrode density of ~4.3 g cm, the Gr-coated NCA cathode delivers a high areal capacity, ~5.4 mAh cm (~38% increase) and high volumetric capacity, ~863 mAh cm (~34% increase) at a current rate of 0.2 C (~1.1 mA cm); this surpasses the bare electrode approaching a commercial level of electrode setting (96 wt% NCA; ~3.3 g cm). Our findings offer a combinatorial avenue for materials engineering and electrode design toward advanced LIB cathodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22403-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Multiple Allergen Simultaneous Test-Immunoblot Assay for Immunoglobulin E Detection in Patients with Isolated Allergic Conjunctivitis.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 1;10(5). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea.

We aimed to investigate the immunoglobulin E (IgE) detection rate and allergen patterns in patients with isolated allergic conjunctivitis using the multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST)-immunoblot assay. A total of 120 patients with allergic conjunctivitis and no associated rhinitis, asthma, or dermatitis underwent the MAST-immunoblot assay to measure serum total IgE (TIgE) and serum specific IgE (SIgE) against 57 allergens. Patients were classified into subgroups based on the season when the eye symptoms were exacerbated, and TIgE and SIgE positivity. Differences between sex and age groups were also analyzed. Of the 120 patients, 57.5% (69 patients) and 69.2% (83 patients) were positive for TIgE (≥100 IU/mL) and SIgE (≥0.7 IU/mL), respectively. The allergens that most frequently triggered sensitization in the study population were , , , , and house dust. House dust mites, such as and , showed the highest detection rates regardless of the season. Men had a higher positive rate for TIgE than women, whereas a higher rate of sensitization, detected as SIgE positivity, was seen in younger patients. In conclusion, MAST-immunoblot assay can detect sensitizing allergens in patients with isolated allergic conjunctivitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957652PMC
March 2021

Determination and risk characterisation of bio-active piperine in black pepper and selected food containing black pepper consumed in Korea.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 Feb 6;30(2):209-215. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul, 01811 South Korea.

Piperine is a bio-active compound found in pepper, including L. and L. It has a strong, pungent flavour and several pharmacologic benefits. However, the risks of piperine have not yet been characterized. In this study, piperine in black pepper and some selected foods was determined to characterise the risk of exposure to piperine. Piperine in black pepper, curry and noodle was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection, which was validated through the measurement of performance parameters. The mean concentrations of piperine in black pepper, powdered curry, retorted curry, instant noodle and cup noodle were 4,418, 28, 3.4, 4.3 and 4.2 mg/100 g, respectively. The estimated dietary exposure to piperine was 123.66 μg/kg body weight/day, and the margin of exposure calculated by the no-observed-adverse-effect level of piperine, was 162. The piperine from food does not cause an adverse health effect to the public in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-020-00860-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914320PMC
February 2021

Prediction accuracy of standard and total keratometry by swept-source optical biometer for multifocal intraocular lens power calculation.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 26;11(1):4794. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-Ro 43-Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, 05505, South Korea.

We aimed to compare the refractive outcomes of cataract surgery with diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) using standard keratometry (K) and total keratometry (TK). In this retrospective observational case series study, a total of 302 patients who underwent cataract surgery with multifocal IOL implantation were included. Predicted refractive outcomes were calculated based on the current standard formulas and a new formula developed for TK using K and TK, which were obtained from a swept-source optical biometer. At 2-month postoperatively, median absolute prediction errors (MedAEs) and proportion of eyes within ± 0.50 diopters (D) of predicted postoperative spherical equivalent (SE) refraction were analyzed. There was no significant difference between MedAEs or proportion of eyes within ± 0.50D of predicted refraction from K and TK in each formula. In TFNT00 and 839MP IOL cases, there was no difference between MedAEs from K and TK using any formula. In 829MP IOL cases, MedAE from TK was significantly larger than that from K in Barrett Universal II/Barrett TK Universal II (P = 0.033). In 677MY IOL cases, MedAE from TK was significantly larger than that from K in Haigis (P = 0.020) and Holladay 2 (P = 0.006) formulas. In the subgroup analysis for IOL, there was no difference between the proportion of eyes within ± 0.50 D of predicted refraction from K and TK using any formula. TFNT00 and 839MP IOLs were favorable with TK, with 677MY IOL with K and 829MP IOL being in a neutral position, which necessitates the study that investigates the accuracy of the new TK technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84238-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910298PMC
February 2021

Utilization of extracellular fungal melanin as an eco-friendly biosorbent for treatment of metal-contaminated effluents.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 5;272:129884. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Division of Environmental Science & Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841, South Korea. Electronic address:

Fungal melanins have been considered as potential biosorbents due to their metal-binding properties, stability, and scalability. Previous studies established scalable fungal melanin production methods with promising strains, however, their applicability for metal-contaminated effluents treatment has not been sufficiently reported. Herein, melanin pigment derived from Amorphotheca resinae was produced and characterized using microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Adsorptive properties towards Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) were evaluated using batch tests. Melanin pigment was composed of aggregates of nanosized particles with indole-based constituents. Adsorption capacities increased with the pH of solution, especially at pH > 4.0. Maximum binding capacities of Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) on melanin were 69.18, 103.23, 24.31, and 13.57 mg/g, respectively. The competitive adsorption experiments elucidated affinity as Cu(II)>Pb(II)≫Cd(II)>Zn(II). Adsorption time generally required <2.5 h to reach equilibrium; the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well described the kinetics. Chelating ability of free radicals in pigment was considered as a possible mechanism for adsorption. Initial adsorption capacities remained almost intact even after 5 consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. Complete removal of Cu(II), Pb(II), and Cd(II) from metal-contaminated effluent was confirmed. Consequently, melanin pigment derived from A. resinae can be used as a biosorbent suitable for the treatment of metal-contaminated aqueous solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129884DOI Listing
June 2021

Development of a Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Based Inhibition Assay for the Screening of Steroid 5-α Reductase in Human and Fish Cell Lines.

Molecules 2021 Feb 8;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Environmental Safety Group, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Europe Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, 66123 Saarbruecken, Germany.

Steroid 5-α reductase (5AR) is responsible for the reduction of steroids to 5-α reduced metabolites, such as the reduction of testosterone to 5-α dihydrotestosterone (DHT). A new adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for 5AR inhibition to reduce female reproduction in fish (AOP 289) is under development to clarify the antiestrogenic effects of 5AR inhibitors in female fish. A sensitive method for the DHT analysis using chemical derivatization and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. A cell-based 5AR inhibition assay that utilizes human cell lines, a transient overexpression system, and fish cell lines was developed. The measured IC values of two well-known 5AR inhibitors, finasteride and dutasteride, were comparable in the different systems. However, the IC of dutasteride in the fish cell lines was lower than that in the human cell lines. Finasteride showed a higher IC against the RTG-2 cell line. These results demonstrated that 5ARs inhibition could differ in terms of structural characteristics among species. The assay has high sensitivity and reproducibility and is suitable for the application in 5AR inhibition screening for various endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs). Future studies will continue to evaluate the quantitative inhibition of 5AR by EDCs to compare the endocrine-disrupting pathway in different species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915527PMC
February 2021

In Vitro and In Vivo Biosafety Analysis of Resorbable Polyglycolic Acid-Polylactic Acid Block Copolymer Composites for Spinal Fixation.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Dec 23;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 23.

School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi 16419, Korea.

Herein, spinal fixation implants were constructed using degradable polymeric materials such as PGA-PLA block copolymers (poly(glycolic acid-b-lactic acid)). These materials were reinforced by blending with HA-g-PLA (hydroxyapatite-graft-poly lactic acid) and PGA fiber before being tested to confirm its biocompatibility via in vitro (MTT assay) and in vivo animal experiments (i.e., skin sensitization, intradermal intracutaneous reaction, and in vivo degradation tests). Every specimen exhibited suitable biocompatibility and biodegradability for use as resorbable spinal fixation materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13010029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794712PMC
December 2020

Circulating Tumor Marker Isolation with the Chemically Stable and Instantly Degradable (CSID) Hydrogel ImmunoSpheres.

Anal Chem 2021 01 18;93(2):1100-1109. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 101, Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea.

Here, we present chemically stable and instantly degradable (CSID) hydrogel immunospheres for the isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor exosomes (CTXs). The CSID hydrogels, which are prepared by the hybridization of alginate and poly(vinyl alcohol), show an equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR) of at pH 7, with a highly stable pH-responsive property. The present hybrid hydrogel is not easily disassociated in the biological buffers, thus being suitable for use in "liquid biopsy", requiring a multistep, long-term incubation process with biological samples. Also, it is gradually degraded by the action of chelating agents; effortless retrieval of the circulating markers has been achieved. Then, we modified the CSID hydrogel spheres with the anti-EpCAM antibody ("C-CSID ImmunoSpheres") and the anti-CD63 antibody ("E-CSID ImmunoSpheres") to isolate two promising circulating markers in liquid biopsy: CTCs and CTXs. The immunospheres' capabilities for marker isolation and retrieval were confirmed by a fluorescence image, where the spheres successfully isolate and effortlessly retrieve the target circulating markers. Lastly, we applied the CSID hydrogel immunospheres to five blood samples from colorectal cancer patients and retrieved average 10.8 ± 5.9 CTCs/mL and average 96.5 × 10 CTXs/mL. The present CSID hydrogel immunospheres represent a simple, versatile, and time-efficient assay platform for liquid biopsy in the practical setting, enabling us to gain a better understanding of disease-related circulating markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04152DOI Listing
January 2021

In Vitro and In Vivo Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Junos Tanaka Peel Extract against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptotic Death of Lung Cells.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Dec 4;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Sejong 8244, Korea.

Various stresses derived from both internal and external oxidative environments lead to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing progressive intracellular oxidative damage and ultimately cell death. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of Tanaka peel extract (CE) against oxidative-stress induced the apoptosis of lung cells and the associated mechanisms of action using in vitro and in vivo models. The protective effect of CE was evaluated in vitro in NCI-H460 human lung cells exposed to pro-oxidant HO. The preventive effect of CE (200 mg/kg/day, 10 days) against pulmonary injuries following acrolein inhalation (10 ppm for 12 h) was investigated using an in vivo mouse model. Herein, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of CE against the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of lung cells under a highly oxidative environment. The function of CE is linked with its ability to suppress ROS-dependent, p53-mediated apoptotic signaling. Furthermore, we evaluated the protective role of CE against apoptotic pulmonary injuries associated with the inhalation of acrolein, a ubiquitous and highly oxidizing environmental respiratory pollutant, through the attenuation of oxidative stress. The results indicated that CE exhibits a protective effect against the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of lung cells in both in vitro and in vivo models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761914PMC
December 2020

Mustard Leaf Extract Suppresses Psychological Stress in Chronic Restraint Stress-Subjected Mice by Regulation of Stress Hormone, Neurotransmitters, and Apoptosis.

Nutrients 2020 Nov 26;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Sejong 30019, Korea.

Mustard leaf ( var. L. H. ) has been reported to have psychological properties such as anti-depressant activities. However, studies on chronic stress and depression caused by restraint have not been conducted. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of a mustard leaf (ML) extract on chronic restraint stress (CRS) in mice. Male mice were subjected to a CRS protocol for a period of four weeks to induce stress. The results showed that the ML extract (100 and 500 mg/kg/perorally administered for four weeks) significantly decreased corticosterone levels and increased neurotransmitters levels in stressed mice. Apoptosis by CRS exposure was induced by and expression regulation and was suppressed by reducing and expression after treatment with the ML extract. Our results confirmed that apoptosis was regulated by increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (). Additionally, cytokine levels were regulated by the ML extract. In conclusion, our results showed that the ML extract relieved stress effects by regulating hormones and neurotransmitters in CRS mice, expression, and apoptosis in the brain. Thus, it can be suggested that the studied ML extract is an agonist that can help relieve stress and depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760211PMC
November 2020

Monohaloacetonitriles induce cytotoxicity and exhibit different mode of action in endocrine disruption.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 5;761:143316. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Environmental Safety Group, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Europe, Saarbrucken 66123, Germany. Electronic address:

Haloacetonitriles are emerging disinfection by-products that can be detected in various aquatic environments. They are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and tumorigenic in vitro and in vivo, but their endocrine-disrupting potency remains unknown. In this study, we examined the agonistic and antagonistic estrogenic and androgenic activities of haloacetonitriles, as well as their cytotoxicity, using a yeast-based reporter assay. We also investigated the interactions of haloacetonitriles with human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα) through molecular docking. We observed that iodoacetonitrile (median lethal dose: 1.96 × 10 M) and bromoacetonitrile (median lethal dose: 1.97 × 10 M) had similar cytotoxicities, which are higher than that of chloroacetonitrile (median lethal dose: 7.16 × 10 M). We observed bromoacetonitrile and chloroacetonitrile elicited estrogenic activity with 10% effective concentrations of 3.30 × 10 M and 2.36 × 10 M, respectively. This finding indicates that bromoacetonitrile and chloroacetonitrile may mimic estrogen signaling through interaction with hERα. Consistent with that result, we identified bromoacetonitrile and chloroacetonitrile interacted with residues in the original estrogen recognition sites of hERα. Our results show that bromoacetonitrile and chloroacetonitrile affect the endocrine-disrupting potency mediated via estrogen receptors by using in vitro assay and molecular docking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143316DOI Listing
March 2021

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Immature Sword Bean Pod () in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Cells.

J Med Food 2020 Nov;23(11):1183-1191

Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Sejong, Korea.

Sword bean has been known as a traditional medicinal plant to treat cancer, sinus infection, and suppurative disease. It also possesses hypertension-relieving, antioxidation, and antibacterial effects. However, studies on the efficacy of sword bean are limited to mature beans. Few studies have focused on immature sword bean pod (ISBP). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of ISBP in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells were treated with ISBP at concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 5 mg/mL), levels of nitrite oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, protein, and mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inflammatory cytokine secretion level, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-B) activity were determined. Under inflammatory conditions induced by LPS, ISBP reduced levels of inflammatory mediators NO and PGE2 by 60% and 23%, respectively. It also decreased protein and mRNA expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 known to synthesize inflammatory mediators. Inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1, levels were decreased, while interferon gamma level was increased by ISBP based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real time-polymerase chain reaction results. Finally, ISBP showed the ability to inhibit NF-B activity. In conclusion, ISBP can alleviate inflammation by controlling inflammation-related substances, and may have efficacy as a healthful functional food and natural anti-inflammatory drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2020.4733DOI Listing
November 2020

Predictive factors for early clinical response in community-onset urinary tract infection and effects of initial antibiotic treatment on early clinical response.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Oct;8(19):4342-4348

Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Wonkwang Medical Science, Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan 54538, South Korea.

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common disease. It often requires hospitalization, and severe presentations, including sepsis and other complications, have a mortality rate of 6.7%-8.7%.

Aim: To evaluate the predictive factors for early clinical response and effects of initial antibiotic therapy on early clinical response in community-onset () urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Wonkwang University Hospital in South Korea between January 2011 and December 2017. Hospitalized patients (aged ≥ 18 years) who were diagnosed with community-onset UTI were enrolled in this study.

Results: A total of 511 hospitalized patients were included. 66.1% of the patients had an early clinical response. The mean length of hospital stay in patients with an early clinical response were each 4.3 d shorter than in patients without an early clinical response. In the multiple regression analysis, initial appropriate antibiotic therapy (OR = 2.449, = 0.006), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing (OR = 2.112, = 0.044), improper use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials (OR = 0.411, = 0.006), and a stay in a healthcare facility before admission (OR = 0.562, = 0.033) were the factors associated with an early clinical response. Initial broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was not associated with an early clinical response.

Conclusion: ESBL producing , and the type of residence before hospital admission were the factors associated with an early clinical response. Appropriateness of initial antibiotic therapy was a predictive factor for an early clinical response, but broad-spectrum of initial antibiotic therapy did not impact early clinical response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i19.4342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7559663PMC
October 2020

Application of Non-Destructive Rapid Determination of Piperine in L. (Black Pepper) Using NIR and Multivariate Statistical Analysis: A Promising Quality Control Tool.

Foods 2020 Oct 11;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 01811, Korea.

Piperine is a bioactive alkaloid compound which provides a unique spicy flavor derived from plants of the L. Black pepper ( = 160) collected from Vietnam was studied using non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The spectral acquisition ranged from 1100 to 2500 nm, and a chemometrics analysis program was performed to quantify the piperine contents. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to develop a chemometric model based on reference values. The black pepper samples were divided into two groups used for calibration ( = 120) and prediction ( = 40) sets. The optimum calibration model was developed by pretreatment of the spectra. The analyses results based on the prediction samples included a coefficient of determination () of 0.914, a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of about 0.220 g/100 g, and a ratio performance to deviation (RPD) value of 3.378 regarding the partial least square (PLS) regression model, and an of 0.921, an RMSEP and SEP of 0.210 g/100 g, and an RPD of 3.571, with respect to the principal components (PC) regression model. These results indicate that NIRS can be applicable as a control, or as an alternative rapid and effective method to quantify piperine in L.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9101437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600935PMC
October 2020

Matrix Softness-Mediated 3D Zebrafish Hepatocyte Modulates Response to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 11 19;54(21):13797-13806. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) include synthetic compounds that mimic the structure or function of natural hormones. While most studies utilize live embryos or primary cells from adult fish, these cells rapidly lose functionality when cultured on plastic or glass substrates coated with extracellular matrix proteins. This study hypothesizes that the softness of a matrix with adhered fish cells can regulate the intercellular organization and physiological function of engineered hepatoids during EDC exposure. We scrutinized this hypothesis by culturing zebrafish hepatocytes (ZF-L) on collagen-based hydrogels with controlled elastic moduli by examining morphology, urea production, and intracellular oxidative stress of hepatoids exposed to 17β-estradiol. Interestingly, the softer gel drove cells to form a cell sheet with a canaliculi-like structure compared to its stiffer gel counterpart. The hepatoids cultured on the softer gel exhibited more active urea production upon exposure to 17β-estradiol and displayed faster recovery of intracellular reactive oxygen species level confirmed by gradient light interference microscopy (GLIM), a live-cell imaging technique. These results are broadly useful to improve screening and understanding of potential EDC impacts on aquatic organisms and human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c01988DOI Listing
November 2020

Neuroprotective Activity of Polyphenol-Rich Pall against Oxidative Stress in Glutamate-Stimulated HT-22 Cells and a Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia Animal Model.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Sep 21;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Pall, a native Mongolian medicinal plant, has been reported to show antioxidant activities due to its polyphenol and flavonoid content, and is especially rich in the ethyl acetate fraction from an 80% methanol extraction (RDP). We assessed the cytoprotective effect of RDP on glutamate-caused oxidative stress and apoptosis in mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT-22 cells). Cell viability was significantly recovered by RDP treatment. Also, RDP effectively decreased the glutamate-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In flow cytometric analysis, apoptotic cells and the mitochondrial membrane potential were suppressed by RDP. In the Western blotting analysis, we found that RDP not only decreased the release of apoptotic proteins but also recovered anti-apoptotic protein. Additionally, RDP enhanced the antioxidant defense system by regulating the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, treatment with RDP activated the BDNF/TrkB pathway. In accordance with the in vitro results, RDP meliorated memory deficit by defending hippocampal neuronal cells against oxidative damage in scopolamine-injected mice. Taken together, our present study showed that RDP exerted antioxidant and neuroprotective actions against oxidative stress. Therefore, RDP might facilitate the development of candidates for functional health foods for neurodegenerative disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7555254PMC
September 2020

Quantitative prediction of mixture toxicity of AgNO and ZnO nanoparticles on .

Sci Technol Adv Mater 2020 Jun 16;21(1):333-345. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

KIST Europe Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Saarbrücken, Germany.

Once metal-based engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are released into the aquatic environment, they are expected to interact with other existing co-contaminants. A knowledge gap exists as to how the interaction of NPs with other co-contaminants occurs. Here we selected ZnO NPs among various NPs, with Ag ion existing as a contaminant in the aquatic environment by Ag NPs widely used. A novel modeling strategy was demonstrated enabling quantitative and predictive evaluation of the aqueous mixture nanotoxicity. Individual and binary mixture toxicity tests of ZnO NPs and silver (as AgNO3) on Daphnia magna were conducted and compared to determine whether the presence of Ag ions affects the toxicity of ZnO NPs. Binary mixture toxicity was evaluated based on the concentration addition (CA) and independent action models. The CA dose-ratio dependent model was found to be the model of best fit for describing the pattern of mixture toxicity. The MIX I and MIX III suspensions (higher ratios of ZnO NPs to AgNO3) showed a synergism, whereas the MIX II suspension (lower ratio of ZnO NPs to AgNO3) showed an antagonism. The synergistic mixture toxicity at higher ratios of ZnO NPs to AgNO3 was caused by either the physiological or metabolic disturbance induced by the excessive ionic Zn or increased transport and accumulation in D. magna via the formation of complex of ionic Ag with ZnO NPs. Therefore, the toxicity level contributed via their aggregation and physicochemical properties and the dissolved ions played a crucial role in the mixture toxicities of the NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14686996.2020.1766343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7476544PMC
June 2020

Dual-Polarized Multi-Channel 24 GHz Radar Sensor Antenna for High Channel-to-Channel Isolation.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Sep 14;20(18). Epub 2020 Sep 14.

School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Korea.

This article presents a dual-polarized, high gain multi-beam and high T/Rx channel-to-channel isolation antenna module for 24 GHz sensor applications. The proposed antenna is configured to support 2-Tx and 2-Rx channels with a pair of vertically polarized (VP) radiation pattern and a pair of horizontally polarized (HP) radiation pattern. Further, each linearly polarized T/Rx antenna is configured by 2 × 4 array with a multi-layer integrated feed network, resulting in four sets of 2 × 4 array antennas fabricated within a single printed circuit board (PCB). Since multiple RF channels must be ensured with minimal interference, high antenna-to-antenna, including Tx-to-Tx, Rx-to-Rx, and Tx-to-Rx port isolations in the proposed antenna are achieved by multi-layered feed network and four sets of T-shaped magnetic walls. To verify the performance of the proposed structure, a 2-Tx and 2-Rx antenna module was fabricated at 24 GHz. The fabricated antenna showed a measured maximum 10-dB impedance bandwidth of 3.9% with a maximum measured gain of 11.7 dBi, considering both Tx and Rx. Further, the measured channel-to-channel isolations were always better than 35.6 dB at 24 GHz.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20185233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571171PMC
September 2020

mmWave High Gain Planar H-Shaped Shorted Ring Antenna Array.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Sep 10;20(18). Epub 2020 Sep 10.

School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 06974, Korea.

A new design approach for a mmWave high gain planar antenna is presented. The proposed method can increase antenna directivity with a minimally enlarged radiation patch while the operation frequency is still matched at a higher target frequency. The fundamental structure of the proposed antenna is configured by a H-shaped and slot-loaded patch with a shorting pin symmetrically located across a signal excitation port. Further, to match the operation frequency with the frequency for the highest achievable gain, a vertically stacked matching conductor was inserted along the signal feed path between the radiation patch and the ground layer. The proposed single antenna showed the simulated directivity of 9.46 dBi while the conventional patch with a same dielectric had 8.07 dBi. To verify practical performance, a 2 × 2 array antenna was fabricated at 28 GHz and showed the measured gain of 12.5 dBi including the array feed loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20185168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571215PMC
September 2020

Disseminated osteomyelitis after urinary tract infection in immunocompetent adult: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Aug;8(16):3542-3547

Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Wonkwang Medical Science, Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan 54538, South Korea.

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. Acute pyelonephritis or upper urinary tract infection is often accompanied by bacteremia; however, bacteremia resolves in most cases without complication. Rarely, complications due to bacteremia occur. One of these is osteomyelitis. It mainly affects the lumbar vertebral bodies, and rarely affects other site.

Case Summary: An 80-year-old woman presented to the hospital with a two-month history of pain in both legs. Two months ago, she was admitted to the hospital for fever, flank pain, and urinary frequency and was diagnosed with bacteremic UTI. During hospitalization, she complained of pain in both legs; however, the pain resolved shortly after, and no abnormalities were observed on physical examination. Therefore, she was placed on 2-wk antibiotic therapy for UTI without further evaluation for leg pain. However, pain recurred after discharge and persisted; therefore, an imaging test was performed. Bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging suggested osseous infection in both femurs, tibiae and patellae. Surgical treatment was performed, and tissue- and bone cultures revealed , a previously observed pathogen, which demonstrated same antibiotic sensitivities, as noted in previous UTI. She was diagnosed with disseminated osteomyelitis, as a complication of UTI, and was placed on an 8-wk antibiotic therapy.

Conclusion: Indication for osteomyelitis should be high regardless of bone pain at sites other than lumbar spine after or during UTI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i16.3542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457109PMC
August 2020

Feasibility of rapid piperine quantification in whole and black pepper using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

J Food Sci 2020 Oct 5;85(10):3094-3101. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul, 01811, Korea.

Piperine is a bioactive alkaloid that possesses various health benefits and is responsible for the pungent aroma of pepper. Piperine content in whole and ground black pepper (n = 132) was analyzed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the 950 to 1650 nm wavelength window. Chemometric modeling using partial least square regression was performed, and outliers were checked and removed during the preparation of the calibration curve by considering sample residual variance and sample leverage. Model accuracy was evaluated with a low root-mean-square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and a high ratio performance to deviation (RPD). The optimal model had a coefficient of determination (R ) of 0.726, RMSECV of 0.289 g/100 g, and RPD of 1.744 for the whole black pepper. The results of R , RMSECV, and RPD for the ground black pepper were 0.850, 0.231 g/100 g, and 2.424, respectively. Therefore, based on the perspective of onsite process, the proposed NIRS method can be employed for selecting abnormal samples during the inspection of black pepper raw material and for quantifying piperine contents of final black pepper product. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Generally, the quality indicators of black pepper are graded solely based on their external appearance, quality, and size. This study discloses the development of a near-infrared spectroscopy-based fast and accurate nondestructive analytical method for the detection of piperine, a bioactive constituent of pepper, as a tool for the quality control of whole and ground black pepper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15428DOI Listing
October 2020

Reproductive dysfunction linked to alteration of endocrine activities in zebrafish exposed to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP).

Environ Pollut 2020 Oct 11;265(Pt B):114362. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Chemical Analysis Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Daejeon, 34114, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study aimed to investigate the effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), one of the major phthalate metabolites that are widespread in aquatic environments, on reproductive dysfunction, particularly on endocrine activity in adult male and female zebrafish. For 21 days, the zebrafish were exposed to test concentrations of MEHP (0, 2, 10, and 50 μg/mL) that were determined based on the effective concentrations (ECx) for zebrafish embryos. Exposure to 50 μg/mL MEHP in female zebrafish significantly decreased the number of ovulated eggs as well as the hepatic VTG mRNA abundance when those of the control group. Meanwhile, in female zebrafish, the biosynthetic concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and the metabolic ratio of androgen to estrogen were remarkably increased in all MEHP exposed group compared with those in the control group, along with the elevated levels of cortisol. However, no significant difference was observed between these parameters in male zebrafishes. Therefore, exposure to MEHP causes reproductive dysfunction in female zebrafishes and this phenomenon can be attributed to the alteration in endocrine activities. Moreover, the reproductive dysfunction in MEHP-exposed female zebrafishes may be closely associated with stress responses, such as elevated cortisol levels. To further understand the effect of MEHP on the reproductive activities of fish, follow-up studies are required to determine the interactions between endocrine activities and stress responses. Overall, this study provides a response biomarker for assessing reproductive toxicity of endocrine disruptors that can serve as a methodological approach for an alternative to chronic toxicity testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114362DOI Listing
October 2020

Validation and measurement uncertainty of GC-MS quantification method for nicotine in dried mushrooms using QuEChERS extraction.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2020 Oct 13;37(10):1687-1694. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul National University of Science & Technology , Seoul, Korea.

Nicotine is an alkaloid and a secondary plant metabolite that has been used as an insecticide. Despite their widespread application, the EU banned the use of nicotine-containing pesticides in December 2008. However, studies in Europe have found nicotine in mushrooms. Nicotine has also been detected in wild mushrooms, so there are other causes of contamination as well as pesticide. This study reports the development of GC-MS method for quantitatively analysing nicotine in mushrooms. This method provides recoveries of 89.5-92.5%, intra-day precisions of 0.32-0.85%, and inter-day precisions of 0.73-2.36%, with limits of detection and quantification of 0.38 and 1.15 μg kg-1, respectively. The relative expanded uncertainty result of 2.8-4.0% complies with CODEX requirements. The method was successfully applied to eleven mushroom samples in which nicotine was detected at levels of 0.033-1.713 mg kg-1. Therefore, this method is suitable for the quantification of nicotine in dried mushrooms to ensure pre-emptive food safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2020.1800827DOI Listing
October 2020

IDH2 Deficiency Is Critical in Myogenesis and Fatty Acid Metabolism in Mice Skeletal Muscle.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 5;21(16). Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Behavioral Health and Nutrition, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA.

Mitochondrial NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate with concurrent reduction of NADP to NADPH. However, it is not fully understood how IDH2 is intertwined with muscle development and fatty acid metabolism. Here, we examined the effects of IDH2 knockout (KO) on skeletal muscle energy homeostasis. Calf skeletal muscle samples from 10-week-old male IDH2 KO and wild-type (WT; C57BL/6N) mice were harvested, and the ratio of skeletal muscle weight to body and the ratio of mitochondrial to nucleic DNA were measured. In addition, genes involved in myogenesis, mitochondria biogenesis, adipogenesis, and thermogenesis were compared. Results showed that the ratio of skeletal muscle weight to body weight was lower in IDH2 KO mice than those in WT mice. Of note, a noticeable shift in fiber size distribution was found in IDH2 KO mice. Additionally, there was a trend of a decrease in mitochondrial content in IDH2 KO mice than in WT mice ( = 0.09). Further, mRNA expressions for myogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis were either decreased or showed a trend of decrease in IDH2 KO mice. Moreover, genes for adipogenesis pathway (, , and ) were downregulated in IDH2 KO mice. Interestingly, mRNA and protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a hallmark of thermogenesis, were remarkably increased in IDH2 KO mice. In line with the UCP1 expression, IDH2 KO mice showed higher rectal temperature than WT mice under cold stress. Taken together, IDH2 deficiency may affect myogenesis, possibly due to impairments of muscle generation and abnormal fatty acid oxidation as well as thermogenesis in muscle via upregulation of UCP1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460611PMC
August 2020

Change of Characterization and Film Morphology Based on Acrylic Pressure Sensitive Adhesives by Hydrophilic Derivative Ratio.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Green and Sustainable Materials R&D Department/Research Institute of Clean Manufacturing System, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 89 Yangdaegiro-gil, Ipjang-myeon, Seobuk-gu, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 331-822, Korea.

Hydrophilic acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) were synthesized by controlling the contents of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA), isobornyl acrylate (IBOA), and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA); especially, the characteristic change of the HEA content was analyzed. Surface contact angle of acrylic PSA film decreased from 77.87° to 70.23° in the case of Acryl-2 to Acryl-8 (below HEA 10 wt %). However, the surface contact angle of Acryl-10 to Acryl-40 (HEA 10 wt % to 40 wt %) increased up to 92.29°, indicating hydrophobicity. All acrylic PSA films showed high adhesive force above 1800 gf/25 mm. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement, hydrophilic acrylic PSAs exhibited amorphous property and it was confirmed that the morphology of acrylic PSA film was significantly affected by the flexibility of the polymer chain and the strength of hydrogen bonding. The affinity with hydrophilic materials for acrylic PSA films was evaluated by T-type peel test, confirming that the affinity with hydrophilic materials is determined by the hydrophilicity of the acrylic PSA film. The synthesized acrylic PSA film is non-toxic regardless of the hydrophilicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12071504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408043PMC
July 2020

Complications associated with volar locking plate fixation for distal radius fractures in 1955 cases: A multicentre retrospective study.

Int Orthop 2020 10 26;44(10):2057-2067. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, 351 Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Since volar locking plates (VLPs) have the benefits of more stable fixation and fewer complications, VLP osteosynthesis is now the preferred osteosynthesis method in the operative management of distal radius fractures (DRF). Along with the increases in operative management of VLP, the character and frequency of complications have changed. Thus, this multicentre study aimed to identify the characteristics of patients with DRFs who were treated with VLP fixation, describe the complication types and rates related to the procedure, and compare the results with those found in the literature.

Material And Methods: This retrospective multicentre study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2017. In total, data from 2225 patients over 17 years old who underwent VLP fixation for DRF were screened. Patients with closed reduction and pinning, external fixation, dorsal plate fixation, and screw-only fixation were excluded. Finally, 1955 wrists from 1921 patients (86.3%) were included. The following types of complications were investigated: (1) tendon injury, (2) nerve-related, (3) fixation- and instrument-related, (4) osteosynthesis-related, (5) infection, and (6) others.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 60.3 ± 14.6 years with 587 males (30.6%). Distal ulnar fractures were found in 940 wrists (48.1%). The mean interval between fracture and surgery was 6.2 days, while the mean operative time was 68.3 ± 30.3 minutes. The following complications were found: (1) nine (0.46%) and 12 (0.61%) cases of flexor pollicis longus and complete extensor pollicis longus tears, respectively; (2) nine cases (0.46%) of palmar sensory median nerve branch damage, 15 cases (0.77%) of complex regional pain syndrome, and 36 cases (1.84%) of carpal tunnel syndrome; (3) five cases (0.26%) of fracture displacement even after plate fixation, six cases (0.31%) of screw breakage, 26 cases (1.33%) of radiocarpal joint screw penetration, and 511 cases (26.14%) of implant removal; (4) five cases (0.26%) of delayed union and three cases (0.15%) of non-union; (5) 83 (4.25%) and two (0.1%) cases of superficial and deep infection, respectively; and (6) two cases (0.1%) of compartment syndrome and three cases (0.15%) of radial artery damage.

Conclusions: After 10 years of experience performing VLP fixation for DRFs in a multicentre setting, the results regarding complication types and rates support its use as a reasonable treatment option with low rates of complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-020-04673-zDOI Listing
October 2020

Benign gallbladder diseases: Imaging techniques and tips for differentiating with malignant gallbladder diseases.

World J Gastroenterol 2020 Jun;26(22):2967-2986

Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, 120-1 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05030, South Korea.

Benign gallbladder diseases usually present with intraluminal lesions and localized or diffuse wall thickening. Intraluminal lesions of the gallbladder include gallstones, cholesterol polyps, adenomas, or sludge and polypoid type of gallbladder cancer must subsequently be excluded. Polyp size, stalk width, and enhancement intensity on contrast-enhanced ultrasound and degree of diffusion restriction may help differentiate cholesterol polyps and adenomas from gallbladder cancer. Localized gallbladder wall thickening is largely due to segmental or focal gallbladder adenomyomatosis, although infiltrative cancer may present similarly. Identification of Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses is pivotal in diagnosing adenomyomatosis. The layered pattern, degree of enhancement, and integrity of the wall are imaging clues that help discriminate innocuous thickening from gallbladder cancer. High-resolution ultrasound is especially useful for analyzing the layering of gallbladder wall. A diffusely thickened wall is frequently seen in inflammatory processes of the gallbladder. Nevertheless, it is important to check for coexistent cancer in instances of acute cholecystitis. Ultrasound used alone is limited in evaluating complicated cholecystitis and often requires complementary computed tomography. In chronic cholecystitis, preservation of a two-layered wall and weak wall enhancement are diagnostic clues for excluding malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with diffusion-weighted imaging helps to differentiate xathogranulomatous cholecystitis from gallbladder cancer by identifying the presence of fat and degree of diffusion restriction. Such distinctions require a familiarity with typical imaging features of various gallbladder diseases and an understanding of the roles that assorted imaging modalities play in gallbladder evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i22.2967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304100PMC
June 2020

COVID-19 Pneumonia Diagnosis Using a Simple 2D Deep Learning Framework With a Single Chest CT Image: Model Development and Validation.

J Med Internet Res 2020 06 29;22(6):e19569. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan-si, Republic of Korea.

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread explosively worldwide since the beginning of 2020. According to a multinational consensus statement from the Fleischner Society, computed tomography (CT) is a relevant screening tool due to its higher sensitivity for detecting early pneumonic changes. However, physicians are extremely occupied fighting COVID-19 in this era of worldwide crisis. Thus, it is crucial to accelerate the development of an artificial intelligence (AI) diagnostic tool to support physicians.

Objective: We aimed to rapidly develop an AI technique to diagnose COVID-19 pneumonia in CT images and differentiate it from non-COVID-19 pneumonia and nonpneumonia diseases.

Methods: A simple 2D deep learning framework, named the fast-track COVID-19 classification network (FCONet), was developed to diagnose COVID-19 pneumonia based on a single chest CT image. FCONet was developed by transfer learning using one of four state-of-the-art pretrained deep learning models (VGG16, ResNet-50, Inception-v3, or Xception) as a backbone. For training and testing of FCONet, we collected 3993 chest CT images of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, other pneumonia, and nonpneumonia diseases from Wonkwang University Hospital, Chonnam National University Hospital, and the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology public database. These CT images were split into a training set and a testing set at a ratio of 8:2. For the testing data set, the diagnostic performance of the four pretrained FCONet models to diagnose COVID-19 pneumonia was compared. In addition, we tested the FCONet models on an external testing data set extracted from embedded low-quality chest CT images of COVID-19 pneumonia in recently published papers.

Results: Among the four pretrained models of FCONet, ResNet-50 showed excellent diagnostic performance (sensitivity 99.58%, specificity 100.00%, and accuracy 99.87%) and outperformed the other three pretrained models in the testing data set. In the additional external testing data set using low-quality CT images, the detection accuracy of the ResNet-50 model was the highest (96.97%), followed by Xception, Inception-v3, and VGG16 (90.71%, 89.38%, and 87.12%, respectively).

Conclusions: FCONet, a simple 2D deep learning framework based on a single chest CT image, provides excellent diagnostic performance in detecting COVID-19 pneumonia. Based on our testing data set, the FCONet model based on ResNet-50 appears to be the best model, as it outperformed other FCONet models based on VGG16, Xception, and Inception-v3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/19569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332254PMC
June 2020

Comparative Analysis of C-Reactive Protein Levels in the Saliva and Serum of Dogs with Various Diseases.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 17;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

We performed this study to characterize the difference between the inflammatory and non-inflammatory status in diseased dogs by measuring salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. In addition, we assessed whether a correlation exists between CRP levels in saliva and those in serum. CRP levels were measured in 32 client-owned dogs, which were then divided into inflammation and non-inflammation groups based on the serum CRP level. The salivary CRP level was higher in the inflammation group than in the non-inflammation group ( < 0.05). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the salivary and serum CRP levels ( = 0.866, < 0.001). These data suggest that canine salivary CRP measurements can effectively and non-invasively detect an inflammatory state in dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10061042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341185PMC
June 2020

Assessment of Physicochemical Quality, Antioxidant Content and Activity, and Inhibition of Cholinesterase between Unripe and Ripe Blueberry Fruit.

Foods 2020 May 26;9(6). Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Food Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan, Chungnam 31116, Korea.

Five Korean blueberries (''Nelson'', ''Duke '', ''Bluejay '', ''Toro'', and ''Elliot '') were harvested at two maturity stages (unripe and ripe) to evaluate fruit quality and antioxidant activities. The Hunter L, a, and b color of ripe blueberries was lower than that of unripe fruit. Soluble solid concentration (SSC) and pH increased, and titratable acidity (TA) and firmness decreased as the blueberries matured. The ripe blueberry fruits showed a higher SSC/TA ratio than the unripe fruits. Although total anthocyanin, flavonoids, phenolics content, and antioxidant activity were higher in ripe blueberries than in unripe fruit, the unripe fruit had higher acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition activities than ripe fruit in all cultivars. Total antioxidant activity was highly correlated with total flavonoids and phenolics. The relationships between the total antioxidant activity and the AChE or BChE inhibitory activity are negative. There were several physicochemical quality and antioxidant activity differences in blueberries, depending on the cultivar and the maturity at harvest. Unripe fruits also contain potential health-promoting bioactive compounds as functional food ingredients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9060690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7353561PMC
May 2020