Publications by authors named "Young Jo Kim"

436 Publications

Multivessel versus IRA-only PCI in patients with NSTEMI and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(10):e0258525. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: A substantial number of patients presenting with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and multivessel disease (MVD) have severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35%). But data are lacking regarding optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy for these patients. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of IRA (infarct-related artery)-only and multivessel PCI in patients with NSTEMI and MVD complicated by severe LVSD.

Methods: Among 13,104 patients enrolled in the PCI registry from November 2011 to December 2015, patients with NSTEMI and MVD with severe LVSD who underwent successful PCI were screened. The primary outcome was 3-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), defined as all-cause death, any myocardial infarction, stroke, and any revascularization.

Results: Overall, 228 patients were treated with IRA-only PCI (n = 104) or MV-PCI (n = 124). The MACE risk was significantly lower in the MV-PCI group than in the IRA-only PCI group (35.5% vs. 54.8%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.561; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.378-0.832; p = 0.04). This result was mainly driven by a significantly lower risk of all-cause death (23.4% vs. 41.4%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.503; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.314-0.806; p = 0.004). The results were consistent after multivariate regression, propensity-score matching, and inverse probability weighting to adjust for baseline differences.

Conclusions: Among patients with NSTEMI and MVD complicated with severe LVSD, multivessel PCI was associated with a significantly lower MACE risk. The findings may provide valuable information to physicians who are involved in decision-making for these patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258525PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8513855PMC
October 2021

Which hip morphology measures and patient factors are associated with age of onset and symptom severity in femoroacetabular impingement syndrome?

Hip Int 2021 Aug 23:11207000211038550. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Institute of Bone and Joint Research, University of Sydney, St Leonards, NSW, Australia.

Background: Bony morphology is central to the pathomechanism of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS), however isolated radiographic measures poorly predict symptom onset and severity. More comprehensive morphology measurement considered together with patient factors may better predict symptom presentation. This study aimed to determine the morphological parameter(s) and patient factor(s) associated with symptom age of onset and severity in FAIS.

Methods: 99 participants (age 32.9 ± 10.5 years; body mass index (BMI 24.3 ± 3.1 kg/m; 42% females) diagnosed with FAIS received standardised plain radiographs and magnetic resonance scans. Alpha angle in four radial planes (superior to anterior), acetabular version (AV), femoral torsion, lateral centre-edge, anterior centre-edge (ACEA) and femoral neck-shaft angles were measured. Age of symptom onset (age at presentation minus duration of symptoms), international Hip Outcome Tool-33 (iHOT-33) and modified UCLA activity scores were recorded. Backward stepwise regression assessed morphological parameters and patient factors (age, sex, BMI, symptom duration, annual income, private/public healthcare system accessed) to determine variables independently associated with onset age and iHOT-33 score.

Results: Earlier symptom onset was associated with larger superoanterior alpha angle ( = 0.007), smaller AV ( = 0.023), lower BMI ( = 0.010) and public healthcare system access ( = 0.041) (r = 0.320). Worse iHOT-33 score was associated with smaller ACEA ( = 0.034), female sex ( = 0.040), worse modified UCLA activity score ( = 0.010) and public healthcare system access ( < 0.001) (r = 0.340).

Conclusions: Age of symptom onset was chiefly predicted by femoral and acetabular bony morphology measures, whereas symptom severity predominantly by patient factors. Factors measured explained a small amount of variance in the data; additional unmeasured factors may be more influential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11207000211038550DOI Listing
August 2021

Multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing arthroscopic hip surgery to physiotherapist-led care for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome on hip cartilage metabolism: the Australian FASHIoN trial.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Aug 16;22(1):697. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Physiotherapy, Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.

Background: Arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAI) is known to lead to self-reported symptom improvement. In the context of surgical interventions with known contextual effects and no true sham comparator trials, it is important to ascertain outcomes that are less susceptible to placebo effects. The primary aim of this trial was to determine if study participants with FAI who have hip arthroscopy demonstrate greater improvements in delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cartilage (dGEMRIC) index between baseline and 12 months, compared to participants who undergo physiotherapist-led management.

Methods: Multi-centre, pragmatic, two-arm superiority randomised controlled trial comparing physiotherapist-led management to hip arthroscopy for FAI. FAI participants were recruited from participating orthopaedic surgeons clinics, and randomly allocated to receive either physiotherapist-led conservative care or surgery. The surgical intervention was arthroscopic FAI surgery. The physiotherapist-led conservative management was an individualised physiotherapy program, named Personalised Hip Therapy (PHT). The primary outcome measure was change in dGEMRIC score between baseline and 12 months. Secondary outcomes included a range of patient-reported outcomes and structural measures relevant to FAI pathoanatomy and hip osteoarthritis development. Interventions were compared by intention-to-treat analysis.

Results: Ninety-nine participants were recruited, of mean age 33 years and 58% male. Primary outcome data were available for 53 participants (27 in surgical group, 26 in PHT). The adjusted group difference in change at 12 months in dGEMRIC was -59 ms (95%CI - 137.9 to - 19.6) (p = 0.14) favouring PHT. Hip-related quality of life (iHOT-33) showed improvements in both groups with the adjusted between-group difference at 12 months showing a statistically and clinically important improvement in arthroscopy of 14 units (95% CI 5.6 to 23.9) (p = 0.003).

Conclusion: The primary outcome of dGEMRIC showed no statistically significant difference between PHT and arthroscopic hip surgery at 12 months of follow-up. Patients treated with surgery reported greater benefits in symptoms at 12 months compared to PHT, but these benefits are not explained by better hip cartilage metabolism.

Trial Registration Details: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12615001177549 . Trial registered 2/11/2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04576-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369620PMC
August 2021

Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction 1 Year After Acute Myocardial Infarction Identifies the Benefits of the Long-Term Use of β-Blockers: Analysis of Data From the KAMIR-NIH Registry.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 04 20;14(4):e010159. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Republic of Korea (C.S.P., H.-M.Y., Y.-J.K., J.K., J.-K.H., K.W.P., H.-J.K., B.-K.K., H.-S.K.).

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.010159DOI Listing
April 2021

Magnetization-prepared 2 Rapid Gradient-Echo MRI for B Insensitive 3D T1 Mapping of Hip Cartilage: An Experimental and Clinical Validation.

Radiology 2021 04 23;299(1):150-158. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

From the Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology (F.S., T.D.L., M.I., J.L.C., B.J.) and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (K.A.S., M.T.), Inselspital, University Hospital Bern, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse, 3010 Bern, Switzerland; Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery (F.S., Y.J.K., E.N.N.) and Radiology (O.A., S.D.B.), Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass; Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Siemens Healthcare, Lausanne, Switzerland (T.K.); Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland (T.K.); LTS5, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland (T.K.); Siemens Healthcare, Zürich, Switzerland (M.K.); and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cantonal Hospital, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland (M.T.).

Background Often used for T1 mapping of hip cartilage, three-dimensional (3D) dual-flip-angle (DFA) techniques are highly sensitive to flip angle variations related to B inhomogeneities. The authors hypothesized that 3D magnetization-prepared 2 rapid gradient-echo (MP2RAGE) MRI would help provide more accurate T1 mapping of hip cartilage at 3.0 T than would 3D DFA techniques. Purpose To compare 3D MP2RAGE MRI with 3D DFA techniques using two-dimensional (2D) inversion recovery T1 mapping as a standard of reference for hip cartilage T1 mapping in phantoms, healthy volunteers, and participants with hip pain. Materials and Methods T1 mapping at 3.0 T was performed in phantoms and in healthy volunteers using 3D MP2RAGE MRI and 3D DFA techniques with B field mapping for flip angle correction. Participants with hip pain prospectively (July 2019-January 2020) underwent indirect MR arthrography (with intravenous administration of 0.2 mmol/kg of gadoterate meglumine), including 3D MP2RAGE MRI. A 2D inversion recovery-based sequence served as a T1 reference in phantoms and in participants with hip pain. In healthy volunteers, cartilage T1 was compared between 3D MP2RAGE MRI and 3D DFA techniques. Paired tests and Bland-Altman analysis were performed. Results Eleven phantoms, 10 healthy volunteers (median age, 27 years; range, 26-30 years; five men), and 20 participants with hip pain (mean age, 34 years ± 10 [standard deviation]; 17 women) were evaluated. In phantoms, T1 bias from 2D inversion recovery was lower for 3D MP2RAGE MRI than for 3D DFA techniques (mean, 3 msec ± 11 vs 253 msec ± 85; < .001), and, unlike 3D DFA techniques, the deviation found with MP2RAGE MRI did not correlate with increasing B deviation. In healthy volunteers, regional cartilage T1 difference (109 msec ± 163; = .008) was observed only for the 3D DFA technique. In participants with hip pain, the mean T1 bias of 3D MP2RAGE MRI from 2D inversion recovery was -23 msec ± 31 ( < .001). Conclusion Compared with three-dimensional (3D) dual-flip-angle techniques, 3D magnetization-prepared 2 rapid gradient-echo MRI enabled more accurate T1 mapping of hip cartilage, was less affected by B inhomogeneities, and showed high accuracy against a T1 reference in participants with hip pain. © RSNA, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2021200085DOI Listing
April 2021

How Common Is Femoral Retroversion and How Is it Affected by Different Measurement Methods in Unilateral Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 05;479(5):947-959

F. Schmaranzer, J. R. Kallini, M. G. Ferrer, P. E. Miller, J. D. Wylie, Y-J. Kim, E. N. Novais, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Although femoral retroversion has been linked to the onset of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), and may result from a rotation of the femoral epiphysis around the epiphyseal tubercle leading to femoral retroversion, femoral version has rarely been described in patients with SCFE. Furthermore, the prevalence of actual femoral retroversion and the effect of different measurement methods on femoral version angles has yet to be studied in SCFE.

Questions/purposes: (1) Do femoral version and the prevalence of femoral retroversion differ between hips with SCFE and the asymptomatic contralateral side? (2) How do the mean femoral version angles and the prevalence of femoral retroversion change depending on the measurement method used? (3) What is the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of these measurement methods?

Methods: For this retrospective, controlled, single-center study, we reviewed our institutional database for patients who were treated for unilateral SCFE and who had undergone a pelvic CT scan. During the period in question, the general indication for obtaining a CT scan was to define the surgical strategy based on the assessment of deformity severity in patients with newly diagnosed SCFE or with previous in situ fixation. After applying prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included 79 patients. The mean age was 15 ± 4 years, 48% (38 of 79) of the patients were male, and 56% (44 of 79) were obese (defined as a BMI > 95th percentile (mean BMI 34 ± 9 kg/m2). One radiology resident (6 years of experience) measured femoral version of the entire study group using five different methods. Femoral neck version was measured as the orientation of the femoral neck. Further measurement methods included the femoral head's center and differed regarding the level of landmarks for the proximal femoral reference axis. From proximal to distal, this included the most-proximal methods (Lee et al. and Reikerås et al.) and most-distal methods (Tomczak et al. and Murphy et al.). Most proximally (Lee et al. method), we used the most cephalic junction of the greater trochanter as the landmark and, most distally, we used the center base of the femoral neck superior to the lesser trochanter (Murphy et al.). The orientation of the distal femoral condyles served as the distal reference axis for all five measurement methods. All five methods were compared side-by-side (involved versus uninvolved hip), and comparisons among all five methods were performed using paired t-tests. The prevalence of femoral retroversion (< 0°) was compared using a chi-square test. A subset of patients was measured twice by the first observer and by a second orthopaedic resident (2 years of experience) to assess intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability; for this assessment, we used intraclass correlation coefficients.

Results: The mean femoral neck version was lower in hips with SCFE than in the contralateral side (-2° ± 13° versus 7° ± 11°; p < 0.001). This yielded a mean side-by side difference of -8° ± 11° (95% CI -11° to -6°; p < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of femoral retroversion in hips with SCFE (58% [95% CI 47% to 69%]; p < 0.001) than on the contralateral side (29% [95% CI 19% to 39%]). These differences between hips with SCFE and the contralateral side were higher and ranged from -17° ± 11° (95% CI -20° to -15°; p < 0.001) based on the method of Tomczak et al. to -22° ± 13° (95% CI -25° to -19°; p < 0.001) according to the method of Murphy et al. The mean overall femoral version angles increased for hips with SCFE using more-distal landmarks compared with more-proximal landmarks. The prevalence of femoral retroversion was higher in hips with SCFE for the proximal methods of Lee et al. and Reikerås et al. (91% [95% CI 85% to 97%] and 84% [95% CI 76% to 92%], respectively) than for the distal measurement methods of Tomczak et al. and Murphy et al. (47% [95% CI 36% to 58%] and 60% [95% CI 49% to 71%], respectively [all p < 0.001]). We detected mean differences ranging from -19° to 4° (all p < 0.005) for 8 of 10 pairwise comparisons in hips with SCFE. Among these, the greatest differences were between the most-proximal methods and the more-distal methods, with a mean difference of -19° ± 7° (95% CI -21° to -18°; p < 0.001), comparing the methods of Lee et al. and Tomczak et al. In hips with SCFE, we found excellent agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] > 0.80) for intraobserver reproducibility (reader 1, ICC 0.93 to 0.96) and interobserver reliability (ICC 0.95 to 0.98) for all five measurement methods. Analogously, we found excellent agreement (ICC > 0.80) for intraobserver reproducibility (reader 1, range 0.91 to 0.96) and interobserver reliability (range 0.89 to 0.98) for all five measurement methods in healthy contralateral hips.

Conclusion: We showed that femoral neck version is asymmetrically decreased in unilateral SCFE, and that differences increase when including the femoral head's center. Thus, to assess the full extent of an SCFE deformity, femoral version measurements should consider the position of the displaced epiphysis. The prevalence of femoral retroversion was high in patients with SCFE and increased when using proximal anatomic landmarks. Since the range of femoral version angles was wide, femoral version cannot be predicted in a given hip and must be assessed individually. Based on these findings, we believe it is worthwhile to add evaluation of femoral version to the diagnostic workup of children with SCFE. Doing so may better inform surgeons as they contemplate when to use isolated offset correction or to perform an additional femoral osteotomy for SCFE correction based on the severity of the slip and the rotational deformity. To facilitate communication among physicians and for the design of future studies, we recommend consistently reporting the applied measurement technique.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052062PMC
May 2021

Gender differences in clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the KAMIR-NIH Registry.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2020 Nov;17(11):680-693

Division of Cardiology, Daejeon St. Mary's hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: There are numerous but conflicting data regarding gender differences in outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Furthermore, gender differences in clinical outcomes with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following PCI in Asian population remain uncertain because of the under-representation of Asian in previous trials.

Methods: A total of 13, 104 AMI patients from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health (KAMIR-NIH) between November 2011 and December 2015 were classified into male ( = 8021, 75.9%) and female ( = 2547, 24.1%). We compared the demographic, clinical and angiographic characteristics, 30-days and 1-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in women with those in men after AMI by using propensity score (PS) matching.

Results: Compared with men, women were older, had more comorbidities and more often presented with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and reduced left ventricular systolic function. Over the median follow-up of 363 days, gender differences in both 30-days and 1-year MACCE as well as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction minor bleeding risk were not observed in the PS matched population (30-days MACCE: 5.3% . 4.7%, log-rank = 0.494, HR = 1.126, 95% CI: 0.800-1.585; 1-year MACCE: 9.3% . 9.0%, log-rank = 0.803, HR = 1.032, 95% CI: 0.802-1.328; TIMI minor bleeding: 4.9% . 3.9%, log-rank = 0.215, HR = 1.255, 95% CI: 0.869-1.814).

Conclusions: Among Korean AMI population undergoing contemporary PCI, women, as compared with men, had different clinical and angiographic characteristics but showed similar 30-days and 1-year clinical outcomes. The risk of bleeding after PCI was comparable between men and women during one-year follow up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729180PMC
November 2020

Does the Capital Femoral Physis Bony MorphologyDiffer in Children with Symptomatic Cam-type Femoroacetabular Impingement.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 05;479(5):922-931

S. Hosseinzadeh, E. N. Novais, A. Emami, G. Portilla, D. A. Maranho, Y.-J. Kim, A. M. Kiapour, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Child and Young Adult Hip Preservation Program at Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The epiphyseal tubercle, the corresponding metaphyseal fossa, and peripheral cupping are key stabilizers of the femoral head-neck junction. Abnormal development of these features in the setting of supraphysiologic physeal stress under high forces (for example, forces that occur during sports activity) may result in a cam morphology. Although most previous studies on cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) have mainly focused on overgrowth of the peripheral cupping, little is known about detailed morphologic changes of the epiphyseal and metaphyseal bony surfaces in patients with cam morphology.

Questions/purposes: (1) Does the CT-based bony morphology of the peripheral epiphyseal cupping differ between patients with a cam-type morphology and asymptomatic controls (individuals who did not have hip pain)? (2) Does the CT-based bony morphology of the epiphyseal tubercle differ between patients with a cam-type morphology and asymptomatic controls? (3) Does the CT-based bony morphology of the metaphyseal fossa differ between patients with a cam-type morphology and asymptomatic controls?

Methods: After obtaining institutional review board approval for this study, we retrospectively searched our institutional database for patients aged 8 to 15 years with a diagnosis of an idiopathic cam morphology who underwent a preoperative CT evaluation of the affected hip between 2005 and 2018 (n = 152). We excluded 96 patients with unavailable CT scans and 40 patients with prior joint diseases other than cam-type FAI. Our search resulted in 16 patients, including nine males. Six of 16 patients had a diagnosis of bilateral FAI, for whom we randomly selected one side for the analysis. Three-dimensional (3-D) models of the proximal femur were generated to quantify the size of the peripheral cupping (peripheral growth of the epiphysis around the metaphysis), epiphyseal tubercle (a beak-like prominence in the posterosuperior aspect of the epiphysis), and metaphyseal fossa (a groove on the metaphyseal surface corresponding to the epiphyseal tubercle). A general linear model was used to compare the quantified anatomic features between the FAI cohort and 80 asymptomatic hips (aged 8 to 15 years; 50% male) after adjusting for age and sex. A secondary analysis using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test was performed to assess side-to-side differences in quantified morphological features in 10 patients with unilateral FAI.

Results: After adjusting for age and sex, we found that patients with FAI had larger peripheral cupping in the anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior regions than control patients who did not have hip symptoms or radiographic signs of FAI (by 1.3- to 1.7-fold; p < 0.01 for all comparisons). The epiphyseal tubercle height and length were smaller in patients with FAI than in controls (by 0.3- to 0.6-fold; p < 0.02 for all comparisons). There was no difference in tubercle width between the groups. Metaphyseal fossa depth, width, and length were larger in patients with FAI than in controls (by 1.8- to 2.3-fold; p < 0.001 for all comparisons). For patients with unilateral FAI, we saw similar peripheral cupping but smaller epiphyseal tubercle (height and length) along with larger metaphyseal fossa (depth) in the FAI side compared with the uninvolved contralateral side.

Conclusion: Consistent with prior studies, we observed more peripheral cupping in patients with cam-type FAI than control patients without hip symptoms or radiographic signs of FAI. Interestingly, the epiphyseal tubercle height and length were smaller and the metaphyseal fossa was larger in hips with cam-type FAI, suggesting varying inner bone surface morphology of the growth plate. The docking mechanism between the epiphyseal tubercle and the metaphyseal fossa is important for epiphyseal stability, particularly at early ages when the peripheral cupping is not fully developed. An underdeveloped tubercle and a large fossa could be associated with a reduction in stability, while excessive peripheral cupping growth would be a factor related to improved physeal stability. This is further supported by observed side-to-side differences in tubercle and fossa morphology in patients with unilateral FAI. Further longitudinal studies would be worthwhile to study the causality and compensatory mechanisms related to epiphyseal and metaphyseal bony morphology in pathogenesis cam-type FAI. Such information will lay the foundation for developing imaging biomarkers to predict the risk of FAI or to monitor its progress, which are critical in clinical care planning.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052091PMC
May 2021

Melanin pigments extracted from horsehair as antibacterial agents.

J Mater Chem B 2021 02 15;9(6):1536-1545. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA.

Here we present the important findings related to biologically derived pigments for potential use as antibacterial agents. Melanin biopigments extracted from Equus ferus hair exhibit a homogeneous elliptical microstructure with highly ordered semicrystalline features. Spectroscopic analysis indicates that melanin contains a high degree of redox active catechol groups, which can produce reactive oxygen species. The antibacterial activity of melanins was tested by incubating Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with melanins. The results showed 100% bacterial growth inhibition within 4 h. This finding suggests that melanin pigments may serve as naturally occurring antibacterial agents with unique redox chemistry and reactive oxygen species generation capability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb02475aDOI Listing
February 2021

What Is the Association Among Epiphyseal Rotation, Translation, and the Morphology of the Epiphysis and Metaphysis in Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 05;479(5):935-944

E. N. Novais, S. Hosseinzadeh, S. A. Emami, D. A. Maranho, Y.-J. Kim, A. M. Kiapour, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Contemporary studies have described the rotational mechanism in patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). However, there have been limited patient imaging data and information to quantify the rotation. Determining whether the epiphysis is rotated or translated and measuring the epiphyseal displacement in all planes may facilitate planning for surgical reorientation of the epiphysis.

Questions/purposes: (1) How does epiphyseal rotation and translation differ among mild, moderate, and severe SCFE? (2) Is there a correlation between epiphyseal rotation and posterior or inferior translation in hips with SCFE? (3) Does epiphyseal rotation correlate with the size of the epiphyseal tubercle or the metaphyseal fossa or with epiphyseal cupping?

Methods: We identified 51 patients (55% boys [28 of 51]; mean age 13 ± 2 years) with stable SCFE who underwent preoperative CT of the pelvis before definitive treatment. Stable SCFE was selected because unstable SCFE would not allow for accurate assessment of rotation given the complete displacement of the femoral head in relation to the neck. The epiphysis and metaphysis were segmented and reconstructed in three-dimensions (3-D) for analysis in this retrospective study. One observer (a second-year orthopaedic resident) performed the image segmentation and measurements of epiphyseal rotation and translation relative to the metaphysis, epiphyseal tubercle, metaphyseal fossa, and the epiphysis extension onto the metaphysis defined as epiphyseal cupping. To assess the reliability of the measurements, a randomly selected subset of 15 hips was remeasured by the primary examiner and by the two experienced examiners independently. We used ANOVA to calculate the intraclass and interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for intraobserver and interobserver reliability of rotational and translational measurements. The ICC values for rotation were 0.91 (intraobserver) and 0.87 (interobserver) and the ICC values for translation were 0.92 (intraobserver) and 0.87 (intraobserver). After adjusting for age and sex, we compared the degree of rotation and translation among mild, moderate, and severe SCFE. Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess the associations between rotation and translation and between rotation and tubercle, fossa, and cupping measurements.

Results: Hips with severe SCFE had greater epiphyseal rotation than hips with mild SCFE (adjusted mean difference 21° [95% CI 11° to 31°]; p < 0.001) and hips with moderate SCFE (adjusted mean difference 13° [95% CI 3° to 23°]; p = 0.007). Epiphyseal rotation was positively correlated with posterior translation (r = 0.33 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.55]; p = 0.02) but not with inferior translation (r = 0.16 [95% CI -0.12 to 0.41]; p = 0.27). There was a positive correlation between rotation and metaphyseal fossa depth (r = 0.35 [95% CI 0.08 to 0.57]; p = 0.01), width (r = 0.41 [95% CI 0.15 to 0.61]; p = 0.003), and length (r = 0.56 [95% CI 0.38 to 0.75]; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: This study supports a rotational mechanism for the pathogenesis of SCFE. Increased rotation is associated with more severe slips, posterior epiphyseal translation, and enlargement of the metaphyseal fossa. The rotational nature of the deformity, with the center of rotation at the epiphyseal tubercle, should be considered when planning in situ fixation and realignment surgery. Avoiding placing a screw through the epiphyseal tubercle-the pivot point of rotation- may increase the stability of the epiphysis. The realignment of the epiphysis through rotation rather than simple translation is recommended during the open subcapital realignment procedure. Enlargement of the metaphyseal fossa disrupts the interlocking mechanism with the tubercle and increases epiphyseal instability. Even in the setting of a stable SCFE, an increased fossa enlargement may indicate using two screws instead of one screw, given the severity of epiphyseal rotation and the risk of instability. Further biomechanical studies should investigate the number and position of in situ fixation screws in relation to the epiphyseal tubercle and metaphyseal fossa.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052086PMC
May 2021

Surgical Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement: Hip Arthroscopy Versus Surgical Hip Dislocation: A Propensity-Matched Analysis.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020 11;102(Suppl 2):51-58

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Surgical treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) continues to evolve and is most commonly approached with either hip arthroscopy (HA) or surgical dislocation (SD) of the hip. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of similar patients undergoing surgical treatment of FAI with either HA or SD.

Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study of patients undergoing primary surgical treatment of FAI was performed. Follow-up at a minimum of 1 year (mean, 4.3 years) was available for 621 hips (81.7%), including 399 procedures with HA and 222 procedures with SD. Propensity scores were calculated and reflect the likelihood of surgical treatment with HA versus SD for a given set of covariates. Propensity scores allowed 1:1 matching to identify similar patients at baseline. After propensity matching, 128 matched pairs of patients who underwent HA and 128 matched pairs of those who underwent SD were included in the study. The primary outcome was the postoperative modified Harris hip score (mHHS); secondary outcomes included the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score, and the Short Form-12 (SF-12) physical and mental subscores, as well as the rate of persistent symptoms, revision surgery, and total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Results: After propensity matching, the 2 groups exhibited similar distributions of all of the covariates that were included in the model. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in all patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The final mHHS was not significantly different between the 2 matched groups (81.3 for the HA group versus 80.2 for the SD group, p = 0.67). Likewise, the HOOS pain subscale was similar at the time of final follow-up (77.6 versus 80.5, respectively, p = 0.32). No difference between the HA group and the SD group was identified in the rate of THA (0% and 3.1%, respectively, p = 0.41) and revision surgery (7.8% and 10.9%, respectively, p = 0.35); overall rates of persistent symptoms were 21.9% for the HA group and 24.4% for the SD group (p = 0.55).

Conclusions: In a propensity-matched analysis of patients who were treated with either approach, patients undergoing HA or SD demonstrated similar outcomes at a mean of 4 years postoperatively.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.00265DOI Listing
November 2020

The metaphyseal fossa surrounding the epiphyseal tubercle is larger in hips with moderate and severe slipped capital femoral epiphysis than normal hips.

J Child Orthop 2020 Jun;14(3):184-189

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose: To compare the 3D morphology of the metaphyseal fossa among mild, moderate and severe stable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) and normal hips.

Methods: We identified pelvic CT of 51 patients (55% male; mean 12.7 years (sd 1.9; 8-15)) with stable SCFE. In all, 16 of 51 hips (31%) had mild, 14 (27%) moderate and 21 (41%) severe SCFE. A total of 80 patients (50% male; mean age 11.5 years (sd 2.3; 8 to 15)) with normal hips who underwent pelvic CT due to abdominal pain made up the control cohort. CT scans were segmented, and the femur was reformatted using 3D software. We measured the metaphyseal fossa depth, width, length and surface area after the epiphysis was subtracted from the metaphysis in the 3D model.

Results: The metaphyseal fossa width was significantly larger in severe (adjusted difference: 6.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 11.8; p = 0.001), moderate (6.5%; 95% CI 0.8 to 12.2; p = 0.02) and mild SCFE (6.2%; 95% CI 0.8 to 11.6; p = 0.01), in comparison with normal hips. Severe SCFE showed larger fossa length compared with mild SCFE (6.8%; 95% CI 0.6 to 13.0; p = 0.02) and normal hips (6.0%; 95% CI 1.4 to 10.6; p = 0.004). The fossa surface area was larger in severe (3.5%; 95% CI 1.3 to 5.7; p < 0.001) and moderate SCFE (2.7%; 95% CI 0.1 to 5.2; p = 0.03) when compared with normal hips. There were no differences in fossa depth between SCFE and normal hips.

Conclusion: The metaphyseal fossa is wider and more extensive but not deeper in hips with moderate and severe SCFE in comparison with normal hips. Although hips with severe SCFE had larger length and surface area than mild SCFE hips, further research is needed to clarify whether enlargement of the metaphyseal fossa is a consequence of slip progression.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/1863-2548.14.200010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302408PMC
June 2020

Increased body mass index percentile is associated with decreased epiphyseal tubercle size in asymptomatic children and adolescents with healthy hips.

J Child Orthop 2020 Jun;14(3):167-174

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose: To investigate whether body mass index (BMI) percentile impacts the morphology of the capital femoral epiphysis in children and adolescents without hip disorders.

Methods: We assessed 68 subjects with healthy hips who underwent a pelvic CT for evaluation of appendicitis. There were 32 male patients (47%) and the mean age was 11.6 years (sd 2.3). The BMI (k/m) was calculated for sex- and age-related percentiles according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. CT images were segmented, and the epiphysis and metaphysis were reformatted using 3D software. We measured the epiphyseal tubercle (height, width and length), the metaphyseal fossa (depth, width and length) and the peripheral cupping of the epiphysis. All measurements were normalized to the diameter of the epiphysis. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to assess the correlations between the variables measured and BMI percentile adjusted for age.

Results: Following adjustment to age, increased BMI correlated to decreased tubercle height (r =-0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.53 to -0.11; p = 0.005), decreased tubercle length (r = -0.32; 95%CI -0.52 to -0.09; p = 0.008) and decreased tubercle width (r = -0.3; 95% CI -0.5 to -0.07; p = 0.01). There was no correlation between BMI and metaphyseal fossa and epiphyseal cupping measurements.

Conclusion: The association between increased BMI percentile and decreased epiphyseal tubercle size, without changes of the metaphyseal fossa and peripheral cupping suggests another morphological change of the femur that may be associated with decreased growth plate resistance to shear stress. Further study is necessary to investigate whether the epiphyseal tubercle size plays a role in the pathogenesis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis in obese children and adolescents.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/1863-2548.14.200042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302419PMC
June 2020

The Effect of Modality and Landmark Selection on MRI and CT Femoral Torsion Angles.

Radiology 2020 08 9;296(2):381-390. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

From the Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery (F.S., J.R.K., P.E.M., Y.J.K., E.N.N.) and Radiology (S.D.B.), Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115; and Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse, 3010 Bern, Switzerland (F.S.).

Background Assessment of femoral torsion at preoperative hip imaging is commonly recommended. However, it is unclear whether MRI is as accurate as CT and how different methods affect femoral torsion measurements. Purpose To compare MRI- and CT-based assessment of femoral torsion by using four commonly used measurement methods in terms of agreement, reproducibility, and reliability and to compare femoral torsion angles between the four different measurement methods. Materials and Methods This retrospective study evaluated patients with hip pain who underwent CT and 3-T MRI of the hip including sequences of the pelvis and distal condyles between May 2017 and June 2018. The four measurement methods differed regarding the landmark levels for the proximal femoral reference axis and included measurements at the level of the greater trochanter, femoral neck, base of the femoral neck, and level of the lesser trochanter. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed. Results Forty-five patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 19 years ± 5; 27 female) and 57 hips were evaluated. Inter- and intrarater reliability were excellent for each of the four CT- and MRI-based measurement methods (ICC range, 0.97-0.99). Mean difference between CT- and MRI-based measurement ranged from 0.3° ± 3.4 ( = .58) to 2.1° ± 4.1 ( < .001). Differences between CT and MRI were within the corresponding ICC variation for all four measurement methods. Mean torsion angles were greater by 17.6° for CT and 18.7° for MRI (all < .001) between the most proximal to the most distal measurement methods. Conclusion MRI- and CT-based femoral torsion measurements showed high agreement and comparable reliability and reproducibility but were dependent on the level of selected landmarks used to define the proximal reference axis. © RSNA, 2020 See also the editorial by Zoga in this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020192723DOI Listing
August 2020

What Proportion of Patients Undergoing Bernese Periacetabular Osteotomy Experience Nonunion, and What Factors are Associated with Nonunion?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 07;478(7):1648-1656

A. D. Davila-Parilla, Y-J. Kim, M. B. Millis, E. N. Novais, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Child and Young Adult Hip Preservation Program at Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is one of the most-used surgical techniques to treat symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Although good functional and radiographic short-term and long-term outcomes have been reported, several complications after PAO have been described. One complication that may compromise clinical results is nonunion of an osteotomy. However, the exact prevalence and risk factors associated with nonunion are poorly elucidated.

Questions/purposes: (1) What proportion of patients have complete bony healing versus nonunion during the first year after PAO? (2) What is the clinical and functional impact of nonunion at a minimum of 1 year after PAO, as assessed by the modified Harris hip score (mHHS) and the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS)? (3) What patient-specific or surgery-specific factors are associated with nonunion at 6 months and at a minimum of 1 year postoperatively?

Methods: Between January 2012 and December 2015, we retrospectively identified 314 patients who underwent PAO at our institution. During this period, 28 patients with a diagnosis different from symptomatic acetabular dysplasia (reverse PAO for acetabular over-coverage: n = 25; PAO for skeletal chondrodysplasia: n = 3) underwent PAO but were ineligible to participate. Hence, 286 patients underwent PAO to treat symptomatic acetabular dysplasia during the study period and were considered eligible. Inclusion criteria were patients with a complete set of postoperative radiographs (AP, Dunn lateral, and false-profile) at 12 months or more postoperatively. Eighteen percent (51 of 286) of the patients underwent staged, bilateral PAOs, but we only included the first PAO. Finally, 14% (41 of 286) of the patients were excluded because they had an incomplete set of postoperative radiographs at 12 months or more. The study comprised 245 patients. Eighty-five percent (209 of 245) of the patients were female and the mean age at surgery was 24 years ± 9 years. The healing status (complete healing vs. nonunion) was recorded for ischial, superior pubic, supraacetabular, and posterior column osteotomies at each subsequent visit. Nonunion was defined as noncontiguous osseous union with a persistent radiolucent line across any osteotomy site and was recorded at 3 months, approximately 6 months, and approximately 12 months postoperatively. Calculation of Cohen's kappa statistic coefficients showed the classification had perfect interobserver agreement (0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.93), but there was moderate intraobserver agreement between those who healed and those with nonunion. The HOOS and mHHS were collected preoperatively and at a minimum of 1 year after PAO. The HOOS contains five separate subscales for pain, symptoms, activity of daily living, sport and recreational function, and hip-related quality of life. The HOOS responses are normalized on a scale of 0 (worst) to 100 (best). The mHHS includes pain and function scales and is overall interpreted on a scale from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Eighty-six percent (211 of 245) of the patients with a complete set of images at their 12-month visit completed the mHHS and 89% (217 of 245) completed the HOOS. We collected information from the patients' medical records about their symptomatic status and additional treatment for nonunion. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with nonunion at 6 and 12 months postoperatively.

Results: Only 45% (96 of 215) of the patients had complete radiographic healing of all osteotomy sites at the 6-month visit and 55% (119 of 215) had not healed completely. However, 92% (225 of 245) demonstrated complete radiographic healing of all osteotomy sites at approximately 1 year postoperatively. The proportion of nonunion at a minimum of 12 months after PAO was 8% (20 of 245 patients). There was no difference in the mHHS after 1 year or more of follow-up between patients with nonunion and patients with complete healing after PAO (nonunion mean mHHS: 73; 95% CI, 62-85 versus healed: 82; 95% CI, 80-85; p = 0.13) and HOOS pain (nonunion mean HOOS pain: 80; 95% CI, 71-90 versus healed: 86; 95% CI, 83-88; p = 0.16). Similarly, no difference was identified for HOOS symptoms (nonunion mean: 72; 95% CI, 63-80 versus healed: 78; 95% CI, 75-81; p = 0.11), HOOS activities of daily living (nonunion mean: 86; 95% CI, 78-94 versus healed: 91; 95% CI, 89-93; p = 0.09), HOOS sports and recreation (nonunion mean: 70; 95% CI, 57-83 versus healed: 78; 95% CI, 75-82; p = 0.18); and HOOS quality of life (nonunion mean: 60; 95% CI, 46-75 versus healed: 69; 95% CI, 65-72; p = 0.28). After controlling for potentially confounding variables such as gender, age, chisel type, and preoperative anterior center-edge angle, we found that higher BMI (per 1 k/m; odds ratio 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.22; p < 0.01), older age (per 1 year; OR 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08; p < 0.01) and more-severe acetabular dysplasia as assessed by a decreased preoperative lateral center-edge angle (per 1°; OR 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11; p < 0.01) were independently associated with nonunion of one or more osteotomy sites at 6 months postoperatively. Only age was an independent predictor of nonunion at 12 months postoperatively (per 1 year; OR 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11; p = 0.02).

Conclusions: Our study helps us to understand radiographic healing during the first year after PAO to treat symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Fewer than half of the patients had complete healing of their osteotomies at 6 months postoperatively. More than 90% of patients can expect to have completely healed osteotomy sites at 12 months postoperatively. Surgeons should avoid unnecessary interventions if nonunion is observed radiographically at 6 months postoperatively. Although there was no difference in the HOOS and mHHS between patients with nonunion and those with complete healing, further research with a larger cohort is needed to clarify the impact of nonunion on clinical and functional outcomes after PAO. Surgeons should consider using strategies to enhance osteotomy healing in those who undergo PAO, such as optimizing vitamin D levels and using local bone grafts in older patients, those with a high BMI, and patients with severe acetabular dysplasia.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310515PMC
July 2020

Surgical treatment of symptomatic post-slipped capital femoral epiphysis deformity: a comparative study between hip arthroscopy and surgical hip dislocation with or without intertrochanteric osteotomy.

J Child Orthop 2020 Apr;14(2):98-105

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose: Our primary research question was to investigate the severity of deformity and articular damage as well as outcomes in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy compared with open surgery for the treatment of symptomatic slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) deformity.

Methods: Retrospective review of surgical treatment of symptomatic SCFE deformity with a minimum one-year follow-up. Patients were divided into three groups: the arthroscopic group, surgical hip dislocation(SHD) group and SHD with femoral osteotomy (SHD+ITO) group. Deformity severity was quantified. Hip outcome was assessed by the modified Merle d'Aubigné Postel (MDP) scores.

Results: There were more severe slips treated by SHD and SHD+ITO. There was more severe deformity in the SHD+ITO group than the arthroscopy group (p < 0.001). There were more full thickness acetabular cartilage defects in the SHD and the SHD+ITO groups (> 40%) compared with the arthroscopy group (11%; p = 0.03). The SHD+ITO and SHD group had lower MDP scores compared with the arthroscopy group both before and after surgery but no difference was detected in the amount of improvement from surgery across groups (p > 0.05). Moderate and severe SCFEs had worse preoperative scores but improvement was not different compared with mild SCFEs (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Patients undergoing open treatment had more severe SCFE deformity with more extensive articular damage at reconstructive surgery compared with patients undergoing arthroscopy. All groups with SCFE deformity had improved pain and hip function postoperatively.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/1863-2548.14.190194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184650PMC
April 2020

Effect of beta-blocker therapy in patients with or without left ventricular systolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Aims: This observational study aimed to investigate the association between beta-blocker therapy and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), especially with mid-range or preserved left ventricular systolic function.

Methods And Results: Among 13,624 patients enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health (KAMIR-NIH), 12,200 in-hospital survivors were selected. Patients with beta-blockers showed significantly lower 1-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE), which was a composite of cardiac death, MI, revascularization and readmission due to heart failure (9.7 vs. 14.3/100 patient-year; hazard ratio [HR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.97; P=0.022). However, this association had a significant interaction with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Beta-blocker therapy at discharge was associated with lower 1-year MACE in patients with LVEF ≤40% (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.48-0.81; P<0.001), and 40%
Conclusions: Beta-blocker therapy at discharge was associated with better 1-year clinical outcomes in patients with reduced or mid-range LVEF after AMI, but not in patients with preserved LVEF. These data suggested that the long-term beta-blocker therapy may be guided by LVEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvaa029DOI Listing
April 2020

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Shiga Toxin-Producing Isolates from Pork in Korea.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2020 10 6;17(10):602-607. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon-si, Republic of Korea.

Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) strains are important food-borne pathogens that can be transmitted through the consumption of food products derived from pigs. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in STEC has been a matter of increasing concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial characteristics of STEC isolates from pork in Korea. We isolated 131 isolates of from 334 pork samples collected from slaughterhouses and retail markets from 2008 to 2009. Among the 131 isolates, 6 (4.58%) were confirmed to belong to 6 different serotypes of STEC. All six STEC isolates contained and virulence genes, and four of them additionally carried the gene. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15 antibiotics (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, gentamicin, neomycin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, colistin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim) toward the STEC isolates was determined. As a result, three strains were associated with high MICs for florfenicol and chloramphenicol (64 μg/mL). Furthermore, all three strains were found to contain the florfenicol-resistant gene () but not the chloramphenicol-resistant gene (). Sequence alignment and BLAST analysis of the polymerase chain reaction products of the gene indicated that they contained sequences with homology to the gene of or serovar, Heidelberg. This is the first report on the detection of in STEC isolated from pork obtained from retail markets in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2019.2760DOI Listing
October 2020

One-Year Clinical Outcomes between Single- versus Multi-Staged PCI for ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction with Multi-Vessel Coronary Artery Disease: from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health (KAMIR-NIH).

Korean Circ J 2020 Mar;50(3):220-233

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.

Background And Objectives: Although complete revascularization is known superior to incomplete revascularization in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease (MVCD), there are no definite instructions on the optimal timing of non-culprit lesions percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We compared 1-year clinical outcomes between 2 different complete multi-vessel revascularization strategies.

Methods: From the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health, 606 patients with STEMI and MVCD who underwent complete revascularization were enrolled from November 2011 to December 2015. The patients were assigned to multi-vessel single-staged PCI (SS PCI) group (n=254) or multi-vessel multi-staged PCI (MS PCI) group (n=352). Propensity score matched 1-year clinical outcomes were compared between the groups.

Results: At one year, MS PCI showed a significantly lower rate of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; 95% confidential interval [CI], 0.19-0.92; p=0.030) compared with SS PCI. In subgroup analysis, all-cause mortality increased in SS PCI with cardiogenic shock (HR, 4.60; 95% CI, 1.54-13.77; p=0.006), age ≥65 years (HR, 4.00; 95% CI, 1.67-9.58, p=0.002), Killip class III/IV (HR, 7.32; 95% CI, 1.68-31.87; p=0.008), and creatinine clearance ≤60 mL/min (HR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.10-7.18; p=0.031). After propensity score-matching, MS PCI showed a significantly lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular event than SS PCI.

Conclusions: SS PCI was associated with worse clinical outcomes compared with MS PCI. MS PCI for non-infarct-related artery could be a better option for patients with STEMI and MVCD, especially high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2019.0176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7043963PMC
March 2020

Age- and sex-specific morphologic changes in the metaphyseal fossa adjacent to epiphyseal tubercle in children and adolescents without hip disorders.

J Orthop Res 2020 10 3;38(10):2213-2219. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

The epiphyseal tubercle plays an important role in epiphyseal stabilization. While the majority of studies have focused on tubercle morphology, there is a paucity of information on the morphological features of the metaphyseal fossa, where the tubercle sits on the metaphysis. The goal of this study was to determine the developmental changes in the capital femoral metaphyseal fossa. Computed tomography of the pelvis from 80 children and adolescents 8-15 years old were used to create three-dimensional models of the proximal femur. Depth, width, length, and surface area of the metaphyseal fossa were measured and the impact of age and sex on fossa morphology was assessed using the linear regression and two-way analysis of variance, respectively. The metaphyseal fossa was located in the posterosuperior quadrant of the metaphysis without any variations in the location with increasing age (P > .1). However, with increasing age, there was a reduction in all metaphyseal fossa measurements including the depth, length, width, and surface area (P < .01). No significant differences were noted for the metaphyseal fossa measurements between males and females (P > .1). The metaphyseal fossa reduces in size from 8 to 15 years of age in a similar fashion in males and females. As the metaphyseal fossa adjacent to the tubercle matches the area where a focal radiolucency has been observed in early slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), further studies should clarify the mechanisms by which the interlocking interaction of the epiphyseal tubercle and its fossa contributes to or is affected by SCFE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.24638DOI Listing
October 2020

What Is the Accuracy and Reliability of the Peritubercle Lucency Sign on Radiographs for Early Diagnosis of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Compared With MRI as the Gold Standard?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 05;478(5):1049-1059

D. A. Maranho, P. E. Miller, S. Hosseinzadeh, Y.-J. Kim, E. N. Novais, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Child and Young Adult Hip Preservation Program at Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The diagnosis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) often is delayed. Although lack of clinical suspicion is the main cause of delayed diagnosis, typical radiographic changes may not be present during the initial phases of SCFE. The peritubercle lucency sign for follow-up of the contralateral hip in patients with unilateral SCFE may be beneficial in assisting the early diagnosis. However, the accuracy and reliability of this sign in patients with SCFE is unknown.

Questions/purposes: (1) What is the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the peritubercle lucency sign on radiographs for the early diagnosis of SCFE compared with MRI as the gold standard? (2) What are the interobserver and intraobserver reliabilities of the peritubercle lucency sign on radiographs?

Methods: Between 2000 and 2017, 71 patients underwent MRI for an evaluation of pre-slip or a minimally displaced SCFE. Sixty percent of hips (43 of 71) had confirmed SCFE or pre-slip based on the presence of hip pain and MRI changes, and these patients underwent in situ pinning. Three independent experienced observers reviewed MR images of the 71 hips and agreed on the presence of a juxtaphyseal bright-fluid signal suggesting bone marrow edema in these 43 hips with SCFE, and absence MRI changes in the remaining 28 hips. The same three experienced observers and two inexperienced observers, including a general radiologist and an orthopaedic surgery resident, blindly assessed the radiographs for the presence or absence of the peritubercle lucency sign, without information about the diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were evaluated. Intraobserver and interobserver agreements were calculated using kappa statistics.

Results: The overall accuracy of the peritubercle lucency sign on radiographs was 94% (95% CI 91 to 96), sensitivity was 97% (95% CI 95 to 99), specificity was 89% (95% CI 90 to 96), PPV was 93% (95% CI 90 to 96), and NPV was 95% (95% CI 92 to 99). All accuracy parameters were greater than 85% for the five observers, regardless of experience level. Intraobserver agreement was perfect (kappa 1.0), and interobserver agreement was excellent for the peritubercle lucency sign on radiographs across the five observers (kappa 0.81 [95% CI 0.73 to 0.88]). The reliability was excellent for experienced observers (kappa 0.88 [95% CI 0.74 to 1.00]) and substantial for inexperienced observers (kappa 0.70 [95% CI 0.46 to 0.93]), although no difference was found with the numbers available (p = 0.18).

Conclusions: The peritubercle lucency sign on radiographs is accurate and reliable for the early diagnosis of SCFE compared with MRI as the gold standard. Improving the early diagnosis of SCFE may be possible with increased awareness, high clinical suspicion, and a scrutinized evaluation of radiographs including an assessment of the peritubercle lucency sign.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, diagnostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170665PMC
May 2020

MRI Is Better Than CT Scan for Detection of Structural Pathologies After Traumatic Posterior Hip Dislocations in Children and Adolescents.

J Pediatr Orthop 2020 Feb;40(2):86-92

Departments of Orthopaedics.

Background: Traumatic posterior hip dislocations in children and adolescents requires emergent closed reduction. Postreduction imaging is necessary to assess the concentricity of reduction and structural injuries to the hip. There is no a consensus for which imaging is a modality of choice in such condition. The purposes of this study are to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of traumatic posterior hip dislocations and to compare the effectiveness of MRI with computerized tomography (CT) in detecting structural abnormalities of the hip that impact patient management.

Methods: This study is a retrospective review of imaging in traumatically dislocated hips in patients who were treated at our institution. All CT and MRI imaging were reviewed and specific osseous and soft tissue injuries documented by consensus among 2 musculoskeletal pediatric radiologists who interpreted the MRI and CT scans of each patient in a blinded manner.

Results: In total, 27 patients (23 males, 4 females) with mean age of 12.5 years (range, 2 to 19 y) with postreduction MRI were evaluated. MRI findings revealed femoral head injuries in 17 (62.9%), posterior labral entrapments in 6 (22.2%), posterior labral tears in 17 (62.9%), posterior wall fractures in 15 (55.5%), fracture of the posterior unossified part of acetabulum in 4 (14.8%), and ligamentum teres injuries in 8 (29.6%). Of 16 patients who had postreduction CT scans, 6 (37.5%) had femoral head fractures, 9 (56.3%) had posterior wall fractures, and 8 (50%) had intra-articular osseous entrapments. All bony fractures and intra-articular entrapment could be seen on MRI imaging. In 16 patients with both CT and MRI, posterior acetabular injury was detected in 10/16 (62.5%) on MRI and 9/16 (56.3%) on CT. Three patients with entrapment of labrums identified on MRI could not be seen on CT scan. One patient with persistently unstable hip after reduction had an entrapped unossified portion of acetabular fracture which was seen on MRI but not on CT.

Conclusions: MRI is superior to CT scan for detection of structural injuries in children and adolescents with traumatic hip dislocation. The unique structural injuries included entrapment of posterior labrum and posterior unossified acetabular fractures could be seen only at MRI. These findings will impact surgical decision making of these injuries.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001127DOI Listing
February 2020

What factors affect fluoroscopy use during Bernese periacetabular osteotomy for acetabular dysplasia?

J Hip Preserv Surg 2019 Aug 17;6(3):259-264. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA, USA.

Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is the treatment of choice for acetabular dysplasia in the skeletally mature. Little is known about factors affecting fluoroscopy use in PAO. Therefore, we strived to determine patient and surgery factors are associated with the amount of fluoroscopy time and radiation dose during PAO. We performed a retrospective review of 378 patients who underwent PAO between January 2012 and August 2017. The mean age was 21.7 years and 326 (86%) were females. A total of 85 patients underwent concomitant arthroscopy and 60 underwent open arthrotomy. We recorded fluoroscopy time in minutes and radiation dose area product (DAP) in mGy·m. Multivariate general linear modeling identified independent predictors of fluoroscopy time and radiation dose. Mean fluoroscopy time was 1.21 minutes and mean fluoroscopy DAP was 0.71 mGy·m. Multivariate predictors of increased fluoroscopy time were male gender ( = 0.001), surgeon ( < 0.001) and whether an arthroscopy was performed ( < 0.001). Multivariate predictors of increased fluoroscopy DAP were increased body mass index (BMI) ( = 0.001), surgeon ( < 0.001) and whether an arthroscopy was performed ( < 0.001). Patients undergoing hip arthroscopy concomitant to PAO are at higher risk of longer fluoroscopy time and higher radiation dose. Other factors affecting fluoroscopy time included male gender and surgeon, while radiation dose was further affected by surgeon and BMI. Our findings can facilitate discussion about the risk of radiation exposure during PAO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhps/hnz035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874767PMC
August 2019

Natural Eumelanin and Its Derivatives as Multifunctional Materials for Bioinspired Applications: A Review.

Biomacromolecules 2019 12 19;20(12):4312-4331. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Institute for Frontier Materials, Australian Future Fibers Research and Innovation Center , Deakin University , Geelong , Victoria 3220 , Australia.

Natural melanin is a ubiquitous material that plays critical biofunctional roles in different living organisms. Scientists have dedicated significant efforts to elucidate the biofunctional roles of melanin since its discovery. It has been confirmed that natural melanin possesses a number of intriguing properties such as broadband light absorption, free-radical scavenging ability, redox activity, metal ion chelating, and electronic-ionic conductivity, enabling it to be a versatile functional material in various applications. Natural eumelanin has been the most investigated type of melanin in the past few decades and is discussed in this Review. Here we have comprehensively discussed the latest advances and associated mechanisms in emerging applications of natural eumelanin in different fields such as functional polymers, energy storage, energy conversion, photocatalysis, photothermal therapy, and wastewater treatment considering its bioinspired properties. Important applications developed based on polydopamine, which is a "eumelanin-like" material, will also be presented to give guidelines to further develop natural-melanin-based applications. Authors' perspectives on the challenges and potentials of developing natural-eumelanin-based applications will also be included. This Review provides a clear picture of the natural-eumelanin-based applications and, in turn, accelerates the expansion of the relevant emerging fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01413DOI Listing
December 2019

Smaller Epiphyseal Tubercle and Larger Peripheral Cupping in Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Compared with Healthy Hips: A 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Study.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020 Jan;102(1):29-36

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: The inner surface of the capital femoral epiphysis is important for growth plate stability. However, abnormalities of epiphyseal morphology associated with the pathogenesis of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) remain poorly understood. This study compares the 3-dimensional anatomy of the epiphyseal tubercle and peripheral cupping in hips with SCFE and normal hips.

Methods: We created 3-dimensional models of the capital femoral epiphysis with use of computed tomography (CT) imaging from 51 patients with SCFE and 80 subjects without hip symptoms who underwent CT because of abdominal pain. The height, width, and length of the epiphyseal tubercle and the peripheral cupping were measured and normalized by the epiphyseal diameter and presented as a percentage. We used analysis of variance for the comparison of the measurements between SCFE and control hips after adjusting for age and sex.

Results: Compared with normal hips, hips with mild SCFE had smaller mean epiphyseal tubercle height (0.9% ± 0.9% compared with 4.4% ± 0.4%; p = 0.006) and length (32.3% ± 1.8% compared with 43.7% ± 0.8%; p < 0.001). The mean epiphyseal tubercle height was also smaller in hips with moderate (0.6% ± 0.9%; p = 0.004) and severe SCFE (0.3% ± 0.8%; p < 0.001) compared with normal hips. No differences were observed for measurements of epiphyseal tubercle height and length between SCFE subgroups. The mean peripheral cupping was larger in hips with mild (16.3% ± 1.0%; p < 0.001), moderate (16.4% ± 1.1%; p < 0.001), and severe SCFE (18.9% ± 0.9%; p < 0.001) overall and when assessed individually in all regions compared with normal hips (10.6% ± 0.5%).

Conclusions: Hips with SCFE have a smaller epiphyseal tubercle and larger peripheral cupping compared with healthy hips. A smaller epiphyseal tubercle may be a predisposing morphologic factor or a consequence of the increased shearing stress across the physis secondary to the slip. Increased peripheral growth may be an adaptive response to instability as other stabilizers (i.e., epiphyseal tubercle and anterior periosteum) become compromised with slip progression. Future studies are necessary to determine the biomechanical basis of our morphologic findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.19.00291DOI Listing
January 2020

Comparison of Two-Year Outcomes of Acute Myocardial Infarction Caused by Coronary Artery Spasm Versus that Caused by Coronary Atherosclerosis.

Am J Cardiol 2019 11 23;124(10):1493-1500. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, South Korea.

The study compared the 2-year outcomes of patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) triggered by coronary artery atherosclerosis and AMI caused by coronary artery spasm. A total of 36,797 patients in the Korea AMI Registry were grouped into 2 categories-(1) AMI due to coronary artery spasm without stenotic lesion (CAS-AMI, n = 484); and (2) AMI induced by coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAA-AMI, n = 36,313). The major clinical outcomes of the 2 groups were compared over a 2-year clinical follow-up period. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as the composite of total death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization. The incidence of MACE (7.1% vs 11.1%; p = 0.007) and repeat revascularization (0.4% vs 4.2%; p <0.001) in the CAS-AMI group were significantly lower than in the CAA-AMI group at 2 years. However, the incidence of total death and nonfatal myocardial infarction was similar in both the groups. Aborted cardiac arrest was strongly associated with 2-year mortality in the CAS-AMI group (hazard ratios 13.5, 95% confidence interval 5.34 to 34.15, p <0.001) The incidence of MACE in CAS-AMI patients was significantly lower than in the CAA-AMI group of patients up to 2 years due to the relatively lower rate of repeat revascularization in CAS-AMI patients. However, the incidence of total death or nonfatal myocardial infarction in CAS-AMI patients was not different from that of patients with CAA-AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.08.019DOI Listing
November 2019

Mechanistic understanding of monovalent cation transport in eumelanin pigments.

J Mater Chem B 2019 11 29;7(41):6355-6361. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA.

Recent research advances in charge-conducting materials have enabled the transformation of the naturally-occurring materials into crucial components in many technologies, including renewable energy storage devices or bioelectronics. Among various candidates, eumelanins are promising charge storage materials, exhibiting hybrid electronic ionic conductivity in a hydrated environment. The chemical and electrochemical properties of eumelanins are relatively well studied; however, the structure-property relationship is still elusive up to date. Herein, we reported the mesoscale structure of eumelanins and its impact on the charge transport. X-ray scattering suggests that eumelanin pigments exhibit the semi-crystalline structure with ordered d-spacings. These unique mesoscale structures further influence the charge transport mechanism with the cations of various sizes. Understanding the structures with consequent electrochemical properties suggest that eumelanins can further be tuned to serve as high-performance naturally-occurring charge storage materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9tb01211gDOI Listing
November 2019

The association of smoothness index of central blood pressure with ambulatory carotid femoral pulse wave velocity after 20-week treatment with losartan in combination with amlodipine versus hydrochlorothiazide.

J Hypertens 2019 12;37(12):2490-2497

Kyunghee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, South Korea.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify associations between the smoothness index of central SBP (CSBP) and changes of ambulatory carotid femoral pulse wave velocity in response to 20-week treatments with losartan and amlodipine vs. losartan and hydrochlorthiazide combinations.

Methods: For 142 (losartan and hydrochlorthiazide: 72, losartan and hydrochlorthiazide: 70) patients examined with ambulatory central blood pressure (BP) monitoring device, we calculated smoothness indices and trough-to-peak ratios of brachial SBP, CSBP, ambulatory pulse pressure amplification (APPA), ambulatory augmentation index at heart rate 75 beats per minute (AAIx75) and ambulatory carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (AcfPWV).

Results: Mean age was 58.9 ± 12.3 years, and women accounted for 25.9%. Changes in office SBP/DBP were not different between groups (losartan and hydrochlorthiazide: -15.2 ± 15.0/-7.8 ± 8.0 vs. losartan and amlodipine: -14.9 ± 13.7/-9.2 ± 7.5 mmHg). Reduction of 24-h CSBP was not significantly different (losartan and hydrochlorthiazide: 6.4 ± 1.1 vs. losartan and amlodipine: 9.2 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = 0.074). Reduction in nocturnal AcfPWV was greater in the losartan and amlodipine group (losartan and hydrochlorthiazide: 0.09 ± 0.05 vs. losartan and amlodipine: 0.26 ± 0.05 m/s, P = 0.0216). Intraindividual SIs for CSBP were higher in the losartan and amlodipine group (0.40 ± 0.57 vs. 0.65 ± 0.74, P = 0.022). In multivariable regression analysis, smoothness index of CSBP was independently associated with the losartan and amlodipine group. In model additionally considering the changes in arterial stiffness, decrease in AcfPWV instead of the treatment group was independently associated with smoothness indices. In mediation analysis, smoothness index was fully mediated by reduction in night-time AcfPWV.

Conclusion: Losartan and amlodipine combination was superior to the losartan and hydrochlorthiazide combination in terms of achieving higher smoothness index for CSBP after 20-week treatments. The effect of losartan and amlodipine on smoothness index was fully mediated by reduction of night-time AcfPWV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6855339PMC
December 2019

Contralateral slip after unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis is associated with acetabular retroversion but not increased acetabular depth and overcoverage.

J Pediatr Orthop B 2020 May;29(3):275-282

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Overcoverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum, increased acetabular depth and retroversion have been associated with the etiology of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). However, limited evidence exists about the impact of the acetabular morphology on the development of a contralateral slip following an initial presentation of unilateral SCFE. We aimed to investigate whether acetabular overcoverage as assessed by an increased lateral center-edge angle (LCEA) and low Tönnis angle, increased acetabular depth assessed by the acetabular depth-width ratio (ADR) and the presence of coxa profunda; and acetabular retroversion assessed by the presence of the crossover sign were associated with a contralateral slip in patients presenting with unilateral SCFE. We evaluated 250 patients with initial diagnosis of unilateral SCFE (average age, 12.5 ± 1.7 years), who had not undergone prophylactic fixation on the contralateral hip for a median follow-up of 49 months (interquartile range: 25-76 months). Endpoints were the development of a contralateral slip (70 patients, 28%) or skeletal maturity assessed by complete closure of the proximal femoral growth plate (180 patients, 72%). We measured the LCEA, Tönnis angle, ADR, and the coxa profunda sign on an anteroposterior pelvic radiograph. The crossover sign was assessed in 208 hips who had a secondary ossification center in the posterior acetabular rim. For each additional degree of LCEA, the odds of contralateral slip decreased 8% [odds ratio = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-0.98; P = 0.009]. Tönnis angle (P = 0.11), ADR (P = 0.20) and coxa profunda (p = 0.37) had no association with a contralateral slip. The presence of crossover sign increased two and half times the odds for a contralateral slip (odds ratio = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.12-5.64; P = 0.03). Acetabular retroversion, but not acetabular overcoverage or increased acetabular depth, was associated with contralateral SCFE development in patients with unilateral SCFE. Level of evidence: prognostic level II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPB.0000000000000643DOI Listing
May 2020

Prognosis and Predictors of Mortality in Patients Suffering Myocardial Infarction With Non-Obstructive Coronary Arteries.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 07 9;8(14):e011990. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

2 Department of Internal Medicine and Heart Center Chonnam National University Hospital Gwangju South Korea.

Background Myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries ( MINOCA ) is a heterogeneous disease entity. Its prognosis and predictor of mortality remain unclear. This study aimed to compare the prognosis between MINOCA and myocardial infarction with obstructive coronary artery disease and identify factors related to all-cause death in MINOCA using a nation-wide, multicenter, and prospective registry. Methods and Results Among 13 104 consecutive patients enrolled, patients without previous history of significant coronary artery disease who underwent coronary angiography were selected. The primary outcome was 2-year all-cause death. Secondary outcomes were cardiac death, noncardiac death, reinfarction, and repeat revascularization. Patients with MINOCA (n=396) and myocardial infarction with obstructive coronary artery disease (n=10 871) showed similar incidence of all-cause death (9.1% versus 8.8%; hazard ratio [ HR ], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.74-1.45; P=0.83). Risks of cardiac death, noncardiac death, and reinfarction were not significantly different between the 2 groups ( HR , 0.82; 95% CI , 0.53-1.28; P=0.38; HR , 1.55; 95% CI , 0.93-2.56; P=0.09; HR , 1.23; 95% CI , 0.65-2.31; P=0.38, respectively). MINOCA patients had lower incidence of repeat revascularization (1.3% versus 7.2%; HR , 0.17; 95% CI , 0.07-0.41; P<0.001). Results were consistent after multivariable regression and propensity-score matching. In a multivariate model, several significant predictors of all-cause death of MINOCA were found, including the nonuse of renin-angiotensin system blockers ( HR , 2.63; 95% CI , 1.08-6.25; P=0.033) and statins ( HR , 2.17; 95% CI , 1.04-4.54; P=0.039). Conclusions Patients with MINOCA and those with myocardial infarction with obstructive coronary artery disease had comparable clinical outcomes. Use of renin-angiotensin system blockers and statins was associated with lower mortality in patients with MINOCA .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.011990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6662150PMC
July 2019
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