Publications by authors named "Young Hwan Ahn"

63 Publications

Biological Effects of Exposure to a Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field on the Placental Barrier in Pregnant Rats.

Bioelectromagnetics 2021 Apr 1;42(3):191-199. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

The placenta protects the fetus against excessive stress-associated maternal cortisol during pregnancy. We studied whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) radiation during pregnancy can cause changes in dams and their placentas. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into cage-control, sham-exposed, and RF-exposed groups. They were exposed to RF-EMF signals at a whole-body specific absorption rate of 4 W/kg for 8 h/day from gestational Day 1 to 19. Levels of cortisol in the blood, adrenal gland, and placenta were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone were monitored in maternal blood. Expression levels of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) messenger RNA (mRNA) were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Morphological changes in the placenta were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Fetal parts of the placenta were measured using Zen 2.3 blue edition software. Maternal cortisol in circulating blood (RF: 230 ± 24.6 ng/ml and Sham: 156 ± 8.3 ng/ml) and the adrenal gland (RF: 58.3 ± 4.5 ng/ml and Sham: 30 ± 3.8 ng/ml) was significantly increased in the RF-exposed group (P < 0.05). Placental cortisol was stably maintained, and the level of placental 11β-HSD2 mRNA expression was not changed in the RF-exposed group. RF-EMF exposure during pregnancy caused a significant elevation of cortisol levels in circulating blood; however, no changes in the placental barrier were observed in pregnant rats. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2021 Bioelectromagnetics Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bem.22322DOI Listing
April 2021

Influences of exposure to 915-MHz radiofrequency identification signals on serotonin metabolites in rats: a pilot study.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 16;97(2):282-287. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: The influences of radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure on animal health, particularly on serotonin metabolism, are not well-elucidated. In this in vivo study, we studied the influences of exposure to radiofrequency identification (RFID) signals on serotonin metabolism.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sham ( = 10) and RFID-exposed ( = 12) groups. Rats in the RFID-exposed group were exposed to RFID signals at an average whole-body specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg for 8 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. Before and after RFID exposure, 24-h urine was collected from each rat. Urinary tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid concentrations were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and changes in the patterns of values were compared between the two groups.

Results: Urinary levels of serotonin decreased by 20% ( = .041, Student's -test) and 40% ( = .024, Student's -test) in both the sham and RFID-exposed groups, respectively. The level of 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid decreased by 30% in the RFID-exposed group ( = .039, Student's -test).

Conclusion: Our results indicate that exposure to RFID signals at a specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg is sufficient to alter serotonin metabolism in rats regardless of whether the exposure level is considered biohazardous.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553002.2021.1844336DOI Listing
November 2020

Independent Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence after Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C.

Gut Liver 2020 Sep 9. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Departments of Gastroenterology, Ajou Research Institute for Innovative Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Background/aims: This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in Korean patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to investigate the risk factors associated with HCC recurrence.

Methods: A total of 100 patients with HCV-related HCC, who were treated with DAAs between May 2015 and December 2016, were recruited from seven university hospitals in Korea. Claim data of 526 patients with HCC obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in South Korea were used for external validation of the results.

Results: Among the 100 patients, 88% achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) 12 weeks after the end of DAA therapy (SVR12), and 37% experienced HCC recurrence after DAA therapy. Short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months) before DAA commencement was independently associated with HCC recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 2.89; p=0.011). In the nationwide validation cohort, 20.3% of the patients experienced HCC recurrence. The last HCC treatment with a noncurative method, a short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months), and a longer total duration of HCC treatment (≥18 months) were independently related with HCC recurrence (HR, 3.73; p<0.001; HR, 3.34; p<0.001; and HR, 1.74; p=0.006, respectively).

Conclusions: DAA therapy showed an acceptable SVR12 rate in patients with HCV-related HCC. Short last HCC treatment durability (<12 months) was associated with HCC recurrence after DAA therapy. This finding suggests that the last HCC treatment durability is an important predictor of HCC recurrence after DAA therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl20151DOI Listing
September 2020

Effect of Exposure to a Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field on Body Temperature in Anesthetized and Non-Anesthetized Rats.

Bioelectromagnetics 2020 Feb 11;41(2):104-112. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Exposure to a radiofrequency (RF) signal at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg can increase the body temperature by more than 1 °C. In this study, we investigated the effect of anesthesia on the body temperature of rats after exposure to an RF electromagnetic field at 4 W/kg SAR. We also evaluated the influence of body mass on rats' body temperature. Rats weighing 225 and 339 g were divided into sham- and RF-exposure groups. Each of the resulting four groups was subdivided into anesthetized and non-anesthetized groups. The free-moving rats in the four RF-exposure groups were subjected to a 915 MHz RF identification signal at 4 W/kg whole-body SAR for 8 h. The rectal temperature was measured at 1-h intervals during RF exposure using a small-animal temperature probe. The body temperatures of non-anesthetized, mobile 225 and 339 g rats were not significantly affected by exposure to an RF signal. However, the body temperatures of anesthetized 225 and 339 g rats increased by 1.9 °C and 3.3 °C from baseline at 5 and 6 h of RF exposure, respectively. Three of the five 339 g anesthetized and exposed rats died after 6 h of RF exposure. Thus, anesthesia and body mass influenced RF exposure-induced changes in the body temperature of rats. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020;41:104-112. © 2019 Bioelectromagnetics Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bem.22236DOI Listing
February 2020

Causes of Death among Persons Affected by Leprosy in Korea, 2010-2013.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 01;102(1):42-47

Department of Preventive Medicine, Chonnam National University, Hwasun-gun, Korea.

In addition to the complications of leprosy, people affected by leprosy (PALs) can suffer from chronic diseases. We evaluated the recent pattern of deaths among Korean PALs and compared it with that in the general population. We analyzed the death certificate data of 1,359 PALs from 2010 through 2013. The all-cause and cause-specific standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and standardized mortality with 95% CI were calculated. Malignancy had the highest standardized mortality, with 130.9 deaths per 100,000 persons, followed by cardiovascular diseases (CVDs; 85.5 deaths) and respiratory diseases (38.2 deaths). Of malignancies, liver cancer caused the greatest number of cancer deaths (40.0 deaths). The all-cause mortality of PALs was significantly lower than that in the general population, corresponding to an SMR of 0.84 (95% CI 0.79-0.88). Deaths from malignancy and CVDs were significantly lower, corresponding to SMRs (95% CIs) of 0.88 (0.79-0.98) and 0.75 (0.67-0.84), respectively. The death rates for lung and stomach cancers were lower, whereas mortality due to liver cancer was higher, with an SMR of 1.79 (95% CI 1.43-2.22). Except for liver cancer and infection, the causes of mortality of PALs tend to be lower than that in the general population. The most common underlying cause of death in PALs was stroke, followed by ischemic heart disease, liver cancer, and pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6947775PMC
January 2020

Comparison of the Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes between Leprosy-Affected Persons in Sorokdo and the General Population Affected by Chronic Hepatitis C in Korea.

Gut Liver 2019 09;13(5):549-556

Department of Gastroenterology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, Korea.

Background/aims: Patients with Hansen's disease are the most vulnerable to hepatitis C. However, no data on the treatment efficacy of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are available in this group. Therefore, we elucidated the prevalence and clinical outcomes of hepatitis C in persons affected by leprosy in Sorokdo, Jeollanam-do, Korea.

Methods: We retrospectively included 50 leprosy patients with positive hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA test results (group A) hospitalized at the Sorokdo National Hospital from May 2016 to March 2018 and 73 patients with chronic hepatitis C who were treated with DAAs at the Chonnam National University Hospital (group B) from May 2016 to December 2017.

Results: Overall, at the Sorokdo National Hospital, positive HCV antibody and HCV RNA rates were 18.4% and 11.0%, respectively. The mean participant age was 76.5±7 years, and 58% of participants were men. The genotypes were type 1b in 44% (22 out of 50) and type 2 in 56% (28 out of 50). Sustained virologic response was achieved at a rate of 95.5% (21/22) in genotype 1b and 92.9% (26/28) in genotype 2 patients. Ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia occurred in 57.1% (16/28) of patients with genotype 2. Among these, 28.5% (8/28) received blood transfusions.

Conclusions: Treatment efficacy was not different between the leprosy-affected population and the general population. However, severe ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia requiring transfusion was present in 28.5% of genotype 2 patients. Therefore, we suggest ribavirin-free DAAs for the treatment of genotype 2 hepatitis C in leprosy-affected persons in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl18432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6743803PMC
September 2019

Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field from 915 MHz radiofrequency identification system on circulating blood cells in the healthy adult rat.

Bioelectromagnetics 2018 Jan 24;39(1):68-76. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

We investigated whether exposure to the 915 MHz radiofrequency identification (RFID) signal affected circulating blood cells in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RFID at a whole-body specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg for 8 h per day, 5 days per week, for 2 weeks. Complete blood counts were performed after RFID exposure, and the CD4 /CD8 ratio was determined by flow cytometry. The number of red blood cells (RBCs) and the values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and RBC indices were increased in the RFID-exposed group compared with those in the cage-control and sham-exposed groups (P < 0.05). However, the RBCs and platelet numbers were within normal physiologic response ranges. The number of white blood cells, including lymphocytes, was decreased in RFID-exposed rats. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the sham-exposed and RFID-exposed groups in terms of T-cell counts or CD4 /CD8 ratio (P > 0.05). Although the number of circulating blood cells was significantly altered by RFID exposure at a whole-body specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg for 2 weeks, these changes do not necessarily indicate that RFID exposure is harmful, as they were within the normal physiological response range. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:68-76, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bem.22093DOI Listing
January 2018

Microvascular Decompression for Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia: Clinical Analyses of 30 Cases.

J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2017 Nov 25;60(6):738-748. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Objective: We present our experience of microvascular decompression (MVD) for glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) and evaluate the postoperative outcomes in accordance with four different operative techniques during MVD.

Methods: In total, 30 patients with intractable primary typical GPN who underwent MVD without rhizotomy and were followed for more than 2 years were included in the analysis. Each MVD was performed using one of four different surgical techniques: interposition of Teflon pieces, transposition of offending vessels using Teflon pieces, transposition of offending vessels using a fibrin-glue-coated Teflon sling, and removal of offending veins.

Results: The posterior inferior cerebellar artery was responsible for neurovascular compression in 27 of 30 (90%) patients, either by itself or in combination with other vessels. The location of compression on the glossopharyngeal nerve varied; the root entry zone (REZ) only (63.3%) was most common, followed by both the REZ and distal portion (26.7%) and the distal portion alone (10.0%). In terms of detailed surgical techniques during MVD, the offending vessels were transposed in 24 (80%) patients, either using additional insulation, offered by Teflon pieces (15 patients), or using a fibrin glue-coated Teflon sling (9 patients). Simple insertion of Teflon pieces and removal of a small vein were also performed in five and one patient, respectively. During the 2 years following MVD, 29 of 30 (96.7%) patients were asymptomatic or experienced only occasional pain that did not require medication. Temporary hemodynamic instability occurred in two patients during MVD, and seven patients experienced transient postoperative complications. Neither persistent morbidity nor mortality was reported.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that MVD without rhizotomy is a safe and effective treatment option for GPN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2017.0506.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5678068PMC
November 2017

Bioglue-Coated Teflon Sling Technique in Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm Involving the Vertebral Artery.

J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2016 Sep 8;59(5):505-11. Epub 2016 Sep 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.; Neuroscience Graduate Program, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Ajou University, Suwon, Korea.

Objective: Microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) involving the vertebral artery (VA) can be technically challenging. We investigated the therapeutic effects of a bioglue-coated Teflon sling technique on the VA during MVD in 42 cases.

Methods: A bioglue-coated Teflon sling was crafted by the surgeon and applied to patients in whom neurovascular compression was caused by the VA. The radiologic data, intra-operative findings with detailed introduction of the procedure, and the clinical outcomes of each patient were reviewed and analyzed.

Results: The 42 patients included in the analysis consisted of 22 females and 20 males, with an average follow-up duration of 76 months (range 24-132 months). Intraoperative investigation revealed that an artery other than the VA was responsible for the neurovascular compression in all cases : posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in 23 patients (54.7%) and anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) in 11 patients (26.2%). All patients became symptom-free after MVD. Neither recurrence nor postoperative neurological deficit was noted during the 2-year follow-up, except in one patient who developed permanent deafness. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurred in three patients, and one required dural repair.

Conclusion: Transposition of the VA using a bioglue-coated Teflon sling is a safe and effective surgical technique for HFS involving the VA. A future prospective study to compare clinical outcomes between groups with and without use of this novel technique is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2016.59.5.505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5028612PMC
September 2016

Ten Triangles around Cavernous Sinus for Surgical Approach, Described by Schematic Diagram and Three Dimensional Models with the Sectioned Images.

J Korean Med Sci 2016 Sep;31(9):1455-63

Department of Anatomy, Dongguk University School of Medicine, Gyeongju, Korea.

For the surgical approach to lesions around the cavernous sinus (CS), triangular spaces around CS have been devised. However, educational materials for learning the triangles were insufficient. The purpose of this study is to present educational materials about the triangles, consisting of a schematic diagram and 3-dimensional (3D) models with sectioned images. To achieve the purposes, other studies were analyzed to establish new definitions and names of the triangular spaces. Learning materials including schematic diagrams and 3D models with cadaver's sectioned images were manufactured. Our new definition was attested by observing the sectioned images and 3D models. The triangles and the four representative surgical approaches were stereoscopically indicated on the 3D models. All materials of this study were put into Portable Document Format file and were distributed freely at our homepage (anatomy.dongguk.ac.kr/triangles). By using our schematic diagram and the 3D models with sectioned images, ten triangles and the related structures could be understood and observed accurately. We expect that our data will contribute to anatomy education, surgery training, and radiologic understanding of the triangles and related structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2016.31.9.1455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4974189PMC
September 2016

Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level.

Korean J Intern Med 2016 May 22;31(3):535-42. Epub 2016 Feb 22.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Background/aims: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population.

Methods: A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured.

Results: Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] - 149.6; R (2) = 0.54, p < 0.001). Our linear regression equation was quite different from that of the Alc-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort.

Conclusions: Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2015.075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4855099PMC
May 2016

Thrombocytopenia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Clinical Manifestations, Treatment, and Prognosis in 230 Patients.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Feb;95(6):e2818

From the Department of Rheumatology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea.

The aim of the study was to examine the clinical characteristics and prognosis according to severity of thrombocytopenia and response to treatment for thrombocytopenia in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).We retrospectively evaluated 230 SLE patients with thrombocytopenia, and reviewed their clinical data and laboratory findings. Thrombocytopenia was defined as platelet counts under 100,000/mm, and patients were divided into 3 thrombocytopenia groups according to severity: mild (platelet counts >50,000/mm), moderate (>20,000/mm, ≤50,000/mm), and severe (≤20,000/mm). Clinical characteristics, treatments, and prognoses were compared among the groups. Furthermore, complete remission of thrombocytopenia was defined as platelet counts >100,000/mm after treatment.There was no significant difference in clinical or laboratory findings among the groups according to severity of thrombocytopenia. However, hemorrhagic complications were more frequent in severe thrombocytopenia (P < 0.001) and mortality was also higher (P = 0.001). Complete remission was achieved in 85.2% of patients. The clinical characteristics and modality of treatment did not differ between the patients with and without complete remission. Mortality in patients with complete remission (1.5%) was significantly lower than in those without complete remission (29.4%, P < 0.001). Survival was significantly higher in patients with complete remission from thrombocytopenia (odds ratio = 0.049, 95% confidence interval: 0.013-0.191, P < 0.001).The severity of thrombocytopenia in SLE patients can be a useful independent prognostic factor to predict survival. Moreover, complete remission of thrombocytopenia after treatment is an important prognostic factor. The severity of thrombocytopenia and response to treatment should be closely monitored to predict prognosis in SLE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000002818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4753950PMC
February 2016

Metabolomic study of urinary polyamines in rat exposed to 915 MHz radiofrequency identification signal.

Amino Acids 2016 Jan 29;48(1):213-7. Epub 2015 Aug 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, 443-749, Republic of Korea.

Metabolomic analysis of urinary polyamines (PAs) from rat exposed to 915 MHz radiofrequency identification (RFID) signal for 8 h/day for 2 weeks was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as N-ethoxycarbonyl/N-pentafluoropropionyl derivatives. Large alterations in nine PA levels including four aliphatic and five acetylated PAs were monitored in sham-exposed and RFID-exposed groups. Total PA and urinary levels of N (1)-acetylputrescine, N (1)-acetylcadaverine, putrescine, cadaverine, N (1)-acetylspermidine, N (8)-acetylspermidine, spermidine and spermine were reduced, whereas N (1)-acetylspermine was significantly increased after sham and RFID exposure compared with those before exposure. Their levels were normalized to the corresponding group means before exposure and then plotted into star symbol patterns. N (1)-Acetylspermine after RFID exposure was 54 % higher compared to the level before RFID exposure, while it was elevated by only 17 % in the sham group. The results suggest that 915 MHz RFID exposure may induce metabolic disturbance of PA. It may also elevate spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT) activity. Thus, the present metabolic profiling combined with star pattern recognition method might be useful for understanding the complexity of biochemical events after exposure to RFID signal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-015-2079-xDOI Listing
January 2016

Independent risk factors for mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who undergo comprehensive cardiac evaluations.

Respiration 2015 8;90(3):199-205. Epub 2015 Aug 8.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the impact of cardiovascular comorbidities on the prognosis of COPD is not well known.

Objectives: This study was performed to investigate the effects of cardiovascular comorbidities on the prognosis of COPD.

Methods: We enlisted 229 patients with COPD who underwent comprehensive cardiac evaluations including coronary angiography and echocardiography at Ajou University Hospital between January 2000 and December 2012. Survival analyses were performed in this retrospective cohort.

Results: Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that COPD patients without left heart failure (mean survival = 12.5 ± 0.7 years) survived longer than COPD patients with left heart failure (mean survival = 6.7 ± 1.4 years; p = 0.003), and the survival period of nonanemic COPD patients (mean survival = 13.8 ± 0.8 years) was longer than that of anemic COPD patients (mean survival = 8.3 ± 0.8 years; p < 0.001). The survival period in COPD with coronary artery disease (CAD; mean survival = 11.37 ± 0.64 years) was not different from that in COPD without CAD (mean survival = 11.98 ± 0.98 years; p = 0.703). According to a multivariate Cox regression model, a lower hemoglobin level, a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were independently associated with higher mortality in the total COPD group (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Hemoglobin levels and left ventricular ejection fraction along with a lower FEV1 were identified as independent risk factors for mortality in COPD patients who underwent comprehensive cardiac evaluations, suggesting that multidisciplinary approaches are required in the care of COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000437097DOI Listing
July 2016

Eight hours of nocturnal 915 MHz radiofrequency identification (RFID) exposure reduces urinary levels of melatonin and its metabolite via pineal arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in male rats.

Int J Radiat Biol 2015 ;91(11):898-907

a Department of Neurosurgery , Ajou University School of Medicine , Suwon ;

Purpose: We investigated the effects of whole-body exposure to the 915 MHz radiofrequency identification (RFID) on melatonin biosynthesis and the activity of rat pineal arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT).

Materials And Methods: Rats were exposed to RFID (whole-body specific absorption rate, 4 W/kg) for 8 h/day, 5 days/week, for weeks during the nighttime. Total volume of urine excreted during a 24-h period was collected after RFID exposure. Urinary melatonin and 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. AANAT enzyme activity was measured using liquid biphasic dif-13 fusion assay. Protein levels and mRNA expression of AANAT was 14 measured by Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase 15 chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, respectively.

Results: Eight hours of nocturnal RFID exposure caused a significant reduction in both urinary melatonin (p = 0. 003) and 6-OHMS (p = 0. 026). Activity, protein levels, and mRNA expression of AANAT were suppressed by exposure to RFID (p < 0. 05).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that nocturnal RFID exposure can cause reductions in the levels of both urinary melatonin and 6-OHMS, possibly due to decreased melatonin biosynthesis via suppression of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09553002.2015.1075075DOI Listing
April 2016

The potential utility of iodinated contrast media (ICM) skin testing in patients with ICM hypersensitivity.

J Korean Med Sci 2015 Mar 16;30(3):245-51. Epub 2015 Feb 16.

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) are relatively common. However, there are few data to determine the clinical utility of immunologic evaluation of ICM. To evaluate the utility of ICM skin testing in patients with ICM hypersensitivity, 23 patients (17 immediate and 6 delayed reactions) were enrolled from 3 university hospitals in Korea. With 6 commonly used ICM including iopromide, iohexol, ioversol, iomeprol, iopamidol and iodixanol, skin prick (SPT), intradermal (IDT) and patch tests were performed. Of 10 patients with anaphylaxis, 3 (30.0%) and 6 (60.0%) were positive respectively on SPTs and IDTs with the culprit ICM. Three of 6 patients with urticaria showed positive IDTs. In total, 11 (64.7%) had positive on either SPT or IDT. Three of 6 patients with delayed rashes had positive response to patch test and/or delayed IDT. Among 5 patients (3 anaphylaxis, 1 urticaria and 1 delayed rash) taken subsequent radiological examinations, 3 patients administered safe alternatives according to the results of skin testing had no adverse reaction. However, anaphylaxis developed in the other 2 patients administered the culprit ICM again. With 64.7% (11/17) and 50% (3/6) of the sensitivities of corresponding allergic skin tests with culprit ICM for immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, the present study suggests that skin tests is useful for the diagnosis of ICM hypersensitivity and for selecting safe ICM and preventing a recurrence of anaphylaxis caused by the same ICM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2015.30.3.245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330477PMC
March 2015

Effect of whole-body exposure to the 848.5 MHz code division multiple access (CDMA) electromagnetic field on adult neurogenesis in the young, healthy rat brain.

Int J Radiat Biol 2015 Apr 24;91(4):354-9. Epub 2015 Jan 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine , Suwon , South Korea.

Introduction: Whether exposure to the 848.5 MHz code division multiple access (CDMA) signal affects adult neurogenesis is unclear.

Materials And Methods: An animal experiment was performed with a reverberation chamber designed as a whole-body CDMA exposure system. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to three groups (n = 6 per group): Cage-control, sham-exposed, and CDMA-exposed groups. Rats in the CDMA-exposed group were exposed to the CDMA signal at a 2 W/kg whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) for 1 or 8 h daily, 5 days per week, for 2 weeks. Rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label proliferative cells daily for the last five consecutive days of CDMA signal exposure. An unbiased stereological method was used to estimate the number of BrdU(+) cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG).

Results: We found no significant changes in the number of BrdU(+) cells in the SVZ or DG in the CDMA-exposed rats, compared with rats in the cage-control and sham-exposed groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that exposure to the CDMA signal does not affect neurogenesis in the adult rat brain, at least under our experimental conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09553002.2014.995382DOI Listing
April 2015

Lipoma causing glossopharyngeal neuralgia: a case report and review of literature.

J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2014 Aug 31;56(2):149-51. Epub 2014 Aug 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

The cerebello-pontine angle lipomas causing trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm are rare. A lipoma causing glossopharyngel neuralgia is also very rare. A 46-year-old woman complained of 2-year history of severe right throat pain, with ipsilateral episodic otalgic pain. The throat pain was described as an episodic lancinating character confined to the throat. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a suspicious offending posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) compressing lower cranial nerves including glossopharyngeal nerve. At surgery, a soft, yellowish mass (2×3×3 mm in size) was found incorporating the lateral aspect of proximal portion of 9th and 10th cranial nerves. Only microvascular decompression of the offending PICA was performed. Additional procedure was not performed. Her severe lancinating pain remained unchanged, immediate postoperatively. The neuralgic pain disappeared over a period of several weeks. In this particular patient with a fatty neurovascular lump causing glossopharyngeal neuralgia, microvascular decompression of offending vessel alone was enough to control the neuralgic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2014.56.2.149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4200364PMC
August 2014

Outcomes of Ultra-Early Decompressive Craniectomy after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury-Treatment Outcomes after Severe TBI.

Korean J Neurotrauma 2014 Oct 31;10(2):112-8. Epub 2014 Oct 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Catholic Kwandong University International St. Mary's Hospital, Incheon, Korea.

Objective: The beneficial effect of decompressive craniectomy in the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is controversial, but there is no debate that decompression should be performed before irreversible neurological deficit occurs. The aim of our study was to assess the value of ultra-early decompressive craniectomy in patients with severe TBI.

Methods: Total of 127 patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy from January 2007 to December 2013 was included in this study. Among them, 60 patients had underwent ultra-early (within 4 hours from injury) emergent operation for relief of increased intracranial pressure. Initial Glasgow coma scale, brain computed tomography (CT) scan features by Marshall CT classification, and time interval between injury and craniectomy were evaluated retrospectively. Clinical outcome was evaluated, using the modified Rankin score.

Results: The outcomes of ultra-early decompressive craniectomy group were not better than those in the comparison group (p=0.809). The overall mortality rate was 68.5% (87 patients). Six of all patients (4.7%) showed good outcomes, and 34 patients (26.8%) remained in a severely disabled or vegetative state. Forty of sixty patients (66.7%) had died, and two patients (3.3%) showed good outcomes at last follow-up.

Conclusion: Ultra-early decompressive craniectomy for intracranial hypertension did not improve patient outcome when compared with "early or late" decompressive craniectomy for managing severe TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13004/kjnt.2014.10.2.112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4852600PMC
October 2014

Effects of whole-body exposure to 915 MHz RFID on secretory functions of the thyroid system in rats.

Bioelectromagnetics 2013 Oct 6;34(7):521-9. Epub 2013 Jun 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

As a part of an investigation on the potential risks of radiofrequency identification (RFID) on human health, we studied whether exposure to 915 MHz RFID in rats significantly affected the secretory function of the thyroid system. A reverberation chamber was used as a whole-body exposure system. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 8 h per day, 5 days per week, for a duration of 2, 4, 8, or 16 weeks. The estimated whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) varied from 3.2 to 4.6 W/kg depending on the age/mass of the animals for the field of the 915 MHz RFID reader. Plasma levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were evaluated via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Morphological changes in the thyroid gland were then analyzed. No changes in T3, T4, or TSH were observed over time between the sham- and RFID-exposed groups. We suggest that subchronic exposure to 915 MHz RFID at a SAR of 4 W/kg does not cause significant effects on thyroid secretory function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bem.21797DOI Listing
October 2013

The effects of exposure to 915 MHz radiofrequency identification on cerebral glucose metabolism in rat: a [F-18] FDG micro-PET study.

Int J Radiat Biol 2013 Sep 7;89(9):750-5. Epub 2013 May 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea.

Purpose: We investigated the effect of whole-body exposure to 915-MHz radiofrequency identification (RFID) on rat cortical glucose metabolism by using (18)F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET).

Materials And Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Cage-control, sham-exposed and RFID-exposed groups. Rats were exposed to the 915-MHz RFID for 8 h daily, 5 days per week, for 2 or 16 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was 4 W/kg for the field of the 915 MHz RFID signal. FDG-PET images were obtained the day after RFID exposure, using micro-PET with a FDG tracer. With a Xeleris functional imaging workstation, absolute values in regions of interest (ROI) in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortexes and cerebellum were measured. Cortical ROI values were normalized to the cerebellar value and compared.

Results: The data showed that the relative cerebral glucose metabolic rate was unchanged in the frontal, temporal and parietal cortexes of the 915 MHz RFID-exposed rats, compared with rats in cage-control and sham-exposed groups.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that 915 MHz RFID radiation exposure did not cause a significant long lasting effect on glucose metabolism in the rat brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09553002.2013.791756DOI Listing
September 2013

Elevated homocysteine by levodopa is detrimental to neurogenesis in parkinsonian model.

PLoS One 2012 28;7(11):e50496. Epub 2012 Nov 28.

Department of Neurology and Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Modulation of neurogenesis that acts as an endogenous repair mechanism would have a significant impact on future therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD). Several studies demonstrated dopaminergic modulation of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult brain. Levodopa, the gold standard therapy for PD, causes an increase in homocysteine levels that induces neuronal death via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The present study investigated whether elevated homocysteine by levodopa treatment in a parkinsonian model would modulate neurogenesis via NMDA receptor signal cascade and compared the effect of levodopa and pramipexol (PPX) on neurogenic activity.

Methodology/principal Findings: Neurogenesis was assessed in vitro using neural progenitor cells (NPCs) isolated from the SVZ and in vivo with the BrdU-injected animal model of PD using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Modulation of homocysteine levels was evaluated using co-cultures of NPCs and astrocytes and PD animals. Immunochemical and Western blot analyses were used to measure neurogenesis and determine the cell death signaling. Levodopa treatment increased release of homocysteine on astrocytes culture media as well as in plasma and brain of PD animals. Increased homocysteine by levodopa led to increased apoptosis of NPCs through the NMDA receptor-dependent the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. The administration of a NMDA antagonist significantly attenuated apoptotic cell death in levodopa-treated NPCs and markedly increased the number of BrdU-positive cells in the SVZ of levodopa-treated PD animals. Comparative analysis revealed that PPX treatment significantly increased the number of NPCs and BrdU-positive cells in the SVZ of PD animals compared to levodopa treatment. Our present study demonstrated that increased homocysteine by levodopa has a detrimental effect on neurogenesis through NMDA receptor-mediated ERK signaling pathway.

Conclusions/significance: Modulation of levodopa-induced elevated homocysteine by NMDA antagonist or dopamine agonist has a clinical relevance for PD treatment in terms of adult neurogenesis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0050496PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3509089PMC
May 2013

High-dose (111)in induces g1 cell cycle arrest and cell death in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2012 Jun 14;46(2):81-8. Epub 2012 Jan 14.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, 442-749 Republic of Korea.

Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the effect of (111)In-labeling on the cell growth, cycle and viability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).

Methods: Rat BMSCs were labeled with various doses of (111)In (0.4-11.1 Bq/cell). The growth curve of (111)In-BMSCs was obtained up to 14th day of labeling. The cell cycle was evaluated by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling or propidium iodide (PI) staining. Senescent cells were counted under a light microscope after staining with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-D-galactopyranoside. Flow cytometry was performed to measure apoptotic and necrotic fractions after staining with annexin V-FITC and PI.

Results: The growth of BMSCs labeled with higher doses of (111)In (4.4 or 11.1 Bq/cell) was significantly inhibited from the 3rd day of labeling. Flow cytometry revealed less BrdU-positive BMSCs at 11.1 Bq (111)In/cell during all measurement days and G1 arrest at 4.4 and 11.1 Bq (111)In/cell. Significant increases in apoptosis and necrosis were also observed at 4.4 (3.04%/1.35%) and 11.1 Bq (111)In/cell (9.07%/3.18%) on the 14th day (control = 1.60%/0.39%). However, no cellular senescence was visualized up to the 14th day.

Conclusion: A high dose of (111)In-labeling induced cell cycle arrest and death in BMSCs; therefore, it should be used with a careful dosimetry in case of applying it to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13139-011-0124-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4042999PMC
June 2012

Early distribution of intravenously injected mesenchymal stem cells in rats with acute brain trauma evaluated by (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeling.

Nucl Med Biol 2011 Nov 9;38(8):1175-82. Epub 2011 Aug 9.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Stem cell tracking is essential for evaluation of its migration, transplantation and therapeutic response. The aim of this study was to evaluate early distribution of intravenously transplanted rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in rats with acute cerebral trauma by labeling with (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO).

Methods: (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labeled BMSCs were injected intravenously to trauma rats (n=14) and sham-operated controls (n=13). Gamma camera images were acquired at 4 h after injection, and then organs were removed for gamma counting. Confocal microscope was used to confirm the migration of (99m)Tc-BMSCs by co-labeling with PKH26. Cytometric analysis was performed to evaluate apoptotic or necrotic change until the seventh day after labeling.

Results: (99m)Tc-BMSCs were distributed mostly to lungs, liver and spleen at 4 h, and uptake of these organs was not significantly different between traumatic rats and controls. Meanwhile, the cerebral uptake of (99m)Tc-BMSCs was significantly higher in the traumatic rats than in controls (0.40% vs. 0.20%; P=.0002). Additionally, (99m)Tc-BMSCs' uptake of traumatic hemisphere was significantly higher than that of contralateral ones (0.27% vs. 0.13%; P=.0001) in traumatic rats. Regardless of radiolabeling, BMSCs migrated to traumatic regions, but not to nontraumatic hemispheres. However, gamma camera failed to demonstrate (99m)Tc-BMSCs in traumatic hemispheres. No significant apoptotic or necrotic change was observed until 7 days after radiolabeling.

Conclusions: Early distribution of BMSCs in traumatic brain disease could be monitored by (99m)Tc-labeling, which does not induce cellular death. However, our data showed that the amount of migrated (99m)Tc-BMSCs was not enough to be demonstrated by clinical gamma camera.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2011.05.009DOI Listing
November 2011

Photocurrent imaging of nanocrystal quantum dots on single-walled carbon nanotube device.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2011 May;11(5):4300-4

Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 305-343, Korea.

Semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) are considered an attractive candidate for use in optoelectronic applications due to the ease of band gap control provided by varying the particle size. To increase the efficiency of NQDs when practically applied in devices, researchers have introduced the concept of coupling of NQDs to one-dimensional nanostructures such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), which have a ballistic conducting channel. In the present study, NQDs of CdSe core and CdSe/ZnS are used as light absorbing building blocks. SWCNTs and functionalized NQDs are non-covalently coupled using pyridine molecules in order to maintain their electronic structures. To measure the electrical signals from the device, a NQDs-SWCNT hybrid nanostructure is fabricated as a field-effect transistor (FET) using the dielectrophoresis (DEP) method. A confocal scanning microscope was used to scan the devices using a diffraction-limited laser spot and the photocurrent was recorded as a function of the position of the laser spot. To improve the performance of detecting small electronic signal with high signal-to-noise ratio we used a lock-in technique with an intensity-modulated laser. In this paper, we have demonstrated that detection of local photoconductivity provides an efficient means to resolve electronic structure modulations along NQDs-SWCNT hybrid nanostructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2011.3658DOI Listing
May 2011

Anatomical location of the pedunculopontine nucleus in the human brain: diffusion tensor imaging study.

Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2011 14;89(3):152-6. Epub 2011 Apr 14.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Taegu, Republic of Korea.

We investigated the anatomical location of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) in the human brain using diffusion tensor imaging. Forty normal healthy subjects were recruited. To confirm the boundary of the PPN, we analyzed the superior cerebellar peduncle and medial lemniscus using DTI-Studio software. We identified the PPN on red green blue (RGB) images, and defined four points of the PPN and four boundaries of the midbrain: point a - the most anterior point, point b - the most posterior point, point c - the most medial point, point d - the most lateral point; anterior boundary - the line of the most posterior point of the interpeduncular fossa, posterior boundary - the line of the upper part of the inferior colliculus, lateral boundary - the line of the most lateral point of the midbrain, medial boundary - the line of the midline of the midbrain. Points a and b were located at an average of 20.19 and 30.52% from the anterior boundary, respectively. By contrast, points c and d were located at an average of 22.50 and 41.65% from the medial boundary, respectively. We believe that the methodology and data of this study would be helpful in research and procedures on the PPN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000324890DOI Listing
October 2011

Enhancing trophic support of mesenchymal stem cells by ex vivo treatment with trophic factors.

J Neurol Sci 2010 Nov 22;298(1-2):28-34. Epub 2010 Sep 22.

Brain Disease Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Several studies have examined the enhanced efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using neurotrophic factor transfection in ischemic rat models. However, gene therapy, e.g., the application of MSCs transfected with neurotrophic factors, is not feasible in clinical practice for ethical reasons. Therefore, we evaluated cultivation with specific trophic factors in an attempt to enhance the efficacy of human MSCs (hMSCs) in ischemic stroke.

Methods: Using quantitative sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we analyzed the levels of trophic factors released from hMSCs after treatment with ischemic brain extract. Trophic factors were pretreated under ex vivo culture conditions. The concentrations of each trophic factor produced by the trophic factor-pretreated and non-pretreated hMSCs were then measured and compared.

Results: hMSCs cultured with ischemic rat brain extract showed increased production of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and HGF (hepatocyte growth factor). Ex vivo treatment with trophic factors led to a further increase in the production of the trophic factor by hMSC, suggesting autocrine regulation of hMSCs. The morphology and expression of surface markers of hMSCs were not changed, but the cell viability and cell proliferation ability increased after treatment with trophic factors.

Conclusions: Our data indicate that hMSCs provide trophic support to the ischemic brain, which can be enhanced by ex vivo treatment of trophic factors during cultivation of hMSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2010.09.003DOI Listing
November 2010

Polyamine patterns in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

Clin Chim Acta 2010 Oct 1;411(19-20):1532-5. Epub 2010 Jun 1.

Institute for Neuroregeneration and Stem Cell Research, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea.

Background: Polyamines (PAs) are important modulators of physiological condition, and are associated with neurodegenerative disease. Thus, we investigated the change of PA concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA).

Methods: CSF samples from patients with PD and MSA were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode using N-ethoxycarbonyl/N-pentafluoropropyonyl derivatives.

Results: PA concentrations were significantly different in patients with PD and MSA compared with those in the normal group. In the PD group, as compared with the MSA group, concentrations of putrescine, N(1)-acetylspermidine, and putrescine spermidine(-)(1) were significantly increased, whereas the concentration of spermidine was significantly reduced.

Conclusions: These results could be helpful for understanding the complexity of biochemical events in patients with PD and MSA, and may serve as metabolic markers for diagnosis of PD and MSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2010.05.034DOI Listing
October 2010

A long-term follow-up study of intravenous autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in patients with ischemic stroke.

Stem Cells 2010 Jun;28(6):1099-106

Department of Neurology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea.

We previously evaluated the short-term follow-up preliminary data of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation in patients with ischemic stroke. The present study was conducted to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of i.v. MSCs transplantation in a larger population. To accomplish this, we performed an open-label, observer-blinded clinical trial of 85 patients with severe middle cerebral artery territory infarct. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups, those who received i.v. autologous ex vivo cultured MSCs (MSC group) or those who did not (control group), and followed for up to 5 years. Mortality of any cause, long-term side effects, and new-onset comorbidities were monitored. Of the 52 patients who were finally included in this study, 16 were the MSC group and 36 were the control group. Four (25%) patients in the MSC group and 21 (58.3%) in the control group died during the follow-up period, and the cumulative surviving portion at 260 weeks was 0.72 in the MSC group and 0.34 in the control group (log-rank; p = .058). Significant side effects were not observed following MSC treatment. The occurrence of comorbidities including seizures and recurrent vascular episodes did not differ between groups. When compared with the control group, the follow-up modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was decreased, whereas the number of patients with a mRS of 0-3 increased in the MSC group (p = .046). Clinical improvement in the MSC group was associated with serum levels of stromal cell-derived factor-1 and the degree of involvement of the subventricular region of the lateral ventricle. Intravenous autologous MSCs transplantation was safe for stroke patients during long-term follow-up. This therapy may improve recovery after stroke depending on the specific characteristics of the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.430DOI Listing
June 2010

In vivo tracking of 111In-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in acute brain trauma model.

Nucl Med Biol 2010 Apr 15;37(3):381-8. Epub 2010 Jan 15.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: This study was to evaluate the in vivo distribution of intravenously transplanted bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in an acute brain trauma model by (111)In-tropolone labeling.

Methods: Rat BMSCs were labeled with 37 MBq (111)In-tropolone. Their labeling efficiency and in vitro retention rate were measured. The viability and proliferation of labeled BMSCs were evaluated for 14 days after labeling. The biodistribution of (111)In-labeled BMSCs in trauma models was compared with those of sham-operated rats and normal rats on gamma camera images. The migration of (111)In-BMSCs to the traumatic brain was evaluated using confocal microscope.

Results: The labeling efficiency of (111)In-BMSCs was 66+/-5%, and their retention rate was 85.3% at 1 h after labeling. There was no difference in the number of viable cells between (111)In-BMSCs and controls at 48 h after labeling. However, the proliferation of (111)In-BMSCs was inhibited after the third day of labeling, and it did not reach confluency. On gamma camera images, most of the (111)In-BMSCs uptake was observed in the liver and spleen at the second day of injection. The brain uptake of (111)In-BMSCs was detected prominently in trauma models (1.4%) than in sham-operated (0.5%) or normal rats (0.3%). Radiolabeled BMSCs were observed at the traumatic brain on the confocal microscope as they have a homing capacity, although its proliferation capacity was suppressed.

Conclusion: Although growth inhibition by (111)In-labeling need to be evaluated further prior to use in humans, (111)In-labeled BMSCs are useful for the tracking of intravenously transplanted mesenchymal stem cells in brain disease models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2009.12.001DOI Listing
April 2010