Publications by authors named "Young Chang"

379 Publications

Relevance of circulating hybrid cells as a non-invasive biomarker for myriad solid tumors.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 1;11(1):13630. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Cell, Developmental and Cancer Biology, Oregon Health & Science University, 2720 S. Moody Ave., Mailcode KC-CDCB, Portland, OR, 97201, USA.

Metastatic progression defines the final stages of tumor evolution and underlies the majority of cancer-related deaths. The heterogeneity in disseminated tumor cell populations capable of seeding and growing in distant organ sites contributes to the development of treatment resistant disease. We recently reported the identification of a novel tumor-derived cell population, circulating hybrid cells (CHCs), harboring attributes from both macrophages and neoplastic cells, including functional characteristics important to metastatic spread. These disseminated hybrids outnumber conventionally defined circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in cancer patients. It is unknown if CHCs represent a generalized cancer mechanism for cell dissemination, or if this population is relevant to the metastatic cascade. Herein, we detect CHCs in the peripheral blood of patients with cancer in myriad disease sites encompassing epithelial and non-epithelial malignancies. Further, we demonstrate that in vivo-derived hybrid cells harbor tumor-initiating capacity in murine cancer models and that CHCs from human breast cancer patients express stem cell antigens, features consistent with the potential to seed and grow at metastatic sites. Finally, we reveal heterogeneity of CHC phenotypes reflect key tumor features, including oncogenic mutations and functional protein expression. Importantly, this novel population of disseminated neoplastic cells opens a new area in cancer biology and renewed opportunity for battling metastatic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93053-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249418PMC
July 2021

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with the development of obstructive sleep apnea.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 29;11(1):13473. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak-no, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea.

Increasing evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a metabolic syndrome-related disease; however, the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and OSA is not firmly established. In this study, we investigated the relationship between NAFLD and OSA in a general population drawn from a nationwide population-based cohort. Data from the Korean National Health Insurance System between January 2009 and December 2009 were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards model. NAFLD was defined as a fatty liver index (FLI) ≥ 60 in patients without excessive alcohol consumption (who were excluded from the study). Newly diagnosed OSA during follow-up was identified using claims data. Among the 8,116,524 participants, 22.6% had an FLI score of 30-60 and 11.5% had an FLI ≥ 60. During median follow-up of 6.3 years, 45,143 cases of incident OSA occurred. In multivariable analysis, the risk of OSA was significantly higher in the higher FLI groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.18 for FLI 30-60 and aHR 1.21, 95% CI 1.17-1.26 for FLI ≥ 60). These findings were consistent regardless of body mass index and presence of abdominal obesity. In conclusion, a high FLI score may help identify individuals with a high risk of OSA. Understanding the association between NAFLD and OSA may have clinical implications for risk-stratification of individuals with NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92703-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241839PMC
June 2021

Adverse outcomes after surgeries in patients with liver cirrhosis among Korean population: A population-based study.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(6):e0253165. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Soonchunhyang University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Patients with liver cirrhosis have an increased risk of in-hospital mortality or postoperative complication after surgery. However, large-scale studies on the prognosis of these patients after surgery are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate the adverse outcomes of patients with liver cirrhosis after surgery over five years.

Methods And Findings: We used the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Inpatient Samples (HIRA-NIS) between 2012 and 2016. In-hospital mortality and hospital stay were analyzed using the data. Mortality rates according to the surgical department were also analyzed. Of the 1,662,887 patients who underwent surgery, 16,174 (1.0%) patients had cirrhosis. The in-hospital mortality (8.0% vs. 1.0%) and postoperative complications such as respiratory (6.0% vs. 5.3%) or infections (2.8% vs. 2.4%) was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis than in those without cirrhosis. In addition, the total hospitalization period and use of the intensive care unit were significantly higher in patients with liver cirrhosis. In propensity score matching analysis, liver cirrhosis increased the risk of adverse outcome significantly [adjusted OR (aOR) 1.67, 95% CI 1.56-1.79, P<0.001], especially in-hospital mortality. In liver cirrhosis group, presence of decompensation or varices showed significantly increased postoperative complication or mortality. Adverse outcomes in patients with cirrhosis was the highest in patients who underwent otorhinolaryngology surgery (aOR 1.86), followed by neurosurgery (aOR 1.72), thoracic and cardiovascular surgery (aOR 1.56), and plastic surgery (aOR 1.36).

Conclusion: The adverse outcomes of patients with cirrhosis is significantly high after surgery, despite advances in cirrhosis treatment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253165PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202950PMC
June 2021

Multiple charge density wave phases of monolayer VSemanifested by graphene substrates.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jun 18;32(36). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Physics, and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610, Republic of Korea.

A combined study of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is conducted to understand the multiple charge density wave (CDW) phases of monolayer (ML) VSefilms manifested by graphene substrates. Submonolayer (∼0.8 ML) VSefilms are prepared on two different substrates of single-layer graphene (SLG) and bi-layer graphene (BLG) on a 6H-SiC(0001). We find that ML VSefilms are less coupled to the SLG substrate compared to that of ML VSe/BLG. Then, ML VSegrown on SLG and BLG substrates reveals a very different topography in STM. While ML VSe/BLG shows one unidirectional modulation of √3 × 2 and √3 × √7 CDW in topography, ML VSe/SLG presents a clear modulation of 4 × 1 CDW interfering with √3 × 2 and √3 × √7 CDW which has not been previously observed. We explicitly show that the reciprocal vector of 4 × 1 CDW fits perfectly into the long parallel sections of cigar-shaped Fermi surfaces near the M point in ML VSe, satisfying Fermi surface nesting. Since bulk VSeis also well-known for the 4 × 4 × 3 CDW formed by Fermi surface nesting, the 4 × 1 CDW in ML VSe/SLG is attributed to the planar projection of 4 × 4 × 3 CDW in bulk. Our result clarifies the nature of the 4 × 1 CDW in ML VSesystem and is a good example demonstrating the essential role of substrates in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac06f3DOI Listing
June 2021

Correction to: Cost‑Effectiveness of Empirical Bismuth‑Based Quadruple Therapy and Tailored Therapy After Clarithromycin Resistance Tests for Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, 23 Kyung Hee Dae‑ro, Dongdaemun‑gu, Seoul, 02447, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-07061-8DOI Listing
May 2021

A Comparison of Anesthetic Quality Between Interscalene Block and Superior Trunk Block for Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Pain Physician 2021 May;24(3):235-242

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul.

Background: Interscalene block is the most commonly used nerve block for shoulder surgery, and superior trunk block has been investigated as a phrenic-sparing alternative. This randomized controlled trial compared ultrasound-guided interscalene block and superior trunk block as anesthesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

Objectives: Our aims were to determine the superiority of anesthesia quality and compare the risk of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis between these 2 blocks.

Study Design: A randomized, controlled trial.

Setting: Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital.

Methods: Forty-eight patients undergoing elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery under an ultrasound guided brachial plexus block were randomized to receive either an interscalene block (ISB group, n = 24) or a superior trunk block (STB group, n = 24) for surgery. Ten milliliters of 2% lidocaine and 10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine were used as local anesthesia in both brachial plexus block groups (total 20 mL). In the ISB group, the local anesthesia was injected between the C5-C6 root and at the upper part of C5 with equally divided doses. In the STB group, the local anesthesia was injected into the anterior and posterior parts of the superior trunk with equally divided doses. Sensory blockade of each trocar's insulting site (supraclavicular, axillary, and suprascapular nerve areas) and motor blockade of the axillary nerve (shoulder abduction) and the suprascapular nerve (shoulder external rotation) were assessed by a blinded observer at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes after the block. Anesthesia quality was assessed using 3 grades (excellent/insufficient/failure). The blinded investigator also assessed the grade of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis (normal/partial/complete) by comparing pre- and postoperative chest radiographs. Primary outcome variables were anesthesia grade and rate of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. Secondary outcome variables were performance time and anesthesia onset time.

Results: The anesthetic grade was significantly different between the 2 groups (22/2/0 in the ISB group vs. 16/3/5 in the STB group, P = 0.046). Both groups displayed equivalent incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis (12/6/6 in the ISB group vs. 7/14/3 in the STB group, P = 0.063). No intergroup differences were found in terms of performance time and anesthesia onset time.

Limitations: Our sensory and motor function test was not applied to the subscapular nerve, which serves internal rotation of the humeral head so may be difficult to evaluate in patients with rotator cuff tears. We assessed the diaphragmatic movement by chest radiographs instead of by ultrasound.

Conclusions: The superior trunk block provided lower quality of surgical anesthesia than the interscalene block and did not effectively decrease the risk of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis during arthroscopic shoulder surgery for rotator cuff syndrome.
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May 2021

Trends in opioid prescribing practices in South Korea, 2009-2019: Are we safe from an opioid epidemic?

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0250972. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Opioid prescribing data can guide regulation policy by informing trends and types of opioids prescribed and geographic variations. In South Korea, the nationwide data on prescribing opioids remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate an 11-year trend of opioid prescription in South Korea, both nationally and by administrative districts. A population-based cross-sectional analysis of opioid prescriptions dispensed nationwide in outpatient departments between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2019, was conducted for this study. Data were obtained from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. The types of opioids prescribed were categorized into total, strong, and extended-release and long-acting formulation. Trends in the prescription rate per 1000 persons were examined over time nationally and across administrative districts. There are significant increasing trends for total, strong, and extended-release and long-acting opioid prescriptions (rate per 1000 persons in 2009 and 2019: total opioids, 347.5 and 531.3; strong opioids, 0.6 and 15.2; extended-release and long-acting opioids, 6.8 and 82.0). The pattern of dispensing opioids increased from 2009 to 2013 and slowed down from 2013 to 2019. The rate of opioid prescriptions issued between administrative districts nearly doubled for all types of opioids. Prescription opioid dispensing increased substantially over the study period. The increase in the prescription of total opioids was largely attributed to an increase in the prescription of weak opioids. However, the increase in prescriptions of extended-release and long-acting opioids could be a future concern. These data may inform government organizations to create regulations and interventions for prescribing opioids.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250972PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8115784PMC
May 2021

Comparison of Single Incision Endoscopic Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy and Conventional Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy for Breast Cancer Based on Initial Experience.

J Breast Cancer 2021 Apr;24(2):196-205

Department of Surgery, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Endoscopic breast surgery for patients with breast cancer was introduced for its superior cosmetic outcomes; it was initially studied in the field of breast-conserving surgery and, more recently, in robotic-assisted nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM). The main purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of endoscopic NSM (E-NSM) in patients with breast cancer by comparing E-NSM and conventional NSM (C-NSM).

Methods: Between May 2017 and October 2020, we retrieved the records of 45 patients who underwent NSM with permanent silicone implants and divided them into the E-NSM group (20 patients) and the C-NSM group (25 patients), depending on the use of the endoscopic device. We also analyzed demographic information, pathology, operative time, and complications.

Results: No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups based on demographic information, postoperative pathological data, mean length of hospital stay, and total number of complications. The mean preparation time for surgery was comparable between both groups. Compared to the C-NSM group, the E-NSM group had a significantly longer mean operative time and, subsequently, a significantly longer mean total operative time and number of complications.

Conclusion: The results showed that E-NSM was feasible and safe with a more inconspicuous incision in patients with breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4048/jbc.2021.24.e18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8090808PMC
April 2021

Association between Lipid Profiles and the Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 30;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Background And Aims: Altered lipid metabolism has been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study investigated the relationships between lipid profiles and HCC development.

Methods: Data were obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2009 to 2017. Cox regression analysis was used to examine the hazard ratios of HCC in 8,528,790 individuals who had undergone health check-ups in 2009.

Results: During a median of 7.3 years follow-up, 26,891 incidents of HCCs were identified. The incidence of HCC (per 100,000 person-years) gradually decreased according to the increase in total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol; the incidence of HCC was 69.2, 44.0, 33.9, and 25.8 in quartile-1 (Q1), Q2, Q3, and Q4 population of total-cholesterol, and 63.6, 44.5, 37.2, and 28.3 in Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 population of LDL-cholesterol, respectively. Compared to Q1 of total-cholesterol, subjects in higher total-cholesterol levels were associated with a lower incidence of HCC (multiple covariates-adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): Q2 0.61; Q3 0.46; Q4 0.36). These associations were consistently observed in stratified subgroup analysis by the presence of liver cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.

Conclusions: Low serum lipid levels were significantly associated with the increased risk of developing HCC. A low lipid profile might be an independent risk factor and preclinical marker for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037932PMC
March 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and IV Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 06 25;96(23):e2824-e2838. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology (R.G.N., M.H.M., M.Frankel, D.C.H.), Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Department of Radiology (M.M.Q., M.A., T.N.N., A.K.) and Radiation Oncology (M.M.Q.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (S.O.M.), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (S.O.M.), Brazil; Department of Stroke Neurology (H. Yamagami), National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Japan; Department of Neurology (Z.Q.), Xinqiao Hospital of the Army Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Neurology (O.Y.M.), Stroke and Neurointervention Division, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria University, Egypt; Boston University School of Medicine (A.S.), Massachusetts; 2nd Department of Neurology (A.C.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Neurology (G.T., L.P.), National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece; Faculdade de Medicina (D.A.d.S.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurology (J.D., R.L.), Leuven University Hospital, Belgium; International Clinical Research Center and Department of Neurology (R.M.), St. Anne´s University Hospital in Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology (P.V.), Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk; Department of Neurology (P.V.), University Hospitals Antwerp; Department of Translational Neuroscience (P.V.), University of Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Neurology (J.E.S., T.G.J.), Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (J. Kõrv), University of Tartu, Estonia; Department of Neurology (J.B., R.V.,S.R.), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Illinois; Department of Neurosurgery (C.W.L.), Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center; Department of Neurology (N.S.S.), Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center; Department of Neurology (A.M.Z., S.A.S.), UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas; Department of Neurology (A.L.Z.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine (G.N.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Department of Neurology (K.M., A.T.), Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (A.L.), Ohio Health Riverside Methodist Hospital Columbus; Department of Medicine and Neurology (A.R.), University of Otago and Wellington Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (E.A.M.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Neurology (A.W.A., D. Alsbrook), University of Tennessee Health Center, Memphis; Department of Neurology (D.Y.H.), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Departments of Neurology (S.Y.) and Radiology (E.R.), New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (E.G.B.L.), University of Douala, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, Cameroon; Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital (H.M.A., H.M.S., A.E., T.R.); Cairo University Affiliated MOH Network (F.H.); Department of Neurology (TM.), Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo; Mansoura University Affiliated Private Hospitals Network (W.M.), Egypt; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S.), Kumasi, Ghana; Stroke Unit (T.O.A., K.W.), University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital; Neurology Unit (B.A.), Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital; Department of Medicine (E.O.N.), Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Neurology Unit (T.A.S.), Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria; University College Hospital (J.Y.), Ibadan, Nigeria; The National Ribat University Affiliated Hospitals (H.H.M.), Khartoum, Sudan; Neurology Section (P.B.A.), Department of Internal Medicine, Aga-Khan University, Medical College East Africa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tunis El Manar University (A.D.R.), Military Hospital of Tunis; Department of Neurology (S.B.S.), Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia; Department of Physiology (L.G.), Parirenyatwa Hospital, and Departments of Physiology and Medicine (G.W.N.), University of Zimbabwe, Harare; Department of Cerebrovascular/Endovascular Neurosurgery Division (D.S.), Erebouni Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Sir Salimulah College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Neurology (Z.A.), Taihe Hospital of Shiyan City, Hubei; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Nanyang Central Hospital, Henan; Department of Neurology (Z.D.), Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Hubei, China; Department of Neurology (Y. Hao.), Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (W.H.), Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Maoming, Guangdong; Department of Neurology (G.Li.), Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (W.L), The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College; Department of Neurology (G.Liu.), Wuhan Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (J.L.), Mianyang 404th Hospital, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (X.S.), Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Anhui; Department of Neurology and Neuroscience (Y.S.), Shenyang Brain Institute, Shenyang First People's Hospital, Shenyang Medical College Affiliated Brain Hospital; Department of Neurology (L.T.), Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (H.W.), Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (B.W., Y.Yan), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Department of Neurology (Z.Y.), Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (H.Z.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (J.Z.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University; Department of Neurology (W.Z.), First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, China; Acute Stroke Unit (T.W.L.), The Prince of Wales Hospital, Kwok Tak Seng Centre for Stroke Research and Intervention, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Interventional Neurology (C.C.), MAX Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi; NH Institute of Neurosciences (V.H.), NH Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bangalore; Department of Neurology (B.M.), Apollo Speciality Hospitals Nellore; Department of Neurology (J.D.P.), Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab; Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (P.N.S.), Kerala, India; Stroke Unit (F.S.U.), Pelni Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Neurosciences Research Center (M. Farhoudi, E.S.H.), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Beer Sheva Hospital (A.H.); Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Rambam Healthcare Campus, Haifa, Israel (A.R., R.S.H.); Departments of Neurology (N.O.) and Neurosurgery (N.S.), Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe; Department of Stroke and Neurovascular Surgery (D.W.), IMS Tokyo-Katsushika General Hospital; Yokohama Brain and Spine Center (R.Y.); Iwate Prefectural Central (R.D.); Department of Neurology and Stroke Treatment (N.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital; Department of Stroke Neurology (Y. Yazawa), Kohnan Hospital, Sendai; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.U.), Saga-Ken Medical Centre; Department of Neurology (T.D.), Saitama Medical Center, Kawagoe; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Nara City Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka; Department of Neurology (F. Miyashita), Kagoshima City Hospital; Department of Neurology (H.F.), Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital, Shimane; Department of Neurology (K.M.), Shiroyama Hospital, Osaka; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (J.E.S.), Niigata City General Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Sugimura Hospital, Kumamoto; Stroke Medicine (Y. Yagita), Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama; Department of Neurology (Y.T.), Osaka Red Cross Hospital; Department of Stroke Prevention and Treatment (Y.M.), Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Stroke Center and Neuroendovascular Therapy, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (R.K.), Kin-ikyo Chuo Hospital, Hokkaido; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.K.), NTT Medical Center Tokyo; Department of Neurology and Neuroendovascular Treatment (H. Yamazaki), Yokohama Shintoshi Neurosurgical Hospital; Department of Neurology (M.S.), Osaka General Medical Center; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Osaka University Hospital; Department of Advanced Brain Research (N.Y.), Tokushima University Hospital Tokushima; Department of Neurology (K.S.), Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Tane General Hospital, Osaka; Division of Stroke (H.H.), Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Rosai Hospital; Department of Comprehensive Stroke (I.N.), Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; Department of Neurology (A.K.), Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University; Republican Center for eHealth (K.F.), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Department of Medicine (S.K.), Al-Farabi Kazakh National University; Kazakh-Russian Medical University (M.Z.), Kazakhstan; Department of Neurology (J.-H.B.), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul; Department of Neurology (Y. Hwang), Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University; Ajou University Hospital (J.S.L.); Department of Neurology (S.B.L.), Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea; Department of Neurology (J.M.), National Medical Center, Seoul; Department of Neurology (H.P., S.I.S.), Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu; Department of Neurology (J.H.S.), Busan Paik Hospital, School of Medicine, Inje University, Busan; Department of Neurology (K.-D.S.), National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang; Asan Medical Center (C.J.Y.), Seoul, South Korea; Department of Neurology (R.A.), LAU Medical Center-Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Medicine (W.A.W.Z., N.W.Y.), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Sultanah Nur Zahirah (Z.A.A., K.A.I.), Kuala Terengganu; University Putra Malaysia (H.b.B.); Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching (L.W.C.); Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (A.B.I.), Sungai Petani Kedah; Hospital Seberang Jaya (I.L.), Pulau Pinang; Thomson Hospital Kota Damansara (W.Y.T.), Malaysia; "Nicolae Testemitanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (S.G., P.L.), and Department of Neurology, Emergency Medicine Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova; Department of Stroke Unit (A.M.A.H.), Royal Hospital Muscat, Oman; Neuroscience Institute (Y.Z.I., N.A.), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; St. Luke's Medical Center-Institute of Neurosciences (M.C.P.-F., C.O.C.), Quezon City, Philippines; Endovascular Neurosurgery (D.K.), Saint-Petersburg Dzhanelidze Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia; Department of Neurology (A.A.), Stroke Unit, King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh; Department of Neurosurgery (H.A.-J.), Interventional Radiology, and Critical Care Medicine, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia; Singapore National Neuroscience Institute (C.H.T.); Changi General Hospital (M.J.M.), Singapore; Neuroscience Center, Raffles Hospital (N.V.), Singapore; Department of Neurology (C.-H.C., S.-C.T.), National Taiwan University Hospital; Department of Radiology (A.C.), Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Dicle University Medical School and Hospital (E.A.), Diyarbakir; Stroke and Neurointervention Unit (O.A., A.O.O.), Eskisehir Osmangazi University; Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine (S.G.), Turkey; Department of Neurology (S.I.H., S.J.), Neurological Institute at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Stroke Center (H.L.V., A.D.C.), Hue Central Hospital, Hue, Vietnam; Stroke Department (H.H.N., T.N.P.), Da Nang Hospital, Da Nang City; 115 People's Hospital (T.H.N., T.Q.N.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Department of Neurology (T.G., C.E.), Medical University of Graz; Department of Neurology (M. K.-O.), Research Institute of Neurointervention, University Hospital Salzburg/Paracelsus Medical University, Austria; Department of Neurology (F.B., A.D.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Charleroi, Belgium; Department of Neurology (S.D.B., G.V.), Sint Jan Hospital, Bruges; Department of Neurology (S.D.R.), Brussels University Hospital (UZ Brussel); Department of Neurology (N.L.), ULB Erasme Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (M.P.R.), Europe Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (L.Y.), Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium; Neurology Clinic (F.A., T.S.), St. Anna University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Neurology (M.R.B.), Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (H.B.), Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (I.C.), General Hospital Virovitica; Department of Neurology (Z.H.), General Hospital Zabok; Department of Radiology (F. Pfeifer), University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia; Regional Hospital Karlovy Vary (I.K.); Masaryk Hospital Usti nad Labem (D.C.); Military University Hospital Praha (M. Sramek); Oblastní Nemocnice Náchod (M. Skoda); Regional Hospital Pribram (H.H.); Municipal Hospital Ostrava (L.K.); Hospital Mlada Boleslav (M. Koutny); Hospital Vitkovice (D.V.); Hospital Jihlava (O.S.); General University Hospital Praha (J.F.); Hospital Litomysl (K.H.); Hospital České Budejovice (M.N.); Hospital Pisek (R.R.); Hospital Uherske Hradiste (P.P.); Hospital Prostejov (G.K.); Regional Hospital Chomutov (J.N.); Hospital Teplice (M.V.); Mining Hospital Karvina (H.B.); Thomayer Hospital Praha (D.H.); Hospital Blansko (D.T.); University Hospital Brno (R.J.); Regional Hospital Liberec (L.J.); Hospital Ceska Lipa (J.N.); Hospital Sokolov (A.N.); Regional Hospital Kolin (Z.T.); Hospital Trutnov (P. Fibrich); Hospital Trinec (H.S.); Department of Neurology (O.V.), University Hospital Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Bispebjerg Hospital (H.K.C.), University of Copenhagen; Stroke Center (H.K.I., T.C.T.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen; Aarhus University Hospital (C.Z.S.), Aarhus; Neurovascular Center, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen (T.W.), Roskilde, Denmark; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.V.), University of Tartu, Estonia; Neurology Clinic (K.G.-P.), West Tallinn Central Hospital; Center of Neurology (T.T.), East Tallinn Central Hospital, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University; Internal Medicine Clinic (K.A.), Pärnu Hospital, Estonia; Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience & Cognition (C.C., F.C.); Centre Hospitalier d'Arcachon (M.D.), Gujan-Mestras; Centre Hospitalier d'Agen (J.-M.F.); Neurologie Vasculaire (L.M.) and Neuroradiologie (O.E.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Pierre Wertheimer, Bron; Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Bordeaux (E.L., F.R.); Centre Hospitalier de Mont de Marsan (B.O.); Neurologie (R.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (F. Pico); Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (M.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (R.P.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France; K. Eristavi National Center of Experimental and Clinical Surgery (T.G.), Tbilisi; Department of Neurosurgery (M. Khinikadze), New Vision University Hospital, Tbilisi; Vivamedi Medical Center (M. Khinikadze), Tbilisi; Pineo Medical Ecosystem (N.L.), Tbilisi; Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (A.T.), Tbilisi, Georgia; Department of Neurology (S.N., P.A.R.), University Hospital Heidelberg; Department of Neurology (M. Rosenkranz), Albertinen Krankenhaus, Hamburg; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Elbe Klinken Stade, University Medical Center Göttingen; Department of Neurology (T.S.), University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden; Kristina Szabo (K.S.), Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim; Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie (G.T.), Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa; Second Department of Neurology (O.K.), Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece; University of Szeged (P.K.), Szeged; University of Pecs (L.S., G.T.), Hungary; Stroke Center (A.A.), IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Negrar, Verona; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Ospedale San Paolo, Savona,; Institute of Neurology (P.C., G.F.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Rome; Interventional Neurovascular Unit (L.R.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence; Stroke Unit (D.S.), Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) di Lecco, Italy; Maastricht University Medical Center; Department of Neurology (M.U.), Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen; Department of Neurology (I.v.d.W.), Haaglanden Medical Center, the Hague, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (E.S.K.), Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, General Practice, HELSAM, University of Oslo, Norway; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (W.B.), Specialist Hospital in Konskie, Gimnazjalna, Poland and Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (M.F.), District Hospital in Skarzysko-Kamienna; Department of Neurology (E.H.L.), Szpitala im T. Marciniaka in Wroclaw; 2nd Department of Neurology (M. Karlinski), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders (R.K., P.K.), Poznan University of Medical Sciences; 107th Military Hospital with Polyclinic (M.R.), Walcz; Department of Neurology (R.K.), St. Queen Jadwiga, Clinical Regional Hospital No. 2, Rzeszow; Department of Neurology (P.L.), Medical University of Lublin; 1st Department of Neurology (H.S.-J.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit (P.S.), Holy Spirit Specialist Hospital in Sandomierz, Collegium Medicum Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce; Copernicus PL (W.F.), Neurology and Stroke Department, Hospital M. Kopernik, Gdansk; Stroke Unit (M.W.), Neurological Department, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences, Pila, Poland; Hospital São José (Patricia Ferreira), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Stroke Unit (Paulo Ferreira, V.T.C.), Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos; Stroke Unit, Internal Medicine Department (L.F.), Neuroradiology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto; Department of Neurology (J.P.M.), Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences (T.P.e.M.), Hospital de Santa Maria-CHLN, North Lisbon University Hospital; Hospital São José (A.P.N.), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Department of Neurology (M. Rodrigues), Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal; Department of Neurology (C.F.-P.), Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania; Department of Neurology (G.K., M. Mako), Faculty Hospital Trnava, Slovakia; Department of Neurology and Stroke Center (M.A.d.L., E.D.T.), Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid; Department of Neurology (J.F.A.), Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valladolid; Department of Neurology (O.A.-M.), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete; Department of Neurology (A.C.C.), Unidad de Ictus, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid; Department of Neurology (S.P.-S), Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena & Neurovascular Research Laboratory (J.M.), Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla-IbiS; Rio Hortega University Hospital (M.A.T.A.), University of Valladolid; Cerebrovascular Diseases (A.R.V.), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (M. Mazya), Karolinska University Hospital and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), University Hospitals of Geneva; Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology (A.B., M.-N.P.), Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel; Department of Neurology (U.F.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroradiology (J.G.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroscience (P.L.M., D.S.), Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland; Department of Stroke Medicine (S.B., J. Kwan), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London; Department of Neurology (K.K.), Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology (A.B., A. Shuaib), University of Alberta, Edmonton; Department of Neurology (L.C., A. Shoamanesh), McMaster University, Hamilton; Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute (A.M.D., M.D.H.), University of Calgary; Department of Neurology (T.F., S.Y.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mackenzie Health (J.H., C.A.S.) Richmond Hill, Ontario; Department of Neurology (H.K.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto; Department of Neurology (A. Mackey), Hopital Enfant Jesus, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval, Quebec City; Department of Neurology (A.P.), University of Toronto; Medicine (G.S.), St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurosciences (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Guardia, CCSS. San Jose, Costa Rica; Neurovascular Service (J.D.B.), Hospital General San Juan de Dios, Guatemala City; Department of Neurología (L.I.P.R.), Hospital General de Enfermedades, Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Department of Neurology (F.G.-R.), University Hospital Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico; Pacífica Salud-Hospital Punta Pacífica (N.N.-E., A.B., R.K.), Panama; Department of Neurology, Radiology (M.A.), University of Kansas Medical Center; Department of Neurointerventional Neurosurgery (D. Altschul), The Valley Baptist Hospital, Ridgewood, New Jersey; Palmetto General Hospital (A.J.A.-O.), Tenet, Florida; Neurology (I.B., P.K.), University Hospital Newark, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey; Community Healthcare System (A.B.), Munster, Indiana; Department of Neurology (N.B., C.B.N.), California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (C.B.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; University of Toledo (A.C.), Ohio; Department of Neurology (S.C.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Neuroscience (S.A.C.), Inova Fairfax Hospital, Virginia; Department of Neurology (H.C.), Abington Jefferson Hospital, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (J.H.C.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; Baptist Health Medical Center (S.D.), Little Rock, Arkansas; Department of Neurology (K.D.), HCA Houston Healthcare Clearlake, Texas; Department of Neurology (T.G.D., R.S.), Erlanger, Tennessee; Wilmington North Carolina (V.T.D.); Department of Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (R.E.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Department of Neurology (M.E.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (M.F., S.O.-G., N.R.), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City; Department of Radiology (D.F.), Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, Colorado; Department of Radiology (D.G.), Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Adventist Health Glendale Comprehensive Stroke Center (M.G.), Los Angeles, California; Wellstar Neuroscience Institute (R.G.), Marietta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (A.E.H.), University of Texas Rio Grande Valley-Valley Baptist Medical Center, Texas; Department of Neurology (J.H., B.V.), Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Burlington, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (A.M.K.), Wayne State, Detroit, Michigan; HSHS St. John's Hospital (N.N.K.), Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield; Virginia Hospital Center (B.S.K.), Arlington; Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Weill-Cornell Medical College (D.O.K.), New York-Presbyterian Queens; Department of Neurology (V.H.L.), Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Neurology (L.Y.L.), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (G.L.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (I.L., A.K.S.), Florida; Department of Neurology (H.L.L.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Emergency Medicine (L.M., M.S.), Steward Holy Family Hospital, Methuen, MA; Vidant Medical Center (S.M.), Greenville, North Carolina; Department of Neurology (A.M.M., D.R.Y.) and Neurosurgery (D.R.Y.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida; Department of Neurology (H.M.), SUNY Upstate New York, Syracuse; Memorial Neuroscience Institute (B.P.M.), Pembroke Pines, Florida; Neurosciences (J.M., J.P.T.), Spectrum Health, Michigan State University College of Medicine, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Sutter Health (M.M.), Sacramento, California; Department of Neurology (J.G.M.), Maine Medical Center, Portland; Department of Neurology (S.S.M.), Bayhealth, Dover, Delaware; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (F.N.), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (K.N.), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock; Department of Radiology and Neurology (R.N.-W.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Ascension St. John Medical Center (R.H.R.), Tulsa, Oklahoma; Riverside Regional Medical Center (P.R.), Newport, Virginia; Department of Neurology (J.R.R., T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of Washington School Medicine, Seattle; Department of Neurology (B.S.), University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester; Department of Neurology (A.S.), CHI-Immanuel Neurological Institute, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska; Holy Cross Hospital (S.L.S.), Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Department of Neurology (V.S.), Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California in Los Angeles; Banner Desert Medical Center (M.T.), Mesa, Arizona; Hospital de Agudos Dr. Ignacio Privano (O.B., A.L.), Argentina; Institute for Neurological Research, FLENI (V.A.P.L.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Hospital das Clinicas/São Paulo University (M.S.A., A.C.); Sumare State Hospital (F.B.C., L.V.), São Paulo; Hospital Vera Cruz (L.D.D.S.), Deus Campinas; Irmanandade Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (L.V.G.); Stroke Unit (F.O.L., F. Mont'alverne), Hospital Geral de Fortaleza; Stroke Unit (A.L.L., P.S.C.M.), Hospital Sao Jose, Joinville, Santa Catarina; Stroke Unit (R.T.M.), Neurology, Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (D.L.M.C.), Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (L.C.R.), Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal; Hospital Ana (V.F.C.), Hospital Juliane, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Vascular Neurology Unit (P.M.L., V.V.O.), Neurology Service, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago; Hospital Padre Hurtado (V.N., J.M.A.T.) Santiago, Chile; Fundación Valle del Lili (P.F.R.A.), Cali; Stroke Center (H.B.), Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá; Department of Neurology (A.B.C.-Q.), Hospital Departamental Universitario del Quindio San Juan de Dios, Armenia; Clinica Universitaria Colombia (C.E.R.O.), Bogotá; University Hospital of San Vicente Foundation (D.K.M.B.), Medellin; Barranquilla, Colombia (O.L.); Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose (M.R.P.), Bogota; Stroke Unit (L.F.D.-E.), Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción; Neurology Service (D.E.D.M.F., A.C.V.), Hospital Central del Instituto de Prevision Social, Paraguay; Internal Medicine Service (A.J.Z.Z.), Hospital Central de Policia "Rigoberto Caballero", Paraguay; National Institute of Neurological Sciences of Lima Peru (D.M.B.I.); Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Lima-Peru (L.R.K.); Department of Neurology (B.C.), Royal Melbourne Hospital; Department of Neurology (G.J.H.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth; University of Melbourne (C.H., R.S.), Ballarat Health Service, Australia University of Melbourne; Department of Neurology (T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospital; Department of Neurosurgery (A. Ma), Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; Department of Neurology (R.T.M.), Mater Hospital, Brisbane; Department of Neurology (R.S.), Austin Health, Victoria; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (R.S.), Parkville, Melbourne, Australia; Greymouth Base Hospital (D.S.), New Zealand; Department of Neurology (T.Y.-H.W.), Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (D.L.), University of California in Los Angeles; and Department of Neurology (O.O.Z.), Mercy Health Neurosciences, Toledo, Ohio.

Objective: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205458PMC
June 2021

Interlayer Coupling and Ultrafast Hot Electron Transfer Dynamics in Metallic VSe/Graphene van der Waals Heterostructures.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 24;15(4):7756-7764. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

Atomically thin vanadium diselenide (VSe) is a two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide exhibiting attractive properties due to its metallic 1T phase. With the recent development of methods to manufacture high-quality monolayer VSe on van der Waals materials, the outstanding properties of VSe-based heterostructures have been widely studied for diverse applications. Dimensional reduction and interlayer coupling with a van der Waals substrate lead to its distinguishable characteristics from its bulk counterparts. However, only a few fundamental studies have investigated the interlayer coupling effects and hot electron transfer dynamics in VSe heterostructures. In this work, we reveal ultrafast and efficient interlayer hot electron transfer and interlayer coupling effects in VSe/graphene heterostructures. Femtosecond time-resolved reflectivity measurements showed that hot electrons in VSe were transferred to graphene within a 100 fs time scale with high efficiency. Besides, coherent acoustic phonon dynamics indicated interlayer coupling in VSe/graphene heterostructures and efficient thermal energy transfer to three-dimensional substrates. Our results provide valuable insights into the intriguing properties of metallic transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures and motivate designing optoelectronic and photonic devices with tailored properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c01723DOI Listing
April 2021

Cost-Effectiveness of Empirical Bismuth-Based Quadruple Therapy and Tailored Therapy After Clarithromycin Resistance Tests for Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Gastroenterology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, 23 Kyung Hee Dae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02447, Korea.

Background: The eradication rate of clarithromycin-based standard triple therapy (STT) for Helicobacter pylori infection has decreased due to clarithromycin resistance (CR). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of tailored therapy according to CR test results, and compared the results of STT with those of empirical bismuth quadruple therapy (BQT).

Methods: The prospectively collected data of 490 H. pylori-positive patients with chronic gastritis or peptic ulcer disease were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 292 patients underwent CR testing using dual-priming oligonucleotide-based polymerase chain reaction. The tailored group (n = 292) consisted of patients treated with STT for 7 days and BQT for 10 days as per their CR test results. The remaining patients were assigned to the empirical group (n = 198) and received BQT for 10 days without a CR test. The eradication rate, adverse events and medical costs associated with H. pylori eradication therapy were investigated.

Results: In the tested patients (tailored group), the CR-positive rate was 32.2% (n = 94/292). The eradication rate according to an intention-to-treat analysis was 87.7% in the tailored group and 91.8% in the empirical group (P = 0.124); the respective rates were 94.4% and 97.9% by per-protocol analysis (P = 0.010). The frequency of adverse events was lower in the empirical group than the tailored group (35.1% vs. 52.7%, P < 0.001). Total per capita medical costs were $406.50 and $503.50, respectively.

Conclusions: Ten-day empirical BQT was more effective, safer, and less expensive than tailored therapy based on a CR test for H. pylori eradication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-06938-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Surgical Outcomes of Vitrectomy for Macular Hole-induced Retinal Detachment According To Various Surgical Methods: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

Semin Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 22:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To investigate the surgical outcomes of vitrectomy for macular hole-induced retinal detachment(MHRD), with respect to the surgical adjunctive method used.

Method: We performed retrospective multicenter study of patients who underwent vitrectomy for MHRD. The visual/anatomical outcomes after vitrectomy were analyzed. We also analyzed these outcomes according to surgical method and the presence of persistent macular hole after the vitrectomy.

Result: Thirty-four patients (34 eyes) from 6 hospitals were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 64.56 ± 12.23 years; 31 patients (91.2%) were female. The mean LogMAR best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) significantly improved 6 months after vitrectomy ( < .001). Retinal detachment completely improved in 32 eyes (94.1%). The visual prognoses and macular hole closure rates were not different depending on subretinal fluid drainage site. The presence or absence of a persistent macular hole after vitrectomy did not affect the visual outcomes. However, the recurrence of MHRD was significantly higher in eyes with persistent macular holes= .015).

Conclusion: The surgeries to treat MHRD differed in terms of the procedure depending on the surgeons, but the visual outcomes did not differ depending on the surgical adjunctive method employed. There were no differences in the visual prognoses, regardless of whether there was a persistent macular hole; however, recurrence was significantly higher in eyes with persistent macular holes. Therefore, further surgical treatment might be considered for eyes with persistent macular holes after MHRD surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820538.2021.1900288DOI Listing
March 2021

sp. nov., isolated from the cecum of a mini-pig.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2019 Jun 16;71(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

ABS Research Support Center, KRIBB, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

A rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive bacteria, isolated from the cecum of a mini-pig, was designated as strain YH-lac23. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain was closely related to JCM 33273 (97.9 %), KCTC 21027 (96.2 %) and KCTC 21010 (95.7 %). Analysis of housekeeping gene sequences ( and ) revealed that the strain formed a sub-cluster with . The average nucleotide identity value for YH-lac23 and its most closely related strain () is 80.7 %. The main fatty acids are Cω9 and C. The cell wall contains the peptidoglycan of -diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 59.8 mol%. In view of the chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and phylogenetic properties, YH-lac23 (=KCTC 25006=JCM 33998) represents a novel taxon. The name sp. nov. is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004752DOI Listing
June 2019

Ultrafast Triggering of Insulator-Metal Transition in Two-Dimensional VSe.

Nano Lett 2021 Mar 18;21(5):1968-1975. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

The transition-metal dichalcogenide VSe exhibits an increased charge density wave transition temperature and an emerging insulating phase when thinned to a single layer. Here, we investigate the interplay of electronic and lattice degrees of freedom that underpin these phases in single-layer VSe using ultrafast pump-probe photoemission spectroscopy. In the insulating state, we observe a light-induced closure of the energy gap, which we disentangle from the ensuing hot carrier dynamics by fitting a model spectral function to the time-dependent photoemission intensity. This procedure leads to an estimated time scale of 480 fs for the closure of the gap, which suggests that the phase transition in single-layer VSe is driven by electron-lattice interactions rather than by Mott-like electronic effects. The ultrafast optical switching of these interactions in SL VSe demonstrates the potential for controlling phase transitions in 2D materials with light.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04409DOI Listing
March 2021

Weight fluctuation and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a nationwide population-based 8-million-subject study.

Hepatol Int 2021 Apr 17;15(2):482-492. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea.

Background/aim: The importance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by obesity has been emphasized. Many studies have shown that weight fluctuations as well as high BMI are associated with various adverse outcomes. In this study, we investigated the relationship between weight fluctuation and HCC in general populations drawn from a nationwide population-based cohort.

Method: A population-based cohort study including 8,001,829 subjects participating in more than three health examinations within 5 years from the index year were followed until the end of 2017. The degree of weight fluctuation and incidence of HCC during the period were evaluated.

Results: When we classified groups according to baseline body mass index (BMI) level, the highest risk for HCC was observed in subjects with BMI of 30 or greater (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-1.54). Also, increasing trends for the relationship between weight fluctuation and HCC were observed in multivariable Cox proportional analyses. The risk of HCC increased by 16% (aHR 1.16, 95% CI 1.12-1.20) for the highest quartile of weight fluctuation relative to the lowest quartile. These findings were consistent regardless of the baseline BMI or other metabolic factors. However, these effects of weight fluctuation on HCC were not observed in liver cirrhosis or viral hepatitis subgroups.

Conclusion: Weight fluctuation is an independent predictor of HCC. In the absence of liver cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis, the impact of weight fluctuation on HCC is further emphasized. These results suggest maintaining steady weight is recommended to reduce the risk of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-021-10149-yDOI Listing
April 2021

sp. nov., isolated from the large intestine of a mini-pig.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2019 Jun 8;71(3). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

ABS Research Support Center, KRIBB, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

An obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative, spore-forming, short rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain YH- T4B42, was isolated from the large intestine of a mini-pig. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate belongs to the genus and is most closely related to KCTC 5424, KCTC 15329 and KCTC 1871, with 95.5, 92.4 and 83.0 % sequence similarity, respectively. The average nucleotide identity values for strain YH-T4B42 and the closest related strains were lower than 72 %. The G+C content of the isolate was 55.8 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was A1γ type and contained -diaminopimelic acid. The predominant fatty acids were C, C 9, C and C. The major end products of glucose fermentation were lactate, formate and acetate, with a minor amount of butyrate. Based on its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties, a novel species, sp. nov., is proposed for strain YH-T4B42 (=KCTC 25105=NBRC 114767).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004694DOI Listing
June 2019

Detailed comparison of the da Vinci Xi and S surgical systems for transaxillary thyroidectomy.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(3):e24370

Department of Surgery, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Abstract: Robotic surgical systems have evolved over time. The da Vinci Xi system was developed in 2014 and was expected to solve the shortcomings of the previous S system. Therefore, we conducted this study to compare these 2 systems and identify if the Xi system truly improves surgical outcomes.In this retrospective study, a total of 86 patients with unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma without central lymph node involvement underwent gasless transaxillary hemithyroidectomy using 2 robotic systems, the da Vinci S and Xi. Forty patients were in the da Vinci S group and 46 patients were in the da Vinci Xi group. All surgeries were performed by 1 surgeon (YWC). All surgery video files were analyzed to compare the duration of each surgical step.The total operation time was significantly shorter in the Xi group than in the S group (153.0 minutes vs 105.7 minutes, P < .01). Time for robot docking was shorter in the Xi group (19.8 minutes vs 10.6 minutes, P < .01), and all procedures performed in the console also required a shorter time in this group. The overall complication rate did not differ significantly (P = .464).The da Vinci Xi system made robotic thyroidectomy easier and faster without increasing the complication rate. It is a safe and valuable system for robotic thyroidectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837914PMC
January 2021

CONSORT the effect of a bolus dose of dexmedetomidine on postoperative pain, agitation, and quality of recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(3):e24353

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon.

Background: The perioperative administration of dexmedetomidine may improve the quality of recovery (QoR) after major abdominal and spinal surgeries. We evaluated the effect of an intraoperative bolus of dexmedetomidine on postoperative pain, emergence agitation, and the QoR after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Methods: Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg 5 minutes after anesthesia induction (dexmedetomidine group, n = 45) or normal saline (control group, n = 45). The primary outcome was the QoR at the first postoperative day using a 40-item scoring system (QoR-40). Secondary outcomes included intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, postoperative agitation, pain, and nausea and vomiting.

Results: The heart rate and the mean blood pressure were significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group than in the control group (P < .001 and .007, respectively). During extubation, emergence agitation was significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group than in the control group (23% vs 64%, P < .001). The median pain scores in the post-anesthetic care unit were significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group than in the control group (4 [2-7] vs 5 [4-7], P = .034). The incidence of postoperative agitation, pain, and nausea and vomiting was not different between the groups. On the first postoperative day, recovery profile was similar between the groups. However, the scores on the emotional state and physical comfort dimensions were significantly higher in the dexmedetomidine group than in the control group (P = .038 and .040, respectively).

Conclusions: A bolus dose of dexmedetomidine after anesthesia induction may improve intraoperative hemodynamics, emergence agitation, and immediate postoperative analgesia. However, it does not affect overall QoR-40 score after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837825PMC
January 2021

Optimal Modalities for HCC Surveillance in a High-Incidence Region.

Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken) 2020 Dec 13;16(6):236-239. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute Seoul National University College of Medicine Seoul Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cld.923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805297PMC
December 2020

Are Your Vitals OK? Revitalizing Vitality of Nurses through Relational Caring for Patients.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Jan 5;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Management and Organization, National University of Singapore Business School, National University of Singapore, 15 Kent Ridge Drive, Singapore 119245, Singapore.

This study offers an alternative approach to address on-going concerns about burnout of healthcare employees. Departing from the existing job-demand based approach proposing that healthcare employees' burnout can be resolved by reducing demands, we theorize that patient-centered prosocial behavior, even if it often increases job demands, could serve as potential job resources that fuel positive energy to vitalize nurses at work. We further theorize that this possibility could be more pronounced among a group of nurses with a strong sense of ethical membership regarding their hospital (i.e., moral identification). To test our hypotheses, we used a sample of 202 nurses from 104 South Korean hospitals. We found that, even controlling for workloads as an indicator of job demand, nurses who engage in patient-centered prosocial behavior (i.e., relational caring) are likely to feel vitalized, and this pattern is more salient among a group of nurses with high moral identification. Results indicate that prosocial behavior could be an alternative job resource that helps nurses flourish at work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824839PMC
January 2021

Global impact of COVID-19 on stroke care.

Int J Stroke 2021 07 29;16(5):573-584. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Neurology, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to profound changes in the organization of health care systems worldwide.

Aims: We sought to measure the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes for mechanical thrombectomy, stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage hospitalizations over a three-month period at the height of the pandemic (1 March-31 May 2020) compared with two control three-month periods (immediately preceding and one year prior).

Methods: Retrospective, observational, international study, across 6 continents, 40 countries, and 187 comprehensive stroke centers. The diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases at participating centers.

Results: The hospitalization volumes for any stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and mechanical thrombectomy were 26,699, 4002, and 5191 in the three months immediately before versus 21,576, 3540, and 4533 during the first three pandemic months, representing declines of 19.2% (95%CI, -19.7 to -18.7), 11.5% (95%CI, -12.6 to -10.6), and 12.7% (95%CI, -13.6 to -11.8), respectively. The decreases were noted across centers with high, mid, and low COVID-19 hospitalization burden, and also across high, mid, and low volume stroke/mechanical thrombectomy centers. High-volume COVID-19 centers (-20.5%) had greater declines in mechanical thrombectomy volumes than mid- (-10.1%) and low-volume (-8.7%) centers (p < 0.0001). There was a 1.5% stroke rate across 54,366 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted in 3.9% (784/20,250) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of overall stroke hospitalizations, mechanical thrombectomy procedures, and intracranial hemorrhage admission volumes. Despite geographic variations, these volume reductions were observed regardless of COVID-19 hospitalization burden and pre-pandemic stroke/mechanical thrombectomy volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493021991652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010375PMC
July 2021

Genomic Alterations during the to Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma Transition Shaped by the Immune System.

Mol Cancer Res 2021 04 18;19(4):623-635. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

The drivers of ductal carcinoma (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) transition are poorly understood. Here, we conducted an integrated genomic, transcriptomic, and whole-slide image analysis to evaluate changes in copy-number profiles, mutational profiles, expression, neoantigen load, and topology in 6 cases of matched pure DCIS and recurrent IDC. We demonstrate through combined copy-number and mutational analysis that recurrent IDC can be genetically related to its pure DCIS despite long latency periods and therapeutic interventions. Immune "hot" and "cold" tumors can arise as early as DCIS and are subtype-specific. Topologic analysis showed a similar degree of pan-leukocyte-tumor mixing in both DCIS and IDC but differ when assessing specific immune subpopulations such as CD4 T cells and CD68 macrophages. Tumor-specific copy-number aberrations in MHC-I presentation machinery and losses in 3p, 4q, and 5p are associated with differences in immune signaling in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative IDC. Common oncogenic hotspot mutations in genes including and are predicted to be neoantigens yet are paradoxically conserved during the DCIS-to-IDC transition, and are associated with differences in immune signaling. We highlight both tumor and immune-specific changes in the transition of pure DCIS to IDC, including genetic changes in tumor cells that may have a role in modulating immune function and assist in immune escape, driving the transition to IDC. IMPLICATIONS: We demonstrate that the to IDC evolutionary bottleneck is shaped by both tumor and immune cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-20-0949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026652PMC
April 2021

Bio-inspired Water-Driven Catalytic Enantioselective Protonation.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 02 13;143(6):2552-2557. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Korea.

Catalytic enantioselective protonation of a prochiral carbanion in water is a common transformation in biological systems, but has been beyond the capability of synthetic chemists since unusually rapid movement of a proton in water leads to uncontrolled racemic protonation. Herein we show a crucial role of water, which enables a highly enantioselective glyoxalase I-mimic catalytic isomerization of hemithioacetals which proceeds via enantioselective protonation of an ene-diol intermediate. The use of on-water condition turns on this otherwise extremely unreactive catalytic reaction as a result of the strengthened hydrogen bonds of water molecules near the hydrophobic reaction mixture. Furthermore, under on-water conditions, especially under biphasic microfluidic on-water conditions, access of bulk water into the enantio-determining transition state is efficiently blocked, consequently enabling the enantioselective introduction of a highly ungovernable proton to a transient enediol intermediate, which mimics the action of enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c11815DOI Listing
February 2021

A Randomized Comparison Between Two Injections from Two Planes versus Two Injections with a Uniplanar Approach for Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular Block.

Pain Physician 2021 01;24(1):E15-E21

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gachon University, Gil Medical Center, Incheon, South Korea.

Background: The brachial plexus courses along the lateral to posterior aspect of the subclavian artery located within the supraclavicular region as a trunk or division. Therefore we hypothesized that 2 injections, one along the lateral and one along the posterior aspect of the brachial plexus, could be performed by changing the angle of the ultrasound probe, thereby achieving a 3-dimensional (3-D) even distribution of local anesthetics. Previously, we confirmed the efficacy of this type of approach with that of a single cluster approach. These findings represent a subsequent study.

Objectives: This study was conducted to confirm the superiority of block quality achieved by 2 injections from 2 planes (control group; group C) over 2 injections in one plane (experimental group; group E).

Study Design: A randomized, controlled trial.

Setting: Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center.

Methods: In group C (n = 35), the brachial plexus sheath was penetrated in 2 planes by anteriorly altering the angle of the ultrasound probe without changing its position. In group E (n = 35), the upper and lower portions of the brachial plexus sheath were penetrated in one plane. A total of 15 mL of lidocaine 1.5% containing epinephrine (1:200,000) was injected at each point in both groups. The ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block was evaluated every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. The main outcome variables were rates of blockage of all 4 nerves and ulnar nerve sparing.

Results: The rate of blockage of all 4 nerves (median, ulnar, radial, and musculocutaneous nerves) was not significantly different between the 2 groups (94% in group C vs. 86% in group E, respectively; P = 0.232). The number of spared ulnar nerves was similar (1 vs. 5, respectively; P = 0.088). Group procedure times, onset times, and Visual Analog Scale scores for the blocks were similar.

Limitations: For the 2 plane, 2 injection approach, only 2-D imaging was performed rather than 3-D imaging.

Conclusions: Two injections performed in one plane offered similar benefits to 2 injections performed in 2 planes. The 2 techniques provided comparable block qualities and could be viewed as equally effective alternatives.
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January 2021

The cut-off value of transient elastography to the value of hepatic venous pressure gradient in alcoholic cirrhosis.

Clin Mol Hepatol 2021 01 3;27(1):197-206. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

UB Songdo Hospital, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Background/aims: The hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) reflects portal hypertension, but its measurement is invasive. Transient elastography (TE) is a noninvasive method for evaluating liver stiffness (LS). We investigated the correlation between the value of LS, LS to platelet ratio (LPR), LS-spleen diameter-to-platelet ratio score (LSPS) and HVPG according to the etiology of cirrhosis, especially focused on alcoholic cirrhosis.

Methods: Between January 2008 and March 2017, 556 patients who underwent HVPG and TE were consecutively enrolled. We evaluated LS, LPR, and LSPS according to the etiology of cirrhosis and analyzed their correlations with HVPG.

Results: The LS value was higher in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than viral cirrhosis based on the HVPG (43.5 vs. 32.0 kPa, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the LPR or LSPS between alcoholic and viral cirrhosis groups, and the areas under the curves for the LPR and LSPS in subgroups according to HVPG levels were not superior to that for LS. In alcoholic cirrhosis, the LS cutoff value for predicting an HVPG ≥10 mmHg was 32.2 kPa with positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.5% and 36.6 kPa for HVPG ≥12 mmHg with PPV of 91.0%.

Conclusion: The LS cutoff value should be determined separately for patients with alcoholic and viral cirrhosis. In alcoholic cirrhosis, the LS cutoff values were 32.2 and 36.6 kPa for predicting an HVPG ≥10 and ≥12 mmHg, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the LPR or LSPS between alcoholic and viral cirrhosis groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3350/cmh.2020.0171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820198PMC
January 2021

VISTA: VIsual Semantic Tissue Analysis for pancreatic disease quantification in murine cohorts.

Sci Rep 2020 12 1;10(1):20904. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and OHSU Center for Spatial Systems Biomedicine (OCSSB), Portland, OR, USA.

Mechanistic disease progression studies using animal models require objective and quantifiable assessment of tissue pathology. Currently quantification relies heavily on staining methods which can be expensive, labor/time-intensive, inconsistent across laboratories and batch, and produce uneven staining that is prone to misinterpretation and investigator bias. We developed an automated semantic segmentation tool utilizing deep learning for rapid and objective quantification of histologic features relying solely on hematoxylin and eosin stained pancreatic tissue sections. The tool segments normal acinar structures, the ductal phenotype of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), and dysplasia with Dice coefficients of 0.79, 0.70, and 0.79, respectively. To deal with inaccurate pixelwise manual annotations, prediction accuracy was also evaluated against biological truth using immunostaining mean structural similarity indexes (SSIM) of 0.925 and 0.920 for amylase and pan-keratin respectively. Our tool's disease area quantifications were correlated to the quantifications of immunostaining markers (DAPI, amylase, and cytokeratins; Spearman correlation score = 0.86, 0.97, and 0.92) in unseen dataset (n = 25). Moreover, our tool distinguishes ADM from dysplasia, which are not reliably distinguished with immunostaining, and demonstrates generalizability across murine cohorts with pancreatic disease. We quantified the changes in histologic feature abundance for murine cohorts with oncogenic Kras-driven disease, and the predictions fit biological expectations, showing stromal expansion, a reduction of normal acinar tissue, and an increase in both ADM and dysplasia as disease progresses. Our tool promises to accelerate and improve the quantification of pancreatic disease in animal studies and become a unifying quantification tool across laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78061-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708430PMC
December 2020

Rate of cannabis use in older adults with cancer.

BMJ Support Palliat Care 2020 Nov 11. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Supportive Care Medicine, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, USA

Objectives: Older adults with cancer are increasingly inquiring about and using cannabis. Despite this, few studies have examined cannabis use in patients with cancer aged 65 years and older as a separate group and identified characteristics associated with use. The current study sought to determine the rate of cannabis use in older adult patients with cancer and to identify demographic and clinical correlates of use.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients with cancer referred for specialised symptom management between January 2014 and May 2017 who underwent routine urine drug testing for tetrahydrocannabinol as part of their initial clinic visit.

Results: Approximately 8% (n=24) of patients with cancer aged 65 years and older tested positive for tetrahydrocannabinol compared with 30% (n=51) of young adults and 21% (n=154) of adults. At the univariate level, more cannabis users had lower performance status than non-users (p=0.02, Fisher's exact test). There were no other demographic and clinical characteristics significantly associated with cannabis use in older adults.

Conclusions: Older adult patients made up nearly 25% (n=301) of the total sample and had a rate of cannabis use of 8%. As one of the first studies to assess cannabis use via objective testing rather than self-report, this study adds significantly to the emerging literature on cannabis use in people aged 65 years and older. Findings suggest the rate of use in older adults living with cancer is higher than that among older adults in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjspcare-2020-002384DOI Listing
November 2020

sp. nov., isolated from the small intestine of a mini pig.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2020 Dec;70(12):6476-6481

ABS Research Support Center, KRIBB, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

A Gram-stain-positive, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the small intestine of a mini pig was designated as strain YH-lac9. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain belongs to the genus and is closely related to JCM 17472, JCM 15042 and JCM 13927, with 97.6, 96.2 and 95.7 % sequence similarity, respectively. Analysis of housekeeping gene sequences ( and ) revealed that the strain formed a sub-cluster with , supporting the results of 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis. The average nucleotide identity value for YH-lac9 and the most closely related strain is 74.1 %. The main fatty acids are Cω9, summed feature 7, C and summed feature 8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 37.8 mol%. In view of its chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and phylogenetic properties, YH-lac9 (=KCTC 25005=JCM 33997) represents a novel taxon. The name sp. nov. is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004560DOI Listing
December 2020

Recent Updates of Transarterial Chemoembolilzation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Oct 31;21(21). Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul 04401, Korea.

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a standard treatment for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we summarize recent updates on the use of TACE for HCC. TACE can be performed using two techniques; conventional TACE (cTACE) and drug-eluting beads using TACE (DEB-TACE). The anti-tumor effect of the two has been reported to be similar; however, DEB-TACE carries a higher risk of hepatic artery and biliary injuries and a relatively lower risk of post-procedural pain than cTACE. TACE can be used for early stage HCC if other curative treatments are not feasible or as a neoadjuvant treatment before liver transplantation. TACE can also be considered for selected patients with limited portal vein thrombosis and preserved liver function. When deciding to repeat TACE, the ART (Assessment for Retreatment with TACE) score and ABCR (AFP, BCLC, Child-Pugh, and Response) score can guide the decision process, and TACE refractoriness needs to be considered. Studies on the combination therapy of TACE with other treatment modalities, such as local ablation, radiation therapy, or systemic therapy, have been actively conducted and are still ongoing. Recently, new prognostic models, including analysis of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, radiomics, and deep learning, have been developed to help predict survival after TACE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662786PMC
October 2020
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