Publications by authors named "Youhou Xu"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cloning and expression of the ChGstα and ChGstκ genes in the gills of Crassostrea hongkongensis under nanoparticulate and ionic Zn stress.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jun 18;244:109007. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Marine Biodiversity Conservation, Beibu Gulf University, Guangxi 535011, PR China. Electronic address:

Nanoparticulate and ionic Zn have potential impacts on the detoxification systems of organisms, and Gst genes play key roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics. In this study, we cloned the ChGstα and ChGstκ genes of C. hongkongensis, and studied their expression in gills under nanoparticulate and ionic Zn stress. The results showed that the coding sequences of the ChGstα and ChGstκ genes were 684 and 675 bp, respectively, and had no signal peptide; ChGstα was cytoplasmic, while ChGstκ was mitochondrial. The two genes were expressed in all 8 tested samples, with the most abundant expression observed in hemocytes for ChGstα and digestive glands for ChGstκ. After ZnCl or ZnoNP challenge, the expression of ChGstα decreased significantly in the ZnCl groups, and its expression was higher in the ZnoNP groups than in the ZnCl groups. The expression of ChGstκ was significantly decreased in the ZnCl and ZnoNP groups, and its expression was higher in the ZnoNP groups than in the ZnCl groups except at 3 h post metal Zn stress, which suggested that ChGstα and ChGstκ were more sensitive to ZnoNP than ZnCl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2021.109007DOI Listing
June 2021

Long-term trends of microplastics in seawater and farmed oysters in the Maowei Sea, China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 8;273:116450. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Marine Disaster in the Beibu Gulf, Ocean College, Beibu Gulf University, Qinzhou, 535011, China; Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Guangxi Mangrove Research Center, Guangxi Key Lab of Mangrove Conservation and Utilization, Beihai, 536000, China; Marine Environmental Monitoring Center of Guangxi, BeiHai, 536000, China. Electronic address:

Microplastic pollution in marine environments and organisms has received a great deal of international attention. However, the long-term field studies of microplastics are rare. Here, we assessed annual variation in microplastic abundance in the Maowei Sea, a classic mariculture bay in southern China, and analyzed the long-term accumulation in oyster tissues. U-shaped time trends of microplastics in water were observed from January to December in 2018 in the estuarine region, inner bay, and mouth bay sites, representing an inverse relationship with the local rainfall patterns. The common microplastic particles in Maowei Sea are PET/PE fibers, and polystyrene foams, which are mainly related to textile pollution and fishery activities. After one year of continuous monitoring, we did not find accumulation of microplastics in the whole soft tissues of oyster after 10% KOH digestion. No significant correlation of microplastic abundances between water and oysters was observed. The microplastic abundance in oyster was correlated with some environmental variables (i.e. salinity, pH, nutrients and total organic carbon) of the surrounding water following Spearman correlation analysis. The microplastic levels in oysters could probably be influenced by the environmental variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116450DOI Listing
January 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Jordan & Snyder, 1901).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Aug 12;5(3):3154-3156. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Marine Biodiversity Conservation, Beibu Gulf University, Qinzhou, China.

is one of the species in the China-Vietnam Collective Fishery Zone, which has a few relevant studies. In this study, the mitochondrial genome of was determined for the first time using next-generation sequencing; the overall base components of mitogenome consisting of 17,784 bp was 32.45% for A, 25.76% for T, 15.72% for G, 26.08% for C, and its GC content was 41.8%. The mitochondrial circular genome was composed of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2D-loop, and 2 ribosomal RNAs. Polygenetic analysis showed that the was very close to . It can provide data reference for the analysis of genetic evolution of this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1806130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782292PMC
August 2020

Cloning and expression of three heat shock protein genes in the gills of Cherax quadricarinatus responding to bacterial challenge.

Microb Pathog 2020 Feb 4;142:104043. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, 530005, PR China. Electronic address:

Cherax quadricarinatus is seriously affected by multiple types of pathogens, including bacteria and viruses, and has been widely transplanted around the world. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are a group of molecular chaperones that play important roles in promoting the proper refolding and blocking the aggregation of denatured proteins. In this study, CqHsp60, CqHsp70 and CqHsp90 from C. quadricarinatus were cloned, and their expression patterns were analysed. The CDS (coding sequence) lengths of the CqHsp60, CqHsp70 and CqHsp90 genes were 1731 bp, 1932 bp and 2199 bp, encoding 576, 643 and 732 amino acids, respectively. CqHsp60 was 99.13%, 98.78% and 88.63% identical to the corresponding sequences of Cherax cainii, Cherax destructor and Eriocheir sinensis, respectively. CqHsp70 showed 99.84%, 92.73% and 91.58% identity to the corresponding sequences of C. cainii, C. destructor and E. sinensis, while CqHsp90 was 98.25%, 98.51% and 91.41% identical with those of C. cainii, C. destructor and E. sinensis, respectively. The expression patterns of the three CqHsps were different between males and females. CqHsp60 and CqHsp70 exhibited the highest expression in the hepatopancreas of males and the gonads of females, and CqHsp90 presented the highest expression in the gonads of males and hepatopancreas of females. After pathogenic inoculation, the death trend of C. quadricarinatus at different time points was the same in association with different pathogens, with most deaths occurring within 6 h post-inoculation. The trend of CqHsp transcription at different time points was the same among the groups treated with Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila, exhibiting upregulation first and then downregulation. The expression of CqHsp60 and CqHsp70 in the gills of living C. quadricarinatus was less than 3.5 times that in the PBS group, but in the gills of dead C. quadricarinatus under A. hydrophila inoculation, its expression was more than 5-9 times that in the PBS group. CqHsp90 expression changed dramatically in the V. alginolyticus, V. parahemolyticus and A. hydrophila groups, in which it exceeded 50 times the level in the PBS group. These results indicated that CqHsps could induce the activation of the immune system within a short time and that CqHsp90 could be used as a more effective molecular biomarker than CqHsp70 and CqHsp60 in a pathogenic bacterium-polluted environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104043DOI Listing
February 2020

sp. nov., a mangrove soil actinobacterium.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2020 Mar;70(3):1800-1804

College of Marine Science, Beibu Gulf University, Qinzhou 535011, PR China.

A novel strain (SSL-25) was isolated from mangrove soil sampled at QinzhouBay, PR China. The isolate was observed to be Gram-stain-positive and to form greyish-white aerial mycelia that differentiated into straight spore chains with smooth-surfaced spores on International Project 2 medium. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was determined to contain ll-diaminopimelicacid. The cell-wall sugars were glucose and mannose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6), MK-9 (H8) and MK-9 (H4). The major polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and several unidentified phospholipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C, iso-C and summed feature 3 (Cω7/Cω6). The genome size of strain SSL-25 was 8.1 Mbp with a G+C content of 71.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain SSL-25 is closely related to NRRL 18488 (99.4 % sequence similarity). However, the digital DNA-DNA hybridization (39.8 %) and average nucleotide identity (91.3 %) values between them showed that it represents a distinct species. Furthermore, the results of morphological, physiological and biochemical tests allowed further phenotypic differentiation of strain SSL-25 from NRRL 18488. Therefore, based on these results, it is concluded that strain SSL-25 represents a novel species, for which the name sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SSL-25 (=CICC 11054=JCM33585).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.003974DOI Listing
March 2020

Isolation and Characterization of a Ranavirus Associated with Disease Outbreaks in Cultured Hybrid Grouper (♀ Tiger Grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × ♂ Giant Grouper E. lanceolatus) in Guangxi, China.

J Aquat Anim Health 2019 12 6;31(4):364-370. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Guangxi Key Laboratory for Marine Biotechnology, Guangxi Institute of Oceanography, Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Beihai, China.

An outbreak of suspected iridovirus disease in cultured hybrid grouper (♀Tiger Grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × ♂ Giant Grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus) occurred in the Guangxi Province in July, 2018. In this study, grouper iridovirus Guangxi (SGIV-Gx) was isolated from diseased hybrid grouper that were collected from Guangxi. Cytopathic effects were observed and identified in grouper spleen cells that were incubated with diseased tissue homogenates after 24 h, and the effects increased at 48 h postinfection. The transmission electron microscopy results showed that viral particles that were about 200 nm in diameter with hexagonal profiles were present in the cell cytoplasm of suspected virus-infected cells. The presence of SGIV-Gx (accession number: MK107821) was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplicon sequencing, which showed that this strain was most closely related to Singapore grouper iridovirus (AY521625.1). The detection of SGIV-Gx infection was further supported by novel aptamer (Q2c)-based detection technology. The effects of temperature and pH on viral infectivity were analyzed by using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and cell culture. The results indicated that SGIV-Gx was resistant to exposure to pH levels 5, 7, and 7.5 for 1 h, but its infectivity was remarkably lower at pH levels 3 and 10 after 1 h. The analyses showed that SGIV-Gx was stable for 1 h at 4°C and 25°C but was inactivated after 1 h at 40, 50, and 60°C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aah.10090DOI Listing
December 2019

The complete mitochondrial genome of .

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Sep 11;4(2):2942-2943. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Marine Biodiversity Conservation, Beibu Gulf University, Qinzhou, China.

is a common and important component of mangrove ecosystem. In this study, the mitogenome of was determined for the first time using next-generation sequencing; the overall base components of mitogenome consisting of 15,710 bp was 31.37% for A, 34.91% for T, 19.47% for G, 14.25% for C, and its GC content was 33.72%. The mitogenome was composed of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tranfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNAs. Polygenetic analysis showed that the was more close to and . We speculated that the was evolved from freshwater species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1662744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707012PMC
September 2019

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Stimpson, 1860).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Sep 6;4(2):2834-2835. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Marine Biodiversity Conservation, Beibu Gulf University, Qinzhou, Guangxi Autonomous Regions, China.

is a common and important shrimp species in the shallow waters of Indo-West Pacific. In this study, the mitochondrial genome of was determined for the first time using next-generation sequencing; the overall base components of mitogenome consisting of 15968 bp was 35.16% (5614 bp) for A, 33.51% (5351 bp) for T, 11.54% (1842 bp) for G, 19.80% (3161 bp) for C, and its GC content was 31.34%. The mitochondrial circular genome was composed of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 1 D-loop and 2 ribosomal RNAs. Polygenetic analysis showed that the was more closed to .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1660279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7706880PMC
September 2019

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Philippi, 1848).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Jul 24;4(2):2742-2743. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Marine Biodiversity Conservation, Beibu Gulf University, Qinzhou, Guangxi Autonomous Regions, China.

is a common and important component of mangrove ecosystem. In this study, the mitochondrial genome of was determined for the first time using next-generation sequencing; the overall base components of mitogenome consisting of 15633 bp was 31.14% for A, 35.70% for T, 16.65% for G, 16.51% for C, and its GC content was 33.16%. The mitochondrial circular genome was composed of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tranfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNAs. Polygenetic analysis showed that the was more closed to than and . We may speculate that the is evolved from freshwater species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1644549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7706624PMC
July 2019

Identification and functional characterization of a c-type lysozyme from Fenneropenaeus penicillatus.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 May 22;88:161-169. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Marine Biodiversity Conservation, Beibu Gulf University, Qinzhou, China. Electronic address:

Lysozyme is an important defense molecule of the innate immune system and possess high antimicrobial activities. In this study, a full-length c-type lysozyme cDNA (Fplysc) was cloned and characterized from Fenneropenaeus penicillatus. The cDNA contains an open reading frame of 477 bp encoding 158 amino acids, with 53-94% identity with those of other crustaceans. The recombinant Fplysc had antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus agalactiae and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus and Escherichia coli), and showed antiviral activity against WSSV and IHHNV. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that Fplysc expression levels were most abundant in hemocytes and less in eyestalk. The expression levels of Fplysc were significantly upregulated in gill, intestine and hemocytes when challenged with WSSV and V. alginolyticus. Fplysc-silencling suppressed Fplysc expression in cephalothoraxes and increased mortality caused by WSSV and V. alginolyticus, and exogenous rFplysc led to a significant decrease of shrimp mortality by injecting rFplysc into Fplysc silenced shrimp, suggesting Fplysc is the important molecule in shrimp antimicrobial and antiviral response. In conclusion, the results provide some insights into the function of Fplysc in shrimp against bacterial and viral infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.02.043DOI Listing
May 2019

Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the myostatin gene and its association with growth traits in Noble scallop (Chlamys nobilis).

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Oct 16;212:24-31. Epub 2017 Jul 16.

Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture,South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, 510300, PR China. Electronic address:

Myostatin (MSTN), also called growth and differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and an inhibitor of muscle differentiation and growth. In this report, we identified and characterized a MSTN gene (CnMSTN) from the scallop Chlamys nobilis. The open reading frame of CnMSTN was 1374bp in length, encoding 457 amino acids. The structure of CnMSTN included a putative signal peptide, a TGF-β propeptide domain, and a conserved TGF-β domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CnMSTN gene was clustered in the same subgroup with the MSTN gene found in Mollusca. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the CnMSTN gene was widely expressed in all tissues tested, with the highest expression level observed in the adductor muscle. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoter region, but no SNP was detected in the exon regions. Association analysis showed that SNP g.-579A/C had significant effects on body mass, soft-tissue mass, and adductor muscle mass. The CC and AC genotypes of g.-579A/C had significantly higher growth trait values than that of genotype AA (P<0.05). These results suggest that CnMSTN could be used as a candidate gene for the selective breeding of C. nobilis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2017.07.004DOI Listing
October 2017

Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) participates in peroxinectin gene expression in Fenneropenaeus penicillatus.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 May 14;64:193-201. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Marine Biodiversity Conservation, Qinzhou University, Qinzhou, China. Electronic address:

Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an important cytoplasm signal adaptor that mediates signals activated by tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily and the Interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily. In the study, the full-length cDNA of a TRAF6 homolog (FpTRAF6) was identified from Fenneropenaeus penicillatus. The full-length cDNA of FpTRAF6 is 2033 bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 594 amino acids, including a RING type Zinc finger, two TRAF-type Zinc fingers, and a conserved C-terminal meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain. The overall amino acid sequence identity between FpTRAF6 and other TRAF6s ranged from 62.7 to 94.1% for crustaceans and from 45.6 to 59.3% for mollusca. Real-time qRT-PCR indicated that FpTRAF6 was constitutively expressed in various tissues of F. penicillatus. The temporal expression patterns of FpTRAF6 mRNA were different in the different tissues after microbial challenge. FpTRAF6 was downregulated in the heart, no obvious changes in the gill, intestine and hemocytes, and upregulated in other tested tissues after WSSV challenge. After V. alginolyticus injection, FpTRAF6 was downregulated in the heart and intestine, upregulated in the gill, lymphoid organ and hematopoietic organ, and no obvious changes in other tested tissues. RNAi assay was carried out to investigate the function of FpTRAF6. The results showed that silencing FpTRAF6 gene could inhibit peroxinectin expression in vivo, and enhance the sensitivity of shrimps to WSSV and V. alginolyticus challenge, suggesting FpTRAF6 could play a positive role against bacterial and viral pathogens. In conclusion, the results of the study provide some insights into the function of FpTRAF6 in activating TLRs signaling pathway and the host defense against invading pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2017.03.026DOI Listing
May 2017

Characterization and function analysis of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) from Fenneropenaeus penicillatus.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Feb 24;61:111-119. Epub 2016 Dec 24.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology and Epidemiology for Aquatic Economic Animals & Key Laboratory of Control for Diseases of Aquatic Economic Animals of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Fisheries College of Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, China. Electronic address:

The interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) is an important adapter protein which links downstream of MyD88, and involved in the complex composed of MyD88 and TRAF6 to activate TLRs signaling pathway. In this study, an IRAK-1 homolog (FpIRAK-1) was cloned from the red tail shrimp Fenneropenaeus penicillatus. The ORF of FpIRAK-1 consisted of 2874 bp encoding a protein of 957 amino acids which contains a death domain (DD) and a catalytic domain of serine/threonine kinases (STKc). Homology analysis revealed that the predicted amino acid sequence of FpIRAK-1 shared 71% similarities with IRAK-1 of Litopenaeus vannamei. Real-time RT-PCR indicated that FpIRAK-1 was constitutively expressed in various tissues of F. penicillatus. The expression level of FpIRAK-1 mRNA was significantly up-regulated and then decreased gradually after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. Gene knockdown of FpIRAK-1 enhanced the sensitivity of shrimps to WSSV and V. alginolyticus challenge, suggesting FpIRAK-1 could play a positive role against bacterial and viral pathogens. In conclusion, the results of this study provide some insights into the function of FpIRAK-1 in activating Toll signaling pathway and the host defense against invading pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2016.12.030DOI Listing
February 2017

Inheritance and phylogenetic analysis of based on the complete mitochondrial genomes.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2016 Jul 10;1(1):475-476. Epub 2016 Jul 10.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Beibu Gulf Marine Biodiversity Conservation, Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Exploitation and Protection of Beibu Gulf Marine Biological Resources, Qinzhou University, Guangxi, China.

In our research, 17 sets of primers were used to amplify contiguous, overlapping segments of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the in order to analyse the inheritance and evolutionary relationship of this species. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,723 bp and deposited in the GenBank with accession numbers KU605633. The gene arrangement was similar to other bony fishes which contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNAs) and a major non-coding control region. Most genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for the ND6 and 8 tRNA genes, encoding on the L-strand. The mtDNA may provide some important genetic background information for this valuable fish. The nucleotide skewness for the coding strands of (GC-skew = -0.21) is biased towards G and the negative GC-skew ranges from -0.53(ATP8) to -0.12(CO2) and the AT-Skew showed more positive varying from -0.17(ND3) to 0.26(ATP6). The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that was clustered together with , but far away from which belongs to Beloniformes, Belonidae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2016.1180551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799640PMC
July 2016

Transcriptome analysis of the pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) hemocytes in response to Vibrio alginolyticus infection.

Gene 2016 Jan 9;575(2 Pt 2):421-428. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology and Epidemiology for Aquatic Economic Animals, Zhanjiang 524025, China; Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China.

The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is cultured widely for production of marine pearls in China, while mass mortalities, likely related to pathogenic infections, have occurred frequently in juvenile, mother and operated oysters. To address this issue, understanding host defense mechanisms of P. fucata against pathogenic challenge is extremely important. In the present study, a comparative analysis of hemocyte transcriptomes of P. fucata before and after Vibrio alginolyticus infection was conducted using the Illumina/Hiseq-2000 RNA-Seq technology. A total of 56,345,139 clean reads were generated and then assembled into 74,007 unigenes with an average length of 680 bp and an N50 of 1197 bp. Unigenes were annotated by comparing against non-redundant protein sequence (nr), non-redundant nucleotide (nt), Swiss-Prot, Pfam, Gene Ontology database (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases, and 29,615 unigenes (40.01%) were annotated in at least one database. There were 636 genes (518 up-regulated and 118 down-regulated) that were significantly differentially expressed after bacterial challenge, and among which 369 were associated with 122 pathways, including classical immune-related pathways, such as 'MAPK signaling pathway', 'Chemokine signaling pathway', 'Apoptosis' and 'Wnt signaling pathway'. These findings provide information on the pearl oyster innate immunity and may contribute to developing strategies for management of diseases and long-term sustainability of P. fucata culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2015.09.014DOI Listing
January 2016

Mid- to high-frequency noise from high-speed boats and its potential impacts on humpback dolphins.

J Acoust Soc Am 2015 Aug;138(2):942-52

Sanya Key Laboratory of Marine Mammal and Marine Bioacoustics, Sanya Institute of Deep-sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, China.

The impact of noise made by vessels on marine animals has come under increased concern. However, most measurements on noise from vessels have only taken into account the low-frequency components. For cetaceans operating in the mid- and high-frequencies, such as the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis), mid- to high-frequency noise components may be of more concern, in terms of their potential impacts. In this study, noise made by a small high-speed boat was recorded using a broadband recording system in a dolphin watching area focusing on the effects on humpback dolphins in Sanniang Bay, China. The high-speed boat produced substantial mid- to high-frequency noise components with frequencies to >100 kHz, measured at three speeds: ∼40, 30, and 15 km/h. The noise from the boat raised the ambient noise levels from ∼5 to 47 decibels (dB) root-mean-square (rms) across frequency bands ranging from 1 to 125 kHz at a distance of 20 to 85 m, with louder levels recorded at higher speeds and at closer distances. To conclude, the noise produced by the small high-speed boat could be heard by Sousa chinensis and therefore potentially had adverse effects on the dolphins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4927416DOI Listing
August 2015

Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws.

Nat Prod Res 2016 20;30(2):214-7. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

d Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fisheries Sciences , Guangzhou 510300 , P.R. China.

Fish maws are commonly recommended and consumed in Asia over many centuries because it is believed to have some traditional medical properties. This study highlights and provides new information on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of fish maws of Cynoscion acoupa, Congresox talabonoides and Sciades proops. The results indicated that fish maws were excellent protein sources and low in fat content. The proteins in fish maws were rich in functional amino acids (FAAs) and the ratio of FAAs and total amino acids in fish maws ranged from 0.68 to 0.69. Among species, croaker C. acoupa contained the most polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapntemacnioc acid, showing the lowest value of index of atherogenicity and index of thrombogenicity, showing the highest value of hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio, which is the most desirable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2015.1040790DOI Listing
August 2016
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