Publications by authors named "Yougasphree Naidoo"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Phytochemicals and Biological Activities of (Acanthaceae).

Plants (Basel) 2021 Dec 28;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Plant species belonging to the family Acanthaceae are globally known to possess various medicinal properties and have cultural and economic importance in both traditional medicine and horticulture. They are important to both animals and humans and are used as food or for ornamental purposes worldwide. is the third largest genus in the family Acanthaceae. A few of the highly important and reported species of include , , , and The flowers, leaves, stems, roots, and seed extracts of plants belonging to this genus are rich in bioactive compounds and have exhibited significant medicinal potential for the treatment of various ailments and infections. Evidence derived from several studies has demonstrated the antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, analgesic, antiamoebic, antihelminthic, antiarthritic, antihypertensive, antiviral properties and toxicity of extracts, in addition inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and biosynthesis of nanoparticles, of the plant and seed extracts of species belonging to . Studies have reported that bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, quinones, iridoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, the immunostimulant protein "Sankaranin", and antibiotics isolated from species are resposnsible for the above biological activities. Traditionally, the genus has significant medicinal potential; however, there is a scarcity of information on various species that are yet to be evaluated. This review provides a comprehensive report on existing literature, concerning the phytochemistry and biological activities of the genus .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants11010082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8747396PMC
December 2021

Foliar microstructure and histochemical analysis of the lavender tree (Heteropyxis natalensis Harv.).

Micron 2022 Feb 18;153:103184. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

School of Biological and Marine Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, PL4 8AA, United Kingdom.

Heteropyxis natalensis Harv. is a native South African tree used in traditional medicine among Venda and Zulu communities. In this study, micromorphological investigations using light and scanning electron microscopy identified long, tapered non-glandular trichomes on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaves. The total number of trichomes appeared to be greater on emergent leaves and decreased as leaves matured. In addition, schizolysigenous secretory cavities and druse crystals were found within the leaves. Swollen subdermal secretory cavities were also distributed in the midrib of the leaves. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of nuclei, plastids, mitochondria, vesicles, rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and Golgi bodies in the secretory epithelia of these cavities. Various histochemical tests revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, lipids, proteins, essential oils, resin acids and trace amounts of unesterified pectins and polysaccharides in the leaves. This study provides new findings and contributes to the existing research regarding H. natalensis with respect to the micromorphology, ultrastructure and histochemical composition of this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2021.103184DOI Listing
February 2022

The Micromorphology and Histochemistry of Foliar Mixed Indumentum of (Lamiaceae).

Plants (Basel) 2021 Aug 25;10(9). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Faculty of Science and Environment, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus PL4 8AA, UK.

Sm. (Lamiaceae) is an important medicinal plant with a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities. This study aimed at characterizing the morphology, distribution, and chemical composition of the secretions of trichomes at different developmental stages on the leaves of , using light and electron microscopy. Morphological observations revealed the presence of bicellular non-glandular, glandular peltate, and capitate trichomes on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. The density of both non-glandular and glandular trichomes decreased with the progression of leaf development. Heads of peltate and short-stalked capitate trichomes were between 20.78-42.80 µm and 14.98-18.93 µm at different developmental stages. Furthermore, long-stalked capitate trichomes were rare and infrequent. Leaf sections revealed the presence of important secondary metabolites in glandular trichomes, i.e., terpenoids. This study represents the first report on the morphology and histochemistry of trichomes of ; therefore, there is a great scope for further research in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10091767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8465491PMC
August 2021

The essential oils of Grewia Lasiocarpa E. Mey. Ex Harv.: chemical composition, in vitro biological activity and cytotoxic effect on Hela cells.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 28;93(2):e20190343. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa.

The chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil extracted from the fresh leaves and stem bark of Grewia lasiocarpa was determined for the first time in this study. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and identified by GC-MS and FTIR. The antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of essential oils were determined. The major compounds identified were phytol (22.6%); α-farnesene (8.62%); n-hexadecanoic acid (7.24%); farnesol (4.61%) in the leaves, and 2-methylheptadecane (7.24%); heptacosane (7.60%); heptadecane, 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl (7.30%). The presence of aromatic, alkanes and phenolic compounds were revealed by FTIR analysis. The in silico oral prediction shows that some of the components are orally safe. The essential oil from the leaves showed cytotoxic activity at 1mg/mL(IC50 =555.70 μg/mL) against HeLa cells. The oils exhibited no significant antioxidant activity (IC50 >1 000 μg/mL) with <100 mg/g GAE of total phenol. The essential oils showed different degrees of activities against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 314588) at 10 μg/mL, 5 μg/mL and 2.5 μg/mL. These results might provide a future reference basis for further exploration of more of its medicinal application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202120190343DOI Listing
June 2021

Micromorphology, Ultrastructure and Histochemistry of L. Leaves and Stems.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Plant Production Department, PO Box 2460, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

L. is used as a traditional medicine in treating numerous ailments and diseases such as infertility in women, conjunctivitis, gonorrhea, and jaundice. This study used light and electron microscopy coupled with histochemistry to investigate the micromorphology, ultrastructure and histochemical properties of leaves and stems. Stereo and scanning electron microscopy revealed dense non-glandular trichomes on the leaves and stems and trichome density was greater in emergent leaves than in the young and mature. Three morphologically different non-glandular trichomes were observed including simple multicellular, simple bicellular and simple multicellular hooked. The simple bicellular trichomes were less common than the multicellular and hooked. Transmission electron micrographs showed mitochondria, vesicles and vacuoles in the trichome. The leaf section contained chloroplasts with plastoglobuli and starch grains. Histochemical analysis revealed various pharmacologically important compounds such as phenols, alkaloids, proteins and polysaccharides. The micromorphological and ultrastructural investigations suggest that L. is an economically important medicinal plant due to bioactive compounds present in the leaves and stems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10030512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000186PMC
March 2021

Major Bioactive Alkaloids and Biological Activities of Species (Apocynaceae).

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 5;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Several species belonging to the genus have been well researched and utilized for their wide-ranging biological activities. A few of the most prominent species include and . These species and many others within the genus often display pharmacological importance, which is habitually related to their chemical constituents. The secondary metabolites within the genus have demonstrated huge medicinal potential for the treatment of infections, pain, injuries, and various diseases. Regardless of the indispensable reports and properties displayed by spp., there remains a wide variety of plants that are yet to be considered or examined. Thus, an additional inclusive study on species within this genus is essential. The current review aimed to extensively analyze, collate, and describe an updated report of the current literature related to the major alkaloidal components and biological activities of species within the genus .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10020313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915066PMC
February 2021

Hesperidin Loaded on Gold Nanoparticles as a Drug Delivery System for a Successful Biocompatible, Anti-Cancer, Anti-Inflammatory and Phagocytosis Inducer Model.

Sci Rep 2020 06 9;10(1):9362. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Life Sciences, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban, 4000, South Africa.

Hesperidin is a flavonoid glycoside with proven therapeutic activities for various diseases, including cancer. However, its poor solubility and bioavailability render it only slightly absorbed, requiring a delivery system to reach its therapeutic target. Hesperidin loaded on gold nanoparticles (Hsp-AuNPs) was prepared by a chemical synthesis method. Various characterization techniques such as UV-VIS spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, FESEM, TEM and EDX, Zeta potential analysis, particle size analysis, were used to confirm the synthesis of Hsp-AuNPs. The cytotoxic effect of Hsp-AuNPs on human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) was assessed using MTT and crystal violet assays. The results revealed significant decrease in proliferation and inhibition of growth of the treated cells when compared with human normal breast epithelial cell line (HBL-100). Determination of apoptosis by fluorescence microscope was also performed using acridine orange-propidium iodide dual staining assay. The in vivo study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of Hsp-AuNPs in mice. The levels of hepatic and kidney functionality markers were assessed. No significant statistical differences were found for the tested indicators. Histological images of liver, spleen, lung and kidney showed no apparent damages and histopathological abnormalities after treatment with Hsp-AuNPs. Hsp-AuNPs ameliorated the functional activity of macrophages against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells-bearing mice. The production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines was also assessed in bone marrow-derived macrophage cells treated with Hsp-AuNPs. The results obviously demonstrated that Hsp-AuNPs treatment significantly inhibited the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66419-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283242PMC
June 2020

The Secretory Apparatus of Hochst. ex A.DC. (Apocynaceae): Laticifer Identification, Characterization and Distribution.

Plants (Basel) 2020 May 28;9(6). Epub 2020 May 28.

Plant Production Department, P.O. Box 2460, College of Food & Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Due to the inconsistencies in the interpretation of laticifers within the Apocynaceae, the current study aimed to distinguish, for the first time, the type and distribution of the laticifers in the embryos, seedlings and adult plants of (Forest Toad tree). The characterization and distribution of laticifers were determined using light and electron microscopy. The findings revealed the presence of articulated anastomosing laticifers. The laticifers were found to have originated from ground meristematic and procambium cells and were randomly distributed in all ground and vascular tissue, displaying complex branching conformations. The presence of chemical constituents within the laticifers and latex determined by histochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, neutral lipids, terpenoids, mucilage, pectin, resin acids, carboxylated polysaccharides, lipophilic, and hydrophilic substances and proteins. These secondary metabolites perform an indispensable role in preventing herbivory, hindering and deterring micro-organisms and may possibly have medicinal importance. The outcomes of the present study outlined the first micromorphology, anatomy, ultrastructural and chemical analysis of the laticifers of . In addition, this investigation similarly established the probable functions of latex and laticifers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9060686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355860PMC
May 2020

Thidiazuron-induced abnormalities in plant tissue cultures.

Plant Cell Rep 2018 Nov 26;37(11):1451-1470. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

, Ikenobe, Japan.

Thidiazuron (TDZ) is a proven effective and potent synthetic plant growth regulator for organogenic, regeneration, and developmental pathways, including axillary and adventitious shoot proliferation, somatic embryogenesis, and in vitro flowering. TDZ has facilitated the establishment of in vitro cultures for several plant species, especially woody and recalcitrant plants, which has enabled their genetic transformation and improvement. Despite the effectiveness and advantages of using TDZ, several drawbacks are associated with its application in plant tissue culture. This review addresses the morphological, physiological, and cytogenetic abnormalities associated with the use of TDZ in vitro, and provides a summary of these abnormalities in several plant species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-018-2326-1DOI Listing
November 2018

ITS2 secondary structure for species circumscription: case study in southern African Strychnos L. (Loganiaceae).

Genetica 2016 Dec 7;144(6):639-650. Epub 2016 Oct 7.

School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, New Biology Building, South Ring Road, Westville, 3630, South Africa.

Recently developed computational tools in ITS2 sequence-structure phylogenetics are improving tree robustness by exploitation of the added information content of the secondary structure. Despite this strength, however, their adoption for species-level clarifications in angiosperms has been slow. We investigate the utility of combining ITS2 sequence and secondary structure to separate species of southern African Strychnos, and assess correlation between compensatory base changes (CBCs) and currently recognised species boundaries. Combined phylogenetic analysis of sequence and secondary structure datasets performed better, in terms of robustness and species resolution, than analysis involving primary sequences only, achieving 100 and 88.2 % taxa discriminations respectively. Further, the Strychnos madagascariensis complex is well-resolved by sequence-structure phylogenetic analysis. The 17 Strychnos species corresponded to 14 ITS2 CBC clades. Four of the five taxa in section Densiflorae belong to a single CBC clade, whose members tend to form natural hybrids. Our finding supports the application of ITS2 as a complementary barcoding marker for species identification. It also highlights the potential of comparative studies of ITS2 CBC features among prospective parental pairs in breeding experiments as a rapid proxy for cross compatibility assessment. This could save valuable time in crop improvement. Patterns of CBC evolution and species boundaries in Strychnos suggests a positive correlation. We conclude that the CBC pattern coupled with observed ITS2 sequence paraphyly in section Densiflorae points to a speciation work-in-progress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10709-016-9931-0DOI Listing
December 2016

Antioxidant, antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Tulbaghia violacea Harv. (wild garlic) rhizome methanolic extract in a diabetic rat model.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2015 Nov 17;15:408. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

Department of Human Physiology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Kwazulu Natal, Durban, 4000, South Africa.

Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) continues to rise alarmingly despite years of intensive research. The need to explore alternative remedies such as traditional phytotherapy has therefore become increasingly important in the management and treatment of DM.

Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg.b.w) in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: non-diabetic control fed distilled water, diabetic control fed distilled water, diabetic group treated with Tulbaghia violacea (TVL) (60 mg/kg.b.w), diabetic group treated with TVL (120 mg/kg.b.w), and diabetic group treated with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg.b.w). Food and water intake, as well as urine output were measured daily, whilst body weight and fasting blood glucose were monitored weekly. On day 42, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed on all groups. After 7 weeks, the animals were sacrificed by halothane overdose, blood was removed by cardiac puncture and tissues were harvested. Assays were performed for the determination of plasma insulin, liver glycogen content, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme levels, plasma nitric oxide levels and serum lipid and liver enzyme levels.

Results And Discussion: TVL treatment improved body weights, significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance and significantly increased plasma insulin and liver glycogen content. TVL treatment also reduced liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, increased liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and increased plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels. Furthermore, TVL administration reduced serum triglycerides, VLDL, total-cholesterol levels and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. TVL also reduced serum levels of liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST).

Conclusion: Data obtained in this study demonstrated the hypoglycemic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of TVL in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0932-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4647322PMC
November 2015

Micromorphology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the foliar trichomes of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae).

Planta 2015 Nov 11;242(5):1107-22. Epub 2015 Jun 11.

School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X54001, Durban, 4000, South Africa.

Main Conclusion: The leaves of Withania somnifera contained four morphologically distinct trichome types: glandular capitate, non-glandular dendritic (branched), non-glandular bicellular and non-glandular multicellular trichomes. Major phytochemical compounds present within glandular and non-glandular trichomes were alkaloids and phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to characterize the micromorphology of the foliar trichomes of Withania somnifera as well as to elucidate the location and composition of the secretory products. Trichome density and length was also determined in three developmental stages of the leaves. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of four morphologically distinct trichome types: glandular capitate, non-glandular dendritic, non-glandular bicellular and non-glandular multicellular. The dendritic trichomes exhibited cuticular warts which are involved in the "Lotus-Effect". Glandular capitate and non-glandular dendritic trichomes were aggregated on the mid-vein of young and mature leaves, possibly to protect underlying vasculature. Histochemical staining also revealed the presence of two major classes of phytochemical compounds that are of medicinal importance, i.e. alkaloids and phenolic compounds. These compounds are used to treat a wide variety of ailments and also act as chemical deterrents in plants. The results of this study explain possible roles of four morphologically distinct trichome types based on their morphology, foliar distribution and content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-015-2341-1DOI Listing
November 2015

Effects of Tulbaghia violacea Harv. (Alliaceae) rhizome methanolic extract on kidney function and morphology in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Sep 11;155(2):1194-203. Epub 2014 Jul 11.

Department of Human Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Tulbaghia violacea has been used traditionally for the treatment of several ailments, including hypertension. The herb has been shown to have antihypertensive properties which have been attributed to its angiotensin-converting enzymeinhibitory (ACEI) activity. It could, therefore, prove beneficial in ameliorating renal pathology associated with hypertension. To evaluate the effects of long-term administration of Tulbaghia violacea on renal function and morphology in the Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rat model.

Materials And Methods: Male DSS rats were treated intra-peritoneally (i.p.) as follows: methanolic extract of Tulbaghia violacea: (TVL) (50 mg/kg/b.w.), captopril: (CAP) (25 mg/kg/b.w.), or distilled water, control: (CON) (3 ml/kg/b.w.). Blood pressure (BP) was measured bi-weekly, whilst 24-h urine volumes and electrolyte concentrations were assessed weekly. Animals were sacrificed on day 49 by halothane overdose. Blood was removed for determination of plasma and serum electrolytes. Left kidney tissues were harvested for the determination of nuclear factor-kappaβ (NF-kβ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) gene expressions.

Results: TVL significantly reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). TVL showed reduced blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, total protein in urine as well as increased serum total protein. TVL decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and nitric oxide significantly. NF-kβ and TGF-β) gene expressions were significantly reduced in TVL and CAP treated rats. Moreover, renal morphology improved significantly in TVL and CAP treated animals.

Conclusion: TVL and CAP demonstrated marked improvement in renal function and morphology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.07.003DOI Listing
September 2014

Cardiovascular effects of Tulbaghia violacea Harv. (Alliaceae) root methanolic extract in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Mar 3;146(1):225-31. Epub 2013 Jan 3.

Department of Human Physiology, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Chiltern Hills, Westville, Durban, South Africa.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: In African folk medicine, Tulbaghia violacea Harv.(Alliaceae), a herbaceous plant also known by other common local names such as 'wild garlic', 'society garlic' and 'sweet garlic', has been used for the management, control and/or treatment of several human ailments; including hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of methanolic extract of Tulbaghia violacea Harv. in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats.

Materials And Methods: DSS rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p) as follows: distilled water, control (CON) (3 ml/kg/b.w.); captopril (CAP) (25 mg/kg/b.w.); or methanolic extract of Tulbaghia violacea (TVL) (50 mg/kg/b.w.) for 7 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured bi-weekly whilst 24-hour urine volumes and sodium concentrations were assessed weekly. Animals were sacrificed on day 49 by halothane overdose. Blood was removed for the determination of aldosterone concentration and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. Left kidney was harvested for angiotensin Ia (AT1a) receptor gene expression.

Results: CON showed a significant percentage increase in SBP (mmHg) on day 49 compared to day 0 (baseline values) (9.75±1.7% vs. 2.33±0.77%; p<0.05). CAP and TVL showed significant percentage decreases in SBP at week 7 when compared to baseline (8.13±1.23% and12.88±3.12% p<0.01). Urine volumes (ml) increased significantly in CAP from week 1 to week 4 (9.63±2.22 vs.10.97±1.75 p<0.05) and in TVL from week 2 to 7 (9.23±0.91 vs. 11.90±1.17 p<0.05). Urinary sodium concentration (mmol/L/24 h urine samples) was significantly higher in CAP (0.72±0.07 vs.1.31±0.03 p<0.05) and in TVL (0.71±0.09 vs. 1.68±0.16; p<0.05) at week 7 compared to baseline levels. There was no significant difference in the plasma aldosterone levels (pmol/L) of all the three groups. Serum ACE (U/L) activity was significantly higher in CAP compared to CON and TVL (277.0±11.6 vs. 121.5±3.93; and 147.0±6.63; p<0.05 respectively). CAP showed a significant 6.4 fold increase in AT1a mRNA expression vs. CON (p<0.05) and a 4.5 fold increase vs. TVL (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between CON and TVL treated rats. CAP and TVL showed no significant change in the expression of AT2.

Conclusion: This study showed that TVL possesses antihypertensive effect in Dahl salt-sensitive rats when administered over a long-term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.12.036DOI Listing
March 2013

Glandular trichomes of Ceratotheca triloba (Pedaliaceae): morphology, histochemistry and ultrastructure.

Planta 2012 Oct 14;236(4):1215-26. Epub 2012 Jun 14.

School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, P/Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa.

This study was initiated to characterize the distribution, morphology, secretion mode, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes of Ceratotheca triloba using light and electron microscopy. Its leaves bear two morphologically distinct glandular trichomes. The first type has long trichome with 8-12 basal cells of pedestal, 3-14 stalk cells, a neck cell and a head of four cells in one layer. The second type has short trichome comprising one or two basal epidermal cells, a unicellular or bicellular stalk and a multicellular head of two to eight cells. There is a marked circular area in the upper part of each head cell of the long trichome. This area is provided with micropores to exudate directly the secretory product onto the leaf surface by an eccrine pathway. The secretory product has copious amount of dark microbodies arising from plastids which are positive to Sudan tests and osmium tetroxide for unsaturated lipids. The secretion mode of short trichomes is granulocrine and involves two morphologically and histochemically distinct vesicle types: small Golgi-derived vesicles which are positive to Ruthenium Red test for mucilaginous polysaccharides; the second type is dark large microbodies similar to that of long trichomes with low quantity. These two types are stored in numerous peripheral vacuoles and discharge their contents accompanied by the formation of irregular invaginations of the plasmalemma inside the vacuoles via reverse pinocytosis. These two secretion modes of long and short trichomes are reported for the first time in the family Pedaliaceae. The long trichomes have more unsaturated lipids, while the short trichomes contain more mucilaginous polysaccharides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-012-1671-5DOI Listing
October 2012
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