Publications by authors named "Youeun Song"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Analysis of Shared Haplotypes amongst Palauans Maps Loci for Psychotic Disorders to 4q28 and 5q23-q31.

Mol Neuropsychiatry 2017 Feb 12;2(4):173-184. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif., USA.

To localize genetic variation affecting risk for psychotic disorders in the population of Palau, we genotyped DNA samples from 203 Palauan individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders, broadly defined, and 125 control subjects using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism array. Palau has unique features advantageous for this study: due to its population history, Palauans are substantially interrelated; affected individuals often, but not always, cluster in families; and we have essentially complete ascertainment of affected individuals. To localize risk variants to genomic regions, we evaluated long-shared haplotypes, ≥10 Mb, identifying clusters of affected individuals who share such haplotypes. This extensive sharing, typically identical by descent, was significantly greater in cases than population controls, even after controlling for relatedness. Several regions of the genome exhibited substantial excess of shared haplotypes for affected individuals, including 3p21, 3p12, 4q28, and 5q23-q31. Two of these regions, 4q28 and 5q23-q31, showed significant linkage by traditional LOD score analysis and could harbor variants of more sizeable risk for psychosis or a multiplicity of risk variants. The pattern of haplotype sharing in 4q28 highlights , encoding a cadherin-related neuronal receptor, as possibly involved in risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000450726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5318925PMC
February 2017

Modest impact on risk for autism spectrum disorder of rare copy number variants at 15q11.2, specifically breakpoints 1 to 2.

Autism Res 2014 Jun 12;7(3):355-62. Epub 2014 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; FondaMental Foundation, Créteil, France.

The proximal region of chromosome 15 is one of the genomic hotspots for copy number variants (CNVs). Among the rearrangements observed in this region, CNVs from the interval between the common breakpoints 1 and 2 (BP1 and BP2) have been reported cosegregating with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although evidence supporting an association between BP1-BP2 CNVs and autism accumulates, the magnitude of the effect of BP1-BP2 CNVs remains elusive, posing a great challenge to recurrence-risk counseling. To gain further insight into their pathogenicity for ASD, we estimated the penetrance of the BP1-BP2 CNVs for ASD as well as their effects on ASD-related phenotypes in a well-characterized ASD sample (n = 2525 families). Transmission disequilibrium test revealed significant preferential transmission only for the duplicated chromosome in probands (20T:9NT). The penetrance of the BP1-BP2 CNVs for ASD was low, conferring additional risks of 0.3% (deletion) and 0.8% (duplication). Stepwise regression analyses suggest a greater effect of the CNVs on ASD-related phenotype in males and when maternally inherited. Taken together, the results are consistent with BP1-BP2 CNVs as risk factors for autism. However, their effect is modest, more akin to that seen for common variants. To be consistent with the current American College of Medical Genetics guidelines for interpretation of postnatal CNV, the BP1-BP2 deletion and duplication CNVs would probably best be classified as variants of uncertain significance (VOUS): they appear to have an impact on risk, but one so modest that these CNVs do not merit pathogenic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.1378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003409PMC
June 2014

De novo mutations revealed by whole-exome sequencing are strongly associated with autism.

Nature 2012 Apr 4;485(7397):237-41. Epub 2012 Apr 4.

Program on Neurogenetics, Child Study Center, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 230 South Frontage Road, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

Multiple studies have confirmed the contribution of rare de novo copy number variations to the risk for autism spectrum disorders. But whereas de novo single nucleotide variants have been identified in affected individuals, their contribution to risk has yet to be clarified. Specifically, the frequency and distribution of these mutations have not been well characterized in matched unaffected controls, and such data are vital to the interpretation of de novo coding mutations observed in probands. Here we show, using whole-exome sequencing of 928 individuals, including 200 phenotypically discordant sibling pairs, that highly disruptive (nonsense and splice-site) de novo mutations in brain-expressed genes are associated with autism spectrum disorders and carry large effects. On the basis of mutation rates in unaffected individuals, we demonstrate that multiple independent de novo single nucleotide variants in the same gene among unrelated probands reliably identifies risk alleles, providing a clear path forward for gene discovery. Among a total of 279 identified de novo coding mutations, there is a single instance in probands, and none in siblings, in which two independent nonsense variants disrupt the same gene, SCN2A (sodium channel, voltage-gated, type II, α subunit), a result that is highly unlikely by chance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3667984PMC
April 2012

Rare copy number variants in tourette syndrome disrupt genes in histaminergic pathways and overlap with autism.

Biol Psychiatry 2012 Mar 14;71(5):392-402. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

Background: Studies of copy number variation (CNV) have characterized loci and molecular pathways in a range of neuropsychiatric conditions. We analyzed rare CNVs in Tourette syndrome (TS) to identify novel risk regions and relevant pathways, to evaluate burden of structural variation in cases versus controls, and to assess overlap of identified variations with those in other neuropsychiatric syndromes.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study of 460 individuals with TS, including 148 parent-child trios and 1131 controls. CNV analysis was undertaken using 370 K to 1 M probe arrays, and genotyping data were used to match cases and controls for ancestry. CNVs present in < 1% of the population were evaluated.

Results: While there was no significant increase in the number of de novo or transmitted rare CNVs in cases versus controls, pathway analysis using multiple algorithms showed enrichment of genes within histamine receptor (subtypes 1 and 2) signaling pathways (p = 5.8 × 10(-4) - 1.6 × 10(-2)), as well as axon guidance, cell adhesion, nervous system development, and synaptic structure and function processes. Genes mapping within rare CNVs in TS showed significant overlap with those previously identified in autism spectrum disorders but not intellectual disability or schizophrenia. Three large, likely pathogenic, de novo events were identified, including one disrupting multiple gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor genes.

Conclusions: We identify further evidence supporting recent findings regarding the involvement of histaminergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic mechanisms in the etiology of TS and show an overlap of rare CNVs in TS and autism spectrum disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.09.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3282144PMC
March 2012

Multiple recurrent de novo CNVs, including duplications of the 7q11.23 Williams syndrome region, are strongly associated with autism.

Neuron 2011 Jun;70(5):863-85

Program on Neurogenetics, Yale University School of Medicine, 230 South Frontage Road, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

We have undertaken a genome-wide analysis of rare copy-number variation (CNV) in 1124 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) families, each comprised of a single proband, unaffected parents, and, in most kindreds, an unaffected sibling. We find significant association of ASD with de novo duplications of 7q11.23, where the reciprocal deletion causes Williams-Beuren syndrome, characterized by a highly social personality. We identify rare recurrent de novo CNVs at five additional regions, including 16p13.2 (encompassing genes USP7 and C16orf72) and Cadherin 13, and implement a rigorous approach to evaluating the statistical significance of these observations. Overall, large de novo CNVs, particularly those encompassing multiple genes, confer substantial risks (OR = 5.6; CI = 2.6-12.0, p = 2.4 × 10(-7)). We estimate there are 130-234 ASD-related CNV regions in the human genome and present compelling evidence, based on cumulative data, for association of rare de novo events at 7q11.23, 15q11.2-13.1, 16p11.2, and Neurexin 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2011.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3939065PMC
June 2011