Publications by authors named "You Hyun Noh"

6 Publications

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Increased mitochondrial fission and volume density by blocking glutamate excitotoxicity protect glaucomatous optic nerve head astrocytes.

Glia 2015 May 31;63(5):736-53. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

Department of Ophthalmology, Laboratory for Optic Nerve Biology, Hamilton Glaucoma Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Abnormal structure and function of astrocytes have been observed within the lamina cribrosa region of the optic nerve head (ONH) in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Glutamate excitotoxicity-mediated mitochondrial alteration has been implicated in experimental glaucoma. However, the relationships among glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial alteration and ONH astrocytes in the pathogenesis of glaucoma remain unknown. We found that functional N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (NRs) are present in human ONH astrocytes and that glaucomatous human ONH astrocytes have increased expression levels of NRs and the glutamate aspartate transporter. Glaucomatous human ONH astrocytes exhibit mitochondrial fission that is linked to increased expression of dynamin-related protein 1 and its phosphorylation at Serine 616. In BAC ALDH1L1 eGFP or Thy1-CFP transgenic mice, NMDA treatment induced axon loss as well as hypertrophic morphology and mitochondrial fission in astrocytes of the glial lamina. In human ONH astrocytes, NMDA treatment in vitro triggered mitochondrial fission by decreasing mitochondrial length and number, thereby reducing mitochondrial volume density. However, blocking excitotoxicity by memantine (MEM) prevented these alterations by increasing mitochondrial length, number and volume density. In glaucomatous DBA/2J (D2) mice, blocking excitotoxicity by MEM inhibited the morphological alteration as well as increased mitochondrial number and volume density in astrocytes of the glial lamina. However, blocking excitotoxicity decreased autophagosome/autolysosome volume density in both astrocytes and axons in the glial lamina of glaucomatous D2 mice. These findings provide evidence that blocking excitotoxicity prevents ONH astrocyte dysfunction in glaucomatous neurodegeneration by increasing mitochondrial fission, increasing mitochondrial volume density and length, and decreasing autophagosome/autolysosome formation. GLIA 2015;63:736-753.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.22781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4373968PMC
May 2015

Coenzyme Q10 inhibits glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial alteration in a mouse model of glaucoma.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014 Feb 18;55(2):993-1005. Epub 2014 Feb 18.

Laboratory for Optic Nerve Biology, Hamilton Glaucoma Center and Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Purpose: To test whether a diet supplemented with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) ameliorates glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress-mediated retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration by preventing mitochondrial alterations in the retina of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice.

Methods: Preglaucomatous DBA/2J and age-matched control DBA/2J-Gpnmb(+) mice were fed with CoQ10 (1%) or a control diet daily for 6 months. The RGC survival and axon preservation were measured by Brn3a and neurofilament immunohistochemistry and by conventional transmission electron microscopy. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NR) 1 and 2A, and Bax and phosphorylated Bad (pBad) protein expression was measured by Western blot analysis. Apoptotic cell death was assessed by TUNEL staining. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)/oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex IV protein expression were measured by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis.

Results: Coenzyme Q10 promoted RGC survival by approximately 29% and preserved the axons in the optic nerve head (ONH), as well as inhibited astroglial activation by decreasing GFAP expression in the retina and ONH of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. Intriguingly, CoQ10 significantly blocked the upregulation of NR1 and NR2A, as well as of SOD2 and HO1 protein expression in the retina of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice. In addition, CoQ10 significantly prevented apoptotic cell death by decreasing Bax protein expression or by increasing pBad protein expression. More importantly, CoQ10 preserved mtDNA content and Tfam/OXPHOS complex IV protein expression in the retina of glaucomatous DBA/2J mice.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that CoQ10 may be a promising therapeutic strategy for ameliorating glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress in glaucomatous neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-12564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3929080PMC
February 2014

Brimonidine blocks glutamate excitotoxicity-induced oxidative stress and preserves mitochondrial transcription factor a in ischemic retinal injury.

PLoS One 2012 9;7(10):e47098. Epub 2012 Oct 9.

The Sophie and Arthur Laboratory for Optic Nerve Biology, Hamilton Glaucoma Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, United States of America.

Glutamate excitotoxicity-induced oxidative stress have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in retinal ischemia and optic neuropathies including glaucoma. Brimonindine (BMD), an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonist, contributes to the neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) against glutamate excitotoxicity or oxidative stress. However, the molecular mechanisms of BMD-associated mitochondrial preservation in RGC protection against glutamate excitotoxicity-induced oxidative stress following retinal ischemic injury remain largely unknown. Here, we tested whether activation of alpha 2 adrenergic receptor by systemic BMD treatment blocks glutamate excitotoxicity-induced oxidative stress, and preserves the expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex in ischemic retina. Sprague-Dawley rats received BMD (1 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (0.9% saline) systemically and then transient ischemia was induced by acute intraocular pressure elevation. Systemic BMD treatment significantly increased RGC survival at 4 weeks after ischemia. At 24 hours, BMD significantly decreased Bax expression but increased Bcl-xL and phosphorylated Bad protein expression in ischemic retina. Importantly. BMD significantly blocked the upregulations of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors 1 and 2A protein expression, as well as of SOD2 protein expression in ischemic retina at 24 hours. During the early neurodegeneration following ischemic injury (12-72 hours), Tfam and OXPHOS complex protein expression were significantly increased in vehicle-treated retina. At 24 hours after ischemia, Tfam immunoreactivity was increased in the outer plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, inner plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer. Further, Tfam protein was expressed predominantly in RGCs. Finally, BMD preserved Tfam immunoreactivity in RGCs as well as Tfam/OXPHOS complex protein expression in the retinal extracts against ischemic injury. Our findings suggest that systemic BMD treatment protects RGCs by blockade of glutamate excitotoxicity-induced oxidative stress and subsequent preservation of Tfam/OXPHOS complex expression in ischemic retina.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0047098PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3467218PMC
May 2013

Sulfiredoxin protein is critical for redox balance and survival of cells exposed to low steady-state levels of H2O2.

J Biol Chem 2012 Jan 15;287(1):81-89. Epub 2011 Nov 15.

Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center for Cell Signaling and Drug Discovery Research, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea; College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120-750, Korea. Electronic address:

Sulfiredoxin (Srx) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of cysteine sulfinic acid of hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (Prxs). Having high affinity toward H2O2, 2-Cys Prxs can efficiently reduce H2O2 at low concentration. We previously showed that Prx I is hyperoxidized at a rate of 0.072% per turnover even in the presence of low steady-state levels of H2O2. Here we examine the novel role of Srx in cells exposed to low steady-state levels of H2O2, which can be achieved by using glucose oxidase. Exposure of low steady-state levels of H2O2 (10-20 μm) to A549 or wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells does not lead to any significant change in oxidative injury because of the maintenance of balance between H2O2 production and elimination. In contrast, loss-of-function studies using Srx-depleted A549 and Srx-/- MEF cells demonstrate a dramatic increase in extra- and intracellular H2O2, sulfinic 2-Cys Prxs, and apoptosis. Concomitant with hyperoxidation of mitochondrial Prx III, Srx-depleted cells show an activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways including mitochondria membrane potential collapse, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. Furthermore, adenoviral re-expression of Srx in Srx-depleted A549 or Srx-/- MEF cells promotes the reactivation of sulfinic 2-Cys Prxs and results in cellular resistance to apoptosis, with enhanced removal of H2O2. These results indicate that Srx functions as a novel component to maintain the balance between H2O2 production and elimination and then protects cells from apoptosis even in the presence of low steady-state levels of H2O2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.316711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249139PMC
January 2012

Pretreatment with interferon-gamma protects microglia from oxidative stress via up-regulation of Mn-SOD.

Free Radic Biol Med 2009 Apr 9;46(8):1204-10. Epub 2009 Feb 9.

Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China.

Microglial cells, resident macrophage-like immune cells in the brain, are exposed to intense oxidative stress under various pathophysiological conditions. For self-defense against oxidative injuries, microglial cells must be equipped with antioxidative mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the regulation of antioxidant enzyme systems in microglial cells by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and found that pretreatment with IFN-gamma for 20 h protected microglial cells from the toxicity of various reactive species such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide anion, 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal, and peroxynitrite. The cytoprotective effect of IFN-gamma pretreatment was abolished by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. In addition, treatment of microglial cells with both IFN-gamma and H(2)O(2) together did not protect them from the H(2)O(2)-evoked toxicity. These results imply that protein synthesis is required for the protection by IFN-gamma. Among various antioxidant enzymes such as manganese or copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD or Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), only Mn-SOD was up-regulated in IFN-gamma-pretreated microglial cells. Transfection with siRNA of Mn-SOD abolished both up-regulation of Mn-SOD expression and protection from H(2)O(2) toxicity by IFN-gamma pretreatment. Furthermore, whereas the activities of Mn-SOD and catalase were up-regulated by IFN-gamma pretreatment, those of Cu/Zn-SOD and GPx were not. These results indicate that IFN-gamma pretreatment protects microglial cells from oxidative stress via selective up-regulation of the level of Mn-SOD and activity of Mn-SOD and catalase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.01.027DOI Listing
April 2009

Sulfiredoxin Translocation into Mitochondria Plays a Crucial Role in Reducing Hyperoxidized Peroxiredoxin III.

J Biol Chem 2009 Mar 28;284(13):8470-7. Epub 2009 Jan 28.

College of Pharmacy, Division of Life & Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Center for Cell Signaling & Drug Discovery Research, Ewha Womans University, Science Building C, 11-1 Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-750, Korea.

The mitochondria are the major intracellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated during cellular respiration. The role of peroxiredoxin (Prx) III, a 2-Cys Prx family member, in the scavenging of mitochondrial H(2)O(2) has recently been emphasized. While eliminating H(2)O(2), Prx can become overoxidized and inactivated by modifying the active cysteine into cysteine sulfinic acid (Cys-SO(2)H). When 2-Cys Prxs are inactivated in vitro, sulfiredoxin (Srx) reduces the cysteine sulfinic acid to cysteines. However, whereas Srx is localized in the cytoplasm, Prx III is present exclusively in the mitochondria. Although Srx reduces sulfinic Prx III in vitro, it remains unclear whether the reduction of Prx III in cells is actually mediated by Srx. Our gain- and loss-of-function experiments show that Srx is responsible for reducing not only sulfinic cytosolic Prxs (I and II) but also sulfinic mitochondrial Prx III. We further demonstrate that Srx translocates from the cytosol to mitochondria in response to oxidative stress. Overexpression of mitochondrion-targeted Srx promotes the regeneration of sulfinic Prx III and results in cellular resistance to apoptosis, with enhanced elimination of mitochondrial H(2)O(2) and decreased rates of mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. These results indicate that Srx plays a crucial role in the reactivation of sulfinic mitochondrial Prx III and that its mitochondrial translocation is critical in maintaining the balance between mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production and elimination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M808981200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2659205PMC
March 2009