Publications by authors named "Yosra Messai"

17 Publications

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Independent association of PD-L1 expression with noninactivated VHL clear cell renal cell carcinoma-A finding with therapeutic potential.

Int J Cancer 2017 Jan 23;140(1):142-148. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Rennes, France.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is an aggressive tumor that is characterized in most cases by inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene VHL. The VHL/HIF/VEGF pathway thus plays a major role in angiogenesis and is currently targeted by anti-angiogenic therapy. The emergence of resistance is leading to the use of targeted immunotherapy against immune checkpoint PD1/PDL1 that restores antitumor immune response. The correlation between VHL status and PD-L1 expression has been little investigated. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed 98 consecutive cases of ccRCC and correlated PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with clinical data (up to 10-year follow-up), pathological criteria, VEGF, PAR-3, CAIX and PD-1 expressions by IHC and complete VHL status (deletion, mutation and promoter hypermethylation). PD-L1 expression was observed in 69 ccRCC (70.4%) and the corresponding patients had a worse prognosis, with a median specific survival of 52 months (p = 0.03). PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with poor prognostic factors such as a higher ISUP nucleolar grade (p = 0.01), metastases at diagnosis (p = 0.01), a sarcomatoid component (p = 0.04), overexpression of VEGF (p = 0.006), and cytoplasmic PAR-3 expression (p = 0.01). PD-L1 expression was also associated with dense PD-1 expression (p = 0.007) and with ccRCC with 0 or 1 alteration(s) (non-inactivated VHL tumors; p = 0.007) that remained significant after multivariate analysis (p = 0.004 and p = 0.024, respectively). Interestingly, all wild-type VHL tumors (no VHL gene alteration, 11.2%) expressed PD-L1. In this study, we found PD-L1 expression to be associated with noninactivated VHL tumors and in particular wild-type VHL ccRCC, which may benefit from therapies inhibiting PD-L1/PD-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30429DOI Listing
January 2017

The multifaceted role of autophagy in tumor evasion from immune surveillance.

Oncotarget 2016 Apr;7(14):17591-607

UMR 1186, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.

While autophagy is constitutively executed at basal level in all cells, it is activated in cancer cells in response to various microenvironmental stresses including hypoxia. It is now well established that autophagy can act both as tumor suppressor or tumor promoter. In this regard, several reports indicate that the tumor suppressor function of autophagy is associated with its ability to scavenge damaged oxidative organelles, thereby preventing the accumulation of toxic oxygen radicals and limiting the genome instability. Paradoxically, in developed tumors, autophagy can promote the survival of cancer cells and therefore operates as a cell resistance mechanism. The consensus appears to be that autophagy has a dual role in suppressing tumor initiation and in promoting the survival of established tumors. This has inspired significant interest in applying anti-autophagy therapies as an entirely new approach to cancer treatment. While much remains to be learned about the regulation and context-dependent biological role of autophagy, it is now well established that modulation of this process could be an attractive approach for the development of novel anticancer therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will summarize recent reports describing how tumor cells, by activating autophagy, manage to resist the immune cell attack. Data described in this review strongly argue that targeting autophagy may represent a conceptual realm for new immunotherapeutic strategies aiming to block the immune escape and therefore providing rational approach to future tumor immunotherapy design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.7540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4951235PMC
April 2016

Renal Cell Carcinoma Programmed Death-ligand 1, a New Direct Target of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-2 Alpha, is Regulated by von Hippel-Lindau Gene Mutation Status.

Eur Urol 2016 10 23;70(4):623-632. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

INSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale) UMR1186, Laboratory Integrative Tumor Immunology and Genetic Oncology, Villejuif, France; INSERM, Gustave Roussy, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, F-94805, France. Electronic address:

Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) frequently display a loss of function of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene.

Objective: To elucidate the putative relationship between VHL mutation status and immune checkpoint ligand programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A series of 32 renal tumors composed of 11 VHL tumor-associated and 21 sporadic RCCs were used to evaluate PD-L1 expression levels after sequencing of the three exons and exon-intron junctions of the VHL gene. The 786-O, A498, and RCC4 cell lines were used to investigate the mechanisms of PD-L1 regulation.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Fisher's exact test was used for VHL mutation and Kruskal-Wallis test for PD-L1 expression. If no covariate accounted for the association of VHL and PD-L1, then a Kruskal-Wallis test was used; otherwise Cochran-Mantel-Haenzsel test was used. We also used the Fligner-Policello test to compare two medians when the distributions had different dispersions.

Results And Limitations: We demonstrated that tumors from ccRCC patients with VHL biallelic inactivation (ie, loss of function) display a significant increase in PD-L1 expression compared with ccRCC tumors carrying one VHL wild-type allele. Using the inducible VHL 786-O-derived cell lines with varying hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2α) stabilization levels, we showed that PD-L1 expression levels positively correlate with VHL mutation and HIF-2α expression. Targeting HIF-2α decreased PD-L1, while HIF-2α overexpression increased PD-L1 mRNA and protein levels in ccRCC cells. Interestingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays revealed a direct binding of HIF-2α to a transcriptionally active hypoxia-response element in the human PD-L1 proximal promoter in 786-O cells.

Conclusions: Our work provides the first evidence that VHL mutations positively correlate with PD-L1 expression in ccRCC and may influence the response to ccRCC anti-PD-L1/PD-1 immunotherapy.

Patient Summary: We investigated the relationship between von Hippel-Lindau mutations and programmed death-ligand 1 expression. We demonstrated that von Hippel-Lindau mutation status significantly correlated with programmed death-ligand 1 expression in clear cell renal cell carcinomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.11.029DOI Listing
October 2016

Isolation and characterization of renal cancer stem cells from patient-derived xenografts.

Oncotarget 2016 Mar;7(13):15507-24

INSERM U 1186, Equipe labellisée Ligue Contre le Cancer, Gustave Roussy Campus, Villejuif, France.

As rapidly developing patient-derived xenografts (PDX) could represent potential sources of cancer stem cells (CSC), we selected and characterized non-cultured PDX cell suspensions from four different renal carcinomas (RCC). Only the cell suspensions from the serial xenografts (PDX-1 and PDX-2) of an undifferentiated RCC (RCC-41) adapted to the selective CSC medium. The cell suspension derived from the original tumor specimen (RCC-41-P-0) did not adapt to the selective medium and strongly expressed CSC-like markers (CD133 and CD105) together with the non-CSC tumor marker E-cadherin. In comparison, PDX-1 and PDX-2 cells exhibited evolution in their phenotype since PDX-1 cells were CD133high/CD105-/Ecadlow and PDX-2 cells were CD133low/CD105-/Ecad-. Both PDX subsets expressed additional stem cell markers (CD146/CD29/OCT4/NANOG/Nestin) but still contained non-CSC tumor cells. Therefore, using different cell sorting strategies, we characterized 3 different putative CSC subsets (RCC-41-PDX-1/CD132+, RCC-41-PDX-2/CD133-/EpCAMlow and RCC-41-PDX-2/CD133+/EpCAMbright). In addition, transcriptomic analysis showed that RCC-41-PDX-2/CD133- over-expressed the pluripotency gene ERBB4, while RCC-41-PDX-2/CD133+ over-expressed several tumor suppressor genes. These three CSC subsets displayed ALDH activity, formed serial spheroids and developed serial tumors in SCID mice, although RCC-41-PDX-1/CD132+ and RCC-41-PDX-2/CD133+ displayed less efficiently the above CSC properties. RCC-41-PDX-1/CD132+ tumors showed vessels of human origin with CSC displaying peri-vascular distribution. By contrast, RCC-41-PDX-2 originated tumors exhibiting only vessels of mouse origin without CSC peri-vascular distribution.Altogether, our results indicate that PDX murine microenvironment promotes a continuous redesign of CSC phenotype, unmasking CSC subsets potentially present in a single RCC or generating ex novo different CSC-like subsets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.6266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4941257PMC
March 2016

Critical Role of Tumor Microenvironment in Shaping NK Cell Functions: Implication of Hypoxic Stress.

Front Immunol 2015 23;6:482. Epub 2015 Sep 23.

INSERM U 1186, Equipe labellisée Ligue Contre le Cancer, Gustave Roussy Campus , Villejuif , France.

Blurring the boundary between innate and adaptive immune system, natural killer (NK) cells, a key component of the innate immunity, are recognized as potent anticancer mediators. Extensive studies have been detailed on how NK cells get activated and recognize cancer cells. In contrast, few studies have been focused on how tumor microenvironment-mediated immunosubversion and immunoselection of tumor-resistant variants may impair NK cell function. Accumulating evidences indicate that several cell subsets (macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressive cells, T regulatory cells, dendritic cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and tumor cells), their secreted factors, as well as metabolic components (i.e., hypoxia) have immunosuppressive roles in the tumor microenvironment and are able to condition NK cells to become anergic. In this review, we will describe how NK cells react with different stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. This will be followed by a discussion on the role of hypoxic stress in the regulation of NK cell functions. The aim of this review is to provide a better understanding of how the tumor microenvironment impairs NK cell functions, thereby limiting the use of NK cell-based therapy, and we will attempt to suggest more efficient tools to establish a more favorable tumor microenvironment to boost NK cell cytotoxicity and control tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4585210PMC
October 2015

Hypoxia: a key player in antitumor immune response. A Review in the Theme: Cellular Responses to Hypoxia.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2015 Nov 26;309(9):C569-79. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1186, Equipe Labellisée Par La Ligue Contre Le Cancer, Gustave Roussy Campus, Villejuif, France;

The tumor microenvironment is a complex system, playing an important role in tumor development and progression. Besides cellular stromal components, extracellular matrix fibers, cytokines, and other metabolic mediators are also involved. In this review we outline the potential role of hypoxia, a major feature of most solid tumors, within the tumor microenvironment and how it contributes to immune resistance and immune suppression/tolerance and can be detrimental to antitumor effector cell functions. We also outline how hypoxic stress influences immunosuppressive pathways involving macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, T regulatory cells, and immune checkpoints and how it may confer tumor resistance. Finally, we discuss how microenvironmental hypoxia poses both obstacles and opportunities for new therapeutic immune interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00207.2015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4628936PMC
November 2015

HIF-2α/ITPR1 axis: A new saboteur of NK-mediated lysis.

Oncoimmunology 2015 Feb 6;4(2):e985951. Epub 2015 Mar 6.

INSERM U753; Gustave Roussy Cancer campus ; Villejuif, France.

We recently investigated the role of von Hippel-Lindau ( mutation and the subsequent induction of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) in the regulation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) susceptibility to natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing. We demonstrated that the resistance of -mutated RCC cell line 786-0 to NK-mediated lysis requires HIF-2α and ITPR1, a direct novel target of HIF-2α, through the activation of autophagy in target cells by NK-derived signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/2162402X.2014.985951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4404821PMC
February 2015

The autophagy sensor ITPR1 protects renal carcinoma cells from NK-mediated killing.

Autophagy 2015 Feb 25. Epub 2015 Feb 25.

a INSERM U753 , Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus , 114, rue Edouard Vaillant, F-94805 Villejuif Cedex , France .

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is dominated by inactivating mutations in VHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase), leading to constitutive activation of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and induction of a hypoxia response transcription signature. Our study demonstrated that VHL mutation results in the acquisition of ccRCC resistance to NK-mediated lysis by a mechanism involving EPAS1/HIF-2α stabilization. More importantly we identified ITPR1 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1) as a direct novel target of EPAS1 and as a potent regulator of NK-mediated killing through the activation of autophagy in target cells by a signal derived from NK cells. Therefore, it is conceivable to consider EPAS1 or the autophagy sensor ITPR1 as a potential target in future therapeutic protocols that aim to improve NK cell responses in patients with RCC and other solid malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2015.1017194DOI Listing
February 2015

Crosstalk between CTC, Immune System and Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment.

Cancer Microenviron 2014 Dec 22;7(3):153-60. Epub 2014 Oct 22.

INSERM U753, Gustave Roussy Cancer campus, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805, Villejuif, France.

Accumulating evidence indicate that the behavior of tumorigenic cells is highly influenced by their microenvironment. In this regard, microenvironmental hypoxia plays a determinant role in the emergence of CTC (circulating tumor cells) and CSC (cancer stem cells). CTCs are believed to be indicators of residual disease and thus pose an increased risk of metastasis. In spite of being rare and exposed to immune attack, these cells are capable to escape the immune system of the host. Although CTC play a pivotal role in the metastatic cascade and their prognostic impact has been repeatedly demonstrated, little is known about their escape mechanisms to immune system of the host. Therefore a better knowledge of the immunogenicity of these cells and their cross talk with immune killer cells as well as with tumor microenvironment may represent an exciting new immunotherapy opportunity. In this chapter, we will discuss how hypoxia is involved in the regulation of tumor progression and induction of EMT and cancer stem cell like features. We will also illustrate the relationship between hypoxia and CTC and review how CTC interact with the cells of immune system (both innate and adaptive) in terms of their survival and EMT phenotype. We will attempt to outline how hypoxic stress may confer resistance to CTC by giving them EMT and CSC like phenotype. Finally we will discuss whether the inhibition of hypoxic signaling pathways in different compartments of the solid tumor microenvironment will have an impact on CTC number, resistant phenotype and CTC lysis by immune effectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12307-014-0157-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4275540PMC
December 2014

ITPR1 protects renal cancer cells against natural killer cells by inducing autophagy.

Cancer Res 2014 Dec 8;74(23):6820-32. Epub 2014 Oct 8.

INSERM U753, Villejuif, France.

Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC) frequently display inactivation of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene leading to increased level of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). In this study, we investigated the potential role of HIF2α in regulating RCC susceptibility to natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing. We demonstrated that the RCC cell line 786-0 with mutated VHL was resistant to NK-mediated lysis as compared with the VHL-corrected cell line (WT7). This resistance was found to require HIF2α stabilization. On the basis of global gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found ITPR1 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1) as a direct novel target of HIF2α and that targeting ITPR1 significantly increased susceptibility of 786-0 cells to NK-mediated lysis. Mechanistically, HIF2α in 786-0 cells lead to overexpression of ITPR1, which subsequently regulated the NK-mediated killing through the activation of autophagy in target cells by NK-derived signal. Interestingly, both ITPR1 and Beclin-1 silencing in 786-0 cells inhibited NK-induced autophagy and subsequently increased granzyme B activity in target cells. Finally, in vivo ITPR1 targeting significantly enhanced the NK-mediated tumor regression. Our data provide insight into the link between HIF2α, the ITPR1-related pathway, and natural immunity and strongly suggest a role for the HIF2α/ITPR1 axis in regulating RCC cell survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-0303DOI Listing
December 2014

[Tumor hypoxia: a key player in the regulation of stromal and anti-tumor responses].

Med Sci (Paris) 2014 Apr 5;30(4):422-8. Epub 2014 May 5.

Inserm U753, institut Gustave Roussy, 114, rue Édouard Vaillant, 94800 Villejuif, France.

Hypoxia is a major feature of most solid tumors. Cells adapt to lower oxygen availability by stabilizing HIF transcription factors, which in turn activate the expression of many genes resulting in the survival and maintenance of cellular functions. In tumor cells, exposure to hypoxic stress results in the activation, via the HIF factors, of a series of genes enabling tumor cells to resist to killing by cytotoxic effectors of the immune system. Tissue hypoxia also controls the functions and differentiation of immune cells. This review describes the hypoxia-induced mechanisms of tumor resistance to killing by cytotoxic effectors, and the functional effects of hypoxia on the immune cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/medsci/20143004017DOI Listing
April 2014

Cutting edge: Hypoxia-induced Nanog favors the intratumoral infiltration of regulatory T cells and macrophages via direct regulation of TGF-β1.

J Immunol 2013 Dec 13;191(12):5802-6. Epub 2013 Nov 13.

INSERM Unité 753, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94800 Villejuif, France.

Emerging evidence suggests a link between tumor hypoxia and immune suppression. In this study, we investigated the role of hypoxia-induced Nanog, a stemness-associated transcription factor, in immune suppression. We observed that hypoxia-induced Nanog correlated with the acquisition of stem cell-like properties in B16-F10 cells. We further show that Nanog was selectively induced in hypoxic areas of B16-F10 tumors. Stable short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of Nanog, combined with melanocyte differentiation Ag tyrosinase-related protein-2 peptide-based vaccination, resulted in complete inhibition of B16-F10 tumor growth. Nanog targeting significantly reduced immunosuppressive cells (regulatory T cells and macrophages) and increased CD8(+) T effector cells in tumor bed in part by modulating TGF-β1 production. Additionally, Nanog regulated TGF-β1 under hypoxia by directly binding the TGF-β1 proximal promoter. Collectively, our data establish a novel functional link between hypoxia-induced Nanog and TGF-β1 regulation and point to a major role of Nanog in hypoxia-driven immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1302140DOI Listing
December 2013

Hypoxia promotes tumor growth in linking angiogenesis to immune escape.

Front Immunol 2012 23;3:21. Epub 2012 Feb 23.

INSERM U753, Institut Gustave Roussy Villejuif, France.

Despite the impressive progress over the past decade, in the field of tumor immunology, such as the identification of tumor antigens and antigenic peptides, there are still many obstacles in eliciting an effective immune response to eradicate cancer. It has become increasingly clear that tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the control of immune protection. Tumors have evolved to utilize hypoxic stress to their own advantage by activating key biochemical and cellular pathways that are important in progression, survival, and metastasis. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a determinant role in promoting tumor cell growth and survival. Hypoxia contributes to immune suppression by activating HIF-1 and VEGF pathways. Accumulating evidence suggests a link between hypoxia and tumor tolerance to immune surveillance through the recruitment of regulatory cells (regulatory T cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells). In this regard, hypoxia (HIF-1α and VEGF) is emerging as an attractive target for cancer therapy. How the microenvironmental hypoxia poses both obstacles and opportunities for new therapeutic immune interventions will be discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2012.00021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341970PMC
August 2012

Microenvironmental hypoxia orchestrating the cell stroma cross talk, tumor progression and antitumor response.

Crit Rev Immunol 2011 ;31(5):357-77

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 753, Villejuif, France.

Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors and one of the hallmarks of tumor microenvironment, favors tumor survival and progression. Although hypoxia has been reported to play a major role in the acquisition of tumor resistance to cell death, the molecular mechanisms that control the survival of hypoxic cancer cells and the role of hypoxic stress in shaping the cross talk between immune cells and stroma components are not fully elucidated. Recently, several lines of investigation are pointing to yet another ominous outcome of hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment involving suppression of antitumor immune effector cells and enhancement of tumor escape from immune surveillance. Although the identification of tumor-associated antigens provided a new arsenal of approaches to enhance antigen-specific response, the immunotherapy approaches that are currently used in the clinic have only limited success. In fact, tumor stroma components including hypoxia are engaged in an active molecular cross talk that has serious implications for immunological recognition of tumor in shaping the microenvironment. In this review, we will focus on the impact of hypoxia on the regulation of the antitumor response and the subsequent tumor progression. We will also in particular discuss data that indicate that manipulation of hypoxic stress may represent an innovative strategy for a better immunotherapy of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/critrevimmunol.v31.i5.10DOI Listing
April 2012

In vivo prevention of bladder urotoxicity: purified hydroxytyrosol ameliorates urotoxic effects of cyclophosphamide and buthionine sulfoximine in mice.

Int J Toxicol 2011 Aug 19;30(4):419-27. Epub 2011 Jul 19.

Laboratory of Genetics, Immunology and Human Pathology, University of El-Manar I, Tunis, Tunisia.

Urotoxicity is a troublesome complication associated with cyclophosphamide (CP) and L-buthionine-SR-sulfoximine (BSO) treatment in chemotherapy. With this concern in mind, the present study investigated the potential effects of a hydroxytyrosol extract from olive mill waste (OMW) on urotoxicity induced by acute CP and BSO doses using a Swiss albino mouse model. Toxicity modulation was evaluated by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidants in urinary bladder. The findings revealed that the hydroxytyrosol extract exerted a protective effect not only on LPO but also on enzymatic antioxidants. When compared to the controls, the CP-treated animals underwent significant decreases in the glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP), and catalase (CAT) activities. The level of glutathione (GSH) was also reduced with increased doses of LPO in the CP-treated animals. L-Buthionine-SR-sulfoximine treatment exerted an additive toxic effect on the CP-treated animals. Interestingly, pretreatment with the hydroxytyrosol extract restored the activities of all enzymes back to normal levels and exhibited an overall protective effect on the CP- and BSO-induced toxicities in urinary bladder. The restoration of GSH through the treatment with the hydroxytyrosol extract can play an important role in reversing CP-induced apoptosis and free radical-mediated LPO. 
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1091581811410444DOI Listing
August 2011

Cytokeratin 18 expression pattern correlates with renal cell carcinoma progression: relationship with Snail.

Int J Oncol 2010 May;36(5):1145-54

INSERM, U 753, Laboratoire d'Immunologie des Tumeurs Humaines: Interaction effecteurs cytotoxiques-système tumoral, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif Cedex, France.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer and recent developments in the molecular biology of RCC have identified multiple pathways associated with the development of this cancer. This study aimed at analyzing the expression pattern of cytokeratin 18 (CK18) in RCC patients and its prognostic relevance. We quantified CK18 mRNA expression and protein using real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in paired tumor and non-tumor samples from 42 patients. Our data indicate that CK18 mRNA and proteins levels increased with advanced stage and grade of the disease. Using primary (RCC5) and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC5 met) cell lines, we demonstrated that CK18 expression was 5-fold higher in the metastatic as compared to the primary RCC cell line and correlated with a migratory phenotype characterized by a distinct elongated morphology as revealed by Phalloidin staining. In addition, RCC5 met cells displayed an increased capacity to attach to fibronectin and collagen which was lost following CK18 knock-down. Our data also indicate that the expression of CK18 was associated with increased Snail expression which correlated positively with advanced disease in RCC patients. The present findings suggest that CK18 may play an important role in the progression of RCC and it may be used as a new predictor for RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo_00000597DOI Listing
May 2010

The decreased susceptibility of metastatic melanoma cells to killing involves an alteration of CTL reactivity.

Int J Oncol 2006 Jul;29(1):155-61

Unit 753 INSERM, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France.

Metastases are known to be more resistant to therapy than matching primary tumors, in particular they are less prone to apoptosis. In this study we investigated the functional interaction of a CTL clone (LT12) specific for a melanoma TA with the primary tumor (T1) versus its metastatic counterpart (G1). The CTL clone (LT12) was shown to lyse the primary T1 cells more efficiently in a classical cytotoxicity test. This differential susceptibility was not associated with MHC class I down-regulation and conjugate formation but correlated with a differential increase in Ca++ flux in the LT12 CTL when stimulated with the primary versus the metastatic tumor cells. Since LT12 uses perforin/granzyme B to kill its autologous target we analysed perforin and granzyme B mRNA expression in the CTL in the presence of either primary and metastatic melanoma cells. Quantitative PCR analysis showed an increased expression of granzyme B and perforin mRNA levels in LT12 when cocultured in the presence of the primary tumor. However, a similar level of (cytotoxic molecule) degranulation as revealed by CD107 expression was observed when LT12 was stimulated with T1 or G1 cells. These data suggest that the differential susceptibility of primary and metastatic melanoma cells involves at least in part their distinct potential to induce autologous CTL reactivity and the subsequent triggering of granzyme B and perforin in these cells.
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July 2006