Publications by authors named "Yoshiyuki Ogawa"

57 Publications

Success and limitations of plasma treatment in pregnant women with congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 11 15;18(11):2929-2941. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Blood Transfusion Medicine, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.

Background: Congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (cTTP), otherwise known as Upshaw-Schulman syndrome, is an extremely rare hereditary disease. Pregnancy is identified as a trigger for TTP episodes in patients with cTTP.

Objectives: To investigate the ideal management of pregnant patients with cTTP.

Patients/methods: We identified 21 patients with a reproductive history (38 pregnancies) in a Japanese cTTP registry. Fetal outcomes were compared between two groups: group 1 (n = 12), pregnancy after diagnosis of confirmed cTTP by ADAMTS13 gene analysis; and group 2 (n = 26), pregnancy before diagnosis of confirmed cTTP.

Results: In group 1, ADAMTS13 activity was closely monitored until delivery in most cases. Among 10 pregnancies in group 1, prophylactic fresh frozen plasma (FFP) infusions during pregnancy were performed to replenish ADAMTS13. In group 2, prophylactic FFP infusions were not administrated in 23 pregnancies and FFP test infusions were performed in only three pregnancies. The live birth rate of group 1 was significantly higher than that of group 2 (91.7% vs 50.0%, respectively, P = .027). The fetal survival rates of women without FFP infusions were dramatically decreased after 20 weeks of gestation. The FFP infusion dosage in group 1 was generally higher than 5 mL/kg/wk by 20 weeks of gestation.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that FFP infusions of more than 5 mL/kg/wk should be initiated as soon as patients become pregnant. However, even with these infusions, patients with repeated TTP episodes before pregnancy might have difficulty giving birth successfully. Recombinant ADAMTS13 products might be new treatment options for pregnant patients with cTTP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15064DOI Listing
November 2020

Deficiency of mannose-binding lectin is a risk of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a natural history cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS in Northern Thailand.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(12):e0242438. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand.

Background: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays a pivotal role in innate immunity; however, its impact on susceptibility to opportunistic infections (OIs) has not yet been examined in a natural history cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS.

Methods: We used archived samples to analyze the association between MBL expression types and risk of major OIs including Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), cryptococcosis, talaromycosis, toxoplasmosis, and tuberculosis in a prospective cohort in Northern Thailand conducted from 1 July 2000 to 15 October 2002 before the national antiretroviral treatment programme was launched.

Results: Of 632 patients, PCP was diagnosed in 96 (15.2%) patients, including 45 patients with new episodes during the follow-up period (1006.5 person-years). The total history of PCP was significantly associated with low MBL expression type: high/intermediate (81/587, 13.8%), low (10/33, 30.3%) and deficient (5/12, 41.7%) (p = 0.001), whereas the history of other OIs showed no relation with any MBL expression type. Kaplan-Meier analysis (n = 569; log-rank p = 0.011) and Cox's proportional hazards model revealed that deficient genotype dramatically increased the risk of PCP, which is independent upon sex, age, CD4 count, HIV-1 viral load and hepatitis B and C status (adjusted hazard ratio 7.93, 95% confidence interval 2.19-28.67, p = 0.002).

Conclusions: Deficiency of MBL expression is a strong risk factor determining the incidence of PCP but not other major OIs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242438PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757797PMC
January 2021

Efficient detection of copy-number variations using exome data: Batch- and sex-based analyses.

Hum Mutat 2021 Jan 11;42(1):50-65. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Many algorithms to detect copy number variations (CNVs) using exome sequencing (ES) data have been reported and evaluated on their sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, and precision. However, operational optimization of such algorithms for a better performance has not been fully addressed. ES of 1199 samples including 763 patients with different disease profiles was performed. ES data were analyzed to detect CNVs by both the eXome Hidden Markov Model (XHMM) and modified Nord's method. To efficiently detect rare CNVs, we aimed to decrease sequencing biases by analyzing, at the same time, the data of all unrelated samples sequenced in the same flow cell as a batch, and to eliminate sex effects of X-linked CNVs by analyzing female and male sequences separately. We also applied several filtering steps for more efficient CNV selection. The average number of CNVs detected in one sample was <5. This optimization together with targeted CNV analysis by Nord's method identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs in 34 patients (4.5%, 34/763). In particular, among 142 patients with epilepsy, the current protocol detected clinically relevant CNVs in 19 (13.4%) patients, whereas the previous protocol identified them in only 14 (9.9%) patients. Thus, this batch-based XHMM analysis efficiently selected rare pathogenic CNVs in genetic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24129DOI Listing
January 2021

[Acquired autoimmune coagulation factor XIII/13 deficiency].

Authors:
Yoshiyuki Ogawa

Rinsho Ketsueki 2020 ;61(7):799-808

Department of Hematology, Gunma University Hospital.

Coagulation factor XIII/13 (FXIII) is a transglutaminase that cross-links fibrin monomers, provides clot stabilization and resistance to fibrinolysis and proteolysis, and ultimately contributes to hemostasis and wound healing. FXIII is a hetero-tetramer formed by two catalytic A subunits (FXIII-A) and two noncatalytic B subunits (FXIII-B). Autoimmune acquired factor XIII/13 deficiency secondary to anti-FXIII antibodies (AH13) is a severe bleeding disorder that occurs mainly in the elderly. While AH13 is a very rare disease, with only about 100 cases reported worldwide, more than 60 of these cases have been identified in Japan. AH13 is somewhat difficult to diagnose because the abnormalities are not detected by routine coagulation testing. Anti-FXIII autoantibodies have been sub-classified into three types, including: (1) type Aa autoantibodies that mainly inhibit the thrombin-mediated proteolytic cleavage of FXIII-A, preventing its activation, (2) type Ab autoantibodies that inhibit the enzymatic activity of activated FXIII-A, and (3) type B autoantibodies that bind to and remove noncatalytic FXIII-B subunits from the circulation. We have encountered four cases of AH13 (three of type Aa and one of type B) in the past decade. This review outlines the diagnosis and treatment of AH13, with a focus on recent experience at our hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.61.799DOI Listing
September 2020

[Successful management of acquired factor V deficiency developing shortly after induction of hemodialysis].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2020 ;61(5):445-450

Department of Hematology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine.

Autoimmune factor V deficiency (AiF5D) is caused by autoantibodies to coagulation factor V (FV); its clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to fatal hemorrhage. Herein, we report the case of a 68-year-old man who was diagnosed with end-stage renal disease at the time of a femoral fracture and developed AiF5D after initiating hemodialysis. A wound infection that occurred after joint replacement was treated with antibiotics; however, it was poorly controlled. One month after the procedure, his coagulation time prolonged. The infection was improved by debridement and antibiotics; however, the coagulation time was not decreased and poor hemostasis at the shunt was still persistent. Because ELISA detected anti-FV-binding IgG with FV activity of <2.8% and FV inhibitor levels were 11.8 BU/ml, AiF5D was diagnosed. Oral prednisolone (PSL) was started. Dialysis was initially performed without anticoagulants, but blood clots were not found in the circuit. Anticoagulants were resumed when the coagulation time decreased. After achieving complete remission, PSL dose was tapered and finally discontinued. Few reports have described the management of AiF5D via dialysis. We consider that our report would be useful for the management of patients with similar manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.61.445DOI Listing
August 2020

HLA loci predisposing to immune TTP in Japanese: potential role of the shared ADAMTS13 peptide bound to different HLA-DR.

Blood 2020 06;135(26):2413-2419

Department of Blood Transfusion Medicine, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.

Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is a rare autoimmune disorder caused by neutralizing anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies. In white individuals, HLA allele DRB1*11 is a predisposing factor for iTTP, whereas DRB1*04 is a protective factor. However, the role of HLA in Asians is unclear. In this study, we analyzed 10 HLA loci using next-generation sequencing in 52 Japanese patients with iTTP, and the allele frequency in the iTTP group was compared with that in a Japanese control group. We identified the following HLA alleles as predisposing factors for iTTP in the Japanese population: DRB1*08:03 (odds ratio [OR], 3.06; corrected P [Pc] = .005), DRB3/4/5*blank (OR, 2.3; Pc = .007), DQA1*01:03 (OR, 2.25; Pc = .006), and DQB1*06:01 (OR,: 2.41; Pc = .003). The estimated haplotype consisting of these 4 alleles was significantly more frequent in the iTTP group than in the control group (30.8% vs 6.0%; Pc < .001). DRB1*15:01 and DRB5*01:01 were weak protective factors for iTTP (OR, 0.23; Pc = .076; and OR, 0.23, Pc = .034, respectively). On the other hand, DRB1*11 and DRB1*04 were not associated with iTTP in the Japanese. These findings indicated that predisposing and protective factors for iTTP differ between Japanese and white individuals. HLA-DR molecules encoded by DRB1*08:03 and DRB1*11:01 have different peptide-binding motifs, but interestingly, bound to the shared ADAMTS13 peptide in an in silico prediction model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005395DOI Listing
June 2020

Overshoot of FVIII activity in patients with acquired hemophilia A who achieve complete remission.

Int J Hematol 2020 Apr 14;111(4):544-549. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Hematology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.

Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare, life-threatening bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). Immunosuppressive therapy for AHA aims to arrest bleeding by eliminating FVIII inhibitors. Factor VIII activity overshoot after complete remission (CR) has been reported anecdotally, but details remain unclear. We retrospectively analyzed data from 17 patients with AHA who achieved CR under immunosuppressive therapy between 2009 and 2019 at Gunma University Hospital. FVIII activity overshoot was defined as ≥ 150%. All 17 patients had low FVIII activity (median 2.1%; range < 1.0-8.9%) due to FVIII inhibition (median 14.7 BU/mL; range 2.0-234.0) and all achieved CR within a median of 39 (range 19-173) days. Overshoot occurred in 11 (64.7%) patients and maximal FVIII activity reached > 200% in six of them. The median duration from CR to overshoot was 13 (range 0-154) days. The FVIII overshoot was transient (72.7%) or persistent (27.3%). Venous thromboembolism developed as a complication of overshoot in one patient due to iliac vein compression by a massive hematoma. Overshoot of FVIII activity after CR occurs more frequently than previously expected in patients with AHA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02823-yDOI Listing
April 2020

Successful Management of Acquired Factor V Inhibitor by Monitoring Factor V Activity, Antigen, and Inhibitor Values during Immunosuppressive Therapy.

Acta Haematol 2020 27;143(5):486-490. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Department of Hematology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.

Acquired factor V inhibitor (AFVI) results from the formation of autoantibodies to coagulation factor V (FV), and the clinical phenotype can range from asymptomatic laboratory abnormalities to life-threatening bleeds. We describe a 74-year-old man who developed AFVI along with a massive subcutaneous hematoma. He was initially treated with prednisolone (PSL), but AFVI recurred when the dose was reduced after a short period. We subsequently increased the PSL dose and added cyclophosphamide (CY), which resulted in a complete response. We then gradually tapered PSL and stopped CY, and the patient has since remained free of recurrent AFVI symptoms. We monitored FV activity, antigen concentrations, and inhibitor titers of this patient throughout the clinical course. The ratio of FV activity to antigen concentration was low at diagnosis and gradually increased along with the patient's improvement. This ratio might be a useful parameter for evaluating the effects of immunosuppressive therapy in patients with AFVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000502730DOI Listing
October 2020

[Thyroid storm and exacerbation of autoimmune hemolytic anemia following childbirth].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2019 ;60(8):924-928

Department of Hematology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine.

A 32-year-old woman was diagnosed with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) at 12 weeks of a pregnancy examination and followed up closely without treatment. At 40 weeks of gestation, she underwent emergency caesarean section because of premature rupture. On postoperative day one, the patient exhibited worsening hemolysis and tachycardia and developed high-output heart failure; she was diagnosed with Basedow disease based on the tachycardia pattern and thyroid storm based on the presence of hyperthyroidism, fever, tachycardia, and heart failure. She was administered thiamazole and potassium iodide, which improved her thyroid function, hemolytic anemia, and heart failure. AIHA is rarely associated with Basedow disease, and hemolytic anemia can be aggravated by hyperthyroidism. In pregnant women with AIHA, management of hyperthyroidism is crucial as delivery can lead to thyroid storm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.60.924DOI Listing
September 2019

[Recurrence of acquired factor V inhibitor after four years of remission].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2019;60(1):46-50

Department of Hematology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine.

Acquired factor V inhibitor (AFV-I) is a rare bleeding disorder wherein autoantibodies are developed against coagulation factor V (FV). The clinical symptoms are variable, from laboratory abnormalities without bleeding to life-threatening hemorrhage. We report herein the case of a patient with AFV-I with two relapses 4 years after the first remission. A 66-year-old male was diagnosed with AFV-I in March 20XX-4. He was treated with prednisolone (PSL) at 50 mg/day and achieved remission within 1 month. PSL dose was tapered to oral administration of 2.5 mg every other day, and long-term remission was maintained. He had been treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for old myocardial infarction. FV activity was markedly reduced to 3.4%, and FV inhibitor was detected (1.0 BU/ml) in May 20XX. We followed the patient without increasing the treatment dose for 2 months, but no spontaneous improvement was seen. Because DAPT was ongoing, we judged that the bleeding risk was high, although only minor bleeding symptoms appeared. PSL was therefore increased to 40 mg/day in June. FV inhibitor rapidly disappeared. When PSL dose was gradually decreased, FV activity decreased, and subcutaneous bleeding occurred in February 20XX+1. PSL dose was increased again for the second relapse, and the patient achieved remission. Few reports have described recurrent AFV-I, and no cases of two relapses have been reported. We believe that this case report is useful for examining the long-term management of AFV-I.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.60.46DOI Listing
August 2019

Complement activation associated with ADAMTS13 deficiency may contribute to the characteristic glomerular manifestations in Upshaw-Schulman syndrome.

Thromb Res 2018 10 1;170:148-155. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan.

Introduction: Upshaw-Schulman syndrome (USS) is a congenital form of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) associated with loss-of-function mutations in the ADAMTS13 gene, possibly leading to aberrant complement activation and vascular injury. However, USS is extremely rare, and there have been no systematic studies correlating histopathological severity with local ADAMTS13 expression and complement activation.

Materials And Methods: Here, we compared histopathological features, ADAMTS13 immunoreactivity, and immunoreactivity of complement proteins C4d and C5b-9 among renal biopsy tissues from five USS cases, ten acquired TTP cases, and eleven controls.

Results: Pathological analysis revealed chronic glomerular sclerotic changes in the majority of USS cases (4 of 5), with minor glomerular pathology in the remaining case. In two of these four severe cases, more than half of the glomerular segmental sclerosis area was localized in the perihilar region. The average number of ADAMTS13-positive cells per glomerulus was significantly lower in USS cases than controls (p < 0.05). Conversely, C4d staining was significantly more prevalent in the glomerular capillary walls of USS cases than controls (p < 0.05), while C5b-9 staining did not differ significantly among groups.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the severity of glomerular injury in USS is associated with deficient ADAMTS13 expression and local complement activation, particularly in vascular regions with higher endothelial shear stress. We suggest that C4d immunostaining provides evidence for complement-mediated glomerular damage in USS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2018.08.020DOI Listing
October 2018

A novel CYCS mutation in the α-helix of the CYCS C-terminal domain causes non-syndromic thrombocytopenia.

Clin Genet 2018 12 3;94(6):548-553. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

We report a patient with thrombocytopenia from a Japanese family with hemophilia A spanning four generations. Various etiologies of thrombocytopenia, including genetic, immunological, and hematopoietic abnormalities, determine the prognosis for this disease. In this study, we identified a novel heterozygous mutation in a gene encoding cytochrome c, somatic (CYCS, MIM123970) using whole exome sequencing. This variant (c.301_303del:p.Lys101del) is located in the α-helix of the cytochrome c (CYCS) C-terminal domain. In silico structural analysis suggested that this mutation results in protein folding instability. CYCS is one of the key factors regulating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Using the yeast model system, we clearly demonstrated that this one amino acid deletion (in-frame) resulted in significantly reduced cytochrome c protein expression and functional defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, indicating that the loss of function of cytochrome c underlies thrombocytopenia. The clinical features of known CYCS variants have been reported to be confined to mild or asymptomatic thrombocytopenia, as was observed for the patient in our study. This study clearly demonstrates that thrombocytopenia can result from CYCS loss-of-function variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13423DOI Listing
December 2018

[Congenital factor V and factor VIII deficiency discovered in an elderly patient with abnormal bleeding after trauma].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2018;59(4):383-388

Department of Hematology, Gunma University Hospital.

Congenital combined deficiency of coagulation factor V (FV) and factor VIII (FVIII) (F5F8D) is a rare autosomal recessive bleeding disorder caused by mutations in lectin mannose-binding type 1 (LMAN1) or multiple coagulation factor deficiency 2 (MCFD2) encoding chaperone molecules involved in the intracellular transport of FV and FVIII. Here, we report a case of F5F8D in an elderly patient diagnosed with hematoma after a right thigh injury. A 71-year-old male had a history of abnormal bleeding after tooth extraction and cholecystectomy. The patient injured his right thigh with a kitchen knife; he was urgently hospitalized to a referral hospital 8 days later due to the occurrence of hematoma at the same site. Owing to prolongation of the coagulation time (PT 16.1 s, 1.72; APTT, 66.1 s), he received hemostatic treatment with fresh-frozen plasma. He was then referred to our hospital for examination of PT and APTT prolongation. FV and FVIII activities were moderately decreased to about 15%, and no inhibitor was detected. Whole-exome sequencing identified a previously reported homozygous nonsense mutation in LMAN1, revealing F5F8D in the proband. In this case, FFP infusion alone was not sufficient for increasing coagulation factor activities. Definitive diagnosis of F5F8D provides him with the treatment option with FVIII concentrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.59.383DOI Listing
July 2019

Darunavir concentration in PBMCs may be a better indicator of drug exposure in HIV patients.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Aug 2;74(8):1055-1060. Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, 371-8511, Japan.

Purpose: The clinical efficacies of some antiretroviral drugs are known to not depend on its concentration in blood. To establish a method of dosage adjustment for darunavir (DRV) based on pharmacokinetic theory, we analyzed the correlation between DRV levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma.

Methods: The concentrations of DRV and ritonavir (RTV) in plasma and PBMCs of 31 samples obtained from 19 patients were analyzed. An in vitro kinetic study using MOLT-4 cells was performed to assess the contribution of RTV to the intracellular accumulation of DRV.

Results: DRV levels in PBMCs varied between 7.91 and 29.36 ng/10 cells (CV 37.5%), while those in plasma were greater. No significant correlation was found between the trough level of DRV in plasma and that in PBMCs (p = 0.575). The inter-day difference in DRV levels in PBMCs seemed smaller than that in plasma (- 41.6-23.0% vs - 83.3-109.1%). In the in vitro study, the elimination half-life of cellular efflux of DRV was 15.7 h in the absence of RTV and extended to 47.6 h in the presence of RTV.

Conclusions: We found a poor correlation between intracellular DRV and plasma DRV levels in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. The efflux rate of DRV from cells was slow; therefore, the concentration of DRV in PBMCs may reflect average exposure to the drug and clinical efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-018-2464-yDOI Listing
August 2018

Successful hemostatic management of major surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy in a patient with severe factor XI deficiency.

Int J Hematol 2018 Oct 30;108(4):443-446. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Department of Hematology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.

Factor XI deficiency (FXID) is a rare bleeding disorder caused by mutations in the F11 gene. Spontaneous bleeding in patients with factor XI deficiency is rare, but major bleeding may occur after surgery or trauma. The basic method for hemostatic treatment is replacement of the missing factor using FXI concentrate or fresh frozen plasma (FFP). We report the case of a 72-year-old male with severe FXID who underwent a laminoplasty under sufficient, but minimal, FFP transfusion. Through detailed monitoring of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and FXI activity at the perioperative period, we succeeded in hemostatic management of major surgery without significant blood loss and fluid overload. From the course of this case, we found that measuring FXI activity is superior to measuring APTT. Furthermore, we identified a novel homozygous mutation in F11 [NM_000128.3:c.1041C > A:p.(Tyr347*)] by whole exome sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-018-2462-yDOI Listing
October 2018

[Giant hemophilic pseudotumors in brothers with non-severe hemophilia B].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2018;59(3):287-292

Department of Hematology, Gunma University Hospital.

Hemophilic pseudotumors can occur in patients with hemophilia because of recurrent bleeding and poor hemostasis. A man in his 30s with hemophilia B and human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus co-infection complicated by liver cirrhosis presented with a large pseudotumor in the left iliopsoas muscle. However, resting to stop bleeding was difficult with his daily work. Osteolytic changes in the left ilium progressed over 8 years. A large osteolytic pseudotumor in the pelvis was also incidentally identified in his younger brother during his 30s. The same mutations in F9 (p. Arg294Gln, hemizygous mutation) associated with a non-severe phenotype were detected in both brothers. The clinical courses of the brothers suggested that large pseudotumors can occur in patients with non-severe hemophilia and underline the importance of patient education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.59.287DOI Listing
July 2019

A Rare Case of Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Infection Accompanied by the Infiltration of EBV-infected CD8+ T Cells into the Muscle.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 04;40(3):e171-e175

Department of Hematology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine.

We describe a rare case of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection, with infiltration of the skeletal muscle. A 19-year-old woman with swollen cervical lymph nodes and a fever was referred to our hospital. Swelling of the trapezium muscle and elevation of creatinine kinase level were observed. Biopsy results of the brachialis muscle revealed infiltration of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA-positive CD8 T lymphocytes. The EBV virus load in the peripheral blood was high, and EBV monoclonality was determined by Southern blot analysis. Owing to the rarity of CAEBV with skeletal muscle infiltration, this case alerts physicians to the potential diagnostic pitfalls of CAEBV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000001026DOI Listing
April 2018

Acquired immune-mediated von Willebrand syndrome accompanied by antiphospholipid syndrome.

Rinsho Ketsueki 2017 ;58(6):613-618

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine.

Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) is a rare bleeding disorder with laboratory findings resembling those of congenital von Willebrand disease. AvWS usually occurs in association with a variety of underlying disorders, such as lymphoproliferative disease or cardiovascular disease, but autoimmune AvWS is very rare. We now describe the case of a 42-year-old woman with autoimmune AvWS with concurrent antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). The patient was suffering from epistaxis and menorrhagia from few years prior to referral. She was referred to our hospital because of Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) prolongation. Autoimmune AvWS was diagnosed as hemostatic and immunological analyses showed very low (<6%) levels of vWF ristocetin cofactor activity, low (6%) levels of vWF antigen and the presence of anti-vWF antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2) as well as antiphospholipid antibodies. Steroid therapy led to prompt AvWS remission, but deep vein thrombosis occurred in the left leg, on day 36 and APS was diagnosed. A combination of steroid and anti-coagulant was given for approximately 3 years. Thrombosis has not recurred; but AvWS re-exacerbated with steroid tapering. This is the first case report of autoimmune AvWS concurrent with APS, and the long-term disease course described here can be beneficial to clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.58.613DOI Listing
November 2017

Cytomegalovirus retinitis followed by immune recovery uveitis in an elderly patient with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing administration of methotrexate and tofacitinib combination therapy.

J Infect Chemother 2017 Aug 25;23(8):572-575. Epub 2017 Apr 25.

Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Japan.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is an opportunistic ocular infection most commonly observed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We present a rare case of CMV retinitis that developed in a non-HIV patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Over the preceding 5 months, a family doctor had been treating the 78-year-old male patient with a combination therapy of methotrexate (MTX) and tofacitinib (TOF). CMV retinitis occurred when the patient's CD4+ T cells were low (196 cells/μl), and preceded the onset of Pneumocystis pneumonia. MTX and TOF were stopped after the diagnosis of CMV retinitis. While intravenous and intravitreal ganciclovir administration significantly improved the CMV retinitis, uveitis developed 3 months later during the maintenance therapy with oral valganciclovir, concomitantly with the recovery of the CD4+ T cell counts. As we believed this uveitis was caused by the immune reconstitution mechanism, we treated the patient with a retrobulbar injection of corticosteroids. During the 6 months following the cessation of MTX and TOF, there was no flare-up of the RA. Cases of CMV retinitis and immune recovery uveitis in RA patients have been rarely reported in the literature. In the current case, the intensive immunosuppressive therapy in this elderly patient might have been the cause of this unusual opportunistic complication of RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2017.03.002DOI Listing
August 2017

Refractory thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura achieving complete remission with rituximab treatment.

Rinsho Ketsueki 2017 ;58(3):204-209

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University.

Some patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are refractory to standard treatment regimens comprised of plasma exchange (PEX) and steroids. This report describes a 40-year-old woman with refractory TTP who achieved complete remission (CR) in response to rituximab. She was referred to our institution from a rural hospital with purpura of the extremities, severe thrombocytopenia, anemia, and rapidly progressive disturbance of consciousness. TTP was diagnosed based on the clinical symptoms of TTP, low ADAMTS13 activity (<0.5%), and high ADAMTS13 inhibitor (4.4 BU/ml) titers. High-dose prednisolone was immediately administered and PEX was started. This approach was initially effective, but the thrombocytopenia and disturbance of consciousness worsened on the sixth day of treatment. We considered this patient to have refractory TTP and administered weekly rituximab. CR was achieved on day 20, and the disease status of this patient has remained stable over the long term. Our experience with this patient and five others who were similarly treated at our hospital over the past eight years indicates that rituximab is effective for refractory TTP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.58.204DOI Listing
August 2017

Successful Management of a Patient with Autoimmune Hemorrhaphilia due to Anti-Factor XIII/13 Antibodies Complicated by Pulmonary Thromboembolism.

Acta Haematol 2017 6;137(3):141-147. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.

Autoimmune hemophilia-like disease (hemorrhaphilia) due to anti-factor XIII (FXIII) antibodies (AH13) is a very rare, life-threatening bleeding disorder. A 77-year-old woman developed macrohematuria and a right renal pelvic hematoma. The coagulation times were not prolonged, but FXIII activity and antigen levels were severely and moderately reduced to 9 and 29% of normal values, respectively. Accordingly, the FXIII-specific activity turned out to be low. FXIII inhibitor and anti-FXIII-A subunit autoantibodies were detected by a 1:1 crossmixing test and immunoblot and immunochromatographic assays. She was therefore diagnosed with "definite AH13" and treated with plasma-derived FXIII concentrates to arrest the hemorrhage. In addition to a highly compressed inferior vena cava by a huge renal pelvic hematoma, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) were identified by systemic computed tomography. The patient was immediately started on anticoagulation therapy with low-dose heparin. Emboli disappeared quickly, probably because under-crosslinked thrombi caused by severe FXIII deficiency are vulnerable to fibrinolysis. After about 1.5 years, anti-FXIII-A subunit autoantibodies still remained despite the use of rituximab, steroid pulse therapy, oral prednisolone, and oral cyclophosphamide treatments. In conclusion, an extremely rare AH13 case complicated by DVT and PE was successfully managed by balancing anticoagulation therapy with hemostatic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000455938DOI Listing
July 2017

Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with a smoldering clinical course.

Rinsho Ketsueki 2017 ;58(2):108-112

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine.

Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP) is caused by a deficiency of ADAMTS13 activity due to neutralizing auto-autoantibodies (inhibitors) against ADAMTS13. Patients with aTTP show a rapid and fatal clinical course, unless an effective therapeutic intervention such as plasma exchange therapy (PEX) is performed. There is, however, a small population of patients who show a smoldering clinical course, for which no effective treatment strategy has yet been established. We herein report a 77-year-old man, who had repeated episodes of cerebral infarction and persistent thrombocytopenia over several months, but was not correctly diagnosed as having aTTP at a local hospital. However, sudden progression to an unconsciousness state together with thrombocytopenia prompted his physician to make a clinical diagnosis of aTTP, and the patient was then referred to our hospital, where the diagnosis of aTTP was confirmed by analyzing ADAMTS13. An improvement of his clinical signs was achieved with PEX and steroid therapy, but the latter had to be discontinued due to the development of grade 3 liver dysfunction. Despite discontinuation of steroid therapy, his clinical condition remained stable, but with a persistently low level of ADAMTS13 activity associated with the presence of low-titer inhibitors. Our experience may raise awareness of the diagnosis and treatment of aTTP with a smoldering clinical course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.58.108DOI Listing
June 2017

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of acquired hemophilia A: experience at a single center in Japan.

Int J Hematol 2017 Jul 15;106(1):82-89. Epub 2017 Mar 15.

Department of Medicine and Clinical Sciences, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511, Japan.

Acquired hemophilia A (AHA), which is caused by autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is a rare, life-threatening bleeding disorder, the incidence of which appears to be increasing in Japan as the population ages. However, the clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of AHA remain difficult to establish due to the rarity of this disease. We retrospectively analyzed data from 25 patients (median age 73 years; range 24-92 years; male n = 15) diagnosed with AHA between 1999 and 2015 at Gunma University Hospital. We identified autoimmune diseases and malignancy as underlying conditions in four and three patients, respectively. Factor VIII activity was significantly decreased in all patients (median 2.0%; range <1.0-8.0) by FVIII inhibitor (median 47.0 BU/mL; range 2.0-1010). Among 71 bleeding events, subcutaneous or intramuscular hemorrhage was the most prevalent. Seventeen patients required bypassing agents. Twenty-two (91.7%) of 24 patients treated with immunosuppressive agents achieved complete response (CR) during a median of 57.5 days (range 19-714 days). Although three patients (12%) relapsed and seven (28%) died of infection, none of the deaths were related to bleeding. Although most of our patients achieved CR after immunosuppressive therapy, the rate of infection-related mortality was unsatisfactorily high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-017-2210-8DOI Listing
July 2017

Late-onset neutropenia after rituximab therapy in patients with autoimmune thrombotic and hemostatic disorders: a single center analysis.

Rinsho Ketsueki 2017 ;58(1):42-46

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine.

Autoimmune thrombotic and hemostatic disorders, caused by autoantibodies against various factors regulating thrombosis and hemostasis, are rare. Rituximab (RTX) is on occasion used for treating these disorders. Late-onset neutropenia (LON) has been described as a side effect of RTX treatment for patients with hemato-oncological and/or rheumatological diseases but not for those with autoimmune thrombotic and hemostatic disorders. Eleven patients with autoimmune thrombotic and hemostatic disorders received RTX in our institution. Four of these 11 cases (36.4%) developed LON after a median 72.6 days of RTX administration (range 43-122). Three cases required G-CSF, but no severe infections developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.58.42DOI Listing
May 2017

[Successful Treatment of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome with Corticosteroid for Patient with Kaposi's Sarcoma Extending into the Respiratory Tract and Both Lungs].

Kansenshogaku Zasshi 2017 Jan;91(1):25-30

An HIV-infected man in his 30s was transferred to our hospital after the discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for 4 years. An intraoral tumor was identified, and a biopsy was performed. The diagnosis was Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and disseminated lesions were detected in his respiratory tract and both lungs on computed tomography (CT) and 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron-emission tomography (FDG/PET) imaging with increasing standardized uptake volume (SUV: max 7.4). On the 7th day, he was intubated to maintain his airway, then antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin were immediately initiated. After a period of remission, pulmonary lesions were detected again. We regarded them as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and gave him short term corticosteroids. The lesions were then successfully controlled without additional chemotherapy. This case suggests that early induction of ART and intensive care can result in the survival of patients with KS having serious stenosis of the respiratory tract. Furthermore, this presenting case suggested that the use of corticosteroids could be a candidate to control IRIS even in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
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January 2017

Successful management of perioperative hemostasis in a patient with Glanzmann thrombasthenia who underwent a right total mastectomy.

Int J Hematol 2017 Feb 1;105(2):221-225. Epub 2016 Oct 1.

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511, Japan.

Perioperative hemostatic management is a challenge in patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT). The standard means of preventing surgical bleeding in GT patients is platelet transfusion. However, GT patients often possess alloantibodies against GPIIb/IIIa and/or HLA, which cause resistance to platelet transfusion. HLA-matched platelet transfusion, plasmapheresis, or recombinant human-activated factor VII (rFVIIa) are alternative interventions in such cases. Monitoring of hemostasis is also critical in the management of GT patients who undergo surgery. Here, we report the case of a 56-year-old female GT patient with anti-HLA antibodies, who underwent a right total mastectomy without significant blood loss under HLA-matched platelet transfusion. Bleeding at the surgical site, which occurred on the 18th postoperative day, was successfully treated by immediate bolus administration of rFVIIa and subsequent HLA-matched platelet transfusion. The perioperative hemostatic state was monitored in combination with bleeding time, platelet aggregation assay, and flow cytometric analysis of GPIIb/IIIa expression. Although a flow cytometric analysis is not a functional assay, it enabled the estimation of transfused platelet counts, and helped to inform the decision regarding whether to perform the surgery. Thus, perioperative hemostasis was successfully managed in our GT patient by HLA-matched platelet transfusion, rFVIIa administration, and the close monitoring of hemostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-016-2096-xDOI Listing
February 2017

[Development of acquired hemophilia A during maintenance therapy for immune thrombocytopenia].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2016 Apr;57(4):456-60

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine.

Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare coagulation disorder caused by autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). We report herein a very rare case of AHA complicated by immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). A 30-year-old woman was hospitalized with severe thrombocytopenia. Her platelet count was 5,000/μl on admission, at which time APTT was normal. ITP was diagnosed and she was treated with γ-globulin, platelet transfusion, and prednisolone at 1 mg/kg/day. She was discharged after platelet count normalization and prednisolone was tapered to 5 mg/day. During the prednisolone tapering, purpura appeared on both thighs and in the left inguinal region, and APTT was found to be prolonged. She was referred to our hospital for examination of APTT prolongation. FVIII activity was markedly decreased to 7.7% and the FVIII inhibitor was positive (1.5 BU/ml), based on which AHA was diagnosed. We carefully followed this patient without intensification of immunosuppressive therapy for 7 weeks, but her platelet count decreased from 150,000/μl to 70,000/μl and the FVIII inhibitor increased to 4 BU/ml. We therefore increased prednisolone to 30 mg/day, after which her platelet count increased and complete remission of AHA was achieved by day 42. In addition, we examined the relationship of the FVIII inhibitor and FVIII binding antibody in this case.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.57.456DOI Listing
April 2016

[Remission of acquired hemophilia A following radiation therapy for esophageal cancer].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2016 Apr;57(4):451-5

Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Clinical Science.

Although acquired hemophilia A (AHA) often develops in patients with neoplasms, there are few reports on the efficacy of radiation therapy during the bleeding phase of AHA in the prior literature. We herein present a case of AHA experiencing remission soon after radiation therapy for esophageal cancer. A man in his seventies, who had a history of radical nephrectomy for left renal cell carcinoma, received a diagnosis of esophageal cancer. Three months later, he noticed a right thigh hematoma, and was transferred to our hospital. Laboratory data revealed a marked reduction of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) activity at 0.9% and the inhibitor to FVIII was detected in his serum at 21.8 BU/ml. Under a diagnosis of AHA, the patient received high-dose oral prednisolone, which failed to achieve disease remission. He then underwent radiation therapy to eradicate the underlying esophageal cancer. Despite tapering of the prednisolone dosage, FVIII inhibitor declined to undetectable levels. In this case, radiation therapy for the underlying cancer was associated with achieving complete remission of AHA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.57.451DOI Listing
April 2016

[Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura after vascular prosthesis implantation for impending rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2016 Mar;57(3):364-8

Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma University.

Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is caused by autoantibodies against ADAMTS13. TTP patients run a rapidly fatal course unless immediate plasma exchange (PEX) is initiated upon diagnosis. Herein, we report a 72-year-old man with TTP, which developed after he underwent artificial blood vessel replacement surgery for an abdominal aneurysm with impending rupture. In the perioperative period, the patient received several platelet transfusions for severe thrombocytopenia (minimum platelet count: 0.6×10(4)/μl). Thereafter, he was admitted to our department for rapidly progressing coma with multiple cerebral infarctions, and was transferred to the ICU. Based on the tentative diagnosis of TTP, we immediately began PEX and steroid pulse therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed thereafter by markedly reduced ADAMTS13 activity (<0.5%) and his being positive for the ADAMTS13 inhibitor. We performed PEX for five consecutive days and administered high-dose prednisolone (PSL). On the second hospital day (HD), his platelet count rose along with improvement of his consciousness level. The ADAMTS13 inhibitor was not detected on the 10th HD. TTP did not relapse and his general condition improved despite tapering of PSL. In this case, by closely monitoring ADAMTS13-related parameters and minimizing the number of plasma exchanges, the patient was able to achieve a remission without the use of boosting inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.57.364DOI Listing
March 2016