Publications by authors named "Yoshiya Yamamura"

5 Publications

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Sensitivity of turtles to anticoagulant rodenticides: Risk assessment for green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the Ogasawara Islands and comparison of warfarin sensitivity among turtle species.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Apr 25;233:105792. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0818, Japan. Electronic address:

Although anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are effectively used for the control of invasive rodents, nontarget species are also frequently exposed to ARs and secondary poisonings occur widely. However, little data is available on the effects of ARs, especially on marine organisms. To evaluate the effects of ARs on marine wildlife, we chose green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas), which are one of the most common marine organisms around the Ogasawara islands, as our primary study species. The sensitivity of these turtles to ARs was assessed using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. We administered 4 mg/kg of warfarin sodium either orally or intravenously to juvenile green sea turtles. The turtles exhibited slow pharmacokinetics, and prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) was observed only with intravenous warfarin administration. We also conducted an in vitro investigation using liver microsomes from green sea turtles, and two other turtle species (softshell turtle and red-eared slider) and rats. The cytochrome P450 metabolic activity in the liver of green sea turtles was lower than in rats. Additionally, vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), which is the target enzyme of ARs, was inhibited by warfarin in the turtles at lower concentration levels than in rats. These data indicate that turtles may be more sensitive to ARs than rats. We expect that these findings will be helpful for sea turtle conservation following accidental AR-broadcast incidents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105792DOI Listing
April 2021

Prediction of regioselectivity and preferred order of metabolisms on CYP1A2-mediated reactions. Part 1. Focusing on polycyclic arenes and the related chemicals.

Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2016 Oct 10;31(5):363-384. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Division of Drug Metabolism and Molecular Toxicology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Japan; Department of Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Japan.

This prediction system is based on placements of CYP1A2-substrates on a hexagonal-grid template in a way following the rule generated from the relationship of the substrate-structure and selective-area uses on the template, and also the rule for a triggering-event to initiate the catalytic reactions. Clear relationship found between the placements and preferred-order of regioselective reactions from the comparison of experimental data of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-substrates was implemented in this system. The template generated is consisted of two flat-shape regions (Thin- and Thick-Areas) and Site of Oxidation. The latter is located at an overlapping region of Thin- and Thick-Areas and has a shape of cubic-like block. Thin-Area and Thick-Area are not on the same plane, and bend slightly at their overlapping parts. Two Entrances and two Gatekeepers are situated each near the top and middle bottleneck-parts of Thin-Area and Thick-Area to restrict the substrate entry. A procedure of stepwise movement of substrates resided on Thick-Area is introduced to define the regioselectivity. A specific part (termed Trigger-Region) showing high placement rates was found at a region away from Site of Oxidation on the template, assuming that substrate-sittings at Trigger-Region are essential for the initiation of catalytic reactions. These observations lead us an idea of simultaneous bi-molecule placement to fulfill both the essential sitting at Trigger-Region and regioselectivity of metabolisms, although a uni-molecule sitting co-covering Trigger-Region is also possible to contribute for the metabolite formation. Substrates of CYP1A2 are verified from distinct points including selective use of Thin-Area, Trigger-molecule Harboring Area, dual access routs, Facial-side Movement as well as their sizes. In addition, inhibitory actions as well region/stereo selective oxid/reductions of both PAH and non-PAH molecules are verified with their supposable interaction mechanisms in this prediction system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dmpk.2016.07.005DOI Listing
October 2016

Rebamipide does not interfere with the antitumor effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy in human oral tumor-bearing nude mice.

J Pharmacol Sci 2015 Sep 4;129(1):18-25. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Third Institute of New Drug Discovery, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Japan. Electronic address:

Recent studies have shown that rebamipide, which suppresses reactive oxygen species, prevents chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers. However, anticancer action of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is believed to be partially associated with generation of reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to determine whether rebamipide interferes with the antitumor action of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The effect of rebamipide on tumor cell growth was investigated using a human oral squamous carcinoma cell line, HSC-2, in vitro and in vivo. Rebamipide showed no significant effect on cell or tumor growth in HSC-2 tumor-bearing nude mice. Influences of rebamipide on the antitumor action of radiotherapy and of chemotherapy with cisplatin or docetaxel were investigated using the same animal model. In radiotherapy, the tumor was treated with 2.5 Gy of X-rays for 5 days, and rebamipide (300 mg/kg p.o.) was administered during irradiation periods. In chemotherapy, tumor-bearing mice were treated once with cisplatin (8 mg/kg, i.v.) or docetaxel (15 mg/kg i.v.) and rebamipide (300 mg/kg p.o.) was administered for 5 days following the antitumor drug treatment. Rebamipide did not interfere with the antitumor action of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphs.2015.07.022DOI Listing
September 2015

Inhibitory Potential of Twenty Five Anti-tuberculosis Drugs on CYP Activities in Human Liver Microsomes.

Biol Pharm Bull 2015 20;38(9):1425-9. Epub 2015 Jun 20.

Department of Drug Metabolism, Tokushima Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

The direct inhibitory potential of twenty five anti-tuberculosis drugs on eight CYP-specific reactions in human liver microsomes was investigated to predict in vivo drug-drug interactions (DDIs) from in vitro data. Rifampicin, rifabutin, and thioacetazone inhibited one CYP reaction. Isoniazid and clofazimine had inhibitory effects on four CYP reactions, and rifapentine, ethionamide, and prothionamide widely inhibited CYP reactions. Based on the inhibition constant (Ki) and the therapeutic total inhibitor concentrations [I]max of eight drugs in human plasma, [I]max/Ki values were calculated to evaluate clinical DDIs. The [I]max/Ki values were 0.20 or less for rifampicin, rifabutin, and thioacetazone; 0.15-2.0 for isoniazid; 0.14-1.5 for rifapentine; 0.29-1.4 for ethionamide; 0.41-2.2 for prothionamide; and 0.12-6.3 for clofazimine. The highest [I]max/Ki values were 2.0 for isoniazid on CYP3A4 [testosterone (T)]; 1.5 for rifapentine on CYP3A4 [midazolam (M)]; 1.4 for ethionamide on CYP2C8; 2.2, 1.8, and 1.3 for prothionamide on CYP2B6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C8, respectively; and 6.3 and 5.7 for clofazimine on CYP3A4 (M) and CYP3A4 (T), respectively. These drugs with high [I]max/Ki values lead to clinical DDIs. Considering the drug regimens for tuberculosis (TB) and co-infection with TB and human immunodeficiency virus, the inhibitory potential for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 is particularly important. These results suggest that clofazimine and prothionamide are likely to cause clinically relevant DDIs when co-administered with products metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, respectively. Isoniazid and rifapentine may cause DDIs with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b15-00313DOI Listing
June 2016

Comprehensive kinetic analysis and influence of reaction components for chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation in human liver microsomes with CYP antibodies.

Xenobiotica 2015 Apr 19;45(4):353-60. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

Department of Drug Metabolism, Drug Safety Research Center, Tokushima Research Institute , Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokushima , Japan.

1. Chlorzoxazone (CLZ) is currently being used as a marker substrate in vitro/vivo studies to quantify cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity in humans. Although in CLZ 6-hydroxylation several CYPs are responsible, previous studies have presented the monophasicity of the reaction in human liver microsomes (HLMs). Furthermore, the Km values of CYP2E1 for the 6-hydroxylation in HLMs were reported to be lower than those of its recombinant enzymes. 2. This study aimed to provide the comprehensive Km values for the CLZ 6-hydroxylation in HLMs using CYP antibodies. The Eadie-Hofstee plots revealed a biphasic profile and indicate that the reaction was mainly mediated by CYP1A2 as well as CYP2E1. The formation of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone was more specific for CYP2E1 activity at higher substrate concentration in HLMs. 3. Moreover, KOH as a vehicle for substrate or sucrose included in HLMs preparation had some effect on the activity of CLZ 6-hydroxylase. These constituents seemed to be casually related to the apparent monophasic kinetics and variability in Km values for the CLZ 6-hydroxylation in HLMs. 4. The Km of CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 in HLMs was 3.8 µmol/L and 410 µmol/L, respectively, and the value of CYP2E1 was close to that of recombinant CYP2E1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00498254.2014.985760DOI Listing
April 2015