Publications by authors named "Yoshitaka Ohno"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Improvement of Pharmaceutical Properties of Zerumbone, a Multifunctional Compound, Using Cyclodextrin Derivatives.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2020 ;68(11):1117-1120

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University.

Zerumbone is a multifunctional compound which shows various biological activities, such as antitumor activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antiulcer activity, etc. However, to use Zerumbone as functional foods or medicines, its pharmaceutical properties such as solubility should be improved. In the present study, we prepared its inclusion complexes with various cyclodextrin (CyD) derivatives, and evaluated their solubility, release profile of the drug and cytotoxic activity. Among 11 CyDs, sulfobutylether (SBE)-β-CyD showed the highest solubilizing effect for Zerumbone. Phase solubility diagrams of SBE-β-CyD/Zerumbone in 10% methanol solution showed A type, and the stability constant was 756 M. SBE-β-CyD also formed the solid complex with Zerumbone by kneading for 90 min. Importantly, the dissolution rate of Zerumbone was improved by complexation with SBE-β- and hydroxypropyl (HP)-β-CyDs, and its supersaturation was maintained for several hours. The solubilizing effects by SBE-β-CyD was greater than that of HP-β-CyD. Moreover, SBE-β-CyD/Zerumbone complex also retained the cytotoxic activity of Zerumbone. These results suggest that CyDs, especially SBE-β-CyD, were useful to improve the solubility of Zerumbone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c20-00621DOI Listing
May 2021

Lactose-appended β-cyclodextrin as an effective nanocarrier for brain delivery.

J Control Release 2020 12 28;328:722-735. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan. Electronic address:

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents the permeability of drugs into the brain, and as such limits the management of various brain diseases. To overcome this barrier, drug-encapsulating nanoparticles or vesicles, drug conjugates, and other types of drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been developed. However, the brain-targeting ability of nanoparticles or vesicles is still insufficient. Recently, among the various brain-targeting ligands previously studied for facilitating transcellular BBB transport, several sugar-appended nanocarriers for brain delivery were identified. Meanwhile, cyclodextrins (CyDs) have been used as nanocarriers for drug delivery since they can encapsulate hydrophobic compounds with high biocompatibility. Therefore, in this study, we created various sugar-appended β-cyclodextrins (β-CyDs) to discover novel brain-targeting ligands. As a result, of the six sugar-appended CyDs, lactose-appended β-CyD (Lac-β-CyD) showed greater cellular uptake in hCMEC/D3 cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, than other sugar-appended β-CyDs did. In addition, the permeability of Lac-β-CyD within the in vitro human BBB model was greater than that of other sugar-appended β-CyDs. Moreover, Lac-β-CyD significantly accumulated in the mouse brain after intravenous administration. Thus, Lac-β-CyD efficiently facilitated the accumulation of the model drug into the mouse brain. These findings suggest that Lac-β-CyD has the potential to be a novel carrier for drugs across the BBB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.09.043DOI Listing
December 2020

MBNL1-Associated Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Apoptosis in C2C12 Myotubes and Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 2;21(17). Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Laboratory of Physiology, School of Health Science, Toyohashi SOZO University, Toyohashi 440-8511, Japan.

We explored the interrelationship between a tissue-specific alternative splicing factor muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) or Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in C2C12 myotubes and mouse skeletal muscle to investigate a possible physiological role of MBNL1 in mitochondrial-associated apoptosis of skeletal muscle. Expression level of PGC-1α and mitochondrial membrane potential evaluated by the fluorescence ratio of JC-1 aggregate to monomer in C2C12 myotubes were suppressed by knockdown of MBNL1. Conversely, the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 as well as the apoptotic index in C2C12 myotubes was increased by MBNL1 knockdown. In plantaris muscle, on the other hand, not only the minimum muscle fiber diameter but also the expression level of MBNL1 and PGC-1α in of 100-week-old mice were significantly lower than that of 10-week-old mice. Furthermore, the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in mouse plantaris muscle was increased by aging. These results suggest that MBNL1 may play a key role in aging-associated muscle atrophy accompanied with mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis via mediating PGC-1α expression in skeletal muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503908PMC
September 2020

The Protective Effect of Brazilian Propolis against Glycation Stress in Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

Foods 2019 Sep 25;8(10). Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Laboratory of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

We investigated the protective effect of Brazilian propolis, a natural resinous substance produced by honeybees, against glycation stress in mouse skeletal muscles. Mice were divided into four groups: (1) Normal diet + drinking water, (2) Brazilian propolis (0.1%)-containing diet + drinking water, (3) normal diet + methylglyoxal (MGO) (0.1%)-containing drinking water, and (4) Brazilian propolis (0.1%)-containing diet + MGO (0.1%)-containing drinking water. MGO treatment for 20 weeks reduced the weight of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and tended to be in the soleus muscle. Ingestion of Brazilian propolis showed no effect on this change in EDL muscles but tended to increase the weight of the soleus muscles regardless of MGO treatment. In EDL muscles, Brazilian propolis ingestion suppressed the accumulation of MGO-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in MGO-treated mice. The activity of glyoxalase 1 was not affected by MGO, but was enhanced by Brazilian propolis in EDL muscles. MGO treatment increased mRNA expression of inflammation-related molecules, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Brazilian propolis ingestion suppressed these increases. MGO and/or propolis exerted no effect on the accumulation of AGEs, glyoxalase 1 activity, and inflammatory responses in soleus muscles. These results suggest that Brazilian propolis exerts a protective effect against glycation stress by inhibiting the accumulation of AGEs, promoting MGO detoxification, and reducing proinflammatory responses in the skeletal muscle. However, these anti-glycation effects does not lead to prevent glycation-induced muscle mass reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8100439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6836237PMC
September 2019

Lactate Stimulates a Potential for Hypertrophy and Regeneration of Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 17;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Laboratory of Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Toyohashi 440-8511, Japan.

The effects of lactate on muscle mass and regeneration were investigated using mouse skeletal muscle tissue and cultured C2C12 cells. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into (1) control, (2) lactate (1 mol/L in distilled water, 8.9 mL/g body weight)-administered, (3) cardio toxin (CTX)-injected (CX), and (4) lactate-administered after CTX-injection (LX) groups. CTX was injected into right tibialis anterior (TA) muscle before the oral administration of sodium lactate (five days/week for two weeks) to the mice. Oral lactate administration increased the muscle weight and fiber cross-sectional area, and the population of Pax7-positive nuclei in mouse TA skeletal muscle. Oral administration of lactate also facilitated the recovery process of CTX-associated injured mouse TA muscle mass accompanied with a transient increase in the population of Pax7-positive nuclei. Mouse myoblast-derived C2C12 cells were differentiated for five days to form myotubes with or without lactate administration. C2C12 myotube formation with an increase in protein content, fiber diameter, length, and myo-nuclei was stimulated by lactate. These observations suggest that lactate may be a potential molecule to stimulate muscle hypertrophy and regeneration of mouse skeletal muscle via the activation of muscle satellite cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11040869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520919PMC
April 2019

DAMP-Inducing Adjuvant and PAMP Adjuvants Parallelly Enhance Protective Type-2 and Type-1 Immune Responses to Influenza Split Vaccination.

Front Immunol 2018 20;9:2619. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Physical Pharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

Recently, it was reported that 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD), a common pharmaceutical additive, can act as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance protective type-2 immunogenicity to co-administered seasonal influenza split vaccine by inducing host-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). However, like most other DAMP-inducing adjuvants such as aluminum hydroxide (Alum), HP-β-CyD may not be sufficient for the induction of protective type-1 (cellular) immune responses, thereby leaving room for improvement. Here, we demonstrate that a combination of HP-β-CyD with a humanized TLR9 agonist, K3 CpG-ODN, a potent pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), enhanced the protective efficacy of the co-administered influenza split vaccine by inducing antigen-specific type-2 and type-1 immune responses, respectively. Moreover, substantial antigen-specific IgE induction by HP-β-CyD, which can cause an allergic response to immunized antigen was completely suppressed by the addition of K3 CpG-ODN. Furthermore, HP-β-CyD- and K3 CpG-ODN-adjuvanted influenza split vaccination protected the mice against lethal challenge with high doses of heterologous influenza virus, which could not be protected against by single adjuvant vaccines. Further experiments using gene deficient mice revealed the unique immunological mechanism of action , where type-2 and type-1 immune responses enhanced by the combined adjuvants were dependent on TBK1 and TLR9, respectively, indicating their parallel signaling pathways. Finally, the analysis of immune responses in the draining lymph node suggested that HP-β-CyD promotes the uptake of K3 CpG-ODN by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells, which may contributes to the activation of these cells and enhanced production of IgG2c. Taken together, the results above may offer potential clinical applications for the combination of DAMP-inducing adjuvant and PAMP adjuvant to improve vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy by enhancing both type-2 and type-1 immune responses in a parallel manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6255964PMC
October 2019

Activation of adiponectin receptors has negative impact on muscle mass in C2C12 myotubes and fast-type mouse skeletal muscle.

PLoS One 2018 11;13(10):e0205645. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan.

This study investigated the effects of AdipoRon, which is an agonist for adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and AdipoR2, on the protein content, myotube diameter, and number of nuclei per myotube of C2C12 cells and skeletal muscle mass in C57BL/6J mice. AdipoRon suppressed the protein content, myotube diameter, and number of nuclei per myotube of C2C12 cells of C2C12 myotubes in a dose-dependent manner. Adiponectin-associated decline of protein content, diameter, and number of nuclei per myotube in C2C12 myotubes was partially rescued by knockdown of AdipoR1 and/or AdipoR2. Phosphorylation level of AMPK showed a trend to be increased by AdipoRon. A significant increase in phosphorylation level of AMPK was observed at 20 μM AdipoRon. Knockdown of AdipoR1 and/or AdipoR2 rescued AdipoRon-associated decrease in protein content of C2C12 myotubes. AdipoRon-associated increase in phosphorylation level of AMPK in C2C12 myotubes was suppressed by knockdown of AdipoR1 and/or AdipoR2. Successive intravenous injections of AdipoRon into mice caused a decrease in the wet weight of plantaris muscle (PLA), but not in soleus muscle (SOL). Mean fiber cross-sectional area of PLA, but not of SOL, was significantly decreased by AdipoRon administration. On the one hand, the expression level of phosphorylated AMPK and ubiquitinated protein in SOL and PLA muscles was upregulated by AdipoRon administration. On the other hand, AdipoRon administration induced no changes in the expression level of puromycin-labeled proteins in both SOL and PLA muscles. Expression level of adiponectin in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle was increased by aging, but not in SOL muscle. Aging had no effect on the expression level of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in both muscles. Phosphorylation level of AMPK in EDL was increased by aging, but not SOL muscle. Results from this study suggest that high level of circulating adiponectin may induce skeletal muscle atrophy, especially fast-type muscle.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0205645PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6181411PMC
March 2019

AMPK Mediates Muscle Mass Change But Not the Transition of Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms during Unloading and Reloading of Skeletal Muscles in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Sep 27;19(10). Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Toyohashi, Aichi 440-8511, Japan.

5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and fiber-type distribution. However, it is unclear whether AMPK is involved in muscle mass change or transition of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in response to unloading or increased loading. Here, we checked whether AMPK controls muscle mass change and transition of MyHC isoforms during unloading and reloading using mice expressing a skeletal-muscle-specific dominant-negative AMPKα1 (AMPK-DN). Fourteen days of hindlimb unloading reduced the soleus muscle weight in wild-type and AMPK-DN mice, but reduction in the muscle mass was partly attenuated in AMPK-DN mice. There was no difference in the regrown muscle weight between the mice after 7 days of reloading, and there was concomitantly reduced AMPKα2 activity, however it was higher in AMPK-DN mice after 14 days reloading. No difference was observed between the mice in relation to the levels of slow-type MyHC I, fast-type MyHC IIa/x, and MyHC IIb isoforms following unloading and reloading. The levels of 72-kDa heat-shock protein, which preserves muscle mass, increased in AMPK-DN-mice. Our results indicate that AMPK mediates the progress of atrophy during unloading and regrowth of atrophied muscles following reloading, but it does not influence the transition of MyHC isoforms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6212939PMC
September 2018

Potential involvement of dietary advanced glycation end products in impairment of skeletal muscle growth and muscle contractile function in mice.

Br J Nutr 2017 01 17;117(1):21-29. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

1Laboratory of Sports and Exercise Medicine,Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies,Kyoto University,Kyoto,606-8501,Japan.

Diets enriched with advanced glycation end products (AGE) have recently been related to muscle dysfunction processes. However, it remains unclear whether long-term exposure to an AGE-enriched diet impacts physiological characteristics of skeletal muscles. Therefore, we explored the differences in skeletal muscle mass, contractile function and molecular responses between mice receiving a diet high in AGE (H-AGE) and low in AGE (L-AGE) for 16 weeks. There were no significant differences between L-AGE and H-AGE mice with regard to body weight, food intake or epididymal fat pad weight. However, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and plantaris (PLA) muscle weights in H-AGE mice were lower compared with L-AGE mice. Higher levels of N ε -(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine, a marker for AGE, in EDL muscles of H-AGE mice were observed compared with L-AGE mice. H-AGE mice showed lower muscle strength and endurance in vivo and lower muscle force production of PLA muscle in vitro. mRNA expression levels of myogenic factors including myogenic factor 5 and myogenic differentiation in EDL muscle were lower in H-AGE mice compared with L-AGE mice. The phosphorylation status of 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase Thr389, an indicator of protein synthesis signalling, was lower in EDL muscle of H-AGE mice than that of L-AGE mice. These findings suggest that long-term exposure to an AGE-enriched diet impairs skeletal muscle growth and muscle contractile function, and that these muscle dysfunctions may be attributed to the inhibition of myogenic potential and protein synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516004591DOI Listing
January 2017

Suppression of Myostatin Stimulates Regenerative Potential of Injured Antigravitational Soleus Muscle in Mice under Unloading Condition.

Int J Med Sci 2016 10;13(9):680-5. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Laboratory of Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan;; Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan.

Effects of myostatin (MSTN)-suppression on the regeneration of injured skeletal muscle under unloading condition were investigated by using transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative form of MSTN (MSTN-DN). Both MSTN-DN and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to continuous hindlimb suspension (HS) for 6 weeks. Cardiotoxin (CTX) was injected into left soleus muscle under anesthesia 2 weeks after the initiation of HS. Then, the soleus muscles were excised following 6-week HS (4 weeks after CTX-injection). CTX-injection caused to reduce the soleus fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in WT mice under both unloading and weight-bearing conditions, but not in MSTN-DN mice. Under unloading condition, CTX-injected muscle weight and fiber CSA in MSTN-DN mice were significantly higher than those in WT mice. CTX-injected muscle had many damaged and regenerating fibers having central nuclei in both WT and MSTN-DN mice. Significant increase in the population of Pax7-positive nuclei in CTX-injected muscle was observed in MSTN-DN mice, but not in WT mice. Evidences indicate that the suppression of MSTN cause to increase the regenerative potential of injured soleus muscle via the increase in the population of muscle satellite cells regardless of unloading conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.16267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5027186PMC
March 2017

Involvement of AMPK in regulating slow-twitch muscle atrophy during hindlimb unloading in mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2015 Oct 4;309(7):E651-62. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan;

AMPK is considered to have a role in regulating skeletal muscle mass. However, there are no studies investigating the function of AMPK in modulating skeletal muscle mass during atrophic conditions. In the present study, we investigated the difference in unloading-associated muscle atrophy and molecular functions in response to 2-wk hindlimb suspension between transgenic mice overexpressing the dominant-negative mutant of AMPK (AMPK-DN) and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Male WT (n = 24) and AMPK-DN (n = 24) mice were randomly divided into two groups: an untreated preexperimental control group (n = 12 in each group) and an unloading (n = 12 in each group) group. The relative soleus muscle weight and fiber cross-sectional area to body weight were decreased by ∼30% in WT mice by hindlimb unloading and by ∼20% in AMPK-DN mice. There were no changes in puromycin-labeled protein or Akt/70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase signaling, the indicators of protein synthesis. The expressions of ubiquitinated proteins and muscle RING finger 1 mRNA and protein, markers of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, were increased by hindlimb unloading in WT mice but not in AMPK-DN mice. The expressions of molecules related to the protein degradation system, phosphorylated forkhead box class O3a, inhibitor of κBα, microRNA (miR)-1, and miR-23a, were decreased only in WT mice in response to hindlimb unloading, and 72-kDa heat shock protein expression was higher in AMPK-DN mice than in WT mice. These results imply that AMPK partially regulates unloading-induced atrophy of slow-twitch muscle possibly through modulation of the protein degradation system, especially the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00165.2015DOI Listing
October 2015

Microcurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation facilitates regeneration of injured skeletal muscle in mice.

J Sports Sci Med 2015 Jun 8;14(2):297-303. Epub 2015 May 8.

Laboratory of Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University , Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan ; Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University , Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan.

Conservative therapies, mainly resting care for the damaged muscle, are generally used as a treatment for skeletal muscle injuries (such as muscle fragmentation). Several past studies reported that microcurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation (MENS) facilitates a repair of injured soft tissues and shortens the recovery period. However, the effects of MENS on the regeneration in injured skeletal muscle are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of MENS on the regenerative process of injured skeletal muscle and to elucidate whether satellite cells in injured skeletal muscle are activated by MENS by using animal models. Male C57BL/6J mice, aged 7 weeks old, were used (n = 30). Mice were randomly divided into two groups: (1) cardiotoxin (CTX)-injected (CX, n = 15) and (2) CTX-injected with MENS treatment (MX, n=15) groups. CTX was injected into tibialis anterior muscle (TA) of mice in CX and MX groups to initiate the necrosis-regeneration cycle of the muscle. TA was dissected 1, 2, and 3 weeks after the injection. Muscle weight, muscle protein content, the mean cross-sectional areas of muscle fibers, the relative percentage of fibers having central nuclei, and the number of muscle satellite cells were evaluated. MENS facilitated the recovery of the muscle dry weight and protein content relative to body weight, and the mean cross-sectional areas of muscle fibers in CTX-induced injured TA muscle. The number of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells was increased by MENS during the regenerating period. Decrease in the percentages of fibers with central nuclei after CTX-injection was facilitated by MENS. MENS may facilitate the regeneration of injured skeletal muscles by activating the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles. Key pointsMicrocurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation (MENS) facilitated the recovery of the relative muscle dry weight, the relative muscle protein content, and the mean cross-sectional areas of muscle fibers of injured TA muscle in mice.The number of satellite cells was increased by MENS during the regenerating phase of injured skeletal muscle.Decrease in the percentages of fibers with central nuclei was facilitated by MENS.MENS may facilitate the regeneration of injured skeletal muscles.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4424458PMC
June 2015

Loading-associated expression of TRIM72 and caveolin-3 in antigravitational soleus muscle in mice.

Physiol Rep 2014 Dec 24;2(12). Epub 2014 Dec 24.

Laboratory of Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Toyohashi, 440-8511, Japan Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Toyohashi, 440-8511, Japan.

Effects of mechanical loading on the expression level of tripartite motif-containing 72 (TRIM72) and caveolin-3 (Cav-3) in mouse soleus muscle were investigated. Mice were subjected to (1) continuous hindlimb suspension (HS) for 2 weeks followed by 1-week ambulation recovery or (2) functional overloading (FO) on the soleus by cutting the distal tendons of the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles. Soleus muscle atrophy was induced by 2-week hindlimb suspension (HS). Reloading-associated regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle was observed by 1-week reloading following HS. HS also depressed the expression level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) mRNA, TRIM72, Cav-3, and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt)/total Akt (t-Akt), but increased the phosphorylated level of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38MAPK) in soleus muscle. Thereafter, the expression level of MyoD mRNA, TRIM72 (mRNA, and protein), and Cav-3 was significantly increased and recovered to the basal level during 1-week reloading after HS. Although IRS-1 expression was also upregulated by reloading, the expression level was significantly lower than that before HS. Significant increase in p-Akt and phosphorylated p70 S6 kinase (p-p70S6K) was observed by 1-day reloading. On the other hand, 1-week functional overloading (FO) induced soleus muscle hypertrophy. In FO-associated hypertrophied soleus muscle, the expression level of IRS-1 mRNA, MyoD mRNA, TRIM72 mRNA, p-Akt, and p-p70S6K was increased, but the expression of Cav-3 and p-p38MAPK was decreased. FO had no effect on the protein expression level of TRIM72. These observations suggest that the loading-associated upregulation of TRIM72 protein in skeletal muscle may depress the regrowth of atrophied muscle via a partial suppression of IRS-1. In addition, downregulation of Cav-3 in skeletal muscle may depress overloading-induced muscle hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.12259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4332229PMC
December 2014

AICAR-induced activation of AMPK negatively regulates myotube hypertrophy through the HSP72-mediated pathway in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2014 Feb 17;306(3):E344-54. Epub 2013 Dec 17.

Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Toyohashi, Japan;

5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. However, the precise mechanism of AMPK-mediated regulation of muscle mass is not fully clarified. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), stress-induced molecular chaperones, are related with skeletal muscle adaptation, but the association between AMPK and HSPs in skeletal muscle hypertrophy is unknown. Thus, we investigated whether AMPK regulates hypertrophy by mediating HSPs in C2C12 cells. The treatment with AICAR, a potent stimulator of AMPK, decreased 72-kDa HSP (HSP72) expression, whereas there were no changes in the expressions of 25-kDa HSP, 70-kDa heat shock cognate, and heat shock transcription factor 1 in myotubes. Protein content and diameter were less in the AICAR-treated myotubes in those without treatment. AICAR-induced suppression of myotube hypertrophy and HSP72 expression was attenuated in the siRNA-mediated AMPKα knockdown myotubes. AICAR increased microRNA (miR)-1, a modulator of HSP72, and the increase of miR-1 was not induced in AMPKα knockdown condition. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated HSP72 knockdown blocked AICAR-induced inhibition of myotube hypertrophy. AICAR upregulated the gene expression of muscle Ring-finger 1, and this alteration was suppressed in either AMPKα or HSP72 knockdown myotubes. The phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase Thr(389) was downregulated by AICAR, whereas this was attenuated in AMPKα, but not in HSP72, knockdown myotubes. These results suggest that AMPK inhibits hypertrophy through, in part, an HSP72-associated mechanism via miR-1 and protein degradation pathways in skeletal muscle cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00495.2013DOI Listing
February 2014

Up-regulation of adiponectin expression in antigravitational soleus muscle in response to unloading followed by reloading, and functional overloading in mice.

PLoS One 2013 6;8(12):e81929. Epub 2013 Dec 6.

Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Aichi, Japan.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression level of adiponectin and its related molecules in hypertrophied and atrophied skeletal muscle in mice. The expression was also evaluated in C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes. Both mRNA and protein expression of adiponectin, mRNA expression of adiponectin receptor (AdipoR) 1 and AdipoR2, and protein expression of adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain, and leucine zipper motif 1 (APPL1) were observed in C2C12 myoblasts. The expression levels of these molecules in myotubes were higher than those in myoblasts. The expression of adiponectin-related molecules in soleus muscle was observed at mRNA (adiponectin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2) and protein (adiponectin, APPL1) levels. The protein expression levels of adiponectin and APPL1 were up-regulated by 3 weeks of functional overloading. Down-regulation of AdipoR1 mRNA, but not AdipoR2 mRNA, was observed in atrophied soleus muscle. The expression of adiponectin protein, AdipoR1 mRNA, and APPL1 protein was up-regulated during regrowth of unloading-associated atrophied soleus muscle. Mechanical loading, which could increase skeletal muscle mass, might be a useful stimulus for the up-regulations of adiponectin and its related molecules in skeletal muscle.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0081929PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3855747PMC
September 2014

Regeneration of injured skeletal muscle in heat shock transcription factor 1-null mice.

Physiol Rep 2013 Aug 29;1(3):e00071. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Marianna University School of Medicine Kawasaki, Japan.

The purpose of this study was to investigate a role of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1)-mediated stress response during regeneration of injured soleus muscle by using HSF1-null mice. Cardiotoxin (CTX) was injected into the left muscle of male HSF1-null and wild-type mice under anesthesia with intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital sodium. Injection of physiological saline was also performed into the right muscle. Soleus muscles were dissected bilaterally 2 and 4 weeks after the injection. The relative weight and fiber cross-sectional area in CTX-injected muscles of HSF1-null, not of wild-type, mice were less than controls with injection of physiological saline 4 weeks after the injury, indicating a slower regeneration. Injury-related increase of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells in HSF1-null mice was inhibited versus wild-type mice. HSF1-deficiency generally caused decreases in the basal expression levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs). But the mRNA expression levels of HSP25 and HSP90α in HSF1-null mice were enhanced in response to CTX-injection, compared with wild-type mice. Significant up-regulations of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) -6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor mRNAs, with greater magnitude than in wild-type mice were observed in HSF1-deficient mouse muscle. HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response may play a key role in the regenerating process of injured skeletal muscle. HSF1 deficiency may depress the regenerating process of injured skeletal muscle via the partial depression of increase in Pax7-positive satellite cells. HSF1-deficiency-associated partial depression of skeletal muscle regeneration might also be attributed to up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phy2.71DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3835021PMC
August 2013

Heat shock transcription factor 1-deficiency attenuates overloading-associated hypertrophy of mouse soleus muscle.

PLoS One 2013 22;8(10):e77788. Epub 2013 Oct 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.

Hypertrophic stimuli, such as mechanical stress and overloading, induce stress response, which is mediated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), and up-regulate heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mammalian skeletal muscles. Therefore, HSF1-associated stress response may play a key role in loading-associated skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HSF1-deficiency on skeletal muscle hypertrophy caused by overloading. Functional overloading on the left soleus was performed by cutting the distal tendons of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles for 4 weeks. The right muscle served as the control. Soleus muscles from both hindlimbs were dissected 2 and 4 weeks after the operation. Hypertrophy of soleus muscle in HSF1-null mice was partially inhibited, compared with that in wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice. Absence of HSF1 partially attenuated the increase of muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area of overloaded soleus muscle. Population of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells in HSF1-null mice was significantly less than that in wild-type mice following 2 weeks of overloading (p<0.05). Significant up-regulations of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor mRNAs were observed in HSF1-null, but not in wild-type, mice following 2 weeks of overloading. Overloading-related increases of IL-6 and AFT3 mRNA expressions seen after 2 weeks of overloading tended to decrease after 4 weeks in both types of mice. In HSF1-null mice, however, the significant overloading-related increase in the expression of IL-6, not ATF3, mRNA was noted even at 4th week. Inhibition of muscle hypertrophy might be attributed to the greater and prolonged enhancement of IL-6 expression. HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response may, in part, play a key role in loading-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0077788PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3805596PMC
May 2014

Microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation facilitates regrowth of mouse soleus muscle.

Int J Med Sci 2013 7;10(10):1286-94. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Laboratory of Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan.

Microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation (MENS) has been used to facilitate recovery from skeletal muscle injury. However, the effects of MENS on unloading-associated atrophied skeletal muscle remain unclear. Effects of MENS on the regrowing process of unloading-associated atrophied skeletal muscle were investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice (10-week old) were randomly assigned to untreated normal recovery (C) and MENS-treated (M) groups. Mice of both groups are subjected to continuous hindlimb suspension (HS) for 2 weeks followed by 7 days of ambulation recovery. Mice in M group were treated with MENS for 60 min 1, 3, and 5 days following HS, respectively, under anesthesia. The intensity, the frequency, and the pulse width of MENS were set at 10 μA, 0.3 Hz, and 250 msec, respectively. Soleus muscles were dissected before and immediately after, 1, 3 and 7 days after HS. Soleus muscle wet weight and protein content were decreased by HS. The regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle in M group was faster than that in C group. Decrease in the reloading-induced necrosis of atrophied soleus was facilitated by MENS. Significant increases in phosphorylated levels of p70 S6 kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) in M group were observed, compared with C group. These observations are consistent with that MENS facilitated regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle. MENS may be a potential extracellular stimulus to activate the intracellular signals involved in protein synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.5985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3752717PMC
March 2014

Effects of heat stress on muscle mass and the expression levels of heat shock proteins and lysosomal cathepsin L in soleus muscle of young and aged mice.

Mol Cell Biochem 2012 Oct 24;369(1-2):45-53. Epub 2012 Jun 24.

Laboratory of Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Toyohashi, Japan.

Effects of heat stress on skeletal muscle mass in young and aged mice were investigated. Young (7-week) and aged (106-week) male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to control and heat-stressed groups in each age. Mice in heat-stressed group were exposed to heat stress (41 °C for 60 min) in an incubator without anesthesia. Seven days after the exposure, soleus muscles were dissected from both hindlimbs. Protein content and the relative composition of Type II fibers in aged soleus were lower than those in young muscle. In aged soleus, higher baseline expression levels of HSP25, HSP72, and cathepsin L were observed compared with those in young muscle (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the expression levels of phosphorylated p70 S6 kinase (p-p70S6K), calpain 1, and calpain 2 of soleus between two age groups. A significant increase in muscle mass of both age groups was induced by heat stress (p < 0.05). Heat stress also upregulated the expressions of HSP25, HSP72, and p-p70S6K in both ages (p < 0.05). On the other hand, a significant decrease in cathepsin L expression by heating was observed in aged soleus, but not in young (p < 0.05). Both the percentage of Type I fibers and the expression of calpains in both age groups were unchanged following heat stress. Heat stress-associated downregulation of cathepsin L may be attributed to the upregulation of HSP72, which stabilizes lysosomal membranes (p < 0.05). Upregulations of HSP25, HSP72, and p-p70S6K and/or the downregulation of cathepsin L may play a role in heat stress-associated muscle hypertrophy in aged soleus muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-012-1367-yDOI Listing
October 2012

Adaptation of mouse skeletal muscle to long-term microgravity in the MDS mission.

PLoS One 2012 28;7(3):e33232. Epub 2012 Mar 28.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

The effect of microgravity on skeletal muscles has so far been examined in rat and mice only after short-term (5-20 day) spaceflights. The mice drawer system (MDS) program, sponsored by Italian Space Agency, for the first time aimed to investigate the consequences of long-term (91 days) exposure to microgravity in mice within the International Space Station. Muscle atrophy was present indistinctly in all fiber types of the slow-twitch soleus muscle, but was only slightly greater than that observed after 20 days of spaceflight. Myosin heavy chain analysis indicated a concomitant slow-to-fast transition of soleus. In addition, spaceflight induced translocation of sarcolemmal nitric oxide synthase-1 (NOS1) into the cytosol in soleus but not in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Most of the sarcolemmal ion channel subunits were up-regulated, more in soleus than EDL, whereas Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels were down-regulated, consistent with the phenotype transition. Gene expression of the atrophy-related ubiquitin-ligases was up-regulated in both spaceflown soleus and EDL muscles, whereas autophagy genes were in the control range. Muscle-specific IGF-1 and interleukin-6 were down-regulated in soleus but up-regulated in EDL. Also, various stress-related genes were up-regulated in spaceflown EDL, not in soleus. Altogether, these results suggest that EDL muscle may resist to microgravity-induced atrophy by activating compensatory and protective pathways. Our study shows the extended sensitivity of antigravity soleus muscle after prolonged exposition to microgravity, suggests possible mechanisms accounting for the resistance of EDL, and individuates some molecular targets for the development of countermeasures.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033232PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3314659PMC
August 2012

Absence of heat shock transcription factor 1 retards the regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle in mice.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2011 Oct 4;111(4):1142-9. Epub 2011 Aug 4.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

Effects of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) gene on the regrowth of atrophied mouse soleus muscles were studied. Both HSF1-null and wild-type mice were subjected to continuous hindlimb suspension for 2 wk followed by 4 wk of ambulation recovery. There was no difference in the magnitude of suspension-related decrease of muscle weight, protein content, and the cross-sectional area of muscle fibers between both types of mice. However, the regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle in HSF1-null mice was slower compared with that in wild-type mice. Lower baseline expression level of HSP25, HSC70, and HSP72 were noted in soleus muscle of HSF1-null mice. Unloading-associated downregulation and reloading-associated upregulation of HSP25 and HSP72 mRNA were observed not only in wild-type mice but also in HSF1-null mice. Reloading-associated upregulation of HSP72 and HSP25 during the regrowth of atrophied muscle was observed in wild-type mice. Minor and delayed upregulation of HSP72 at mRNA and protein levels was also seen in HSF1-null mice. Significant upregulations of HSF2 and HSF4 were observed immediately after the suspension in HSF1-null mice, but not in wild-type mice. Therefore, HSP72 expression in soleus muscle might be regulated by the posttranscriptional level, but not by the stress response. Evidence from this study suggested that the upregulation of HSPs induced by HSF1-associated stress response might play, in part, important roles in the mechanical loading (stress)-associated regrowth of skeletal muscle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00471.2011DOI Listing
October 2011

Possible role of NF-ĸB signals in heat stress-associated increase in protein content of cultured C2C12 cells.

Cells Tissues Organs 2011 22;194(5):363-70. Epub 2011 Mar 22.

Laboratory of Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Toyohashi, Japan.

Heat stress is one of the hypertrophic stimuli on mammalian skeletal muscle. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling plays an important role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. However, the effects of heat stress on NF-κB signaling in skeletal muscle cells remain unclear. Effects of heat stress and/or administration of BAY11-7082, an inhibitor of NF-κB, on NF-κB signals and protein content of skeletal muscle were studied by using cell culture system. Differentiated mouse myoblasts (C2C12) were subjected to either (1) control (cultured at 37°C without BAY11-7082), (2) heat stress at 41°C for 60 min, (3) BAY11-7082 administration (1.25 μM) or (4) heat stress combined with BAY11-7082 administration. Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) was upregulated by heat stress with or without administration of BAY11-7082. The increase in inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), which regulates the phosphorylation of NF-κB, and the decrease in phosphorylated NF-κB were also induced by administration of BAY11-7082 and/or heat stress. Protein content in C2C12 cells was increased by the administration of BAY11-7082 with a semi-logarithm fashion. Significant increases in the protein content of C2C12 cells were observed 48 h following heating with or without administration of BAY11-7082. These observations suggest that heat stress might increase muscle protein through the downregulation of NF-κB signaling. Inhibition of NF-κB induced by application of heat stress might be one of the hypertrophic stimuli on skeletal muscle cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000323324DOI Listing
February 2012

A possible role of NF-kappaB and HSP72 in skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by heat stress in rats.

Gen Physiol Biophys 2010 Sep;29(3):234-42

School of Health Sciences, Toyohashi SOZO University, Aichi 440-8511, Japan.

Effects of heat stress on phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappaB (phospho-NF-kappaB) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) contents in skeletal muscles were studied. Male Wistar rats (7-week-old) were randomly assigned to control and heat-stressed groups. Rats in heat-stressed group were exposed to heat stress (42 degrees C for 60 min) in an incubator without anesthesia. Soleus muscles were dissected and weighted 1, 3, and 7 days after the heat exposure. Significant increases in the wet weight and protein content of soleus were observed 7 days following the exposure (p < 0.05). Heat stress also induced the up-regulation of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), IkappaBalpha (inhibitor of NF-kappaB) and the increase in the relative population of Pax7-positive satellite cells to total muscle nuclei before the increase in muscle mass. The content levels of phospho-NF-kappaB and TNFalpha were significantly decreased 1 and 3 days after heat stress, respectively (p < 0.05). A negative correlation between HSP72 and phospho-NF-kappaB contents was observed 1 day after the heat exposure. These observations suggest that the decrease in NF-kappaB signaling may play a part of a role in heat stress-associated muscle hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4149/gpb_2010_03_234DOI Listing
September 2010