Publications by authors named "Yoshimi Tobita"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Generation of Novel Chimeric Mice with Humanized Livers by Using Hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID Mice.

PLoS One 2015 4;10(11):e0142145. Epub 2015 Nov 4.

Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan.

We have used homozygous albumin enhancer/promoter-driven urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient (uPA/SCID) mice as hosts for chimeric mice with humanized livers. However, uPA/SCID mice show four disadvantages: the human hepatocytes (h-heps) replacement index in mouse liver is decreased due to deletion of uPA transgene by homologous recombination, kidney disorders are likely to develop, body size is small, and hemizygotes cannot be used as hosts as more frequent homologous recombination than homozygotes. To solve these disadvantages, we have established a novel host strain that has a transgene containing albumin promoter/enhancer and urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA and has a SCID background (cDNA-uPA/SCID). We applied the embryonic stem cell technique to simultaneously generate a number of transgenic lines, and found the line with the most appropriate levels of uPA expression-not detrimental but with a sufficiently damaged liver. We transplanted h-heps into homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice via the spleen, and monitored their human albumin (h-alb) levels and body weight. Blood h-alb levels and body weight gradually increased in the hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice and were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. By contrast, blood h-alb levels and body weight in uPA/SCID chimeric mice decreased from 16 weeks of age onwards. A similar decrease in body weight was observed in the homozygous cDNA-uPA/SCID genotype, but h-alb levels were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. Microarray analyses revealed identical h-heps gene expression profiles in homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice were identical to that observed in the uPA/SCID mice. Furthermore, like uPA/SCID chimeric mice, homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID chimeric mice were successfully infected with hepatitis B virus and C virus. These results indicate that hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice may be novel and useful hosts for producing chimeric mice for use in future long-term studies, including hepatitis virus infection analysis or drug toxicity studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0142145PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4633119PMC
June 2016

Resistance to cyclosporin A derives from mutations in hepatitis C virus nonstructural proteins.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2014 May 19;448(1):56-62. Epub 2014 Apr 19.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug that targets cyclophilins, cellular cofactors that regulate the immune system. Replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is suppressed by CsA, but the molecular basis of this suppression is still not fully understood. To investigate this suppression, we cultured HCV replicon cells (Con1, HCV genotype 1b, FLR-N cell) in the presence of CsA and obtained nine CsA-resistant FLR-N cell lines. We determined full-length HCV sequences for all nine clones, and chose two (clones #6 and #7) of the nine clones that have high replication activity in the presence of CsA for further analysis. Both clones showed two consensus mutations, one in NS3 (T1280V) and the other in NS5A (D2292E). Characterization of various mutants indicated that the D2292E mutation conferred resistance to high concentrations of CsA (up to 2 μM). In addition, the missense mutation T1280V contributed to the recovery of colony formation activity. The effects of these mutations are also evident in two established HCV replicon cell lines-HCV-RMT ([1], genotype 1a) and JFH1 (genotype 2a). Moreover, three other missense mutations in NS5A-D2303H, S2362G, and E2414K-enhanced the resistance to CsA conferred by D2292E; these double or all quadruple mutants could resist approximately 8- to 25-fold higher concentrations of CsA than could wild-type Con1. These four mutations, either as single or combinations, also made Con1 strain resistant to two other cyclophilin inhibitors, N-methyl-4-isoleucine-cyclosporin (NIM811) or Debio-025. Interestingly, the changes in IC50 values that resulted from each of these mutations were the lowest in the Debio-025-treated cells, indicating its highest resistant activity against the adaptive mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.04.053DOI Listing
May 2014

Isolation and characterization of highly replicable hepatitis C virus genotype 1a strain HCV-RMT.

PLoS One 2013 16;8(12):e82527. Epub 2013 Dec 16.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan.

Multiple genotype 1a clones have been reported, including the very first hepatitis C virus (HCV) clone called H77. The replication ability of some of these clones has been confirmed in vitro and in vivo, although this ability is somehow compromised. We now report a newly isolated genotype 1a clone, designated HCV-RMT, which has the ability to replicate efficiently in patients, chimeric mice with humanized liver, and cultured cells. An authentic subgenomic replicon cell line was established from the HCV-RMT sequence with spontaneous introduction of three adaptive mutations, which were later confirmed to be responsible for efficient replication in HuH-7 cells as both subgenomic replicon RNA and viral genome RNA. Following transfection, the HCV-RMT RNA genome with three adaptive mutations was maintained for more than 2 months in HuH-7 cells. One clone selected from the transfected cells had a high copy number, and its supernatant could infect naïve HuH-7 cells. Direct injection of wild-type HCV-RMT RNA into the liver of chimeric mice with humanized liver resulted in vigorous replication, similar to inoculation with the parental patient's serum. A study of virus replication using HCV-RMT derivatives with various combinations of adaptive mutations revealed a clear inversely proportional relationship between in vitro and in vivo replication abilities. Thus, we suggest that HCV-RMT and its derivatives are important tools for HCV genotype 1a research and for determining the mechanism of HCV replication in vitro and in vivo.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0082527PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3865021PMC
September 2014

Immunization with a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes nonstructural proteins of the hepatitis C virus suppresses viral protein levels in mouse liver.

PLoS One 2012 17;7(12):e51656. Epub 2012 Dec 17.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan.

Chronic hepatitis C, which is caused by infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), is a global health problem. Using a mouse model of hepatitis C, we examined the therapeutic effects of a recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) that encodes an HCV protein. We generated immunocompetent mice that each expressed multiple HCV proteins via a Cre/loxP switching system and established several distinct attenuated rVV strains. The HCV core protein was expressed consistently in the liver after polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid injection, and these mice showed chronic hepatitis C-related pathological findings (hepatocyte abnormalities, accumulation of glycogen, steatosis), liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Immunization with one rVV strain (rVV-N25), which encoded nonstructural HCV proteins, suppressed serum inflammatory cytokine levels and alleviated the symptoms of pathological chronic hepatitis C within 7 days after injection. Furthermore, HCV protein levels in liver tissue also decreased in a CD4 and CD8 T-cell-dependent manner. Consistent with these results, we showed that rVV-N25 immunization induced a robust CD8 T-cell immune response that was specific to the HCV nonstructural protein 2. We also demonstrated that the onset of chronic hepatitis in CN2-29((+/-))/MxCre((+/-)) mice was mainly attributable to inflammatory cytokines, (tumor necrosis factor) TNF-α and (interleukin) IL-6. Thus, our generated mice model should be useful for further investigation of the immunological processes associated with persistent expression of HCV proteins because these mice had not developed immune tolerance to the HCV antigen. In addition, we propose that rVV-N25 could be developed as an effective therapeutic vaccine.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0051656PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3524174PMC
June 2013

Self-enhancement of hepatitis C virus replication by promotion of specific sphingolipid biosynthesis.

PLoS Pathog 2012 16;8(8):e1002860. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Lipids are key components in the viral life cycle that affect host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we investigated the effect of HCV infection on sphingolipid metabolism, especially on endogenous SM levels, and the relationship between HCV replication and endogenous SM molecular species. We demonstrated that HCV induces the expression of the genes (SGMS1 and 2) encoding human SM synthases 1 and 2. We observed associated increases of both total and individual sphingolipid molecular species, as assessed in human hepatocytes and in the detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) fraction in which HCV replicates. SGMS1 expression had a correlation with HCV replication. Inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis with a hepatotropic serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) inhibitor, NA808, suppressed HCV-RNA production while also interfering with sphingolipid metabolism. Further, we identified the SM molecular species that comprise the DRM fraction and demonstrated that these endogenous SM species interacted with HCV nonstructural 5B polymerase to enhance viral replication. Our results reveal that HCV alters sphingolipid metabolism to promote viral replication, providing new insights into the formation of the HCV replication complex and the involvement of host lipids in the HCV life cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3420934PMC
December 2012

Conditional gene expression in hepatitis C virus transgenic mice without induction of severe liver injury using a non-inflammatory Cre-expressing adenovirus.

Virus Res 2011 Sep 30;160(1-2):89-97. Epub 2011 May 30.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 1-6, Kamikitazawa 2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8505, Japan.

We previously established inducible-hepatitis C virus (HCV) transgenic mice, which expressed the HCV gene (nucleotides 294-3435) encoding the core, E1, E2, and NS2 proteins. The expression of these proteins is regulated by the Cre/loxP system and an adenovirus vector (AdV) that expresses Cre DNA recombinase (Cre) controlled by the CAG promoter (AxCANCre). Recent studies have demonstrated that AxCANCre injection alone results in severe liver injury by induction of the adenovirus protein IX (Ad-pIX) gene. As a result, HCV protein expression in transgenic mice livers was only short-term. In contrast, the EF1α promoter-bearing AdV induces slight Ad-pIX gene expression without inducing severe liver injury. Therefore, in the present study, we developed a Cre-expressing AdV that bears the EF1α promoter (AxEFCre) to express HCV protein in the transgenic mouse livers. In the non-transgenic mice injected with AxCANCre, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were elevated and severe liver inflammation occurred; this was not observed in AxEFCre-injected mice. In contrast, AxEFCre-injected HCV transgenic mice showed milder liver inflammatory responses that were clearly due to HCV protein expression. Moreover, the AxEFCre injection enabled the transgenic mice to persistently express HCV protein. These results indicate that use of AxEFCre efficiently promotes Cre-mediated DNA recombination in vivo without a severe hepatitis response to AdV. This inducible-HCV transgenic mouse model using AxEFCre should be useful for research on HCV pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2011.05.019DOI Listing
September 2011

Establishment of infectious HCV virion-producing cells with newly designed full-genome replicon RNA.

Arch Virol 2011 Feb 19;156(2):295-304. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida-cho, Aoba-ku, Yokohama, Japan.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon systems enable in-depth analysis of the life cycle of HCV. However, the previously reported full-genome replicon system is unable to produce authentic virions. On the basis of these results, we constructed newly designed full-genomic replicon RNA, which is composed of the intact 5'-terminal-half RNA extending to the NS2 region flanked by an extra selection marker gene. Huh-7 cells harboring this full-genomic RNA proliferated well under G418 selection and secreted virion-like particles into the supernatant. These particles, which were round and 50 nm in diameter when analyzed by electron microscopy, had a buoyant density of 1.08 g/mL that shifted to 1.19 g/mL after NP-40 treatment; these figures match the putative densities of intact virions and nucleocapsids without envelope. The particles also showed infectivity in a colony-forming assay. This system may offer another option for investigating the life cycle of HCV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-010-0859-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3032175PMC
February 2011

Pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection in Tupaia belangeri.

J Virol 2010 Jan;84(1):303-11

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6, Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-0057, Japan.

The lack of a small-animal model has hampered the analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) pathogenesis. The tupaia (Tupaia belangeri), a tree shrew, has shown susceptibility to HCV infection and has been considered a possible candidate for a small experimental model of HCV infection. However, a longitudinal analysis of HCV-infected tupaias has yet to be described. Here, we provide an analysis of HCV pathogenesis during the course of infection in tupaias over a 3-year period. The animals were inoculated with hepatitis C patient serum HCR6 or viral particles reconstituted from full-length cDNA. In either case, inoculation caused mild hepatitis and intermittent viremia during the acute phase of infection. Histological analysis of infected livers revealed that HCV caused chronic hepatitis that worsened in a time-dependent manner. Liver steatosis, cirrhotic nodules, and accompanying tumorigenesis were also detected. To examine whether infectious virus particles were produced in tupaia livers, naive animals were inoculated with sera from HCV-infected tupaias, which had been confirmed positive for HCV RNA. As a result, the recipient animals also displayed mild hepatitis and intermittent viremia. Quasispecies were also observed in the NS5A region, signaling phylogenic lineage from the original inoculating sequence. Taken together, these data suggest that the tupaia is a practical animal model for experimental studies of HCV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01448-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2798454PMC
January 2010

Hepatitis C virus and disrupted interferon signaling promote lymphoproliferation via type II CD95 and interleukins.

Gastroenterology 2009 Jul 9;137(1):285-96, 296.e1-11. Epub 2009 Apr 9.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan.

Background & Aims: The molecular mechanisms of lymphoproliferation associated with the disruption of interferon (IFN) signaling and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are poorly understood. Lymphomas are extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection; we sought to clarify the molecular mechanisms of these processes.

Methods: We established interferon regulatory factor-1-null (irf-1(-/-)) mice with inducible and persistent expression of HCV structural proteins (irf-1/CN2 mice). All the mice (n = 900) were observed for at least 600 days after Cre/loxP switching. Histologic analyses, as well as analyses of lymphoproliferation, sensitivity to Fas-induced apoptosis, colony formation, and cytokine production, were performed. Proteins associated with these processes were also assessed.

Results: Irf-1/CN2 mice had extremely high incidences of lymphomas and lymphoproliferative disorders and displayed increased mortality. Disruption of irf-1 reduced the sensitivity to Fas-induced apoptosis and decreased the levels of caspases-3/7 and caspase-9 messenger RNA species and enzymatic activities. Furthermore, the irf-1/CN2 mice showed decreased activation of caspases-3/7 and caspase-9 and increased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and Bcl-2, as well as increased Bcl-2 expression, which promoted oncogenic transformation of lymphocytes. IL-2 and IL-10 were induced by the HCV core protein in splenocytes.

Conclusions: Disruption of IFN signaling resulted in development of lymphoma, indicating that differential signaling occurs in lymphocytes compared with liver. This mouse model, in which HCV expression and disruption of IFN signaling synergize to promote lymphoproliferation, will be an important tool for the development of therapeutic agents that target the lymphoproliferative pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2009.03.061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4197798PMC
July 2009
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