Publications by authors named "Yoshimasa Sasaki"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Bacterial Distribution and Community Structure in Beef Cattle Liver and Bile at Slaughter.

J Food Prot 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

National Institute of Health Sciences 3-25-26 Tonomachi, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, JAPAN Kanagawa 210-9501 +81442706563.

In this study, the distribution of hygienic indicator bacteria in cattle livers and bile was examined at slaughterhouses. First, 127 cattle livers with gallbladders were carefully eviscerated from the carcasses at 10 slaughterhouses. Microbiological examination showed that 9 bile (7.1%) and 19 liver parenchyma (15.0%) samples were positive for the family Enterobacteriaceae (EB) with means ± SD of 3.68 ± 4.63 log CFU/mL and 1.59 ± 2.47 log CFU/g, respectively; thus, bacterial contamination was apparent even at the postevisceration stage. Subsequently, 70 cattle livers were obtained at the postprocessing/storage stage from 7 of the ten slaughterhouses; microbiological analysis revealed greater means of EB in the liver parenchyma (means ± SD of 3.00 ± 3.89 log CFU/g, P =0.011) than those at postevisceration stage, suggesting that bacterial dissemination and/or replication occurred in the liver parenchyma during processing and storage. According to 16S rRNA ion semiconductor sequencing analysis of representative samples from 12 cattle, Proteobacteria , Firmicutes , and Actinobacteria were dominant in both the parenchyma and bile, in which EB/ Escherichia coli were predominate among EB-rich livers. These results suggest that bile plays a role as a vehicle for bacterial transmission to the liver parenchyma. This is the first study to demonstrate bacterial distribution and community structure in the liver and biliary microecosystem of cattle at slaughter. Our data provide possible implication of EB testing in bile to screen cattle livers contaminated with high levels of fecal indicator bacteria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/JFP-21-288DOI Listing
November 2021

Development and Evaluation of Fluorescence Immunochromatography for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Thermophilic .

Food Saf (Tokyo) 2021 Sep 24;9(3):81-87. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Bacteriology Section, Osaka Institute of Public Health, 1-3-69 Nakamichi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka 537-0025, Japan.

() and () are leading causes of foodborne gastroenteritis in Japan. Epidemiological surveillance has provided evidence that poultry meat is one of the main reservoirs for human campylobacteriosis, and therefore, improvement in process hygiene at slaughter is required to reduce the number of human infections. This study thus aimed to develop fluorescent immunochromatography strips for rapid and sensitive detection of thermophilic on poultry carcasses at slaughter. To establish the required detection levels, we first determined the numbers of and on poultry carcasses at one large-scale poultry slaughterhouse in Japan, resulting in the detection of at 1.97 ± 0.24 log CFU/25 g of neck skin during the post-chilling process by using ISO 10272-2:2017. Our developed fluorescence immunochromatography (FIC) assay exhibited a 50% limit of detection of 3.51 log CFU or 4.34 log CFU for NCTC 11168 or JCM 2529, respectively. Inclusive and exclusive tests resulted in good agreement. The practical usefulness of this test toward poultry carcasses should be evaluated in future studies, perhaps concentration of the target microorganisms prior to the testing might be helpful to further enhance sensitivity. Nevertheless, our data suggest the potential of FIC for rapid and sensitive detection of thermophilic for monitoring the process hygiene of poultry carcasses at slaughter.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14252/foodsafetyfscj.D-21-00006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472094PMC
September 2021

Effectiveness of ear skin swabs for monitoring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in pigs at abattoirs.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jan 8;83(1):112-115. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Applied Veterinary Science, the United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan.

Monitoring the prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in pigs could be useful for managing transmission risk to humans. To optimize sampling for LA-MRSA monitoring, we compared the sensitivity of MRSA isolation from skin swabs taken behind the ear and nasal swabs collected from 276 pigs and investigated the prevalence of MRSA in their carcasses. MRSA was isolated from 40 behind the ear skin swabs (14.5%), which was statistically higher than the number isolated from nasal swabs (23 samples, 8.3%). MRSA prevalence in the carcasses was 0.4%. All MRSA isolates were sequence type 398 lineage. Sampling of both the skin behind the ear and nasal mucosa in a pig is recommended to investigate the prevalence of LA-MRSA in pigs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.20-0592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870411PMC
January 2021

[Prevalence and Characterization of Campylobacter in Bile from Bovine Gallbladders].

Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 2020 ;61(4):126-131

Division of Biomedical Food Research, National Institute of Health Sciences.

Campylobacter is one of the most important causes of food-borne infectious diseases. Antibiotics are rarely needed to treat campylobacteriosis, but occasionally used in severe or prolonged cases. Consumption of contaminated bovine liver is a source of campylobacteriosis. Bovine liver can be contaminated with Campylobacter on the surface and inside by the bile at slaughterhouses. Therefore, we investigated the current prevalence and characteristics of Campylobacter in bovine bile at a slaughterhouse. Campylobacter was isolated from 35.7% (55/154) of bile samples. C. jejuni and C. fetus were the two most frequent species. High antimicrobial resistant rates in C. jejuni were observed against tetracycline (63.0%) and ciprofloxacin (44.4%). Multi-locus sequence typing divided C. jejuni isolates (27 isolates) into 12 sequence types (STs) in which ST806 was the most frequent ST and accounted for 37.0%. All C. fetus were identified as C. fetus subsp. fetus which can cause systemic infections. High antimicrobial resistant rates in C. fetus were observed against ciprofloxacin (66.6%), streptomycin (58.3%) and tetracycline (33.3%). All the C. fetus isolates were divided into two STs, ST3 (16 isolates) and ST6 (8 isolates). Of the 16 ST3 isolates, 15 (93.8%) were resistant to both streptomycin and ciprofloxacin. Our data shows high prevalence of Campylobacter in bovine bile and their high rates of antimicrobial resistance. Preventing bile contamination of bovine liver at slaughterhouses is thus considered to be one of control measures to reduce the risk of Campylobacter infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3358/shokueishi.61.126DOI Listing
November 2020

Isolation of ST398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from pigs at abattoirs in Tohoku region, Japan.

J Vet Med Sci 2020 Oct 10;82(9):1400-1403. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Midorimachi, Bunkyodai, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 162-8640, Japan.

Here, we investigated the presence of ST398 livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in nasal swabs of 420 slaughtered pigs from 84 farms at three abattoirs in Tohoku, Japan. MRSA were isolated from 13 (3.1%) samples from 9 (10.7%) farms at two abattoirs. All isolates were classified as ST398 and were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline. Ten and three isolates were classified as Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) types V and IVa, respectively. All type V isolates possessed czrC. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of zinc chloride against types IVa and V were 1 and 4 mM, respectively. This study shows the presence of ST398 MRSA in pigs in this region. Antimicrobials and zinc compounds in feed and drugs might select SCCmec type V ST398 MRSA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.20-0184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538316PMC
October 2020

Imperfection of Commercial Inactivated Vaccine Against Infantis During Induced Molting in Chickens and Proposed Evaluation Method.

Avian Dis 2018 12;62(4):340-344

Research Institute for Animal Science in Biochemistry and Toxicology, Hashimotodai, Midori-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0132, Japan.

In the present study, we evaluated the continuance and efficacy of inactivated vaccine against Infantis (SI) in chickens raised on a commercial farm. Chickens (88-days-old) were inoculated with 1 or 0.5 doses of commercially available trivalent inactivated vaccine; anti-SI antibody titer was examined continuously for 11 mo thereafter. Molting was induced 11 mo after vaccination, and SI was administered orally. SI colony-forming units (CFUs) were measured in cecal feces, cecal contents, liver, and spleen samples. Anti-SI antibodies in the 1 dose vaccination group could be detected in at least 90% of cases until the end of testing. SI discharge was significantly reduced in birds treated with either dose of vaccine. However, SI CFUs were elevated in the induced molting group, regardless of vaccination dose, particularly in the cecal feces, cecal contents, and spleen. Thus, the vaccine provided remarkable protection against SI infection under ordinary rearing methods but not during induced molting. To achieve sufficient SI protective efficacy, we recommend inoculation with 1 dose of vaccine. Moreover, the efficacy of inactivated vaccine is recommended to be evaluated by challenging chickens with live in addition to antibody titration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/11354-122315-Reg.1DOI Listing
December 2018

Prevalence and Phylogenetic Analysis of Hepatitis E Virus among Pigs in Japan.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2018 Jan 26;71(1):75-78. Epub 2017 Dec 26.

Food Safety and Consumer Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.

The number of reported cases of human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has increased since 2012. Pigs are considered an important source of viruses causing human HEV infection. It is possible that the prevalence of HEV among pigs at slaughter age (approximately 6 months old) has increased in the last decade. Therefore, we investigated the current prevalence of HEV among pigs in Japan. Although HEV RNA was detected in rectal content samples from pigs aged from one to 5 months, no HEV RNA was detected in any samples from 6-month-old pigs. The highest viral shedding prevalence (33%) was detected among 3-month-old pigs. This study shows that there has been no change in the prevalence of HEV among pigs at the slaughter age, in the prevalence of HEV by age group on pig farms, or in the phylogenetic classification of HEV isolates in the last decade. Therefore, factors downstream of the pork production stage may be contributing to the increased number of human HEV infection cases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.JJID.2017.235DOI Listing
January 2018

Microbiological Quality Assessment of Game Meats at Retail in Japan.

J Food Prot 2017 Dec;80(12):2119-2126

8 Department of Animal Hygiene, Kitasato University, Higashi 23-35-1, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan.

In this study, we examined the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. and the distribution of indicator bacteria in 248 samples of game meats (120 venison and 128 wild boar) retailed between November 2015 and March 2016 in Japan. No Salmonella spp. were detected in any of the samples, whereas Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotype OUT:H25 (stx, eae) was isolated from one deer meat sample, suggesting a possible source for human infection. Plate count assays indicated greater prevalence of coliforms and E. coli in wild boar meat than in venison, whereas their prevalence in processing facilities showed greater variation than in animal species. The 16S rRNA ion semiconductor sequencing analysis of 24 representative samples revealed that the abundances of Acinetobacter and Arthrobacter spp. significantly correlated with the prevalence of E. coli, and quantitative PCR analyses in combination with selective plate count assay verified these correlations. To our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize the diversity of microorganisms of game meats at retail in Japan, together with identification of dominant microbiota. Our data suggest the necessity of bottom-up hygienic assessment in areas of slaughtering and processing facilities to improve microbiological safety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-137DOI Listing
December 2017

Establishment of an equine tetanus antitoxin reference standard for veterinary use in Japan.

Biologicals 2016 Sep 22;44(5):374-7. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 1-15-1, Tokura, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8511, Japan.

To establish the first National Veterinary Assay Laboratory (NVAL) equine tetanus antitoxin reference standard for veterinary use, we manufactured vials of a candidate antitoxin. These were quality tested for moisture content, vacuum, colour, clarity, and the presence of foreign objects. Ultimately, 115 quality-controlled vials were prepared. To estimate the antitoxin potency of the candidate standard, three different laboratories conducted parallel line assays alongside the existing antitoxin standard. These potency estimates ranged from 38 to 42 IU. This activity was maintained for two years after manufacture, as compared with a fresh vial. No statistically significant non-linearity or non-parallelism of the regression lines was observed (p > 0.05). Statistical assessment of inter- and intra-laboratory variability revealed acceptable coefficients of variation of 3.2% and 2.4-3.1%, respectively. Based on these results, the potency of the potential reference standard was calculated at 40 units of antitoxin activity per 1-mL vial. Vials of this preparation were distributed for use as the first equine tetanus antitoxin reference standard for veterinary use in September 2015.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biologicals.2016.06.008DOI Listing
September 2016

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne bacteria in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and wild deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2013 Nov;10(11):985-91

1 Food Safety and Consumer Affairs Bureau , Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries, Tokyo, Japan .

This study aimed to evaluate the role of wild boars and deer as reservoirs of foodborne bacteria. We investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and O26, and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from wild boars and deer in Japan, from July through December 2010. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were isolated from 43.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35.0-52.6) and 7.4% (95% CI: 2.8-12.1) of rectal content samples of wild boars, respectively, but not from wild deer. The most common Campylobacter species was C. lanienae and C. hyointestinalis. The nine Salmonella serovars isolated were S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona (three isolates), S. Narashino (two), S. Enteritidis (one), S. Havana (one), S. Infantis (one), and S. Thompson (one). Five (16%) and 6 (29%) isolates of C. lanienae and C. hyointestinalis, respectively, were resistant to enrofloxacin. STEC O157 and O26 and L. monocytogenes were isolated from 2.3% (95% CI: 0-5.0), 0.8% (95% CI: 0-2.3), and 6.1% (95% CI: 1.7-10.5) of the rectal content samples of wild deer, respectively, but not from wild boars. This first nationwide survey of the prevalence of foodborne bacteria in wild boars and wild deer in Japan suggests that consumption of meat from these animals is associated with the risk of causing infection with these bacteria in humans. Moreover, these animals are potential vehicles for distribution of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria into their habitat. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of such foodborne bacteria in these wild animals should be monitored periodically.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2013.1548DOI Listing
November 2013

Contamination of poultry products with Listeria monocytogenes at poultry processing plants.

J Vet Med Sci 2014 Jan 9;76(1):129-32. Epub 2013 Sep 9.

Food Safety and Consumer Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 1-2-1, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8950, Japan.

This study aimed to confirm that poultry products packed at poultry processing plants have already been contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes and that poultry products contaminated with L. monocytogenes are derived from broiler flocks infected with L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 16.8% (58/345) of chicken breast products and 2.3% (8/345) of chicken liver products. In contrast, L. monocytogenes was isolated from the pooled cecal content sample from only 1 (4%) of 25 flocks and was never isolated from any pooled dropping samples collected from 25 farms. The results of our study indicate that cecal content does not seem to be an important source of L. monocytogenes in poultry products.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.13-0267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3979953PMC
January 2014

Comparison of the prevalence of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains O157 and O26 between beef and dairy cattle in Japan.

J Vet Med Sci 2013 17;75(9):1219-21. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

Food Safety and Consumer Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 1-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8950, Japan.

With the aim of comparing the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and O26 between beef and dairy cattle, we collected rectal content samples from 250 beef cattle on 25 beef farms and 250 dairy cows on 25 dairy farms from July through September 2011. STEC O157 was isolated from 16 beef cattle on 7 beef farms, while no STEC O157 was isolated from any dairy farms. This result suggests that the prevalence of STEC O157 is higher in beef cattle than in dairy cattle. STEC O26 was isolated from 1 animal each from beef and dairy cattle herds, and therefore, it was not possible to compare statistically the prevalence of STEC O26 in beef and dairy cattle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.12-0514DOI Listing
September 2014

Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and hepatitis E virus in swine livers collected at an abattoir.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2013 ;66(2):161-4

Food Safety and Consumer Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo 100-8950, Japan. yoshimasa_sasaki@nm.maff.go.jp

We investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine liver. We collected swine livers from 110 pigs at an abattoir from September 2011 to March 2012 [corrected] . Pathogens were detected in the liver samples of 19 (17.3%) pigs. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from the liver samples of 14 (12.7%) pigs. In 10 of the 14 Campylobacter-positive pigs, bacteria were present in the internal regions of the liver. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were detected in the liver samples of 5 (4.5%) pigs and 1 (1%) pig, respectively. No HEV was detected in the swine liver samples tested. Regarding antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates, all isolates, except 1 Campylobacter jejuni isolate, were resistant to 1 or more antimicrobial agent. Campylobacter spp. resistant to erythromycin and/or enrofloxacin were isolated from the liver samples of 9 (8%) pigs. These results suggest that the consuming swine liver without proper heat treatment may increase the risk of foodborne illnesses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.66.161DOI Listing
September 2013

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter isolates from beef cattle and pigs in Japan.

J Vet Med Sci 2013 5;75(5):625-8. Epub 2012 Dec 5.

Food Safety and Consumer Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 1-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8950, Japan.

Rectal contents of beef cattle and pigs were collected between October 2010 and February 2011 in Japan. Campylobacter jejuni were isolated from 36.0% (90/250) of beef cattle from 88.0% (22/25) of beef farms. C. coli were isolated from 3.6% (9/250) of beef cattle from 16.0% (4/25) of beef farms and from 42.4% (106/250) of pigs from all 25 pig farms. As to enrofloxacin, 40.0% (36/90) of C. jejuni isolates and 66.7% (6/9) of C. coli isolates from beef cattle and 44.3% (47/106) of C. coli isolates from pigs were resistant. Additionally, 15.1% (16/106) of C. coli isolates from pigs were resistant to erythromycin and enrofloxacin. The high prevalence of Campylobacter carriers and significant antimicrobial resistance of the isolates were found.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.12-0432DOI Listing
January 2014

Prevalence and characterization of foodborne pathogens in dairy cattle in the eastern part of Japan.

J Vet Med Sci 2013 May 3;75(4):543-6. Epub 2012 Dec 3.

Food Safety and Consumer Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 1-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

To investigate the prevalence and characterization of foodborne pathogens [Campylobacter spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.] in dairy cows, rectal content grab samples were collected from 250 dairy cows reared on 25 dairy farms in eastern Japan from December 2010 through February 2011. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 106 (42%) cows on 23 (92%) farms, STEC O157 from three cows on one farm, L. monocytogenes from three cows on another three farms and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium from eight cows on another farm. STEC O26 was not isolated from any of the dairy farms investigated. The results suggest that C. jejuni is widespread in dairy farms in eastern Japan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.12-0327DOI Listing
May 2013

Clostridium difficile isolated from the fecal contents of swine in Japan.

J Vet Med Sci 2013 May 22;75(4):539-41. Epub 2012 Nov 22.

National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries, 1-15-1 Tokura, Kokubunji, Tokyo, Japan.

A total of 250 fecal content samples were collected from 25 farrow-to-finish pig farms and examined for the prevalence of Clostridium difficile by using ethanol treatment followed by plating onto selective media--cycloserine-cefoxitin-mannitol agar--for the isolation of Clostridium difficile. Two specimens (0.8%, 95% confidential interval: 0-2.9%) were positive for C. difficile. One isolate was only positive for toxin B, and the other isolate was negative for both toxins A and B. Thus, prevalence of Clostridium difficile was found to be low among finishing pigs in Japan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.12-0353DOI Listing
May 2013

Antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and O26 isolates from beef cattle.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2012 ;65(2):117-21

Food Safety and Consumer Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries, Tokyo 100-8950, Japan. yoshimasa_sasaki@nm.maff.go.jp

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 (n = 241) and O26 (n = 11) isolated from beef cattle and to characterize their antimicrobial resistance profiles. Resistance to dihydrostreptomycin was detected most frequently (STEC O157, 9.5%; STEC O26, 54.5%), followed by resistance to oxytetracycline (7.9%; 45.5%) and ampicillin (5.4%; 36.4%). Resistance to one or more antimicrobial agents was detected in 13.3% (32/241) of the STEC O157 isolates and 54.5% (6/11) of the STEC O26 isolates. The antimicrobial resistance rate in the STEC O26 isolates was significantly higher than that in the STEC O157 isolates (P = 0.002, Fisher's exact test). The antimicrobial resistance rate in the STEC O157 isolates possessing both stx(1) and stx(2) genes was 26.3% (15/57), while that in the isolates possessing stx(2c) gene alone was 3.9% (3/77). These findings suggest that the antimicrobial resistance in STEC O157 is associated with serogroups and the Shiga toxin genotype.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
August 2012

Successful treatment of bacillary hemoglobinuria in Japanese Black cows.

J Vet Med Sci 2009 Aug;71(8):1105-8

Laboratory of Farm Animal Production Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.

Four pasture-fed Japanese Black cows showed the main clinical symptoms of severe hemoglobinuria at different periods between 2003 and 2007. Hematological analyses at the first consultation revealed severe anemia, and biochemical analyses indicated both severe hemolysis and disruption of hepatic function. Although the first 2 patients died, the hemoglobinuria and general condition of the remaining 2 cows, who were immediately initiated on large doses of antibiotics, improved within 3 days. Clostridium haemolyticum was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the blood sample of 1 of the infected cows. Anti-fascioliasis medicine is administered, and since then, no case of hemoglobinuria has been observed. The cows were diagnosed with bacillary hemoglobinuria, and they represent the first few cases in Japan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.71.1105DOI Listing
August 2009

Human fulminant gas gangrene caused by Clostridium chauvoei.

J Clin Microbiol 2008 Apr 6;46(4):1545-7. Epub 2008 Feb 6.

Department of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Infection Control, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1 Gakuen, Musashi-Murayama, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan.

The first human case of fulminant gas gangrene caused by Clostridium chauvoei, a pathogen causing ruminant blackleg, was confirmed for a 58-year-old man suffering from diabetes mellitus. The patient developed conspicuous emphysematous gangrene in the right chest wall as well as intravascular gas entrapments and died 2 h after hospital arrival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01895-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2292918PMC
April 2008

Genetic variation and cross-reactivity of Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin.

Vet Microbiol 2006 Apr 5;114(1-2):51-9. Epub 2005 Dec 5.

Kyoto Biken Laboratories Inc., Kyoto 611-0041, Japan.

Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin genes were sequenced with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products amplified from DNAs of 25 C. septicum strains, and were classified into 10 patterns. Alpha-toxins were purified from the culture supernatant of four C. septicum strains (strains No. 44, Kagoshima 8, Mie and Tokachi) which were specially chosen from patterns of the deduced amino acid sequences. The molecular weights of the alpha-toxins were not different according to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. However, the isoelectric points between the alpha-toxins of No. 44 and Tokachi strains differed markedly. Cross-neutralization tests were performed with purified alpha-toxins and antitoxins in mice and in Vero cells. Each antitoxin showed roughly the same titers against the four alpha-toxins in mice and completely identical titers against these in Vero cells. Calves immunized with toxoid prepared from the culture supernatant of No.44 strain were challenged by exposure to spores of Mie strain. The toxoid conferred protection against the challenge in calves. From these results, although genetic variation has been observed within the C. septicum alpha-toxin gene, C. septicum strains toxoid of strain No.44 induces protective immunity against exposure to C. septicum that produce other subtypes of alpha-toxin containing several different amino acid residues.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2005.10.039DOI Listing
April 2006

Effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on the immune responses of LPS-sensitive mice.

J Vet Med Sci 2004 Oct;66(10):1189-93

National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, Tokura, Kokubunji, Tokyo, Japan.

The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on humoral and cell-mediated immunity was assessed using LPS-sensitive C3H/HeN mice. A single injection of LPS significantly decreased the anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) antibody titers, but not the number of anti-SRBC antibody producing spleen cells. In contrast, double LPS injection did not significantly decrease the anti-SRBC titers and even increased the number of anti-SRBC antibody producing spleen cells. Similarly, single LPS injection significantly suppressed the swelling of the footpad, but double LPS injection caused milder suppression. These results suggest that a difference in the level and timing of exposure to LPS may influence the immune response to infection or vaccination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.66.1189DOI Listing
October 2004

Characterization of Campylobacter lanienae from pig feces.

J Vet Med Sci 2003 Jan;65(1):129-31

Veterinary National Assay Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokura, Kokubunji, Tokyo, Japan.

To isolate Campylobacter spp., the feces of healthy cattle, pigs, and broilers were examined between June 1999 and January 2000. Campylobacter lanienae strains were isolated from the feces of healthy pigs, but not from the feces of cattle or broilers. In six C. lanienae isolates, there was only 21-38% DNA-DNA homology to Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii strain NCTC 12901. Thus, the primary host of C. lanienae is likely to be the pig and C. lanienae appears to be a species distinct from C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii. In addition, an intervening sequence of 226 bp in the 16S rRNA gene was found in four isolates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.65.129DOI Listing
January 2003

Phylogenetic analysis and PCR detection of Clostridium chauvoei, Clostridium haemolyticum, Clostridium novyi types A and B, and Clostridium septicum based on the flagellin gene.

Vet Microbiol 2002 May;86(3):257-67

National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 1-15-1 Tokura, Kokubunji, Tokyo, Japan.

The flagellin genes (fliC) of Clostridium chauvoei, Clostridium haemolyticum, Clostridium novyi types A and B, and Clostridium septicum were analysed by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. The five Clostridium species have at least two copies of the flagellin gene (fliC) arranged in tandem on the chromosome. The deduced N- and C-terminal aminoacid sequences of the flagellin proteins (FliCs) of these clostridia are well conserved but their central region aminoacid sequences are not. Phylogenic analysis based on the N-terminal aminoacid sequence of the FliC protein revealed that these clostridia, which belong to Clostridium 16S rDNA phylogenic cluster I (), are more closely related to Bacillus subtilis than to Clostridium difficile, which belongs to the cluster XI. Moreover, a multiplex polymerase reaction (PCR) system based on the fliC sequence was developed to rapidly identify C. chauvoei, C. haemolyticum, C. novyi types A and B, and C. septicum. PCR of each Clostridium amplified a species-specific band. The multiplex PCR system may be useful for rapid identification of pathogenic clostridia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1135(02)00002-0DOI Listing
May 2002

Method for detection of extraneous active bovine viral diarrhoea virus and classical swine fever virus in animal viral vaccines by RT-PCR, which amplify negative-strand viral RNA in infected cells.

Biologicals 2002 Mar;30(1):27-35

Assay Division I, National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, 1-15-1 Tokura Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8511.

An oligonucleotide sense primer, Pst324alpha, was designed and used for synthesizing cDNA from negative-strand viral RNA in infected cells and used for rapid detection of active extraneous bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in animal viral vaccines by culturing a sample in cells followed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Active and inactivated viruses of BVDV No. 12-43 strain and CSFV GPE(-)strain were inoculated to bovine testicle and swine testicle cells for incubation. After the complete extraction of RNA from these cells, cDNA was synthesized using Pst324alpha, and PCR was carried out using primers 324 and 326 (novel RT-PCR). Amplification of novel RT-PCR products was observed in cells infected with active viruses but not in cells inoculated with inactivated viruses, inoculums and cultured media after incubation. This novel RT-PCR was able to amplify viral sequences from cells infected with only a small number of infectious particles (less than 10 TCID50) at three days postinoculation and was as sensitive as the general RT-PCR using a random primer and the interference and immunofluorescent antibody (FA) methods. The results of experiments on detection of BVDV RNA from vaccines contaminated with active and inactivated BVDV showed that the sensitivity of the novel RT-PCR was almost the same as the sensitivities of the interference and FA methods. These results suggest that the novel RT-PCR is easier and more rapid than the interference method for detection of active BVDV and that the novel RT-PCR is a reliable means for detection of active extraneous BVDV for quality control of animal vaccines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/biol.2001.0314DOI Listing
March 2002
-->