Publications by authors named "Yoshiko Murakami"

110 Publications

PIGF deficiency causes a phenotype overlapping with DOORS syndrome.

Hum Genet 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Pediatrics, CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center, University of Montreal, 3175, Côte-Sainte-Catherine, Montreal, QC, H3T 1C5, Canada.

DOORS syndrome is characterized by deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, intellectual disability, and seizures. In this study, we report two unrelated individuals with DOORS syndrome without deafness. Exome sequencing revealed a homozygous missense variant in PIGF (NM_173074.3:c.515C>G, p.Pro172Arg) in both. We demonstrate impaired glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis through flow cytometry analysis. We thus describe the causal role of a novel disease gene, PIGF, in DOORS syndrome and highlight the overlap between this condition and GPI deficiency disorders. For each gene implicated in DOORS syndrome and/or inherited GPI deficiencies, there is considerable clinical variability so a high index of suspicion is warranted even though not all features are noted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-020-02251-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparison of Surgical Outcomes Between Invasive Mucinous and Non-Mucinous Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Ann Thorac Surg 2020 Nov 23. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) is a rare subtype of invasive lung adenocarcinoma. However, the clinical course and prognostic outcomes following IMA resection, particularly postoperative recurrence, remain unclear.

Methods: We pathologically reevaluated 1362 lung adenocarcinoma resections performed at our institution, categorizing cases into the IMA group (72 cases) and non-IMA group (1290 cases). The IMA group was further classified into pneumonia and nodular types based on preoperative computed tomography.

Results: Overall, the IMA group had lower carcinoembryonic antigen levels (3 vs. 8 ng/mL; p < .01), fewer lymph node metastasis (4% vs. 24%; p < .01), and more KRAS mutations (56% vs. 7%; p < .01) than the non-IMA group. Although postoperative recurrence rates did not differ between both groups (32% vs. 27%; p = 0.35), lung recurrence occurred more frequently in the IMA group (83% vs. 17%; p < .01). Propensity score-matched pair analysis showed that the IMA group had fewer lymph node metastasis (3% vs. 35%; p < .01), more KRAS mutations (56% vs. 9%; p < .01), and higher intrapulmonary recurrence rate (84% vs. 31%; p < .01) than the non-IMA group. The 5-year overall survival rates did not differ between both groups (74% vs. 81%; p = 0.26). However, among patients with intrapulmonary recurrence, those in the IMA group had significantly worse prognosis than those in the non-IMA group (35% vs. 77%; p < .01).

Conclusions: Intrapulmonary recurrence, which induced significantly worse prognosis, was more likely to occur in the IMA than non-IMA group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.09.042DOI Listing
November 2020

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria caused by CN-LOH of constitutional PIGB mutation and 70-kbp microdeletion on 15q.

Blood Adv 2020 Nov;4(22):5755-5761

Research Institute for Microbial Diseases and WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) disorder characterized by defective synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors as a result of somatic mutations in the X-linked PIGA gene. The disease is acquired. No constitutional PNH has been described. Here, we report familial PNH associated with unusual inflammatory symptoms. Genetic analysis revealed a germline heterozygous PIGB mutation on chromosome 15 without mutations in PIGA or any of the other genes involved in GPI biosynthesis. In vitro data confirmed that transfection of the mutant PIGB could not restore the surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins (APs) in PIGB-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells. Homozygosity was caused by copy number-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of the germline PIGB mutation, leading to deficient expression of GPI-APs in the affected blood cells of the index patient and her mother. The somatic event leading to homozygosity of the germline mutant PIGB gene involved a 70-kbp microdeletion of chromosome 15q containing the TM2D3 and TARSL2 genes, which was implicated in chromosome 15q mosaicism. Interestingly, we detected the deletion in both the patient and her mother. A sister of the mother, who carried the same germline PIGB mutation but without this microdeletion involving TM2D3 and TARSL2, did not have a PNH clone or CN-LOH. In conclusion, we describe PNH caused by CN-LOH of a germline heterozygous PIGB mutation in a patient and her mother and hypothesize that the 70-kbp microdeletion may have contributed to the PNH clone in both.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686886PMC
November 2020

Long term-follow-up multicenter feasibility study of ICG fluorescence-navigated sentinel node biopsy in oral cancer.

Mol Clin Oncol 2020 Oct 12;13(4):41. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo 181-8611, Japan.

In the current study, the utility of sentinel node (SN) identification using indocyanine green (ICG) was investigated for oral cancers in the clinical N0 stage. The current study was a prospective, multicentre, phase II clinical trial that was conducted in Japan. A total of 18 patients were included. Before surgery, the patients underwent lymphoscintigraphy to map the SNs. During surgery, radioactive isotope (RI) mapping was used to detect the SNs, and ICG was subsequently injected. ICG mapping of the SNs was then performed through the skin. The primary tumour was resected, and a neck flap was elevated for neck dissection, followed by SN biopsy (SNB) using RI or ICG mapping. With the RI method, a total of 63 SNs were detected. Among these SNs, 8 (12.7%) were positive for metastasis, including those with isolated tumour cells (ITCs). The median number of SNs per patient identified by SNB was 4. With the ICG method, a total of 67 SNs were detected. Among these SNs, 7 (10.4%) were positive for metastasis, including those with ITCs. The median number of SNs per patient identified by SNB was 4 (range, 1-6). The 5-year overall survival (OS) of all patients was 83.3%, and the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) of all patients was 76.7%. The neck compression technique is a simple method that can be used to facilitate surgical procedures of ICG fluorescence navigated SNB for head and neck cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.2111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7439131PMC
October 2020

PGAP6, a GPI-specific phospholipase A2, has narrow substrate specificity against GPI-anchored proteins.

J Biol Chem 2020 10 18;295(42):14501-14509. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

PGAP6, also known as TMEM8A, is a phospholipase A2 with specificity to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) and expressed on the surface of various cells. CRIPTO, a GPI-anchored co-receptor for a morphogenic factor Nodal, is a sensitive substrate of PGAP6. PGAP6-mediated shedding of CRIPTO plays a critical role in an early stage of embryogenesis. In contrast, CRYPTIC, a close family member of CRIPTO, is resistant to PGAP6. In this report, chimeras between CRIPTO and CRYPTIC and truncate mutants of PGAP6 were used to demonstrate that the Cripto-1/FRL1/Cryptic domain of CRIPTO is recognized by an N-terminal domain of PGAP6 for processing. We also report that among 56 human GPI-anchored proteins tested, only glypican 3, prostasin, SPACA4, and contactin-1, in addition to CRIPTO, are sensitive to PGAP6, indicating that PGAP6 has a narrow specificity toward various GPI-anchored proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.014643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7573272PMC
October 2020

mutations in the X-linked gene cause intellectual disability with pigmentary mosaicism and storage disorder-like features.

J Med Genet 2020 12 14;57(12):808-819. Epub 2020 May 14.

Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire Médecine Translationnelle et Anomalies du Développement (TRANSLAD), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Dijon, Dijon, France.

Introduction: Pigmentary mosaicism (PM) manifests by pigmentation anomalies along Blaschko's lines and represents a clue toward the molecular diagnosis of syndromic intellectual disability (ID). Together with new insights on the role for lysosomal signalling in embryonic stem cell differentiation, mutations in the X-linked transcription factor 3 () have recently been reported in five patients. Functional analysis suggested these mutations to result in ectopic nuclear gain of functions.

Materials And Methods: Subsequent data sharing allowed the clustering of variants identified by exome sequencing on DNA extracted from leucocytes in patients referred for syndromic ID with or without PM.

Results: We describe the detailed clinical and molecular data of 17 individuals harbouring a variant, including the patients that initially allowed reporting as a new disease-causing gene. The 12 females and 5 males presented with pigmentation anomalies on Blaschko's lines, severe ID, epilepsy, storage disorder-like features, growth retardation and recognisable facial dysmorphism. The variant was at a mosaic state in at least two male patients. All variants were missense except one splice variant. Eleven of the 13 variants were localised in exon 4, 2 in exon 3, and 3 were recurrent variants.

Conclusion: This series further delineates the specific storage disorder-like phenotype with PM ascribed to mutation in exons 3 and 4. It confirms the identification of a novel X-linked human condition associated with mosaicism and dysregulation within the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, as well as a link between lysosomal signalling and human development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106508DOI Listing
December 2020

Bi-allelic Variants in the GPI Transamidase Subunit PIGK Cause a Neurodevelopmental Syndrome with Hypotonia, Cerebellar Atrophy, and Epilepsy.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 04 26;106(4):484-495. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

CHU-Sainte Justine Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada, H3T1C5; Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada, H3T1C5. Electronic address:

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are critical for embryogenesis, neurogenesis, and cell signaling. Variants in several genes participating in GPI biosynthesis and processing lead to decreased cell surface presence of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) and cause inherited GPI deficiency disorders (IGDs). In this report, we describe 12 individuals from nine unrelated families with 10 different bi-allelic PIGK variants. PIGK encodes a component of the GPI transamidase complex, which attaches the GPI anchor to proteins. Clinical features found in most individuals include global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, hypotonia, cerebellar ataxia, cerebellar atrophy, and facial dysmorphisms. The majority of the individuals have epilepsy. Two individuals have slightly decreased levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, while eight do not. Flow cytometric analysis of blood and fibroblasts from affected individuals showed decreased cell surface presence of GPI-APs. The overexpression of wild-type (WT) PIGK in fibroblasts rescued the levels of cell surface GPI-APs. In a knockout cell line, transfection with WT PIGK also rescued the GPI-AP levels, but transfection with the two tested mutant variants did not. Our study not only expands the clinical and known genetic spectrum of IGDs, but it also expands the genetic differential diagnosis for cerebellar atrophy. Given the fact that cerebellar atrophy is seen in other IGDs, flow cytometry for GPI-APs should be considered in the work-ups of individuals presenting this feature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118585PMC
April 2020

Cross-talks of glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis with glycosphingolipid biosynthesis and ER-associated degradation.

Nat Commun 2020 02 13;11(1):860. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins and glycosphingolipids interact with each other in the mammalian plasma membranes, forming dynamic microdomains. How their interaction starts in the cells has been unclear. Here, based on a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 genetic screen for genes required for GPI side-chain modification by galactose in the Golgi apparatus, we report that β1,3-galactosyltransferase 4 (B3GALT4), the previously characterized GM1 ganglioside synthase, additionally functions in transferring galactose to the N-acetylgalactosamine side-chain of GPI. Furthermore, B3GALT4 requires lactosylceramide for the efficient GPI side-chain galactosylation. Thus, our work demonstrates previously unexpected functional relationships between GPI-anchored proteins and glycosphingolipids in the Golgi. Through the same screening, we also show that GPI biosynthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is severely suppressed by ER-associated degradation to prevent GPI accumulation when the transfer of synthesized GPI to proteins is defective. Our data demonstrates cross-talks of GPI biosynthesis with glycosphingolipid biosynthesis and the ER quality control system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14678-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7018848PMC
February 2020

Negative reactions of BRAF mutation-specific immunohistochemistry to non-V600E mutations of BRAF.

Pathol Int 2020 May 23;70(5):253-261. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Pathology and Molecular Diagnostics, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Aichi, Japan.

BRAF mutations are rare driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for 1%-2% of the driver mutations, and the mutation spectrum has a wide range in contrast to other tumors. While V600E is a dominant mutation in melanoma, more than half of the mutations in NSCLCs are non-V600E. However, treatment with dabrafenib plus trametinib targets the BRAF V600E mutation exclusively. Therefore, distinguishing between V600E and non-V600E mutations is crucial for biomarker testing in NSCLC in order to determine treatment of choice. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using the BRAF V600E mutation-specific antibody is clinically used in melanoma patients, but little is known about its application in NSCLC, particularly with regard to the assay performance for non-V600E mutations. In the present study, we examined 117 tumors with BRAF mutations, including 30 with non-V600E mutations, using BRAF mutation-specific IHC. None of the tumors with non-V600E mutations, including two compound mutations, showed a positive reaction. Furthermore, all V600E mutations were positive except for one case with combined BRAF V600E and K601_W604 deletion. Our findings confirmed that the BRAF V600E mutation-specific IHC is specific without any cross-reactions to non-V600E mutations, suggesting that this assay can be a useful screening tool in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pin.12903DOI Listing
May 2020

A post glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) attachment to proteins, type 2 (PGAP2) variant identified in Mabry syndrome index cases: Molecular genetics of the prototypical inherited GPI disorder.

Eur J Med Genet 2020 Apr 2;63(4):103822. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, United States.

We report that recessive inheritance of a post-GPI attachment to proteins 2 (PGAP2) gene variant results in the hyperphosphatasia with neurologic deficit (HPMRS) phenotype described by Mabry et al., in 1970. HPMRS, or Mabry syndrome, is now known to be one of 21 inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) deficiencies (IGDs), or GPI biosynthesis defects (GPIBDs). Bi-allelic mutations in at least six genes result in HPMRS phenotypes. Disruption of four phosphatidylinositol glycan (PIG) biosynthesis genes, PIGV, PIGO, PIGW and PIGY, expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum, result in HPMRS 1, 2, 5 and 6; disruption of the PGAP2 and PGAP3 genes, necessary for stabilizing the association of GPI anchored proteins (AP) with the Golgi membrane, result in HPMRS 3 and 4. We used exome sequencing to identify a novel homozygous missense PGAP2 variant NM_014489.3:c.881C > T, p.Thr294Met in two index patients and targeted sequencing to identify this variant in an unrelated patient. Rescue assays were conducted in two PGAP2 deficient cell lines, PGAP2 KO cells generated by CRISPR/Cas9 and PGAP2 deficient CHO cells, in order to examine the pathogenicity of the PGAP2 variant. First, we used the CHO rescue assay to establish that the wild type PGAP2 isoform 1, translated from transcript 1, is less active than the wild type PGAP2 isoform 8, translated from transcript 12 (alternatively spliced to omit exon 3). As a result, in our variant rescue assays, we used the more active NM_001256240.2:c.698C > T, p.Thr233Met isoform 8 instead of NM_014489.3:c.881C > T, p.Thr294Met isoform 1. Flow cytometric analysis showed that restoration of cell surface CD59 and CD55 with variant PGAP2 isoform 8, driven by the weak (pTA FLAG) promoter, was less efficient than wild type isoform 8. Therefore, we conclude that recessive inheritance of c.881C > T PGAP2, expressed as the hypomorphic PGAP2 c.698C > T, p.Thr233Met isoform 8, results in prototypical Mabry phenotype, HPMRS3 (GPIBD 8 [MIM: 614207]). This study highlights the need for long-term follow up of individuals with rare diseases in order to ensure that they benefit from innovations in diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2019.103822DOI Listing
April 2020

Complement and inflammasome overactivation mediates paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria with autoinflammation.

J Clin Invest 2019 12;129(12):5123-5136

Research Institute for Microbial Diseases and.

Patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) have a clonal population of blood cells deficient in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-anchored) proteins, resulting from a mutation in the X-linked gene PIGA. Here we report on a set of patients in whom PNH results instead from biallelic mutation of PIGT on chromosome 20. These PIGT-PNH patients have clinically typical PNH, but they have in addition prominent autoinflammatory features, including recurrent attacks of aseptic meningitis. In all these patients we find a germ-line point mutation in one PIGT allele, whereas the other PIGT allele is removed by somatic deletion of a 20q region comprising maternally imprinted genes implicated in myeloproliferative syndromes. Unlike in PIGA-PNH cells, GPI is synthesized in PIGT-PNH cells and, since its attachment to proteins is blocked, free GPI is expressed on the cell surface. From studies of patients' leukocytes and of PIGT-KO THP-1 cells we show that, through increased IL-1β secretion, activation of the lectin pathway of complement and generation of C5b-9 complexes, free GPI is the agent of autoinflammation. Eculizumab treatment abrogates not only intravascular hemolysis, but also autoinflammation. Thus, PIGT-PNH differs from PIGA-PNH both in the mechanism of clonal expansion and in clinical manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI123501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6877298PMC
December 2019

Mutations in PIGU Impair the Function of the GPI Transamidase Complex, Causing Severe Intellectual Disability, Epilepsy, and Brain Anomalies.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 08 25;105(2):395-402. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Institute for Genomic Statistics and Bioinformatics, University Hospital Bonn, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany.

The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor links over 150 proteins to the cell surface and is present on every cell type. Many of these proteins play crucial roles in neuronal development and function. Mutations in 18 of the 29 genes implicated in the biosynthesis of the GPI anchor have been identified as the cause of GPI biosynthesis deficiencies (GPIBDs) in humans. GPIBDs are associated with intellectual disability and seizures as their cardinal features. An essential component of the GPI transamidase complex is PIGU, along with PIGK, PIGS, PIGT, and GPAA1, all of which link GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) onto the GPI anchor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we report two homozygous missense mutations (c.209T>A [p.Ile70Lys] and c.1149C>A [p.Asn383Lys]) in five individuals from three unrelated families. All individuals presented with global developmental delay, severe-to-profound intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia, seizures, brain anomalies, scoliosis, and mild facial dysmorphism. Using multicolor flow cytometry, we determined a characteristic profile for GPI transamidase deficiency. On granulocytes this profile consisted of reduced cell-surface expression of fluorescein-labeled proaerolysin (FLAER), CD16, and CD24, but not of CD55 and CD59; additionally, B cells showed an increased expression of free GPI anchors determined by T5 antibody. Moreover, computer-assisted facial analysis of different GPIBDs revealed a characteristic facial gestalt shared among individuals with mutations in PIGU and GPAA1. Our findings improve our understanding of the role of the GPI transamidase complex in the development of nervous and skeletal systems and expand the clinical spectrum of disorders belonging to the group of inherited GPI-anchor deficiencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.06.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698879PMC
August 2019

Mutations in PIGB Cause an Inherited GPI Biosynthesis Defect with an Axonal Neuropathy and Metabolic Abnormality in Severe Cases.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 08 27;105(2):384-394. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine Research Center, Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine and University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada. Electronic address:

Proteins anchored to the cell surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) play various key roles in the human body, particularly in development and neurogenesis. As such, many developmental disorders are caused by mutations in genes involved in the GPI biosynthesis and remodeling pathway. We describe ten unrelated families with bi-allelic mutations in PIGB, a gene that encodes phosphatidylinositol glycan class B, which transfers the third mannose to the GPI. Ten different PIGB variants were found in these individuals. Flow cytometric analysis of blood cells and fibroblasts from the affected individuals showed decreased cell surface presence of GPI-anchored proteins. Most of the affected individuals have global developmental and/or intellectual delay, all had seizures, two had polymicrogyria, and four had a peripheral neuropathy. Eight children passed away before four years old. Two of them had a clinical diagnosis of DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, and seizures), a condition that includes sensorineural deafness, shortened terminal phalanges with small finger and toenails, intellectual disability, and seizures; this condition overlaps with the severe phenotypes associated with inherited GPI deficiency. Most individuals tested showed elevated alkaline phosphatase, which is a characteristic of the inherited GPI deficiency but not DOORS syndrome. It is notable that two severely affected individuals showed 2-oxoglutaric aciduria, which can be seen in DOORS syndrome, suggesting that severe cases of inherited GPI deficiency and DOORS syndrome might share some molecular pathway disruptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.05.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698938PMC
August 2019

Important cytological findings for distinction between follicular variant and conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, including noninvasive follicular thyroid tumors with papillary-like nuclear features.

Endocr J 2019 May 14;66(5):475-483. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Surgery, Kuma Hospital, Kobe 856-8562, Japan.

We studied cytological specimens of conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC), and noninvasive follicular thyroid tumor with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) (formerly noninvasive FVPTC) to identify useful cytological parameters for their differentiation. Cytological findings of invasive FVPTC and NIFTP were very similar to each other but differed from those of conventional PTC. Intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions, true papillary cell clusters, monolayered cell sheets, ropy colloids, multinucleate giant cells, psammoma bodies, and cystic background were the observed characteristic features of conventional PTC. Microfollicular cell clusters and dense globules of colloids were characteristic features of invasive FVPTC and NIFTP. Scoring the eight parameters (intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions, nuclear grooves, powdery chromatin, true papillary cell clusters, ropy colloids, multinucleate giant cells, psammoma bodies, and cystic background) readily distinguished NIFTP from conventional PTC, but could not distinguish NIFTP from invasive FVPTC. The average total score of NIFTP, invasive FVPTC, and conventional PTC were 2.60 ± 0.55, 2.63 ± 0.62, and 4.57 ± 0.99, respectively. The difference between conventional PTC and NIFTP or invasive FVPTC was statistically significant (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). Individuals with more than three of the identified parameters likely harbor conventional PTC, rather than NIFTP. In this way, 87.5% (112/128) of conventional PTCs could be differentiated from NIFTP, and definitively diagnosed as malignant by cytology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ18-0525DOI Listing
May 2019

Free, unlinked glycosylphosphatidylinositols on mammalian cell surfaces revisited.

J Biol Chem 2019 03 6;294(13):5038-5049. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

From the Research Institute for Microbial Diseases and

Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are linked to many cell-surface proteins, anchor these proteins in the membrane, and are well characterized. However, GPIs that exist in the free form on the mammalian cell surface remain largely unexplored. To investigate free GPIs in cultured cell lines and mouse tissues, here we used the T5-4E10 mAb (T5 mAb), which recognizes unlinked GPIs having an -acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) side chain linked to the first mannose at the nonreducing terminus. We detected free GPIs bearing the GalNAc side chain on the surface of Neuro2a and CHO, but not of HEK293, K562, and C2C12 cells. Furthermore, free GPIs were present in mouse pons, medulla oblongata, spinal cord, testis, epididymis, and kidney. Using a panel of Chinese hamster ovary cells defective in both GPI-transamidase and GPI remodeling pathway, we demonstrate that free GPIs follow the same structural remodeling pathway during passage from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane as do protein-linked GPI. Specifically, free GPIs underwent post-GPI attachment to protein 1 (PGAP1)-mediated inositol deacylation, PGAP5-mediated removal of the ethanolamine phosphate from the second mannose, and PGAP3- and PGAP2-mediated fatty acid remodeling. Moreover, T5 mAb recognized free GPIs even if the inositol-linked acyl chain or ethanolamine-phosphate side chain linked to the second mannose is not removed. In contrast, addition of a fourth mannose by phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class Z (PIGZ) inhibited T5 mAb-mediated detection of free GPIs. Our results indicate that free GPIs are normal components of the plasma membrane in some tissues and further characterize free GPIs in mammalian cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.007472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442038PMC
March 2019

Mutations in PIGS, Encoding a GPI Transamidase, Cause a Neurological Syndrome Ranging from Fetal Akinesia to Epileptic Encephalopathy.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 10 27;103(4):602-611. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte Justine Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T1C5, Canada. Electronic address:

Inherited GPI deficiencies (IGDs) are a subset of congenital disorders of glycosylation that are increasingly recognized as a result of advances in whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). IGDs cause a series of overlapping phenotypes consisting of seizures, dysmorphic features, multiple congenital malformations, and severe intellectual disability. We present a study of six individuals from three unrelated families in which WES or WGS identified bi-allelic phosphatidylinositol glycan class S (PIGS) biosynthesis mutations. Phenotypes included severe global developmental delay, seizures (partly responding to pyridoxine), hypotonia, weakness, ataxia, and dysmorphic facial features. Two of them had compound-heterozygous variants c.108G>A (p.Trp36) and c.101T>C (p.Leu34Pro), and two siblings of another family were homozygous for a deletion and insertion leading to p.Thr439_Lys451delinsArgLeuLeu. The third family had two fetuses with multiple joint contractures consistent with fetal akinesia. They were compound heterozygous for c.923A>G (p.Glu308Gly) and c.468+1G>C, a splicing mutation. Flow-cytometry analyses demonstrated that the individuals with PIGS mutations show a GPI-AP deficiency profile. Expression of the p.Trp36 variant in PIGS-deficient HEK293 cells revealed only partial restoration of cell-surface GPI-APs. In terms of both biochemistry and phenotype, loss of function of PIGS shares features with PIGT deficiency and other IGDs. This study contributes to the understanding of the GPI-AP biosynthesis pathway by describing the consequences of PIGS disruption in humans and extending the family of IGDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.08.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174287PMC
October 2018

Recurrent aseptic meningitis with mutations: a novel pathogenesis of recurrent meningitis successfully treated by eculizumab.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Sep 27;2018. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Neurology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Japan.

We report the case of a patient with mutations who experienced recurrent aseptic meningitis 121 times over 16 years before developing paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH). Each episode was preceded by urticaria and arthralgia. After developing PNH, haemolysis occurred prior to meningitis. Flow cytometry revealed deficiency of the glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored complement regulatory proteins, CD59 and CD55, and he was diagnosed with PNH. All the symptoms disappeared on administering eculizumab, an anti-C5 antibody. We did not detect mutation in , which is regarded as the cause of PNH. However, we detected a germ-line mutation and a somatic microdeletion in chromosome 20q including ; PIGT is essential for transferring GPI anchor to the precursors of CD59 and CD55, which play important roles in complement regulation. Loss of these proteins leads to complement overactivation, causing inflammatory symptoms, including recurrent meningitis. mutations should be considered a novel pathogenesis of recurrent meningitis of unknown aetiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-225910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6169622PMC
September 2018

Serum ProGRP and NSE levels predicting small cell lung cancer transformation in a patient with rearrangement-positive non-small cell lung cancer: A case report.

Oncol Lett 2018 Oct 17;16(4):4219-4222. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8681, Japan.

The resistance mechanisms to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors comprise ALK gene variations, such as ALK point mutations and copy-number gains, the activation of bypass signaling through the activation of other oncogenes and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation. To date, few studies have investigated whether tumor markers for SCLC correlate with the SCLC transformation in EGFR-mutant NSCLC and ALK-positive non-SCLC (NSCLC). The present case study reported a patient with SCLC transformation after alectinib treatment. The patient exhibited elevation of pro-gastrin-releasing peptide precursor and neuron-specific enolase levels, which may be predictive of SCLC transformation during the resistance to ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2018.9158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6126188PMC
October 2018

Increased Synthesis of MCL-1 Protein Underlies Initial Survival of -Mutant Lung Cancer to EGFR Inhibitors and Provides a Novel Drug Target.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 11 7;24(22):5658-5672. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Philips Institute for Oral Health Research, VCU School of Dentistry and Massey Cancer Center, Richmond, Virginia.

EGFR inhibitors (EGFRi) are effective against -mutant lung cancers. The efficacy of these drugs, however, is mitigated by the outgrowth of resistant cells, most often driven by a secondary acquired mutation in EGFR, We recently demonstrated that can arise during treatment; it follows that one potential therapeutic strategy to thwart resistance would be identifying and eliminating these cells [referred to as drug-tolerant cells (DTC)] prior to acquiring secondary mutations like We have developed DTCs to EGFRi in -mutant lung cancer cell lines. Subsequent analyses of DTCs included RNA-seq, high-content microscopy, and protein translational assays. Based on these results, we tested the ability of MCL-1 BH3 mimetics to combine with EGFR inhibitors to eliminate DTCs and shrink -mutant lung cancer tumors We demonstrate surviving -mutant lung cancer cells upregulate the antiapoptotic protein MCL-1 in response to short-term EGFRi treatment. Mechanistically, DTCs undergo a protein biosynthesis enrichment resulting in increased mTORC1-mediated mRNA translation of MCL-1, revealing a novel mechanism in which lung cancer cells adapt to short-term pressures of apoptosis-inducing kinase inhibitors. Moreover, MCL-1 is a key molecule governing the emergence of early -mutant DTCs to EGFRi, and we demonstrate it can be effectively cotargeted with clinically emerging MCL-1 inhibitors both and Altogether, these data reveal that this novel therapeutic combination may delay the acquisition of secondary mutations, therefore prolonging therapy efficacy. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-0304DOI Listing
November 2018

A Rare Case of Ampullary Goblet Cell Carcinoid.

Intern Med 2018 Sep 30;57(17):2489-2496. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Departments of Gastroenterology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Japan.

An asymptomatic 70-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of liver enzyme elevation. Enhanced abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a small, round-shaped tumor with dilation of the common bile duct and main pancreatic duct. A biopsy specimen from the papilla showed mucin-containing cells that were positive for endocrine markers on immunohistochemical staining. Endoscopic snare resection was done, and there was a positive vertical margin on pathology. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was then performed later. The final diagnosis was goblet cell carcinoid, pT2N0M0, pStage IIA [Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) 7th edition]. Ampullary goblet cell carcinoid is an extremely rare disease of which there have been no recent reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.0516-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6172535PMC
September 2018

A homozygous variant disrupting the PIGH start-codon is associated with developmental delay, epilepsy, and microcephaly.

Hum Mutat 2018 06 30;39(6):822-826. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK.

Defective glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biogenesis can cause a spectrum of predominantly neurological problems. For eight genes critical to this biological process, disease associations are not yet reported. Scanning exomes from 7,833 parent-child trios and 1,792 singletons from the DDD study for biallelic variants in this gene-set uncovered a rare PIGH variant in a boy with epilepsy, microcephaly, and behavioral difficulties. Although only 2/2 reads harbored this c.1A > T transversion, the presence of ∼25 Mb autozygosity at this locus implied homozygosity, which was confirmed using Sanger sequencing. A similarly-affected sister was also homozygous. FACS analysis of PIGH-deficient CHO cells indicated that cDNAs with c.1A > T could not efficiently restore expression of GPI-APs. Truncation of PIGH protein was consistent with the utilization of an in-frame start-site at codon 63. In summary, we describe siblings harboring a homozygous c.1A > T variant resulting in defective GPI-anchor biogenesis and highlight the importance of exploring low-coverage variants within autozygous regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6001798PMC
June 2018

Early infancy-onset stimulation-induced myoclonic seizures in three siblings with inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor deficiency.

Epileptic Disord 2018 Feb;20(1):42-50

Department of Immunoregulation, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka.

Inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor deficiency causes a variety of clinical symptoms, including epilepsy, however, little information is available regarding seizures as a symptom. We report three siblings with inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor deficiency with PIGL gene mutations. The phenotypes of the subjects were not consistent with CHIME syndrome or Mabry syndrome, as reported in previous studies. All shared some clinical manifestations, including transient apnoea as neonates, dysmorphic facial features, and intellectual disability. Between one week and 3 months of life, all patients developed myoclonic seizures. Myoclonic jerks were easily evoked by sudden unexpected acoustic or tactile stimuli. None showed elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase. Vitamin B was given to one of the three siblings, but failed to suppress seizures. The presence of early infancy-onset stimulation-induced myoclonic seizures combined with dysmorphic facial features should lead physicians to consider the possibility of inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2018.0956DOI Listing
February 2018

Identification of a Golgi GPI-N-acetylgalactosamine transferase with tandem transmembrane regions in the catalytic domain.

Nat Commun 2018 01 26;9(1):405. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Many eukaryotic proteins are anchored to the cell surface via the glycolipid glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). Mammalian GPIs have a conserved core but exhibit diverse N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) modifications, which are added via a yet unresolved process. Here we identify the Golgi-resident GPI-GalNAc transferase PGAP4 and show by mass spectrometry that PGAP4 knockout cells lose GPI-GalNAc structures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PGAP4, in contrast to known Golgi glycosyltransferases, is not a single-pass membrane protein but contains three transmembrane domains, including a tandem transmembrane domain insertion into its glycosyltransferase-A fold as indicated by comparative modeling. Mutational analysis reveals a catalytic site, a DXD-like motif for UDP-GalNAc donor binding, and several residues potentially involved in acceptor binding. We suggest that a juxtamembrane region of PGAP4 accommodates various GPI-anchored proteins, presenting their acceptor residue toward the catalytic center. In summary, we present insights into the structure of PGAP4 and elucidate the initial step of GPI-GalNAc biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-02799-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5785973PMC
January 2018

-Glycan-dependent protein folding and endoplasmic reticulum retention regulate GPI-anchor processing.

J Cell Biol 2018 02 18;217(2):585-599. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Jiangsu, China

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins is a conserved posttranslational modification in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Soon after GPI is attached, an acyl chain on the GPI inositol is removed by post-GPI attachment to proteins 1 (PGAP1), a GPI-inositol deacylase. This is crucial for switching GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) from protein folding to transport states. We performed haploid genetic screens to identify factors regulating GPI-inositol deacylation, identifying seven genes. In particular, calnexin cycle impairment caused inefficient GPI-inositol deacylation. Calnexin was specifically associated with GPI-APs, dependent on -glycan and GPI moieties, and assisted efficient GPI-inositol deacylation by PGAP1. Under chronic ER stress caused by misfolded GPI-APs, inositol-acylated GPI-APs were exposed on the cell surface. These results indicated that -glycans participate in quality control and temporal ER retention of GPI-APs, ensuring their correct folding and GPI processing before exiting from the ER. Once the system is disrupted by ER stress, unprocessed GPI-APs become exposed on the cell surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201706135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5800811PMC
February 2018

Mutations in GPAA1, Encoding a GPI Transamidase Complex Protein, Cause Developmental Delay, Epilepsy, Cerebellar Atrophy, and Osteopenia.

Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov;101(5):856-865

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte Justine Research Center, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T1C5, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada. Electronic address:

Approximately one in every 200 mammalian proteins is anchored to the cell membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. These proteins play important roles notably in neurological development and function. To date, more than 20 genes have been implicated in the biogenesis of GPI-anchored proteins. GPAA1 (glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1) is an essential component of the transamidase complex along with PIGK, PIGS, PIGT, and PIGU (phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis classes K, S, T, and U, respectively). This complex orchestrates the attachment of the GPI anchor to the C terminus of precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we report bi-allelic mutations in GPAA1 in ten individuals from five families. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified two frameshift mutations (c.981_993del [p.Gln327Hisfs102] and c.920delG [p.Gly307Alafs11]), one intronic splicing mutation (c.1164+5C>T), and six missense mutations (c.152C>T [p.Ser51Leu], c.160_161delinsAA [p.Ala54Asn], c.527G>C [p.Trp176Ser], c.869T>C [p.Leu290Pro], c.872T>C [p.Leu291Pro], and c.1165G>C [p.Ala389Pro]). Most individuals presented with global developmental delay, hypotonia, early-onset seizures, cerebellar atrophy, and osteopenia. The splicing mutation was found to decrease GPAA1 mRNA. Moreover, flow-cytometry analysis of five available individual samples showed that several GPI-anchored proteins had decreased cell-surface abundance in leukocytes (FLAER, CD16, and CD59) or fibroblasts (CD73 and CD109). Transduction of fibroblasts with a lentivirus encoding the wild-type protein partially rescued the deficiency of GPI-anchored proteins. These findings highlight the role of the transamidase complex in the development and function of the cerebellum and the skeletal system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5673666PMC
November 2017

Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis Based on Real-Time PCR Cycle Threshold Value for the Identification of Campylobacter jejuni, astA Gene-Positive Escherichia coli, and eae Gene-Positive E. coli.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2018 Jan 31;71(1):79-84. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Shimane Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science.

We previously developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay (Rapid Foodborne Bacterial Screening 24 ver.5, [RFBS24 ver.5]) for simultaneous detection of 24 foodborne bacterial targets. Here, to overcome the discrepancy of the results from RFBS24 ver.5 and bacterial culture methods (BC), we analyzed 246 human clinical samples from 49 gastroenteritis outbreaks using RFBS24 ver.5 and evaluated the correlation between the cycle threshold (CT) value of RFBS24 ver.5 and the BC results. The results showed that the RFBS24 ver.5 was more sensitive than BC for Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli harboring astA or eae, with positive predictive values (PPV) of 45.5-87.0% and a kappa coefficient (KC) of 0.60-0.92, respectively. The CTs were significantly different between BC-positive and -negative samples (p < 0.01). All RFBS24 ver.5-positive samples were BC-positive under the lower confidence interval (CI) limit of 95% or 99% for the CT of the BC-negative samples. We set the 95% or 99% CI lower limit to the determination CT (d-CT) to discriminate for assured BC-positive results (d-CTs: 27.42-30.86), and subsequently the PPVs (94.7%-100.0%) and KCs (0.89-0.95) of the 3 targets were increased. Together, we concluded that the implication of a d-CT-based approach would be a valuable tool for rapid and accurate diagnoses using the RFBS24 ver.5 system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.JJID.2017.151DOI Listing
January 2018

Epileptic apnea in a patient with inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor deficiency and PIGT mutations.

Brain Dev 2018 Jan 17;40(1):53-57. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Child Neurology, National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.

We report an 11-month-old boy with acetazolamide-responsive epileptic apnea and inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor deficiency who presented with decreased serum alkaline phosphatase associated with compound PIGT mutations. The patient exhibited congenital anomalies, severe intellectual disability, and seizures, including epileptic apnea with epileptiform discharges from bilateral temporal areas. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed delayed myelination and progressive atrophy of the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebrum. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in PIGT (c.250G>T, p.Glu84X and c.1096G>T, p.Gly366Trp), which encodes a subunit of the GPI transamidase complex. Flow cytometry revealed decreased expression of CD16 (a GPI anchor protein) on granulocytes, supporting the putative pathogenicity of the mutations. Phenobarbital, clonazepam, and potassium bromide decreased the frequency of tonic seizure and acetazolamide decreased epileptic apnea. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of intractable seizures accompanied by epileptic apnea associated with GPI anchor deficiency and a compound PIGT mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2017.06.005DOI Listing
January 2018

Phenotype-genotype correlations of PIGO deficiency with variable phenotypes from infantile lethality to mild learning difficulties.

Hum Mutat 2017 07 20;38(7):805-815. Epub 2017 Apr 20.

Department of Immunoregulation, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Inherited GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) deficiencies (IGDs), a recently defined group of diseases, show a broad spectrum of symptoms. Hyperphosphatasia mental retardation syndrome, also known as Mabry syndrome, is a type of IGDs. There are at least 26 genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of GPI-anchored proteins; however, IGDs constitute a rare group of diseases, and correlations between the spectrum of symptoms and affected genes or the type of mutations have not been shown. Here, we report four newly identified and five previously described Japanese families with PIGO (phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class O) deficiency. We show how the clinical severity of IGDs correlates with flow cytometric analysis of blood, functional analysis using a PIGO-deficient cell line, and the degree of hyperphosphatasia. The flow cytometric analysis and hyperphosphatasia are useful for IGD diagnosis, but the expression level of GPI-anchored proteins and the degree of hyperphosphatasia do not correlate, although functional studies do, with clinical severity. Compared with PIGA (phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class A) deficiency, PIGO deficiency shows characteristic features, such as Hirschsprung disease, brachytelephalangy, and hyperphosphatasia. This report shows the precise spectrum of symptoms according to the severity of mutations and compares symptoms between different types of IGD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23219DOI Listing
July 2017

Compound heterozygous mutations in the gene PIGP are associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy.

Hum Mol Genet 2017 05;26(9):1706-1715

Research Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3T1C5, Canada.

There are over 150 known human proteins which are tethered to the cell surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. These proteins play a variety of important roles in development, and particularly in neurogenesis. Not surprisingly, mutations in the GPI anchor biosynthesis and remodeling pathway cause a number of developmental disorders. This group of conditions has been termed inherited GPI deficiencies (IGDs), a subgroup of congenital disorders of glycosylation; they present with variable phenotypes, often including seizures, hypotonia and intellectual disability. Here, we report two siblings with compound heterozygous variants in the gene phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class P (PIGP) (NM_153681.2: c.74T > C;p.Met25Thr and c.456delA;p.Glu153AsnFs*34). PIGP encodes a subunit of the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of GPI anchor biosynthesis. Both children presented with early-onset refractory seizures, hypotonia, and profound global developmental delay, reminiscent of other IGD phenotypes. Functional studies with patient cells showed reduced PIGP mRNA levels, and an associated reduction of GPI-anchored cell surface proteins, which was rescued by exogenous expression of wild-type PIGP. This work associates mutations in the PIGP gene with a novel autosomal recessive IGD, and expands our knowledge of the role of PIG genes in human development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddx077DOI Listing
May 2017

Analysis of exome data for 4293 trios suggests GPI-anchor biogenesis defects are a rare cause of developmental disorders.

Eur J Hum Genet 2017 06 22;25(6):669-679. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, UK.

Over 150 different proteins attach to the plasma membrane using glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. Mutations in 18 genes that encode components of GPI-anchor biogenesis result in a phenotypic spectrum that includes learning disability, epilepsy, microcephaly, congenital malformations and mild dysmorphic features. To determine the incidence of GPI-anchor defects, we analysed the exome data from 4293 parent-child trios recruited to the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) study. All probands recruited had a neurodevelopmental disorder. We searched for variants in 31 genes linked to GPI-anchor biogenesis and detected rare biallelic variants in PGAP3, PIGN, PIGT (n=2), PIGO and PIGL, providing a likely diagnosis for six families. In five families, the variants were in a compound heterozygous configuration while in a consanguineous Afghani kindred, a homozygous c.709G>C; p.(E237Q) variant in PIGT was identified within 10-12 Mb of autozygosity. Validation and segregation analysis was performed using Sanger sequencing. Across the six families, five siblings were available for testing and in all cases variants co-segregated consistent with them being causative. In four families, abnormal alkaline phosphatase results were observed in the direction expected. FACS analysis of knockout HEK293 cells that had been transfected with wild-type or mutant cDNA constructs demonstrated that the variants in PIGN, PIGT and PIGO all led to reduced activity. Splicing assays, performed using leucocyte RNA, showed that a c.336-2A>G variant in PIGL resulted in exon skipping and p.D113fs*2. Our results strengthen recently reported disease associations, suggest that defective GPI-anchor biogenesis may explain ~0.15% of individuals with developmental disorders and highlight the benefits of data sharing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2017.32DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5477361PMC
June 2017