Publications by authors named "Yoshikiyo Ono"

40 Publications

Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy Is Beneficial for the Health-Related Quality of Life of Older Patients with Primary Aldosteronism.

Urol Int 2021 Aug 20:1-7. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Urology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Objective: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LADX) improves hypertension in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA). However, the antihypertensive impact of LADX appears restricted in older patients with PA. In this study, we evaluated the impact of LADX in older patients focusing on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

Methods: A total of 156 patients with PA who underwent LADX in a single institution were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. The patients were divided into 2 groups, with a boundary of 60 years. The HRQoL was evaluated using the Medical Outcomes Study's 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2) questionnaire before and after LADX. Demographics, clinical features, antihypertensive drugs before and after surgery, and perioperative evaluation were recorded. We compared all scale scores and summed scores between groups. Multivariate regression models were used to determine the associations between various covariables and the HRQoL.

Results: In the older PA patients, most subscales of HRQoL at baseline were lower than the national standard values. The antihypertensive drug-free rate by LADX was only 21% in older patients, compared to 58% in younger patients. However, a significant improvement in mental HRQoL was observed after LADX (p = 0.002). The much preoperative antihypertensive drugs, lower preoperative potassium level, and smaller degree of comorbidities were predictors of improved mental HRQoL by LADX on multivariate analyses.

Conclusion: The older PA patients showed lower mental HRQOL than the national standard populations. Although antihypertensive effects were limited for these patients, LADX was beneficial as PA treatment via improvement of mental HRQoL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000518165DOI Listing
August 2021

Cellular Senescence in Human Aldosterone-Producing Adrenocortical Cells and Related Disorders.

Biomedicines 2021 May 18;9(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575, Japan.

In situ cortisol excess was previously reported to promote cellular senescence, a cell response to stress, in cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA). The aim of this study was to explore senescence pathways in aldosterone-producing cells and related disorders, and the influence of aldosterone overproduction on in situ senescence. We analyzed 30 surgical cases of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), 10 idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) and 19 normal adrenals (NA). CYP11B2 and senescence markers p16 and p21 were immunolocalized in all those cases above and results were correlated with histological/endocrinological findings. In the three cohorts examined, the zona glomerulosa (ZG) was significantly more senescent than other corticosteroid-producing cells. In addition, the ZG of adjacent non-pathological adrenal glands of APA and IHA had significantly higher p16 expression than adjacent non-pathological zona fasciculata (ZF), reticularis (ZR) and ZG of NA. In addition, laboratory findings of primary aldosteronism (PA) were significantly correlated with p21 status in -mutated tumors. Results of our present study firstly demonstrated that non-aldosterone-producing cells in the ZG were the most senescent compared to other cortical zones and aldosterone-producing cells in PA. Therefore, aldosterone production, whether physiological or pathological, could be maintained by suppression of cell senescence in human adrenal cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9050567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158118PMC
May 2021

Pathology of Aldosterone Biosynthesis and its Action.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2021 05;254(1):1-15

Department of Pathology, Tohoku University, Graduate School of Medicine.

Aldosterone plays pivotal roles in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in order to maintain the equilibrium of liquid volume and electrolyte metabolism. Aldosterone action is mediated by both mineralocorticoid receptor and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2). Its excessive actions directly induced tissue injuries in its target organs such as myocardial and vascular fibrosis in addition to chronic kidney diseases. Excessive aldosterone actions were also reported to be involved in unbalanced electrolyte metabolism in inflammatory bowel disease and development of pulmonary diseases. Hyperaldosteronism is tentatively classified into primary and secondary types. Primary aldosteronism is more frequent and has been well known to result in secondary hypertension with subsequent cardiovascular damages. Primary aldosteronism is also further classified into distinctive subtypes and among those, aldosterone-producing adenoma is the most frequent one accounting for the great majority of unilateral primary aldosteronism cases. In bilateral hyperaldosteronism, aldosterone-producing diffuse hyperplasia and aldosterone-producing micronodules or nodules are the major subtypes. All these aldosterone-producing lesions were reported to harbor somatic mutations including KCNJ5, CACNA1D, ATP1A1 and ATP2B3, which were all related to excessive aldosterone production. Among those mutations above, somatic mutation of KCNJ5 is the most frequent in aldosterone-producing adenoma and mostly composed of clear cells harboring abundant aldosterone synthase expression. In contrast, CACNA1D-mutated aldosterone-producing micronodules or aldosterone-producing nodules were frequently detected not only in primary aldosteronism patients but also in the zona glomerulosa of normal adrenal glands, which could eventually lead to an autonomous aldosterone production resulting in normotensive or overt primary aldosteronism, but their details have remained unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.254.1DOI Listing
May 2021

The Genotype-Based Morphology of Aldosterone-Producing Adrenocortical Disorders and Their Association with Aging.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2021 Feb 24;36(1):12-21. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension, and is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events. PA itself is clinically classified into the following two types: unilateral PA, mostly composed of aldosteroneproducing adenoma (APA); and bilateral hyperaldosteronism, consisting of multiple aldosterone-producing micronodules (APMs) and aldosterone-producing diffuse hyperplasia. Histopathologically, those disorders above are all composed of compact and clear cells. The cellular morphology in the above-mentioned aldosterone-producing disorders has been recently reported to be closely correlated with patterns of somatic mutations of ion channels including KCNJ5, CACNA1D, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and others. In addition, in non-pathological adrenal glands, APMs are frequently detected regardless of the status of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Aldosterone-producing nodules have been also proposed as non-neoplastic nodules that can be identified by hematoxylin and eosin staining. These non-neoplastic CYP11B2-positive nodules could represent possible precursors of APAs possibly due to the presence of somatic mutations. On the other hand, aging itself also plays a pivotal role in the development of aldosterone-producing lesions. For instance, the number of APMs was also reported to increase with aging. Therefore, recent studies indicated the novel classification of PA into normotensive PA (RAAS-independent APM) and clinically overt PA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937858PMC
February 2021

The Potential of Computed Tomography Volumetry for the Surgical Treatment in Bilateral Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2021 02;253(2):143-150

Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Vascular Medicine, Tohoku University Hospital.

Although adrenal resection is a major option to control hypercortisolemia in patients with bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, a predictive method for postoperative cortisol production has not been established. A 53-year-old man with ulcerative colitis was referred to our hospital for bilateral multiple adrenal nodules and hypertension. Physical and endocrinological examination revealed inappropriate cortisol production and suppressed secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone with no typical signs of Cushing's syndrome. Imaging analysis revealed bilateral adrenal nodular enlargement, the nodules of which had the radiological features of adrenocortical adenomas without inter-nodular heterogeneity. In addition, computed tomography volumetry demonstrated that the left adrenal gland (70 mL) accounts for three quarters of the total adrenal volume (93 mL). The patient was diagnosed as subclinical Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, and subsequently underwent a left laparoscopic adrenalectomy with the estimation of 75% decrease in the cortisol level based on the adrenal volume. The surgical treatment ultimately resulted in control of the cortisol level within the normal range, which was compatible to our preoperative prediction. However, regardless of the sufficient cortisol level, ulcerative colitis was exacerbated after the surgery, which needed a systemic therapy for remission. This case indicates successful surgical control of hypercortisolemia based on computed tomography volumetry in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, as well as the perioperative exacerbation risk for inflammatory diseases in Cushing's syndrome. We report the potential utility of computed tomography volumetry as a quantitative method with retrospective evaluation of our historical cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.253.143DOI Listing
February 2021

Gender differences in human adrenal cortex and its disorders.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 04 11;526:111177. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan. Electronic address:

The adrenal cortex plays pivotal roles in the maintenance of blood volume, responsiveness to stress and the development of gender characteristics. Gender differences of human adrenal cortex have been recently reported and attracted increasing interests. Gender differences occur from the developing stage of the adrenal, in which female subjects had more activated stem cells with higher renewal capacity resulting in gender-associated divergent structures and functions of cortical zonations of human adrenal. Female subjects generally have the lower blood pressure with the lower renin levels and ACE activities than male subjects. In addition, HPA axis was more activated in female than male, which could possibly contribute to gender differences in coping with various stressful events in our life. Of particular interest, estrogens were reported to suppress RAAS but activate HPA axis, whereas androgens had opposite effects. In addition, adrenocortical disorders in general occur more frequently in female with more pronounced adrenocortical hormonal abnormalities possibly due to their more activated WNT and PRK signaling pathways with more abundant activated adrenocortical stem cells present in female adrenal glands. Therefore, it has become pivotal to clarify the gender influence on both clinical and biological features of adrenocortical disorders. We herein reviewed recent advances in these fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2021.111177DOI Listing
April 2021

Aldosterone-induced cardiac damage in primary aldosteronism depends on its subtypes.

Endocr Connect 2021 Jan;10(1):29-36

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.

Objectives: This study compared cardiac function, morphology, and tissue characteristics between two common subtypes of primary aldosteronism (PA) using a 3T MR scanner.

Design: A retrospective, single-center, observational study.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 143 consecutive patients with PA, who underwent both adrenal venous sampling and cardiac magnetic resonance. We acquired cine, late gadolinium enhancement, and pre- and postcontrast myocardial T1-mapping images.

Results: PA was diagnosed as unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) in 70 patients and bilateral hyperaldosteronism (BHA) in 73. The APA group showed significantly higher plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and aldosterone to renin rate (ARR) than the BHA group. After controlling for age, sex, antihypertensive drugs, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and disease duration, the parameters independently associated with APA were: left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (EDVI: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.06 (95% CI: 1.030-1.096), P < 0.01), end-systolic volume index (ESVI: 1.06 (1.017-1.113), P < 0.01), stroke index (SI: 1.07 (1.020-1.121), P < 0.01), cardiac index (CI: 1.001 (1.000-1.001), P < 0.01), and native T1 (1.01 (1.000-1.019), P = 0.038). Weak positive correlations were found between PAC and EDVI (R = 0.28, P < 0.01), ESVI (0.26, P < 0.01), and SI (0.18, P = 0.03); and between ARR and EDVI (0.25, P < 0.01), ESVI (0.24, P < 0.01), and native T1 (0.17, P = 0.047).

Conclusions: APA is associated with greater LV volumetric parameters and higher native T1 values, suggesting a higher risk of volume overload and myocardial damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-20-0504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923132PMC
January 2021

Histopathological Analysis of Tumor Microenvironment and Angiogenesis in Pheochromocytoma.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 10;11:587779. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) are relatively rare catecholamine-producing tumors derived from adrenal medulla. Tumor microenvironment (TME) including neoangiogenesis has been explored in many human neoplasms but not necessarily in PHEOs. Therefore, in this study, we examined tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (CD4 and CD8), tumor associated macrophages (CD68 and CD163), sustentacular cells (S100p), and angiogenic markers (CD31 and areas of intratumoral hemorrhage) in 39 cases of PHEOs in the quantitative fashion. We then compared the results with pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS), grading system for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (GAPP) and the status of intra-tumoral catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes (TH, DDC, and PNMT) as well as their clinicopathological factors. Intratumoral CD8 (p = 0.0256), CD31 (p = 0.0400), and PNMT (p = 0.0498) status was significantly higher in PHEOs with PASS <4 than PASS ≧4. In addition, intratumoral CD8 lymphocytes were also significantly more abundant in well-than moderately differentiated PHEO according to GAPP score (p = 0.0108) and inversely correlated with tumor size (p = 0.0257). Intratumoral CD68 cells were significantly higher in PHEOs with regular or normal histological patterns than those not (p = 0.0370) and inversely correlated with tumor size (p = 0.0457). The status of CD163 was significantly positively correlated with that of CD8 positive cells (p = 0.0032). The proportion of intratumoral hemorrhage areas was significantly higher in PHEOs with PASS ≧4 (p = 0.0172). DDC immunoreactivity in tumor cells was significantly positively correlated with PASS score (p = 0.0356) and TH status was significantly higher in PHEOs harboring normal histological patterns (p = 0.0236) and cellular monotony (p = 0.0219) than those not. Results of our present study did demonstrate that abundant CD8 and CD68 cells could represent a histologically low-scored tumor. In particular, PHEOs with increased intratumoral hemorrhage should be considered rather malignant. In addition, abnormal catecholamine-producing status of tumor cells such as deficient PNMT and TH and increased DDC could also represent more aggressive PHEOs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.587779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685215PMC
May 2021

Recent Advances in Histopathological and Molecular Diagnosis in Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: Challenges for Predicting Metastasis in Individual Patients.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 27;11:587769. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PHEO/PGL) are rare but occasionally life-threatening neoplasms, and are potentially malignant according to WHO classification in 2017. However, it is also well known that histopathological risk stratification to predict clinical outcome has not yet been established. The first histopathological diagnostic algorithm for PHEO, "PASS", was proposed in 2002 by Thompson et al. Another algorithm, GAPP, was then proposed by Kimura et al. in 2014. However, neither algorithm has necessarily been regarded a 'gold standard' for predicting post-operative clinical behavior of tumors. This is because the histopathological features of PHEO/PGL are rather diverse and independent of their hormonal activities, as well as the clinical course of patients. On the other hand, recent developments in wide-scale genetic analysis using next-generation sequencing have revealed the molecular characteristics of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. More than 30%-40% of PHEO/PGL are reported to be associated with hereditary genetic abnormalities involving > 20 genes, including , and others. Such genetic alterations are mainly involved in the pathogenesis of pseudohypoxia, , and kinase signaling, and other intracellular signaling cascades. In addition, recurrent somatic mutations are frequently detected and overlapped with the presence of genetic alterations associated with hereditary diseases. In addition, therapeutic strategies specifically targeting such genetic abnormalities have been proposed, but they are not clinically applicable at this time. Therefore, we herein review recent advances in relevant studies, including histopathological and molecular analyses, to summarize the current status of potential prognostic factors in patients with PHEO/PGL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.587769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652733PMC
May 2021

Intratumoral heterogeneity of the tumor cells based on in situ cortisol excess in cortisol-producing adenomas; ∼An association among morphometry, genotype and cellular senescence∼.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2020 11 28;204:105764. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan. Electronic address:

Cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas (CPAs) are associated with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and histologically composed of two cellular subtypes: compact (lipid-poor) and clear (lipid-rich) tumor cells. However, the details of hormonal and biological activities of these tumor cells have remained unknown, especially in CPAs. CPAs frequently harbored unique histological features different from those of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) including a senescent phenotype. Therefore, we explored the association between morphological features and the immunoreactivity of steroidogenic enzymes in CPAs with different genotypes and compared them with cellular senescence markers as well as clinicopathological factors of the cases. Hormonal activities (3βHSD, CYP21A, CYP17A1, CYP11B1 and DHEA-ST) and cellular senescence markers (p16, p21 and Ki-67) within different morphological features (clear and compact) were evaluated in 40 CPAs. CPA genotypes (PRKACA, GNAS and CTNNB1) were examined by Sanger sequencing and then compared them with the factors above. p21 immunoreactivity was significantly positively correlated with that of CYP21A (p = 0.0110), CYP17A1 (p = 0.0356) and DHEA-ST (p = 0.0420) but inversely with tumor size (p = 0.0015). CYP21A (p = 0.0016), CYP11B1 (p = 0.0001), CYP17A1 (p < 0.0001) and p16 (p = 0.0137) immunoreactivity were all significantly higher in compact cells than those in clear cells. CYP17A1 (p = 0.0056) and 3βHSD (p = 0.0437) immunoreactivity was significantly higher in PRKACA-mutated than wild type CPAs. p16 immunoreactivity and serum DHEA-S level were both significantly higher in GNAS-mutated than PRKACA-mutated (p = 0.0250) and wild type (p = 0.0180) CPAs. Results of our present study did demonstrate that compact tumor cells were hormonally active and more senescent than clear tumor cells in CPAs. PRKACA- and GNAS-mutated tumor cells were more hormonally active and senescent than those without mutations despite the similar morphological features. We herein proposed a novel histological classification of the tumor cell subtypes based on in situ cortisol excess, genotypes and the status of cell senescence in CPAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105764DOI Listing
November 2020

Prevalence of Somatic Mutations in Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas in Japanese Patients.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 11;105(11)

Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Context: Results of previous studies demonstrated clear racial differences in the prevalence of somatic mutations among patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). For instance, those in East Asian countries have a high prevalence of somatic mutations in KCNJ5, whereas somatic mutations in other aldosterone-driving genes are rare.

Objectives: To determine somatic mutation prevalence in Japanese APA patients using an aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) immunohistochemistry (IHC)-guided sequencing approach.

Method: Patients with a unilateral form of primary aldosteronism who underwent adrenalectomy at the Tohoku University Hospital were studied. Based on CYP11B2 immunolocalization of resected adrenals, genomic DNA was isolated from the relevant positive area of 10% formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of the APAs. Somatic mutations in aldosterone-driving genes were studied in APAs by direct Sanger sequencing and targeted next-generation sequencing.

Results: CYP11B2 IHC-guided sequencing determined APA-related somatic mutations in 102 out of 106 APAs (96%). Somatic KCNJ5 mutation was the most frequent genetic alteration (73%) in this cohort of Japanese patients. Somatic mutations in other aldosterone-driving genes were also identified: CACNA1D (14%), ATP1A1 (5%), ATP2B3 (4%), and CACNA1H (1%), including 2 previously unreported mutations. KCNJ5 mutations were more often detected in APAs from female patients compared with those from male patients [95% (36/38) vs 60% (41/68); P < 0.0001].

Conclusion: IHC-guided sequencing defined somatic mutations in over 95% of Japanese APAs. While the dominance of KCNJ5 mutations in this particular cohort was confirmed, a significantly higher KCNJ5 prevalence was detected in female patients. This study provides a better understanding of genetic spectrum of Japanese APA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947976PMC
November 2020

The Effect of Extracellular Calcium Metabolism on Aldosterone Biosynthesis in Physiological and Pathological Status.

Horm Metab Res 2020 Jun 13;52(6):448-453. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Primary aldosteronism (PA) was reported to frequently harbor not only cardiovascular diseases but also some metabolic disorders including secondary calcium metabolic diseases. Recently, the potential association between aldosterone producing cells and systemic calcium metabolism has been proposed. For instance, PA is frequently associated with hypercalciuria or hypocalcemia, which subsequently stimulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. This altered calcium metabolism in PA patients could frequently result in secondary osteoporosis and fracture in some patients. On the other hand, extracellular calcium itself directly acts on adrenal cortex and has been also proposed as an independent regulator of aldosterone biosynthesis in human adrenals. However, it is also true that both PTH and vitamin D pathways stimulate endocrine functions of adrenal cortical adenomas to co-secret both aldosterone and cortisol. Therefore, it has become pivotal to explore the potential crosstalk between aldosterone and systemic calcium metabolism. We herein reviewed recent advances in these fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1157-0511DOI Listing
June 2020

Unique Sex Steroid Profiles in Estrogen-Producing Adrenocortical Adenoma Associated With Bilateral Hyperaldosteronism.

J Endocr Soc 2020 Feb 23;4(2):bvaa004. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Vascular Medicine, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.

Because of its rarity, our understanding of steroidogenesis in estrogen-producing adrenocortical adenoma, including the response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation, remains limited. A 65-year-old man was referred to us because of primary aldosteronism and a right adrenal tumor. Endocrinological evaluations revealed secondary hypogonadism due to hyperestrogenemia. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) and subsequent liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated bilateral hyperaldosteronism and a right estrogen-producing adrenocortical tumor. He subsequently underwent right unilateral adrenalectomy, which resulted in clinical remission of hypogonadism. Subsequent histopathological analysis identified a right estrogen-producing adrenocortical adenoma and multiple, concomitant adrenocortical micronodules. Sequential evaluation of steroid profiles using LC-MS/MS revealed unique hormone production, including adrenal androgens, and less responsiveness to ACTH in the right estrogen-producing adrenocortical adenoma as compared to the nonneoplastic adrenal cortex. This case study revealed unique profiles of steroid production in estrogen-producing adrenocortical adenoma associated with concomitant primary aldosteronism. Sequential steroid profiling analysis using LC-MS/MS in combination with AVS can contribute to the diagnosis of various adrenal disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvaa004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031070PMC
February 2020

Histological Characterization of Aldosterone-producing Adrenocortical Adenomas with Different Somatic Mutations.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 03;105(3)

Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Context: Aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenomas (APAs) are mainly composed of clear (lipid rich) and compact (eosinophilic) tumor cells. The detailed association between these histological features and somatic mutations (KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and CACNA1D) in APAs is unknown.

Objective: To examine the association between histological features and individual genotypes in APAs.

Methods: Examination of 39 APAs subjected to targeted next-generation sequencing (11 KCNJ5, 10 ATP1A1, 10 ATP2B3, and 8 CACNA1D) and quantitative morphological and immunohistochemical (CYP11B2 and CYP17A1) analyses using digital imaging software.

Results: KCNJ5- and ATP2B3-mutated APAs had clear cell dominant features (KCNJ5: clear 59.8% [54.4-64.6%] vs compact 40.2% (35.4-45.6%), P = .0022; ATP2B3: clear 54.3% [48.2-62.4 %] vs compact 45.7% (37.6-51.8 %), P = .0696). ATP1A1- and CACNA1D-mutated APAs presented with marked intratumoral heterogeneity. A significantly positive correlation of immunoreactivity was detected between CYP11B2 and CYP17A1 in tumor cells of KCNJ5-mutated APAs (P = .0112; ρ = 0.7237), in contrast, significantly inverse correlation was detected in ATP1A1-mutated APAs (P = .0025; ρ = -0.8667).

Conclusion: KCNJ5-mutated APAs, coexpressing CYP11B2 and CYP17A1, were more deviated in terms of zonation-specific differentiation of adrenocortical cells than ATP1A1- and ATP2B3-mutated APAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgz235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048684PMC
March 2020

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Severe Obesity after Intracranial Germinoma Treatment: A Case Report.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2019 11;249(3):223-229

Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Vascular Medicine, Tohoku University Hospital.

Hypothalamic obesity is a clinical syndrome characterized by severe and refractory obesity that is caused by hypothalamic function impairment. Recently, bariatric surgery has been attempted for patients with hypothalamic obesity after craniopharyngioma, but experiences have not yet been accumulated in other hypothalamic disorders. Here, we report the case of a 39-year-old male patient with panhypopituitarism who received laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) after intracranial germinoma treatment. The patient was diagnosed with intracranial germinoma at age 15 and achieved complete remission after radiotherapy (total 50 Gy). He was obese during diagnosis [body mass index (BMI), 29.2 kg/m], and his obesity gradually worsened after the intracranial germinoma treatment, and LSG was considered when his BMI was 48.6 kg/m. After 1 month of hospitalized diet-exercise program, LSG was performed. After LSG, his BMI gradually decreased and reached 38.8 kg/m on the day of discharge (6 weeks after the surgery). Five months after LSG, his insulin resistance improved, but insulin hypersecretion remained. Fifteen months after the surgery, his BMI was 31.2 kg/m, with marked decrease in visceral and subcutaneous fat areas (from 393.8 cm and 168.2 cm before the surgery to 111.5 cm and 56.3 cm, respectively.). To our knowledge, this is the first case of LSG for hypothalamic obesity after intracranial germinoma treatment. Although the pathophysiology of hypothalamic obesity is different from that of primary obesity, LSG could be a successful therapeutic choice for patients with hypothalamic obesity after the intracranial germinoma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.249.223DOI Listing
November 2019

3T MRI evaluation of regional catecholamine-producing tumor-induced myocardial injury.

Endocr Connect 2019 May;8(5):454-461

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.

Objective: Regional differences in cardiac magnetic resonance, which can reveal catecholamine-induced myocardial injury in patients with pheochromocytoma, have not yet been assessed using 3T magnetic resonance imaging. We evaluated these differences using myocardial T1-mapping and strain analysis.

Design And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 16 patients newly diagnosed with catecholamine-producing tumors (CPT group) and 16 patients with essential hypertension (EH group), who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging between May 2016 and March 2018. We acquired 3T magnetic resonance cine and native T1-mapping images and performed feature-tracking-based strain analysis in the former.

Results: Global cardiac function, morphology, global strain and peak strain rate were similar, but end-diastolic wall thickness differed between groups (CPT vs EH: 10.5 ± 1.7 vs 12.6 ± 2.8 mm; P < 0.05). Basal, but not apical, circumferential strain was significantly higher in the CPT than the EH group (19.4 ± 3.2 vs 16.8 ± 3.6 %; P < 0.05). Native T1 values were significantly higher in CPT than in EH patients, in both the basal septum (1307 ± 48 vs 1241 ± 45 ms; P < 0.01) and the apical septum (1377 ± 59 vs 1265 ± 58 ms; P < 0.01) mid-walls. In the CPT, but not in the EH group, native T1 values in the apical wall were significantly higher than those in the basal wall (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: 3T magnetic resonance-based T1-mapping can sensitively detect subclinical catecholamine-induced myocardial injury; the influence of catecholamines may be greater in the apical than in the basal wall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-18-0553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6479192PMC
May 2019

Tumor Cell Subtypes Based on the Intracellular Hormonal Activity in KCNJ5-Mutated Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma.

Hypertension 2018 09;72(3):632-640

From the Department of Pathology (Y.Y., K.I., Y.N., H.S.).

Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) harbor marked intratumoral heterogeneity in terms of morphology, steroidogenesis, and genetics. However, an association of biological significance of morphologically identified tumor cell subtypes and genotypes is virtually unknown. KCNJ5 mutation is most frequently detected and generally considered a curable phenotype by adrenalectomy. Therefore, to explore the biological significance of KCNJ5 mutation in APA based on intracellular hormonal activities, 35 consecutively selected APAs (n=18; KCNJ5 mutated, n=17; wild type) were quantitatively examined in the whole tumor areas by newly developed digital image analysis incorporating their histological and ultrastructural features (14 cells from 2 KCNJ5-mutated APAs and 15 cells from 1 wild type) and CYP11B2 immunoreactivity. Results demonstrated that KCNJ5-mutated APAs had significantly lower nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and more abundant clear cells than wild type. CYP11B2 immunoreactivity was not significantly different between these genotypes, but a significant correlation was detected between the proportion of clear cells and CYP11B2 immunoreactivity in all of the APAs examined. CYP11B2 was predominantly immunolocalized in clear cells in KCNJ5-mutated APAs. Quantitative ultrastructural analysis revealed that KCNJ5-mutated APAs had significantly more abundant and smaller-sized mitochondria with well-developed cristae than wild type, whereas wild type had more abundant lipid droplets per unit area despite the small number of the cases examined. Our results did provide the novel insights into the morphological features of APA based on their biological significance. KCNJ5-mutated APAs were characterized by predominance of enlarged lipid-rich clear cells possibly resulting in increased neoplastic aldosterone biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.10907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6759988PMC
September 2018

Catecholamine-Synthesizing Enzymes in Pheochromocytoma and Extraadrenal Paraganglioma.

Endocr Pathol 2018 Dec;29(4):302-309

Division of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 1-15-1 Fukumuro, Miyagino-ku, Sendai, 983-8536, Japan.

In chromaffin cells, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) are mainly involved in catecholamine synthesis. In this study, we evaluated the association between the status of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes and histopathological features of pheochromocytoma and extraadrenal paraganglioma with special emphasis upon their postoperative clinical behavior. Immunohistochemical evaluation of TH, DBH, AADC, PNMT, Ki 67, and S-100 was performed in 29 pheochromocytoma and 10 extraadrenal paraganglioma and one lymph node harboring metastatic pheochromocytoma. Among these cases, metastasis was subsequently developed in three cases. Urinary normetanephrine (U-NM) levels were significantly higher in clinical metastatic cases than non-metastatic ones. Ki 67 labeling index was significantly higher in both clinical metastatic cases and the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) score of ≧ 4 cases than PASS < 4 cases, although this score was originally used in pheochromocytoma. H-score of AADC and DBH were significantly lower in PASS ≧ 4 cases than those with < 4 cases, and in the cases associated with intratumoral necrosis (n = 4), the presence of spindle shaped tumor cells (n = 4), and large nests of cells or diffuse growth (n = 5). Lower status of intratumoral AADC could be related to poor differentiation of tumor cells in both catecholamine production and morphology and could be related to aggressive biological behavior of both pheochromocytoma and extraadrenal paraganglioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12022-018-9544-5DOI Listing
December 2018

Effects of surgical treatment for acromegaly on knee MRI structural features.

Endocr J 2018 Oct 13;65(10):991-999. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Vascular Medicine, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Japan.

Acromegalic arthropathy is a common complication of acromegaly and harms the quality of life of the patients even after acromegaly is in long-term remission. A recent study demonstrated by knee MRI the characteristic structural features of acromegalic arthropathy. However, the effects of treatment for acromegaly on such structural features are almost unknown. This study was undertaken to analyze the effects of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) on acromegalic arthropathy and elucidate whether knee MRI findings are reversible or irreversible. We analyzed 22 patients with acromegaly (63.7% females, median age 58 years) by knee MRI at diagnosis. Out of these 22 patients, 16 who underwent TSS (68.9% female, median age 58 years) were also subjected to knee MRI 2 months after TSS. As for X-ray undetectable findings, MRI detected synovial thickening, bone marrow lesion, ligament injury and meniscus injury in 22.7%, 22.7%, 4.7% and 59.1% of the patients, respectively. With respect to the 16 patients who underwent TSS, clinical and structural improvements were observed respectively in 100%, 66.7% and 66.7% of the patients who showed knee joint pain, synovial thickening and bone marrow lesion before TSS. However, no patient showed structural improvement of meniscus injury after TSS. In acromegalic arthropathy, synovial thickening and bone marrow lesions are reversible while meniscus injury is irreversible. Because all those findings are associated with the exacerbation of arthropathy, they may be therapeutic targets for preventing the progression of arthropathy by endocrinological and orthopedic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ18-0108DOI Listing
October 2018

Image quality and radiation dose of low-tube-voltage CT with reduced contrast media for right adrenal vein imaging.

Eur J Radiol 2018 Jan 26;98:150-157. Epub 2017 Nov 26.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574, Japan.

Objectives: To compare image quality and radiation dose of right adrenal vein (RAV) imaging computed tomography (CT) among conventional, low kV, and low kV with reduced contrast medium protocols.

Methods: One-hundred-and-twenty patients undergoing adrenal CT were randomly assigned to one of three protocols: contrast dose of 600mgI/kg at 120-kV tube voltage setting (600-120 group), 600mgI/kg at 80kV (600-80 group), and 360mgI/kg at 80kV (360-80 group). Iterative reconstruction was used for 80-kV groups. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the RAV and size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) were measured. Three radiologists evaluated 4-point visualisation scores of RAV by consensus reading.

Results: The RAV detectability was 95%, 97.2%, and 97.3% for 600-120, 600-80, and 360-80 groups, respectively (p=1.000). Visualisation scores were not significantly different among the groups (p=0.152). There were no significant differences in CNR or SNR between the 600-120 and 360-80 groups. SSDE of the 360-80 group was significantly lower than that of the 600-120 group (5.86mGy±1.44 vs. 7.27mGy±1.81, p<0.001).

Conclusions: 80-kV scans with 360 mgI/kg contrast media showed comparable detectability of RAV to conventional scans, while reducing 19% of SSDE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2017.11.017DOI Listing
January 2018

Rapid Screening of Primary Aldosteronism by a Novel Chemiluminescent Immunoassay.

Hypertension 2017 08 26;70(2):334-341. Epub 2017 Jun 26.

From the Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Vascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (R.M., Y.O., Y.T., M.K., S.I., F.S.) and Department of Pathology (H.S.), Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; Division of Clinical Hypertension, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan (Y.T., F.S.); Diagnostics Research Laboratories, Diagnostics Development Operations, Diagnostics Division, Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd, Osaka, Japan (S.Y., T.A.); and Division of Endocrinology, G.V. (Sonny) Montgomery VA Medical Center and University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.E.G.-S.).

Measurement of plasma aldosterone and renin concentration, or activity, is useful for selecting antihypertensive agents and detecting hyperaldosteronism in hypertensive patients. However, it takes several days to get results when measured by radioimmunoassay and development of more rapid assays has been long expected. We have developed chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays enabling the simultaneous measurement of both aldosterone and renin concentrations in 10 minutes by a fully automated assay using antibody-immobilized magnetic particles with quick aggregation and dispersion. We performed clinical validation of diagnostic ability of this newly developed assay-based screening of 125 patients with primary aldosteronism from 97 patients with essential hypertension. Results of this novel assay significantly correlated with the results of radioimmunoassay (aldosterone, active renin concentration, and renin activity) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (aldosterone). The analytic sensitivity of this particularly novel active renin assay was 0.1 pg/mL, which was better than that of radioimmunoassay (2.0 pg/mL). The ratio of aldosterone-to-renin concentrations of 6.0 (ng/dL per pg/mL) provided 92.0% sensitivity and 76.3% specificity as a cutoff for differentiating primary aldosteronism from essential hypertension. This novel measurement is expected to be a clinically reliable alternative for conventional radioimmunoassay and to provide better throughput and cost effectiveness in diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism from larger numbers of hypertensive patients in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.09078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5613948PMC
August 2017

Histopathological Classification of Cross-Sectional Image-Negative Hyperaldosteronism.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 04;102(4):1182-1192

Department of Pathology, and.

Context: Approximately half of patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) have clinically evident disease according to clinical (hypertension) and/or laboratory (aldosterone and renin levels) findings but do not have nodules detectable in routine cross-sectional imaging. However, the detailed histopathologic, steroidogenic, and pathobiological features of cross-sectional image-negative PA are controversial.

Objective: To examine histopathology, steroidogenic enzyme expression, and aldosterone-driver gene somatic mutation status in cross-sectional image-negative hyperaldosteronism.

Methods: Twenty-five cross-sectional image-negative cases were retrospectively reviewed. In situ adrenal aldosterone production capacity was determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) of steroidogenic enzymes. Aldosterone-driver gene somatic mutation status (ATP1A1, ATP2B3, CACNA1D, and KCNJ5) was determined in the CYP11B2 immunopositive areas [n = 35; micronodule, n = 32; zona glomerulosa (ZG), n = 3] using next-generation sequencing after macrodissection.

Results: Cases were classified as multiple adrenocortical micronodules (MN; n = 13) or diffuse hyperplasia (DH) of ZG (n = 12) based upon histopathological evaluation and CYP11B2 IHC. Aldosterone-driver gene somatic mutations were detected in 21 of 26 (81%) of CYP11B2-positive cortical micronodules in MN; 17 (65%) mutations were in CACNA1D, 2 (8%) in KCNJ5, and 1 each (4% each) in ATP1A1 and ATP2B. One of 6 (17%) of nodules in DH harbored somatic aldosterone-driver gene mutations (CACNA1D); however, no mutations were detected in CYP11B2-positive nonnodular DH areas.

Conclusion: Morphologic evaluation and CYP11B2 IHC enabled the classification of cross-sectional image-negative hyperaldosteronism into MN and DH. Somatic mutations driving aldosterone overproduction are common in micronodules of MN, suggesting a histological entity possibly related to aldosterone-producing cell cluster development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2016-2986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5460723PMC
April 2017

Expression of steroidogenic enzymes and their transcription factors in cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas: immunohistochemical analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction studies.

Hum Pathol 2016 08 13;54:165-73. Epub 2016 Apr 13.

Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, 980-8575 Japan.

Adrenal Cushing syndrome (CS) is caused by the overproduction of cortisol in adrenocortical tumors including adrenal cortisol-producing adenoma (CPA). In CS, steroidogenic enzymes such as 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lase (CYP17A1), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), and 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) are abundantly expressed in tumor cells. In addition, several transcriptional factors have been reported to play pivotal roles in the regulation of these enzymes in CPA, but their correlations with those enzymes above have still remained largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, we examined the status of steroidogenic enzymes and their transcriptional factors in 78 and 15 CPA cases by using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), respectively. Immunoreactivity of HSD3B2, CYP11B1, CYP17A1, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1[NR5A1]), GATA6, and nerve growth factor induced-B (NGFIB[NR4A1]) was detected in tumor cells. Results of qPCR analysis revealed that expression of HSD3B2 mRNA was significantly higher than that of HSD3B1, and CYP11B1 mRNA was significantly higher than CYP11B2. In addition, the expression of CYP11B1 mRNA was positively correlated with those of NR5A1, GATA6, and NR4A1. These results all indicated that HSD3B2 but not HSD3B1 was mainly involved in cortisol overproduction in CPA. In addition, NR5A1, GATA6, and NR4A1 were all considered to play important roles in cortisol overproduction through regulating CYP11B1 gene transcription.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2016.03.016DOI Listing
August 2016

Renal Resistive Index Predicts Postoperative Blood Pressure Outcome in Primary Aldosteronism.

Hypertension 2016 Mar 25;67(3):654-60. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

From the Endocrine unit of the Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Vascular Medicine (Y.I., S.I., R.M., M.K., Y.O., M.N., F.S.), Departments of Diagnostic Radiology (K.T., K.S.) and Urology (S.I, Y.A.), Clinical Physiology Center (Y.F., T.M.), Department of Pathology (Y.N., H.S.), Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Japan; and Division of Clinical Hypertension, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan (F.S.).

The renal resistive index (RI) calculated by Doppler ultrasonography has been reported to be correlated with renal structural changes and outcomes in patients with essential hypertension or renal disease. However, little is known about this index in primary aldosteronism. In this prospective study, we examined the utility of this index to predict blood pressure (BP) outcome after adrenalectomy in patients with primary aldosteronism. We studied 94 patients with histopathologically proven aldosteronoma who underwent surgery. Parameters on renal function, including renal flow indices, were examined and followed up for 12 months postoperatively. The renal RI of the main, hilum, and interlobar arteries was significantly higher in patients with aldosteronoma compared with 100 control patients. BP, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin excretion significantly decreased after adrenalectomy. The resistive indices of all compartment arteries were significantly reduced 1 month after adrenalectomy and remained stable for 12 months. Patients whose interlobar RI was in the highest tertile at baseline had higher systolic BP after adrenalectomy than those whose RI was in the lowest tertile. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the RI of the interlobar and hilum arteries could be an independent predictive marker for intractable hypertension (systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg, increased BP, taking ≥3 antihypertensive agents, or increased number of agents) even after adrenalectomy. Therefore, in patients with aldosteronoma, the renal RI indicates partially reversible renal hemodynamics and renal structural damages that would influence postoperative BP outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.05924DOI Listing
March 2016

Is there a role for segmental adrenal venous sampling and adrenal sparing surgery in patients with primary aldosteronism?

Eur J Endocrinol 2015 Oct 20;173(4):465-77. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

Division of Clinical HypertensionEndocrinology and Metabolism, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Miyagi, JapanDivision of NephrologyEndocrinology and Vascular Medicine, Department of MedicineDepartment of Diagnostic RadiologyDepartment of UrologyDepartment of PathologyTohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8574, Japan.

Objective And Design: Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is critical to determine the subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). Central AVS (C-AVS)--that is, the collection of effluents from bilateral adrenal central veins (CV)--sometimes does not allow differentiation between bilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism. To establish the best treatment course, we have developed segmental AVS (S-AVS); that is, we collect effluents from the tributaries of CV to determine the intra-adrenal sources of aldosterone overproduction. We then evaluated the clinical utility of this novel approach in the diagnosis and treatment of PA.

Methods: We performed C-AVS and/or S-AVS in 297 PA patients and assessed the accuracy of diagnosis based on the results of C-AVS (n=138, 46.5%) and S-AVS (n=159, 53.5%) by comparison with those of clinicopathological evaluation of resected specimens.

Results: S-AVS demonstrated both elevated and attenuated secretion of aldosterone from APA and non-tumorous segments, respectively, in patients with bilateral APA and recurrent APA. These findings were completely confirmed by detailed histopathological examination after surgery. S-AVS, but not C-AVS, also served to identify APA located distal from the CV.

Conclusions: Compared to C-AVS, S-AVS served to identify APA in some patients, and its use should expand the pool of patients eligible for adrenal sparing surgery through the identification of unaffected segments, despite the fact that S-AVS requires more expertise and time. Especially, this new technique could enormously benefit patients with bilateral or recurrent APA because of the preservation of non-tumorous glandular tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-14-1161DOI Listing
October 2015

Intra-adrenal Aldosterone Secretion: Segmental Adrenal Venous Sampling for Localization.

Radiology 2016 Jan 6;278(1):265-74. Epub 2015 Jul 6.

From the Department of Diagnostic Radiology (N.S., H.O., K.S., K.T.) and Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology, and Vascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (R.M., M.K., Y.I., Y.O., M.N., K.O., S.I., F.S.), Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo, Aoba, Sendai 980-8574, Japan.

Purpose: To use segmental adrenal venous sampling (AVS) (S-AVS) of effluent tributaries (a version of AVS that, in addition to helping identify aldosterone hypersecretion, also enables the evaluation of intra-adrenal hormone distribution) to detect and localize intra-adrenal aldosterone secretion.

Materials And Methods: The institutional review board approved this study, and all patients provided informed consent. S-AVS was performed in 65 patients with primary aldosteronism (34 men; mean age, 50.9 years ± 11 [standard deviation]). A microcatheter was inserted in first-degree tributary veins. Unilateral aldosterone hypersecretion at the adrenal central vein was determined according to the lateralization index after cosyntropin stimulation. Excess aldosterone secretion at the adrenal tributary vein was considered to be present when the aldosterone/cortisol ratio from this vein exceeded that from the external iliac vein; suppressed secretion was indicated by the opposite pattern. Categoric variables were expressed as numbers and percentages; continuous variables were expressed as means ± standard errors of the mean.

Results: The AVS success rate, indicated by a selectivity index of 5 or greater, was 98% (64 of 65). The mean numbers of sampled tributaries on the left and right sides were 2.11 and 1.02, respectively. The following diagnoses were made on the basis of S-AVS results: unilateral aldosterone hypersecretion in 30 patients, bilateral hypersecretion without suppressed segments in 22 patients, and bilateral hypersecretion with at least one suppressed segment in 12 patients. None of the patients experienced severe complications.

Conclusion: S-AVS could be used to identify heterogeneous intra-adrenal aldosterone secretion. Patients who have bilateral aldosterone-producing adenomas can be treated with adrenal-sparing surgery or other minimally invasive local therapies if any suppressed segment is identified at S-AVS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2015142159DOI Listing
January 2016

Dynamic multidetector CT and non-contrast-enhanced MR for right adrenal vein imaging: comparison with catheter venography in adrenal venous sampling.

Eur Radiol 2016 Mar 25;26(3):622-30. Epub 2015 Jun 25.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8574, Japan.

Objectives: To evaluate visualization of the right adrenal vein (RAV) with multidetector CT and non-contrast-enhanced MR imaging in patients with primary aldosteronism.

Methods: A total of 125 patients (67 men) scheduled for adrenal venous sampling (AVS) were included. Dynamic 64-detector-row CT and balanced steady-state free precession-based non-contrast-enhanced 3-T MR imaging were performed. RAV visualization based on a four-point score was documented. Both anatomical location and variation on cross-sectional imaging were evaluated, and the findings were compared with catheter venography as the gold standard.

Results: The RAV was visualized in 93.2% by CT and 84.8% by MR imaging (p = 0.02). Positive predictive values of RAV visualization were 100% for CT and 95.2% for MR imaging. Imaging score was significantly higher in CT than MR imaging (p < 0.01). The RAV formed a common trunk with an accessory hepatic vein in 16% of patients. The RAV orifice level on cross-sectional imaging was concordant with catheter venography within the range of 1/3 vertebral height in >70% of subjects. Success rate of AVS was 99.2%.

Conclusions: Dynamic CT is a reliable way to map the RAV prior to AVS. Non-contrast-enhanced MR imaging is an alternative when there is a risk of complication from contrast media or radiation exposure.

Key Points: Dynamic CT and non-contrast-enhanced MR imaging detect the right adrenal vein (RAV). Dynamic CT can visualize the RAV more than non-contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Mapping the RAV helps to achieve successful adrenal venous sampling. Sixteen per cent of RAVs share the common trunk with accessory hepatic veins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-015-3872-3DOI Listing
March 2016

Measurement of peripheral plasma 18-oxocortisol can discriminate unilateral adenoma from bilateral diseases in patients with primary aldosteronism.

Hypertension 2015 May 16;65(5):1096-102. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

From the Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology, and Vascular Medicine, Departments of Medicine (F.S., R.M., Y.O., Y.I., K.O., M.K., S.I.), Radiology (K.T., K.S.), Urology (Y.A.), and Pathology (H.S., Y.N.), Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Japan; Aska Pharma Medical Co Ltd, Kawasaki, Japan (H.S., S.H., M.O.); Division of Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, Sendai, Japan (K.Y.); Division of Endocrinology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.E.G.-S.); and Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (W.E.R.).

Adrenal venous sampling is currently the only reliable method to distinguish unilateral from bilateral diseases in primary aldosteronism. In this study, we attempted to determine whether peripheral plasma levels of 18-oxocortisol (18oxoF) and 18-hydroxycortisol could contribute to the clinical differentiation between aldosteronoma and bilateral hyperaldosteronism in 234 patients with primary aldosteronism, including computed tomography (CT)-detectable aldosteronoma (n=113) and bilateral hyperaldosteronism (n=121), all of whom underwent CT and adrenal venous sampling. All aldosteronomas were surgically resected and the accuracy of diagnosis was clinically and histopathologically confirmed. 18oxoF and 18-hydroxycortisol were measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of 18oxoF discrimination of adenoma from hyperplasia demonstrated sensitivity/specificity of 0.83/0.99 at a cut-off value of 4.7 ng/dL, compared with that based on 18-hydroxycortisol (sensitivity/specificity: 0.62/0.96). 18oxoF levels above 6.1 ng/dL or of aldosterone >32.7 ng/dL were found in 95 of 113 patients with aldosteronoma (84%) but in none of 121 bilateral hyperaldosteronism, 30 of whom harbored CT-detectable unilateral nonfunctioning nodules in their adrenals. In addition, 18oxoF levels below 1.2 ng/dL, the lowest in aldosteronoma, were found 52 of the 121 (43%) patients with bilateral hyperaldosteronism. Further analysis of 27 patients with CT-undetectable micro aldosteronomas revealed that 8 of these 27 patients had CT-detectable contralateral adrenal nodules, the highest values of 18oxoF and aldosterone were 4.8 and 24.5 ng/dL, respectively, both below their cut-off levels indicated above. The peripheral plasma 18oxoF concentrations served not only to differentiate aldosteronoma but also could serve to avoid unnecessary surgery for nonfunctioning adrenocortical nodules concurrent with hyperplasia or microadenoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4642692PMC
May 2015

Relationship of ocular microcirculation, measured by laser speckle flowgraphy, and silent brain infarction in primary aldosteronism.

PLoS One 2015 12;10(2):e0117452. Epub 2015 Feb 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Department of Retinal Disease Control, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Department of Advanced Ophthalmic Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Purpose: Recent studies have shown that the risk of cerebro- and cardiovascular events (CVEs) is higher in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) than in those with essential hypertension (EH), and that silent brain infarction (SBI) is a risk factor and predictor of CVEs. Here, we evaluated the relationship between findings from laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), a recently introduced non-invasive means of measuring mean blur rate (MBR), an important biomarker of ocular blood flow, and the occurrence of SBI in patients with PA.

Methods: 87 PA patients without symptomatic cerebral events (mean 55.1 ± 11.2 years old, 48 male and 39 female) were enrolled in this study. We measured MBR in the optic nerve head (ONH) with LSFG and checked the occurrence of SBI with magnetic resonance imaging. We examined three MBR waveform variables: skew, blowout score (BOS) and blowout time (BOT). We also recorded clinical findings, including age, blood pressure, and plasma aldosterone concentration.

Results: PA patients with SBI (15 of 87 patients; 17%) were significantly older and had significantly lower BOT in the capillary area of the ONH than the patients without SBI (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age and BOT were independent factors for the presence of SBI in PA patients (OR, 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.38; P = .03 and OR, 0.73, 95% CI 0.45-0.99; P = .04, respectively).

Conclusion: PA patients with SBI were older and had lower MBR BOT than those without SBI. Our analysis showed that age was a risk factor for SBI, and that BOT was a protective factor, in patients with PA. This suggests that BOT, a non-invasive and objective biomarker, may be a useful predictor of SBI and form part of future PA evaluations and clinical decision-making.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0117452PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4326356PMC
November 2015
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