Publications by authors named "Yoshiki Kawamura"

53 Publications

Full genome-based characterization of G4P[6] rotavirus strains from diarrheic patients in Thailand: Evidence for independent porcine-to-human interspecies transmission events.

Virus Genes 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, 470-1192, Japan.

The exact evolutionary patterns of human G4P[6] rotavirus strains remain to be elucidated. Such strains possess unique and strain-specific genotype constellations, raising the question of whether G4P[6] strains are primarily transmitted via independent interspecies transmission or human-to-human transmission after interspecies transmission. Two G4P[6] rotavirus strains were identified in fecal specimens from hospitalized patients with severe diarrhea in Thailand, namely, DU2014-259 (RVA/Human-wt/THA/DU2014-259/2014/G4P[6]) and PK2015-1-0001 (RVA/Human-wt/THA/PK2015-1-0001/2015/G4P[6]). Here, we analyzed the full genomes of the two human G4P[6] strains, which provided the opportunity to study and confirm their evolutionary origin. On whole genome analysis, both strains exhibited a unique Wa-like genotype constellation of G4-P[6]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. The NSP1 genotype A8 is commonly found in porcine rotavirus strains. Furthermore, on phylogenetic analysis, each of the 11 genes of strains DU2014-259 and PK2015-1-0001 appeared to be of porcine origin. On the other hand, the two study strains consistently formed distinct clusters for nine of the 11 gene segments (VP4, VP6, VP1-VP3, and NSP2-NSP5), strongly indicating the occurrence of independent porcine-to-human interspecies transmission events. Our observations provide important insights into the origin of zoonotic G4P[6] strains, and into the dynamic interaction between porcine and human rotavirus strains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-021-01851-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Hippocampal Atrophy in Pediatric Transplant Recipients with Human Herpesvirus 6B.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 8;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake 470-1192, Japan.

The aim of this study was to determine whether human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) infection can impair the hippocampus in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Study subjects were pediatric HSCT recipients monitored for HHV-6B infection who underwent brain MRI before and after transplantation. Volumetric analysis of the hippocampus was performed. Of the 107 patients that received HSCT at Nagoya University Hospital Between July 2008 and April 2014, 20 were eligible for volumetric analysis. Eight patients had HHV-6B infection, of whom two had encephalopathy at the time of HHV-6B infection. None of the 12 patients without HHV-6B infection had encephalopathy. The median ratio of the right hippocampal volume from before to after transplantation was 0.93 in patients with HHV-6B infection and 1.02 in without HHV-6B infection ( = 0.007). The median ratio of the left hippocampal volume ratio in patients with and without HHV-6B infection was 0.92 and 1.00, respectively ( = 0.003). Among the eight patients with HHV-6B infection, four had a marked reduction in hippocampal volume (volume ratio < 0.90). Only one of these patients had neurological symptoms at the time of HHV-6B infection. The reduction in the hippocampal volume ratio was higher in pediatric HSCT recipients with HHV-6B infection than those without viral infection. Neurological follow-up may be required for pediatric HSCT recipients with HHV-6B infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068176PMC
April 2021

Evaluation of varicella vaccine effectiveness during outbreaks in schools or nurseries by cross-sectional study.

Vaccine 2021 05 22;39(21):2901-2905. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan.

Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate vaccine effectiveness (VE) during varicella outbreaks in schools and nurseries in Japan.

Methods: An outbreak was defined as emergence of three or more cases of varicella within 21 days at the same institute. Clinical information such as varicella vaccination status, and history of varicella was collected. If a child had varicella during the outbreak, information about absences, fever, and disease severity was collected.

Results: From September 2018 to January 2020, four outbreaks were reported around our institute from three elementary schools and one nursery. A total of 676 children were analyzed in this study. Seventy-six children (11.2%) were unvaccinated, 309 (45.7%) had received one dose of vaccine, and 291 (43.0%) had received two doses. Most children in Pre-K2 (1-2 years old) to Pre-K6 (5-6 years old), who were the targets of the national immunization schedule, received two doses. Meanwhile, most children older than third grade received single dose. Seventy-five children (11.1%) had varicella. Varicella prevalence from Pre-K5 to the third grade was greater than 10%. The adjusted VEs of single- and two-dose of varicella vaccine were 57.8% and 89.0%. The number of days absent was significantly longer in unvaccinated children than single-dose recipients (P = 0.0145). Unvaccinated children had significantly more severe skin eruptions than single-dose recipients (P = 0.0046) and two-dose recipients (P = 0.0258).

Conclusions: Although VEs of single-dose varicella vaccination during outbreaks was not high, the VE of two-dose vaccination was similar to that in a previously reported case-control study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.04.009DOI Listing
May 2021

Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 and autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

J Clin Virol 2020 11 5;132:104656. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

Background: Entire genome of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) that integrates into human chromosomes is called chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6). Several viral infections have been suggested to be involved in autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs). Reactivated HHV-6 from the integrated viral genome can induce immune responses against the virus. Thus, it is plausible that ciHHV-6 is associated with autoimmune CTDs.

Objectives: We sought to determine whether the prevalence of ciHHV-6 was significantly higher in patients with autoimmune CTDs than in a healthy population.

Study Design: A total of 846 peripheral blood samples collected from autoimmune CTD patients were analyzed. Since there was a large number of samples, they were pooled into 24 samples per group. Copy numbers of HHV-6 DNA were measured by real-time PCR. The threshold level for distinguishing between ciHHV-6 and active viral infection and the reliability of pooled DNA analysis were examined as initial validation experiments.

Results: The threshold level was 1.6 × 10^6 copy/mL in whole blood. The reliability of pooled DNA analysis to identify one ciHHV-6 sample among 23 HHV-6 DNA-negative samples was high. No HHV-6 DNA was detected in any of the pooled DNA samples collected from the patients. The probability of the present study including the 846 autoimmune CTD patient's samples was statistically not different with a healthy Japanese population which was 0.2 % or 0.6 %.

Conclusions: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of ciHHV-6 between a healthy population and patients with autoimmune CTDs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104656DOI Listing
November 2020

Trend in varicella patients 4 years after implementation of universal two-dose varicella vaccination in Japan.

Vaccine 2020 10 30;38(46):7331-7336. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

Objective: To elucidate the trend and clinical spectrum of virologically diagnosed varicella patients after implementation of universal vaccination as a national immunization program in Japan.

Patients And Methods: Study subjects were patients suspected of varicella, less than 15 years of age, who visited 14 pediatric clinics in the Nagoya VZV Study Group from September 2015 to August 2019. Practitioners collected patient samples and information such as backgrounds, clinical symptoms, and previous immunization status. All patients were confirmed as having varicella based on molecular diagnostic assays.

Results: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA was detected in swab samples from 506 (83.1%) of the 609 suspected patients. The 455 varicella patients for whom vaccination status was available were divided into two groups: 180 universal vaccination targets and 275 non-targets. Numbers of monthly varicella patients decreased gradually during the observation period. In the 2016/17 season, the seasonal epidemic of varicella became undetectable in the universal vaccination target group, and starting in the 2017/18 season, it was obscured even in the non-target group. The median age of patients was significantly lower in the universal vaccination target group (3 years) than the non-target group (7 years) (P < 0.001). Vaccination status differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.001). Most varicella patients were in the non-target group, especially those who had been vaccinated once (60.4%). Frequency of fever (P < 0.001) and number of skin rashes at the time of the first hospital visit (P = 0.001) were significantly higher in the non-target group.

Conclusions: Although the number of childhood varicella patients declined after implementation of national immunization with two doses of varicella vaccination, sporadic outbreaks still occurred, mainly in the non-universal vaccination target group. Insufficient vaccination of members of this group is likely to be a major reason for small local outbreaks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.09.038DOI Listing
October 2020

Inherited Chromosomally Integrated Human Herpesvirus 6 Is a Risk Factor for Spontaneous Abortion.

J Infect Dis 2021 May;223(10):1717-1723

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan.

Background: Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) can be genetically transmitted from parent to child as inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6). HHV-6 reactivation occurs in pregnant women with iciHHV-6. We found no sex differences in the frequency of index cases with iciHHV-6 but inheritance from the father was more common. We evaluated the association between iciHHV-6 status and spontaneous abortion.

Methods: iciHHV-6 was confirmed by high viral DNA copy numbers in whole blood and somatic cells. The origin of integrated viral genome, paternal or maternal, was examined using the same method. The pregnancy history of 23 mothers in families with iciHHV-6 and 285 mothers in families without iciHHV-6 was abstracted.

Results: Of 23 iciHHV-6 index cases, 8 mothers and 15 fathers had iciHHV-6. Spontaneous abortion rates in mothers with and mothers without/fathers with iciHHV-6 and mothers in families without iciHHV-6 were 27.6%, 10.3%, and 14.8%, respectively (P = .012). Mothers with iciHHV-6 (odds ratio [OR], 6.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-37.4) and maternal age at the most recent pregnancy ≥40 years (OR, 3.91; 95% CI, 1.30-11.8) were associated with 2 or more spontaneous abortions.

Conclusions: Mothers with iciHHV-6 is a risk factor for spontaneous abortion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa606DOI Listing
May 2021

Immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric patients including young infants.

J Med Virol 2021 03 29;93(3):1776-1779. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan.

Pediatric cases of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are generally mild or asymptomatic, and are usually detected by virological examination following close contact with COVID-19 patients, often the children's parents. The detailed clinical features and virological data of pediatric patients with COVID-19, particularly young infants, remain unclear. Here, the clinical and virological characteristics of four children with COVID-19 including two young infants were investigated. One- and 4-month-old boys with COVID-19 were both asymptomatic, and seroconversion was demonstrated. These findings suggest that even young infants can mount an immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), despite having weaker immune defenses than adolescents and adults. Three-year-old boy, who was SARS-CoV-2-negative, was admitted to the same room as his SARS-CoV-2-positive father due to the lack of caregivers. Although he was asymptomatic, he had seroconverted to SARS-CoV-2. Eleven-year-old boy, who was sibling of the 3-year-old boy, was also SARS-CoV-2-negative. He was isolated in his own room and did not seroconvert. If young children are SARS-CoV-2 negative, they should be isolated from their SARS-CoV-2-positive parents. This may be difficult in practice, if parents with COVID-19 are the only available caregivers. In such situations, the most appropriate measures should be taken for each patient.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26493DOI Listing
March 2021

Endogenization and excision of human herpesvirus 6 in human genomes.

PLoS Genet 2020 08 10;16(8):e1008915. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Laboratory for Statistical and Translational Genetics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.

Sequences homologous to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) are integrated within the nuclear genome of about 1% of humans, but it is not clear how this came about. It is also uncertain whether integrated HHV-6 can reactivate into an infectious virus. HHV-6 integrates into telomeres, and this has recently been associated with polymorphisms affecting MOV10L1. MOV10L1 is located on the subtelomere of chromosome 22q (chr22q) and is required to make PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). As piRNAs block germline integration of transposons, piRNA-mediated repression of HHV-6 integration has been proposed to explain this association. In vitro, recombination of the HHV-6 genome along its terminal direct repeats (DRs) leads to excision from the telomere and viral reactivation, but the expected "solo-DR scar" has not been described in vivo. Here we screened for integrated HHV-6 in 7,485 Japanese subjects using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Integrated HHV-6 was associated with polymorphisms on chr22q. However, in contrast to prior work, we find that the reported MOV10L1 polymorphism is physically linked to an ancient endogenous HHV-6A variant integrated into the telomere of chr22q in East Asians. Unexpectedly, an HHV-6B variant has also endogenized in chr22q; two endogenous HHV-6 variants at this locus thus account for 72% of all integrated HHV-6 in Japan. We also report human genomes carrying only one portion of the HHV-6B genome, a solo-DR, supporting in vivo excision and possible viral reactivation. Together these results explain the recently-reported association between integrated HHV-6 and MOV10L1/piRNAs, suggest potential exaptation of HHV-6 in its coevolution with human chr22q, and clarify the evolution and risk of reactivation of the only intact (non-retro)viral genome known to be present in human germlines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444522PMC
August 2020

Three Adolescents With Primary Human Herpesvirus 7 Infection During a Measles Outbreak.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 08;39(8):e209-e211

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

During local small measles outbreak in Japan, 3 adolescents with febrile skin rash suspected as having measles were diagnosed with primary human herpesvirus (HHV)-7 infection. Primary HHV-7 infection can cause exanthem subitum in not only young children but also adolescents. HHV-7 should be considered as a possible causative agent for adolescent febrile skin rash during the measles outbreak.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002697DOI Listing
August 2020

Molecular characterization of rotaviruses obtained from patients with rotavirus-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy.

Microbiol Immunol 2020 Aug 4;64(8):541-555. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

Group A rotavirus (RVA) rarely causes severe complications such as encephalitis/encephalopathy. However, the pathophysiology of this specific complication remains unclear. Next-generation sequence analysis was used to compare the entire genome sequences of RVAs detected in patients with encephalitis/encephalopathy and gastroenteritis. This study enrolled eight patients with RVA encephalitis/encephalopathy and 10 with RVA gastroenteritis who were treated between February 2013 and July 2014. Viral RNAs were extracted from patients' stool, and whole-genome sequencing analysis was carried out to identify the specific gene mutations in RVA obtained from patients with severe neurological complications. Among the eight encephalitis/encephalopathy cases, six strains were DS-1-like G1P[8] and the remaining two were Wa-like G1P[8] (G1-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1). Meanwhile, eight of the 10 viruses detected in rotavirus gastroenteritis patients were DS-1-like G1P[8], and the remaining two were Wa-like G1P[8]. These strains were further characterized by conducting phylogenetic analysis. No specific clustering was demonstrated in RVAs detected from encephalitis/encephalopathy patients. Although the DS-1-like G1P[8] strain was predominant in both groups, no specific molecular characteristics were detected in RVAs from patients with severe central nervous system complications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12827DOI Listing
August 2020

Rapid generation of rotavirus single-gene reassortants by means of eleven plasmid-only based reverse genetics.

J Gen Virol 2020 08 3;101(8):806-815. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan.

Reassortment is an important mechanism in the evolution of group A rotaviruses (RVAs), yielding viruses with novel genetic and phenotypic traits. The classical methods for generating RVA reassortants with the desired genetic combinations are laborious and time-consuming because of the screening and selection processes required to isolate a desired reassortant. Taking advantage of a recently developed RVA reverse genetics system based on just 11 cloned cDNAs encoding the RVA genome (11 plasmid-only system), we prepared a panel of simian SA11-L2 virus-based single-gene reassortants, each containing 1 segment derived from human KU virus of the G1P[8] genotype. It was shown that there was no gene-specific restriction of the reassortment potential. In addition to these 11 single-gene reassortants, a triple-gene reassortant with KU-derived core-encoding VP1-3 gene segments with the SA11-L2 genetic background, which make up a virion composed of the KU-based core, and SA11-L2-based intermediate and outer layers, could also be prepared with the 11 plasmid-only system. Finally, for possible clinical application of this system, we generated a series of VP7 reassortants representing all the major human RVA G genotypes (G1-4, G9 and G12) efficiently. The preparation of each of these single-gene reassortants was achieved within just 2 weeks. Our results demonstrate that the 11 plasmid-only system allows the rapid and reliable generation of RVA single-gene reassortants, which will be useful for basic research and clinical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001443DOI Listing
August 2020

Clinical Features of Complex Febrile Seizure Caused by Primary Human Herpesvirus 6B Infection.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 08 28;109:52-55. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan.

Background: It is well known that febrile seizures are commonly occur in children with exanthem subitum. In this study, we compared the clinical features and backgrounds of patients with complex febrile seizures with and without primary human herpesvirus 6B infection.

Methods: Sixty-two patients were enrolled after experiencing their first febrile seizure. Primary human herpesvirus 6B infection was confirmed when human herpesvirus 6B DNA was detected and human herpesvirus 6B antibody was negative in serum obtained during the acute phase of infection. Patient age, gender, and features of seizures were evaluated between patients with and without human herpesvirus 6B infection.

Results: Thirty patients with complex febrile seizure were diagnosed with primary human herpesvirus 6B infection. Those with primary human herpesvirus 6B infection (median, 13 months; range, seven to 39 months) were significantly younger than those without primary human herpesvirus 6B infection (median, 19 months; range, 10 to 59 months) (P = 0.001), and the proportion of males was significantly higher in patients without primary human herpesvirus 6B infection (male/female, 25/7) than in those with the infection (male/female, 14/16) (P = 0.017). An interval between fever onset and seizures of more than 24 hours was significantly more common in patients with primary human herpesvirus 6B infection (15 of the 30 patients) than in those without primary HHV-6B infection (two of 32 patients) (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: A younger age at onset, a different gender ratio compared with febrile seizure due to other causes, and the length of interval between fever and seizures were features of complex febrile seizure associated human herpesvirus 6B infection. These findings may suggest a mechanism of complex febrile seizure onset different from that due to other causes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.03.015DOI Listing
August 2020

Full genome characterization of novel DS-1-like G9P[8] rotavirus strains that have emerged in Thailand.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(4):e0231099. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Virology and Parasitology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

The emergence and rapid spread of unusual DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant rotaviruses having G1/3/8 genotypes have been recently reported from major parts of the world (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and the Americas). During rotavirus surveillance in Thailand, three novel intergenogroup reassortant strains possessing the G9P[8] genotype (DBM2017-016, DBM2017-203, and DBM2018-291) were identified in three stool specimens from diarrheic children. In the present study, we determined and analyzed the full genomes of these three strains. On full-genomic analysis, all three strains were found to share a unique genotype constellation comprising both genogroup 1 and 2 genes: G9-P[8]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that each of the 11 genes of the three strains was closely related to that of emerging DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant, human, and/or locally circulating human strains. Thus, the three strains were suggested to be multiple reassortants that had acquired the G9-VP7 genes from co-circulating Wa-like G9P[8] rotaviruses in the genetic background of DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant (likely equine-like G3P[8]) strains. To our knowledge, this is the first description of emerging DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant strains having the G9P[8] genotype. Our observations will add to the growing insights into the dynamic evolution of emerging DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant rotaviruses through reassortment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231099PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176146PMC
July 2020

Coinfection With Human Herpesvirus (HHV)-6B in Immunocompetent, Healthy Individuals With Chromosomally Integrated HHV-6A.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2021 Mar;10(2):175-178

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan.

Immunocompetent sisters with chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) transiently excreted HHV-6B genome in their saliva. They did not have past histories of exanthema subitum but had antibodies against HHV-6A and HHV-6B. This suggests that endogenous HHV-6A may modify the clinical features of HHV-6B coinfection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa009DOI Listing
March 2021

Frequency of subclinical herpes zoster in pediatric hematology-oncology patients receiving chemotherapy: A retrospective cohort analysis.

J Med Virol 2020 08 18;92(8):1260-1265. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation from the enteric nervous system can cause ileus (Ogilvie's syndrome) in adult patients. Since no pediatric cases have been described, we sought to retrospectively analyze VZV reactivation in pediatric hematology-oncology patients to determine whether VZV infection including subclinical VZV reactivation can induce gastrointestinal complications such as Ogilvie's syndrome. Thirty-five patients who received chemotherapy at our institution between September 2013 and June 2018 were included. Serum samples were collected weekly during hospitalization and every 3 months during outpatient maintenance chemotherapy. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to measure VZV DNA load in serum. The clinical features of patients with VZV infection were retrospectively analyzed. Of 1165 serum samples, 7 (0.6%) were positive for VZV DNA. VZV DNA was detected in 3 of 35 patients. In patient A, VZV DNA was detected during two episodes. The first episode involved varicella-like eruptions caused by the Oka VZV vaccine strain. The second episode involved herpes zoster (HZ) caused by the same strain. Patients B and C had a clinical course that was typical for HZ caused by wild-type VZV. No gastrointestinal symptoms were observed at the time of VZV infection in these three patients. VZV DNA was not detected in any other samples. No pediatric cases with Ogilvie's syndrome caused by VZV reactivation were demonstrated in this cohort. Additionally, no subclinical VZV reactivation was found in this cohort. Further study is needed to elucidate the precise incidence of pediatric Ogilvie's syndrome caused by VZV reactivation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25650DOI Listing
August 2020

Human herpesvirus-6B infection in pediatric allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients: Risk factors and encephalitis.

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 Feb 11;22(1):e13203. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan.

Background: Human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) infection after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is known to be associated with post-transplant limbic encephalitis in adults. Meanwhile, the association between HHV-6B infection and central nervous system complications remains unclear in pediatric allo-HSCT patients.

Methods: In this study, HHV-6B infection was monitored for more than 50 days after HSCT using virus isolation and real-time PCR. Clinical information such as patient background and encephalitis status was collected retrospectively from medical records. Risk factors for HHV-6B infection were determined by the Cox proportional hazards model, and the clinical features of HHV-6B encephalitis in pediatric allo-HSCT patients were elucidated.

Results: Human herpesvirus-6B infection was observed in 74 (33.8%) of 219 patients at 3-47 days (median 18, interquartile range 13-20). Risk factors identified in multivariable analysis were hematological malignancy (hazards ratio [HR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3/12.5; P < .0001), solid tumor (HR, 4.8; CI, 1.5/16.3; P = .0104), unrelated donor (HR, 2.1; CI, 1.0/4.6; P = .0378), and sex-mismatched donor (HR 1.8; CI, 1.1/3.0; P = .0257). HHV-6B encephalitis occurred in only one of the 219 patients (0.46%); this patient demonstrated the typical clinical course of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

Conclusion: Hematological malignancy, solid tumor, unrelated donor, and sex-mismatched donor were significant risk factors for HHV-6B infection after pediatric allo-HSCT. In pediatric allo-HSCT patients, the incidence of HHV-6B encephalitis was low and the clinical features differed from those in adult patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13203DOI Listing
February 2020

Reliability of direct varicella zoster virus loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid diagnosis of breakthrough varicella.

J Clin Virol 2019 10 2;119:53-58. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

Background: Since patients with breakthrough varicella (BV) have mild symptoms, clinical diagnosis is difficult. In high vaccine coverage area, as BV occurs sporadically, point of care test is required for controlling varicella outbreak. In this study, the reliability of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was evaluated for the rapid diagnosis of BV.

Study Design: A total of 328 swab samples collected from patients with suspected varicella were analyzed. For the laboratory diagnosis of varicella, VZV real-time PCR was carried out using DNA extracted from swab samples. Swab samples without DNA extraction were used for VZV-LAMP(direct-LAMP).

Results: VZV infection was diagnosed by real-time PCR in 285 cases, including 105 natural varicella cases and 180 BV cases. VZV DNA was detected in 250 (87.8%) of the 285 cases by direct-LAMP. The presence and duration of fever, number of skin eruptions, and VZV DNA load were significantly lower in BV than natural varicella. The sensitivity of direct-LAMP for the diagnosis of varicella and BV was 93.3% and 84.4%, respectively.

Conclusions: Direct LAMP was considered to be useful for rapid diagnosis of BV as it has several advantages such as low cost, ease and rapidity, as compared to real time PCR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.07.009DOI Listing
October 2019

Clinical Characteristics of Primary HHV-6B Infection in Children Visiting the Emergency Room.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 10;38(10):e248-e253

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan.

Objective: This cohort study, based on the design of a prior study in the United States, was conducted to elucidate the clinical features of primary human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) infection.

Methods: Between June 2014 and May 2016, febrile children younger than 5 years who visited the emergency room (ER) and underwent blood examination were enrolled in this study.

Results: Fifty-nine (12%) of the 491 patients were diagnosed with primary HHV-6B infection. The rates of both simple and complex febrile seizure were significantly higher in patients with primary HHV-6B infection than in those without (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). The median age at primary HHV-6B infection was 15 months. Forty-seven (79.7%) of the 59 patients with primary HHV-6B infection were younger than 2-year-old. Clinical features were compared between HHV-6B-infected patients older and younger than 2 years. The frequency of apparent infection (exanthema subitum) was significantly higher in the younger patients (P = 0.01). The median leukocyte (P = 0.01) and lymphocyte (P < 0.001) counts in the patients older than 2 years were significantly lower than those in the younger patients.

Conclusions: Primary HHV-6B infection accounted for 12% of ER visits. Secondary febrile seizures, in particular the complex type, were considered to be a major contributor to the disease burden of primary HHV-6B infection. The timing of primary HHV-6B infection occurred at older ages than in past reports, and the frequency of inapparent infection was higher in older patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002379DOI Listing
October 2019

Simplified Dynamic Phantom for Pediatric Renography: A Description of Instrument and its Performance.

Asia Ocean J Nucl Med Biol 2019 ;7(1):38-48

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Tracer Kinetics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

Objectives: Renography is used for the diagnostic evaluation of pediatric patients with a suspected obstruction of urinary tract or impaired renal function. The recommended dose for children have been released by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, and Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine. Since acquisition counts in dynamic scintigraphy are affected by the administered doses and sensitivity of the scintillation camera, the scan procedure should be determined independently. In this study, we constructed simplified dynamic phantom imitating pediatric renography and tested its performance.

Methods: Simplified dynamic phantom consisted of three components (i.e., infusion, imitated kidney, and drainage sections). The infusion rates (mL/min) were determined by comparing the time activity curves obtained from patients with normal renal function. The time-points of the maximum counts (T), as well as the two-thirds and one-half of the maximum counts (T and T) were measured in different doses using the phantom with the best-match infusion rate and duration, and low-energy general-purpose (LEGP) or low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimators and applying different attenuations.

Results: The best-match infusion rates of the phantom to imitate the time activity curve of the normal renal function were 42.0, 1.0, 0.6, and 0.3 mL/min in the arterial, secretory, early-excretory, and late-excretory phases, respectively. When 30 MBq, LEHR collimator and non-water-equivalent phantom were applied, T, T, and T were 242±15.3, 220±10.0 and 317±25.2 seconds, respectively. Using LEGP collimator and (3 MBq of activity) 5-cm water-equivalent phantom, T, T, and T values were estimated as 242±5.8, 213±11.5, and 310±17.3 sec, respectively.

Conclusion: Our simplified dynamic phantom for pediatric renography could imitate the time activity curves obtained from patients with normal renal function. T, T, and T could be measured under various settings of dose, collimator, and tissue attenuation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/AOJNMB.2018.11803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6352048PMC
January 2019

A case of early onset life-threatening epilepsy associated with a novel ATP1A3 gene variant.

Brain Dev 2019 Mar 2;41(3):285-291. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Mutations of the ATP1A3 gene are associated with a wide spectrum of neurological disorders including rapid onset dystonia-parkinsonism and alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC). The genotype-phenotype correlations in these cases remain unclear however. We here report a pediatric case of catastrophic early life epilepsy, respiratory failure, postnatal microcephaly, and severe developmental disability associated with a novel heterozygous ATP1A3 mutation.

Subject: A boy with a normal birth to nonconsanguineous parents was transferred to the NICU due to postnatal respiratory failure at 2 days. He showed extreme hypotonia, episodic oculomotor abnormality and tachycardia, and frequent epileptic seizures. Mechanical ventilation was required but his epileptic seizures were intractable to multiple antiepileptic drugs, including extremely high doses of phenobarbital.

Methods And Results: Whole exome sequencing analysis of the case and his parents identified a de novo heterozygous mutation in the ATP1A3 gene (c.2736_2738CTTdel, p.Phe913del).

Discussion: The Phe913 residue in the ATP1α3 protein that is deleted in our case is highly conserved among vertebrates. Notably, an amino acid deletion in the same transmembrane domain of this protein, p.Val919del, has been reported previously in typical AHC cases, suggesting that p.Phe913del is a pathogenic mutation. Several reported cases with severe symptoms and very early onset epilepsy harbor ATP1α3 mutations at structural positions in this protein that differ from that of Phe913. Further functional studies are required to clarify the relationship between the loss of Phe913 and the very distinct resulting phenotype.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2018.10.008DOI Listing
March 2019

Chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 in the Japanese population.

J Med Virol 2018 10 10;90(10):1636-1642. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

The objectives of the work are to elucidate the incidence and virological findings of chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 (ciHHV-6) in Japanese population and to analyze an association between ciHHV-6 and the clinical manifestation of exanthema subitum (ES). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine HHV-6 DNA loads in 2347 cord blood samples from healthy neonates (cohort A), febrile children less than 5 years old (cohort B), and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients (cohort C). CiHHV-6 was confirmed by detection of high copy numbers of viral DNA in somatic cells. The integration site was determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis. In the ciHHV-6 subjects of cohorts A and B, HHV-6 antibody titers were measured, the history of ES was obtained, and the incidence of ES was compared with non-ciHHV-6 children without primary HHV-6B infection in the cohort B. CiHHV-6 was detected in 14 (0.60%) of the 2347 samples: A (6/1006, 0.60%), B (6/790, 0.76%), and C (2/551, 0.36%). The integration sites were on chromosome 22q in seven cases, Yp in two cases, and 17q and Xp in one case. No past history of ES was observed in 11 of the 12 subjects. Nine children with ciHHV-6 underwent serological analysis and were found to be positive for HHV-6 IgG antibodies. Incidence of ES was statistically higher in the control subjects than the ciHHV-6 subjects (P = 0.0039). In Japan, the frequency of ciHHV-6 was 0.60%. A high incidence of ciHHV-6A, specifically in chromosome 22, is a characteristic finding among the Japanese. CiHHV-6 may interfere with the clinical symptoms of primary HHV-6B infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25244DOI Listing
October 2018

Clinical course of human herpesvirus 6 infection in pediatric living donor liver transplantation.

Pediatr Transplant 2018 11 3;22(7):e13239. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

Differentiation between active and latent viral infection is critical for analysis of HHV-6-associated disease. HHV-6 infection has been associated with several clinical manifestations; however, the precise role of HHV-6 in pediatric LDLT remains unclear. This retrospective cohort study included 33 pediatric patients who received LDLT. All of the recipients were monitored for HHV-6 infection using viral isolation and real-time PCR. HHV-6 infection was observed in 14 of 33 (42.4%) recipients, and HHV-6B infection occurred within 2 weeks after LDLT in 10 of 14 (71.4%) recipients. HHV-6 was isolated from 10 of 33 (30.3%) recipients. Multivariate analysis showed that independent predictors of HHV-6B infection were age (OR 0.975; 95% CI 0.943-0.999; P = .041), PELD (OR 1.091; P = .038), and biliary atresia (OR 16.48; P = .035). The occurrence of unexplained fever was significantly higher in recipients with HHV-6B infection (11/14) compared with uninfected recipients (6/19) (P = .013). Additionally, ALT levels at 8 and 9 weeks after transplantation were significantly higher in the recipients with HHV-6B infection. Younger age, high MELD/PELD score, and biliary atresia as an underlying disease were identified as risk factors for viral infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13239DOI Listing
November 2018

Late-phase human herpesvirus 6B reactivation in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Aug 13;20(4):e12916. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan.

Background: We sought to determine whether late-phase human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients was associated with serious outcomes and mortality.

Methods: The occurrence and course of HHV-6B infection was monitored for at least 60 days after transplant using virus isolation and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Risk factors for late-phase HHV-6B infection were examined, and the propensity score was calculated with significant risk factors. The inverse probability-weighted multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for mortality.

Results: Late-phase HHV-6B infection was observed in 12/89 (13.5%) of the HSCT recipients. Older age (OR: 10.3, 95% CI: 2.1/72.9, P = .0027), hematologic malignancy (OR: 10.3, 95% CI: 1.8/97.1, P = .0063), unrelated donor transplantation (OR: 5.3, 95% CI: 1.1/36.0, P = .0345), and sex-mismatched donor transplantation (OR: 6.3, 95% CI: 1.4/39.5, P = .0149) were identified as risk factors for late-phase HHV-6B infection. Fifteen subjects died (17%). Inverse probability-weighted multivariable logistic model analysis revealed that late-phase HHV-6B infection was an independent risk factor for mortality (OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 1.7/11.0, P = .0012). Among 5 of the fatal cases of late-phase HHV-6B infection, viral infection might be associated with severe clinical manifestations.

Conclusion: Late-phase HHV-6B infection in HSCT recipients was associated with worse outcomes. The full spectrum of clinical features of the infection has not been fully elucidated, and therefore, recipients with high-risk factors for late-phase HHV-6B infection should be carefully monitored.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.12916DOI Listing
August 2018

Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Latency-Associated Transcript (LAT) Region Mutations Do Not Identify a Role for LAT-Associated MicroRNAs in Viral Reactivation in Guinea Pig Genital Models.

J Virol 2018 07 29;92(14). Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA

Despite the long-standing observation that herpes simplex virus (HSV) latency-associated transcript (LAT) promoter deletion viruses show impaired recurrence phenotypes in relevant animal models, the mechanism by which these sequences exert this phenotypic effect is unknown. We constructed and evaluated four mutant HSV-2 isolates with targeted mutations in the LAT promoter and LAT-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) affecting (i) the LAT TATA box; (ii) the LAT ICP4-binding site; (iii) miRNA I (miR-I) and miR-II (miR-I/II), which both target ICP34.5; and (iv) miR-III, which targets ICP0. While the LAT TATA box mutant caused milder acute infections than wild-type (WT) virus, there was no difference in the recurrence phenotype between these viruses. LAT and miRNA expression during latency was not impaired by this mutation, suggesting that other promoter elements may be more important for latent HSV-2 LAT expression. Mutation of the LAT ICP4-binding site also did not cause an phenotypic difference between mutant and WT viruses. Acute infection and reactivation from latency of the miR-I/II mutant were similar to those of its rescuant, although the acute infection was slightly reduced in severity relative to that caused by the wild-type virus. The miR-III mutant also exhibited WT phenotypes in acute and recurrent phases of infection. While they do not rule out an effect of these elements in human latency or reactivation, these findings do not identify a specific role for LAT or LAT-associated miRNAs in the HSV-2 LAT promoter deletion phenotype in guinea pigs. Thus, other sequences in this region may play a more important role in the long-studied LAT-associated phenotype in animals. While it has been known for several decades that specific HSV-1 and HSV-2 sequences near the LAT promoter are required for efficient viral reactivation in animal models, the mechanism is still not known. We constructed four mutant viruses with the goal of identifying critical sequence elements and of specifically testing the hypothesis that microRNAs that are expressed during latency play a role. Determination that specific LAT promoter sequences and miRNA sequences do not influence viral reactivation of HSV-2 helps to narrow down the search for the mechanism by which the virus controls its latency and recurrence phenotype.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00642-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6026728PMC
July 2018

Monitoring Shedding of Five Genotypes of RotaTeq Vaccine Viruses by Genotype-Specific Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assays.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 06 25;56(6). Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

RotaTeq (RV5) is a widely used live attenuated pentavalent rotavirus (RV) vaccine. Although fecal shedding of RV vaccine strains persists for long time periods, it is unclear how each vaccine strain replicates in intestinal tissue and is excreted in stool. To examine this issue, we established RV5 genotype-specific real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays. Five real-time RT-PCR assays were designed for the VP7 gene in genotypes G1, G2, G3, G4, and G6. All assays exhibited excellent linearity, and the detection limit was 1 infectious unit (IU)/reaction for G2, G4, and G6 and 10 IUs/reaction for G1 and G3. No cross-reactivity was observed among G genotypes. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation were less than 3%. The assays were used to examine 129 stool samples collected from eight infants who received RV5. In cases 1 and 2, who received three rounds of vaccination, RV shedding decreased gradually with the number of vaccinations. G1 and G6 shedding appeared to be predominant in comparison to shedding of the other genotypes. Patterns of fecal shedding of the five genotypes of vaccine viruses differed between the eight vaccine recipients. RV5 genotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assays will be useful to study the molecular biology of RV5 replication in infants and experimental animals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00035-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5971533PMC
June 2018

Survey of rotavirus-associated severe complications in Aichi Prefecture.

Pediatr Int 2018 Mar;60(3):259-263

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

Background: Rotavirus can, rarely, cause severe complications such as encephalopathy/encephalitis, myocarditis, sudden death, urinary stone, and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding; and the incidence of these severe complications remains unclear. Additionally, it has not been determined whether rotavirus (RV) vaccine could reduce cases of severe complications or not.

Methods: A two-part questionnaire was designed to determine the number and clinical features of severe complications between 1 September 2008 and 31 August 2015, including the observation periods before and after RV vaccine introduction in Aichi Prefecture.

Results: Twenty-four cases of encephalitis/encephalopathy, eight cases of sudden death, three cases of urinary tract stone, and three cases of GI bleeding were reported during the 2008/2009 season and the 2012/2013 seasons. Although five cases of encephalitis/encephalopathy were reported, no other cases of severe complications were reported during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. No age difference was noted according to type of complication. Although onset of encephalitis/encephalopathy and of sudden death was around day 2 of illness, that of urinary tract stone and GI bleeding was slightly later (day 6 and day 4). In addition to the eight sudden deaths, fatal outcome was also noted in four cases (13.8%) of encephalitis/encephalopathy, and in one case of GI bleeding.

Conclusion: According to the questionnaire survey in Aichi Prefecture, the incidence of the four severe RV-associated complications appears to have declined as the vaccination rate has increased.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.13506DOI Listing
March 2018

Analysis of the origin of inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 in the Japanese population.

J Gen Virol 2017 Jul 12;98(7):1823-1830. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan.

Integration of the complete human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) genome into the telomere of a chromosome has been reported in some individuals (inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6; iciHHV-6). Since the proportion of iciHHV-6-positive individuals with integration in chromosome 22 is high in Japan, we hypothesized a founder effect. In this study, we sought to elucidate the reason for the high proportion of viral integrations into chromosome 22. We analyzed six cases of iciHHV-6A and two cases of iciHHV-6B, including one iciHHV-6A case with a matched sample from a father and one iciHHV-6B case with a matched sample from a mother. In iciHHV-6A, the same copy numbers of viral telomeric repeat sequences (TRS) and the same five microsatellite markers were detected in both the index case and paternal sample. Moreover, the same five microsatellite markers were demonstrated in four cases and the same copy numbers of viral TRS were demonstrated in two pairs of two cases. The present microsatellite analysis suggested that the viral genomes detected in some iciHHV-6A patients were derived from a common ancestral integration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000834DOI Listing
July 2017

Development of real-time RT-PCR assays for detection of three classes of HHV-6A gene transcripts.

J Med Virol 2017 10 15;89(10):1830-1836. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan.

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), a member of the betaherpesvirus family, has two distinct species: HHV-6A and HHV-6B. HHV-6B real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to distinguish between active and latent viral infection. In this study, we developed a real-time RT-PCR assay to detect HHV-6A-specific transcripts and evaluated its reliability for analysis of clinical samples. To develop HHV-6A-specific real-time RT-PCR assays, three different classes of gene transcripts (immediate early: U90; early: U12; and late: U100) were selected as targets. Serial d ilutions of plasmid DNAs containing target sequences and RNAs extracted from HHV-6A-infected cells were used to determine assay specificity and sensitivity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from patients with either primary or reactivated HHV-6B infection, and one patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) with HHV-6A reactivation, were used to evaluate assay reliability. The HHV-6A-specific real-time RT-PCR assays amplified plasmids containing the target sequences at concentrations between 10 and 1 × 10 copies per reaction. The intra-assay coefficients of variation were less than 5%. The three classes of HHV-6A gene transcripts were not detected in any HHV-6B sample isolated from the patients. In the X-SCID patient, high copy numbers of HHV-6A U12 and U100 transcripts were detected in PBMC samples during viremia. Thus, we successfully established highly sensitive and reproducible real-time RT-PCR methods targeting three classes of HHV-6A gene transcripts. This method should be useful for discriminating active HHV-6A infection from either latent infection or chromosomally integrated HHV-6A (ciHHV-6A).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24862DOI Listing
October 2017

Rotavirus vaccine strain transmission by vaccinated infants in the foster home.

J Med Virol 2017 01 4;89(1):79-84. Epub 2016 Jul 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan.

Previous studies have demonstrated the transmission of rotavirus vaccine strains from vaccinated children to nonvaccinated siblings. We sought to fully elucidate the safety of rotavirus (RV) vaccination in closed contact circumstance, such as the foster home for future assessment of the vaccine safety in an neonatal intensive care unit. Stool samples were collected from 4 RV vaccinated (160 samples) and 23 unvaccinated (766 samples) infants. RV viral RNA loads were measured using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RV vaccine strain RNA was persistently detected in stool samples collected from the four vaccine recipients and one unvaccinated infant, but not in the stool samples collected from the 22 other unvaccinated infants. The unvaccinated infant who tested positive for the RV vaccine strain was vaccinated prior to enrollment in this study. The quantitative real-time RT-PCR data revealed a peak viral RNA load 1 week after vaccination followed by a gradual decrease. The current study suggests that RV vaccination may be safe in a close contact environment because there was limited transmission from RV vaccinated to unvaccinated infants. J. Med. Virol. 89:79-84, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24613DOI Listing
January 2017

A case of Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with severe cardiac complications.

BMC Pediatr 2016 10 28;16(1):172. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake, 470-1192, Japan.

Background: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life threatening hematological disorder associated with severe systemic inflammation caused by an uncontrolled and ineffective immune response resulting in cytokine storm. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common infectious agent in patients with the viral-associated HLH. Limited numbers of cases with cardiac complication have been demonstrated in other viral-associated HLH patients. Herein, we report a pediatric case of severe EBV-associated HLH with cardiac complications.

Case Presentation: A previously healthy 4-year-old Japanese female was admitted to a local hospital with a four day history of fever. Despite antibiotic treatment, her fever persisted to day 7 of the illness. Finally, the diagnosis of HLH was confirmed by fulfilling diagnostic criteria for HLH and pathological analysis of bone marrow aspiration. Real-time PCR detected a high copy number of EBV DNA in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at the time of hospital admission. During treatment according to HLH-2004 protocol, sudden cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) occurred on day 30 of the illness and immediate resuscitation was successful. Acute myocarditis was considered the cause of the CPA. Although the treatment regimen was completed on day 88 of the illness, a remarkably high copy number of EBV DNA was still detected in her PBMCs. Based on our flow cytometric in situ hybridization analysis that revealed EBV infection of only B lymphocytes, we decided to administer rituximab to control the abnormal EBV infection. Afterwards the amount of EBV DNA decreased gradually to undetectable level on day 130 of the illness. Unfortunately, a coronary artery aneurysm was discovered at the left main coronary artery on day 180 of the illness. Finally, the patient was discharged from the hospital on day 203 of the illness without sequelae except for a coronary aneurysm.

Conclusions: In this case report, EBV-HLH was complicated with cardiac symptoms such as myocarditis and coronary artery aneurysm. Although remarkably high copy number of EBV DNA was detected in PBMCs after completion of the HLH-2004 protocol, rituximab treatment resulted in a dramatic decrease of EBV DNA to undetectable levels. Rituximab treatment might have been beneficial for the patient's survival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-016-0718-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5084419PMC
October 2016