Publications by authors named "Yoshihiro Inamoto"

192 Publications

Feasibility and usefulness of recommended screenings at long-term follow-up clinics for hematopoietic cell transplant survivors.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Nov 27. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Purpose: Advances in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) have resulted in a growing number of transplant survivors; however, long-term survivors are at risk of developing late complications, and published guidelines recommend screening of this population. We conducted a single-center prospective study to evaluate the adherence to and usefulness of recommended screenings at a long-term follow-up (LTFU) clinic.

Methods: We included consecutive patients who received allo-HCT at our center from 2014, as well as post-HCT patients visiting our outpatient clinic. Visits and screenings were planned at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after allo-HCT, and annually thereafter. Outcomes were reported by physicians including the incidence of findings at each screening that led to interventions.

Results: Among the 216 participants, 95% visited the LTFU clinic, and 94% completed planned screenings. However, the rate of secondary cancer screenings targeting high-risk subjects was lower (38% to 68%). The overall percentage of screening results leading to interventions was 4.5%, with higher percentages (> 10%) for bone density testing, ophthalmological examinations, dental assessment, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and colonoscopy, with two patients diagnosed with secondary cancers.

Conclusions: Although the overall screening rate was high, it should be possible to improve the detection rate of late complications by decreasing screening failures, especially the screening for secondary cancers limited for high-risk survivors. A nationwide effort to educate HCT survivors and health practitioners using standardized nationwide LTFU tools may be effective, along with the development of institutional, local, and nationwide networks to maintain effective follow-up systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06698-5DOI Listing
November 2021

Male-specific late effects in adult hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: a systematic review from the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Oct 29. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN;; Department of Medicine, Sheikh Shakhbout Medical City, Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Background: Male-specific late effects after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) include genital chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), hypogonadism, sexual dysfunction, infertility, and subsequent malignancies, such as prostate, penile, and testicular cancer. They may be closely intertwined and cause prolonged morbidity and decreased quality of life after HCT.

Objective: Here, we provide a systematic review of male-specific late effects in a collaboration between transplant physicians, endocrinologists, urologists, dermatologists, and sexual health professionals through the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, and the Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Study Design: We utilized systematic review methodology to summarize incidence, risk factors, screening, prevention and treatment of these complications and provide consensus evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice and future research.

Results: Most of the evidence regarding male GvHD is still based on limited data, precluding strong therapeutic recommendations. We therefore recommend to systematically screen for male genital GvHD regularly and report it to large registries to allow for a better understanding. Future research should also address treatment since little published evidence is available to date. Male-specific endocrine consequences of HCT include hypogonadism which may also affect bone health. Since the evidence is scarce, current recommendations for hormone substitution and/or bone health treatment are based on similar principles as for the general population. Following HCT, sexual health decreases and this topic should be addressed at regular intervals. Future studies should focus on interventional strategies to address sexual dysfunction. Infertility remains prevalent in patients having undergone myeloablative conditioning, which warrants offering sperm preservation in all HCT candidates. Most studies on fertility rely on descriptive registry analysis and surveys, hence the importance of reporting post-HCT conception data to large registries. Although the quality of evidence is low, the development of cancer in male genital organs does not seem more prevalent than in the general population; however, subsequent malignancies in general seem to be more prevalent in males than females, and special attention should be given to skin and oral mucosa.

Conclusion: Male-specific late effects, probably more under-reported than female-specific complications, should be systematically considered during the regular follow-up visits of male survivors who have undergone HCT. Care of patients with male-specific late effects warrants close collaboration between transplant physicians and specialists from other involved disciplines. Future research should be directed towards better data collection on male-specific late effects and on studies about the interrelationship between these late effects, to allow the development of evidence based effective management practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.10.013DOI Listing
October 2021

Characterization of myeloid neoplasms following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Am J Hematol 2021 Nov 5. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

We compared characteristics of myeloid neoplasms (MNs) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) versus autologous HCT using a Japanese HCT registry database. Among 43 788 patients who underwent allogeneic (n = 18 874) or autologous HCT (n = 24 914) for non-myeloid malignancies or non-malignant diseases, 352 developed MNs. The cumulative incidence of MNs was lower after allogeneic HCT than after autologous HCT (0.3% vs. 1.8% at 10 years, respectively, p < .001). Compared with autologous HCT, MNs following allogeneic HCT developed in younger patients (median, 42 vs. 57 years old, respectively) and sooner after HCT (median, 16 vs. 33 months, respectively). Approximately half of MNs following allogeneic HCT were donor-derived and occurred later than recipient-derived MNs (median, 26 vs. 6 months, respectively, p = .003). In multivariate analysis, reduced-intensity conditioning and cord blood transplantation were associated with MN development after allogeneic HCT. Overall survival was similar in patients who developed MNs following allogeneic versus autologous HCT (18% vs. 22% at 5 years, respectively, p = .48). Patient age ≥ 55 years, the presence of previous HCT, AML subtype, and chromosome 5 or 7 abnormalities were adverse factors for overall survival after MN diagnosis. Further research is warranted to elucidate the mechanisms of MN development following allogeneic HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26401DOI Listing
November 2021

Outcomes of third allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in relapsed/refractory acute leukemia after a second transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan.

Relapsed acute leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is associated with poor prognosis. In a subset of patients, durable remissions can be achieved with a second allo-HSCT (allo-HSCT2). However, many patients experience relapse after allo-HSCT2 and they may be considered for a third allo-HSCT (allo-HSCT3). Nevertheless, the benefit of allo-HSCT3 remains unconfirmed. Thus, herein a retrospective analysis of 253 allo-HSCT3s in patients with relapsed/refractory acute leukemia was carried out. In total, 29 (11.5%) survived at a median follow-up of 794 days (range: 87-4 619). The 3-year leukemia-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 9.7% and 10.9%, respectively. Patients who maintained remission for ≥2 years after allo-HSCT2 had a significantly better 3-year OS (35.8%) than those who experienced early relapse (<1 year, 7.8%; 1-2 years, 14.0%; P = 0.004). Complete remission at allo-HSCT3, performance status score of 0-1 at allo-HSCT3, grade I acute graft-versus-host disease after allo-HSCT2, and relapse ≥2 years after allo-HSCT2 were associated with better survival in patients who received allo-HSCT3. The prognosis after allo-HSCT3 in patients with relapsed/refractory acute leukemia is generally unfavorable. However, given the lack of alternative treatment options, allo-HSCT3 may be considered in a group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01485-6DOI Listing
October 2021

Haploidentical vs. sibling, unrelated, or cord blood hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States.

The role of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is being defined. We performed a retrospective, multivariate analysis comparing outcomes of HCT approaches by donor for adults with ALL in remission. The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) between haploidentical HCT using PTCy and HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD), 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) , 7/8 HLA-matched UD, or umbilical cord blood (UCB) HCT. Comparing haploidentical to MSD HCT, OS, leukemia-free survival (LFS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) were not different but chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was higher with MSD HCT. Compared to MUD HCT, OS, LFS, and relapse were not different but MUD HCT had increased NRM (HR 1.42, P=0.02), grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.59, P=0.005), and cGVHD. Compared to 7/8 UD HCT, LFS and relapse were not different, but 7/8 UD HCT had worse OS (HR 1.38, P=0.01) and increased NRM (HR 2.13, P=<0.001), grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.86, P=0.003), and cGVHD (HR 1.72, P=<0.001). Compared to UCB HCT, late OS , late LFS, relapse, and cGVHD were not different but UCB HCT had worse early OS (≤18 months, HR 1.93, P<0.001), worse early LFS (HR 1.40, P=0.007) and increased incidences of NRM (HR 2.08, P<0.001) and grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.97, P<0.001). Haploidentical HCT using PTCy showed no difference in survival but less GVHD compared to traditional MSD and MUD HCT and is the preferred alternative donor HCT option for adults with ALL in CR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004916DOI Listing
September 2021

Improved survival of patients with aggressive ATL by increased use of allo-HCT: a prospective observational study.

Blood Adv 2021 10;5(20):4156-4166

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Aggressive adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a hematological malignancy that is difficult to treat with chemotherapy alone, and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative therapy. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, observational study to clarify the treatment outcomes of aggressive ATL in the current era. Between 2015 and 2018, 113 patients aged 70 years or younger with newly diagnosed aggressive ATL were enrolled. The median age at diagnosis was 61 years. Treatment outcomes were compared with those of 1792 ATL patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 in our previous retrospective study. The inclusion criteria were the same in both studies. The prospective cohort demonstrated better overall survival (OS) than the retrospective cohort (2-year OS, 45% vs 29%, respectively; P < .001), with a much higher proportion of patients receiving allo-HCT (80% vs 34%, respectively; P < .001) and a shorter interval from diagnosis to allo-HCT (median, 128 vs 170 days, respectively; P < .001). Among the 90 patients who received allo-HCT (cord blood, n = 30; HLA-haploidentical related donors, n = 20; other related donors, n = 14; other unrelated donors, n = 26), the 2-year probabilities of OS, non-relapse mortality (NRM), and disease progression were 44%, 23%, and 46%, respectively. OS and NRM did not differ statistically according to donor type. Our results suggest that increased application of allo-HCT improved the survival of patients with aggressive ATL. The use of cord blood or HLA-haploidentical donors may be feasible for aggressive ATL when HLA-matched related donors are unavailable. This study was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as #000017672.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004932DOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of HLA disparity on the risk of overall mortality in patients with grade II-IV acute GVHD on behalf of the HLA Working Group of Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Hematology, Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Stem cell source or HLA disparity may exert a significant impact on the overall survival (OS) after the development of aGVHD. In order to clarify this point, we performed a retrospective analysis using a database of the Japan Society for HCT. We analyzed the clinical outcomes of 10,035 patients who developed grade II-IV aGVHD. The median age of the patients was 48 years. The probability of 2-year OS after the onset of grade II-IV aGVHD in the study cohort was 54.1%. The multivariate analysis showed that the HLA ≥2-loci mismatched related donor and HLA 1-locus mismatched unrelated donor were significantly associated with an inferior OS after grade II-IV aGVHD. In a subgroup analysis, peripheral blood stem cells and HLA disparity were associated with an inferior OS in patients who received related or unrelated HCT. Thus, the clinical outcome after grade II-IV aGVHD significantly varied as per the combination of the presence of HLA disparity and stem cell source. Further research using other databases is necessary to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01443-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation for transformed follicular lymphoma.

Hematol Oncol 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

This study characterized the outcomes of patients who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for transformed follicular lymphoma (tFL), and clarified the association of low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin use with outcomes after allogeneic HCT. The retrospective study cohort included 74 consecutive patients who underwent autologous (n = 23) or allogeneic (n = 51) HCT at our center from 2000 to 2017. Compared with the allogeneic HCT group, the autologous HCT group underwent fewer systemic regimens before HCT (median 2 vs. 5, p < 0.001) and were more likely to have chemosensitive disease at HCT (100% vs. 82%, p = 0.05), while age, sex and HCT-specific comorbidity index were similar between the two groups. With a median follow-up of 5.8 years among survivors, the 5-year probability of progression-free survival was 64% after autologous HCT and 55% after allogeneic HCT (p = 0.21). The 5-year cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 0% after autologous HCT and 9.5% after allogeneic HCT (p = 0.062). The 5-year cumulative incidence of disease progression was similar between autologous and allogeneic HCT (36% vs. 36%, respectively, p = 0.88). In the allogeneic HCT group, the use of low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin was associated with a lower incidence of severe acute GVHD but not with an increased risk of mortality or disease progression. More than half of patients with early phase chemosensitive tFL and approximately half of those with advanced-phase tFL achieved long-term progression-free survival with autologous and allogeneic HCT, respectively. Disease progression was the major cause of treatment failure after both types of HCT. Further strategies are needed to reduce the risk of disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2917DOI Listing
August 2021

Allogeneic Transplantation to Treat Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in Adults.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Nov 21;27(11):923.e1-923.e12. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Section of Bone Marrow Transplant and Cell Therapy, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Patients who develop therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, either myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (t-AML), have a poor prognosis. An earlier Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) analysis of 868 allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (allo-HCTs) performed between 1990 and 2004 showed a 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of 22% and 21%, respectively. Modern supportive care, graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have led to improved outcomes. Therefore, the CIBMTR analyzed 1531 allo-HCTs performed in adults with t-MDS (n = 759) or t-AML (n = 772) between and 2000 and 2014. The median age was 59 years (range, 18 to 74 years) for the patients with t-MDS and 52 years (range, 18 to 77 years) for those with t-AML. Twenty-four percent of patients with t-MDS and 11% of those with t-AML had undergone a previous autologous (auto-) HCT. A myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen was used in 49% of patients with t-MDS and 61% of patients with t-AML. Nonrelapse mortality at 5 years was 34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30% to 37%) for patients with t-MDS and 34% (95% CI, 30% to 37%) for those with t-AML. Relapse rates at 5 years in the 2 groups were 46% (95% CI, 43% to 50%) and 43% (95% CI, 40% to 47%). Five-year OS and DFS were 27% (95% CI, 23% to 31%) and 19% (95% CI, 16% to 23%), respectively, for patients with t-MDS and 25% (95% CI, 22% to 28%) and 23% (95% CI, 20% to 26%), respectively, for those with t-AML. In multivariate analysis, OS and DFS were significantly better in young patients with low-risk t-MDS and those with t-AML undergoing HCT with MAC while in first complete remission, but worse for those with previous auto-HCT, higher-risk cytogenetics or Revised International Prognostic Scoring System score, and a partially matched unrelated donor. Relapse remains the major cause of treatment failure, with little improvement seen over the past 2 decades. These data mandate caution when recommending allo-HCT in these conditions and indicate the need for more effective antineoplastic approaches before and after allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.010DOI Listing
November 2021

Prognostic Impact of Pretransplantation Quality of Life and Its Post-Transplantation Longitudinal Change after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Prospective Study That Administered the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and EuroQol 5.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Nov 8;27(11):935.e1-935.e9. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

In allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), investigator-based clinical variables have been used for pretransplantation prognostic prediction, risk adjustment, and post-transplantation long-term screenings. Although several studies have investigated the prognostic significance of pretransplantation patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and longitudinal trends in PROs after allo-HCT, few have assessed these outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and EuroQol 5 Dimension (EQ-5D) index. The present study used 18 items from the SF-12 and EQ-5D index to evaluate the prognostic impact of pretransplantation quality of life (QOL) on allo-HCT outcomes and longitudinal changes in QOL in allo-HCT recipients. This single-center prospective study included consecutive patients who underwent allo-HCT at our center between October 2014 and September 2016. All participants were followed up until October 2017. The SF-12 and EQ-5D index were administered to assess patient-reported QOL before allo-HCT and at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after allo-HCT when participants visited the long-term follow-up clinic. Longitudinal trends in the QOL-adjusted means were estimated using linear mixed-effects, adjusting for pretransplantation covariates and reasons for missing QOL data. Among 157 patients who underwent allo-HCT, 145 (92%) were registered in this study, and 143 with available QOL data were analyzed. The median pretransplantation scores were 45.3 for the SF-12 physical component score (PCS), 55.6 for the mental component score (MCS), 38.8 for the role/social component score (RCS), 70.0 for the visual analog scale (VAS), and 49.0 for the EQ-5D index. Overall survival (OS) was significantly improved in patients with higher pretransplantation scores on the PCS, RCS, and EQ-5D index, and multivariable analyses showed that the median pretransplantation RCS was significantly associated with OS after allo-HCT (hazard ratio, 3.66; P = .003). The longitudinal trends in the SF-12 score showed that the PCS was improved at 2 years after allo-HCT and was comparable to the normative score for the general population. The MCS remained comparable to or higher than the normative score after allo-HCT. The RCS improved significantly beginning at 6 months after allo-HCT but remained lower than the normative score at 2 years. The VAS and EQ-5D index values showed a drop at 3 months after allo-HCT. Patient-reported QOL assessed by 18 questions on the SF-12 and EQ-5D predicted prognosis, and may be used as a prognosticator to determine treatment strategies, including preparative regimens. Although we experienced a certain amount of patient attrition in the longitudinal follow-up of QOL data, we demonstrated characteristic trajectories of QOL in different domains after adjusting for background covariates and reasons for the lack of QOL data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.07.026DOI Listing
November 2021

Standardizing Definitions of Hematopoietic Recovery, Graft Rejection, Graft Failure, Poor Graft Function, and Donor Chimerism in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Report on Behalf of the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08;27(8):642-649

West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is potentially curative for certain hematologic malignancies and nonmalignant diseases. The field of allo-HCT has witnessed significant advances, including broadening indications for transplantation, availability of alternative donor sources, less toxic preparative regimens, new cell manipulation techniques, and novel GVHD prevention methods, all of which have expanded the applicability of the procedure. These advances have led to clinical practice conundrums when applying traditional definitions of hematopoietic recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, because these may vary based on donor type, cell source, cell dose, primary disease, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, and conditioning intensity, among other variables. To address these contemporary challenges, we surveyed a panel of allo-HCT experts in an attempt to standardize these definitions. We analyzed survey responses from adult and pediatric transplantation physicians separately. Consensus was achieved for definitions of neutrophil and platelet recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, but not for delayed engraftment. Here we highlight the complexities associated with the management of mixed donor chimerism in malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases, which remains an area for future research. We recognize that there are multiple other specific, and at times complex, clinical scenarios for which clinical management must be individualized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.007DOI Listing
August 2021

A Phase I/II Multicenter Trial of HLA-Haploidentical PBSCT with PTCy for Aggressive Adult T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Nov 15;27(11):928.e1-928.e7. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive hematologic malignancy with a very poor prognosis, and most patients with ATL are elderly. Although post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has yielded promising results in various diseases, available data are limited regarding its outcomes in ATL. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of reduced-intensity peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical donor using PTCy as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. This was a prospective, multicenter phase I/II study (UMIN000021783) conducted at 16 hospitals in Japan. The primary endpoint was the probability of survival with engraftment and without grade III/IV acute GVHD at day 60 after PBSCT. The expected probability of the primary endpoint was estimated to be 60%, and the threshold probability was set at 30% on the basis of previous studies. The conditioning regimen consisted of fludarabine (30 mg/m/d from day -7 to -2), melphalan (40 mg/m/d on days -3 and -2), and total body irradiation (2 Gy on day -1). GVHD prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus starting at 0.02 mg/kg/d on day -1, PTCy (50 mg/kg/d on days +3 and +5), and mycophenolate mofetil 2000 mg/d starting on day +6. Eighteen ATL patients underwent PBSCT. The probability of patients who met the primary endpoint was 89% (95% confidence interval, 65% to 99%). The cumulative incidences of grade II to IV acute GVHD, III/IV acute GVHD, and moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD were 39%, 11%, and 17%, respectively. The probabilities of overall survival were 83% at 1 year and 73% at 2 years. The cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality and disease progression at 1 year were 11% and 28%, respectively. HLA-haploidentical PBSCT with PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis is a valid option for patients with aggressive ATL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.07.010DOI Listing
November 2021

The disposable bandage soft contact lenses therapy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography for management of ocular graft-versus-host disease.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 4;21(1):271. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific St, Washington, Seattle, USA.

Purpose: To identify the ocular surface changes of ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and examine the efficacy of disposable bandage soft contact lens (BSCL) treatment in ocular GVHD patients.

Methods: This study is a prospective, Phase II clinical trial. Nineteen patients diagnosed with chronic GVHD based on the NIH criteria and ocular symptoms of NIH eye score 2 or greater were enrolled. Disposable BSCL was applied to the GVHD-affected eyes with topical antibiotic coverage. Ocular exams, eye symptom surveys, and AS-OCT were performed with signed informed consent. Patients were followed for one to three months.

Results: Thirty-eight eyes of 19 patients with ocular GVHD underwent BSCL treatment in this study. AS-OCT scans were done in 14 out of 19 patients. The mean best-corrected visual acuity at enrollment, 2-week, and 4-week visits was 0.180, 0.128, and 0.163 logMAR, respectively. Twenty-four out of 25 eyes (96 %) that initially presented with conjunctival inflammation, twenty-three out of 30 eyes (76.7 %) that initially presented with punctate epithelial erosion, and 8 out of 15 (53.3 %) eyes that initially presented with filamentous keratopathy showed improvement after wearing BSCL for 2 to 4 weeks. AS-OCT revealed corneal epithelial irregularity, abnormal meibomian gland orifice, and conjunctival hyperemia, in patients with ocular GVHD.

Conclusions: BSCL treatment provided significant subjective and objective improvements in ocular GVHD patients. Meanwhile, we found that AS-OCT can be a promising diagnostic tool to characterize the ocular surface changes associated with ocular GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-021-02031-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254955PMC
July 2021

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: III. The 2020 Treatment of Chronic GVHD Report.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 09 11;27(9):729-737. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Clinical Division of Hematology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Positive results from recent clinical trials have significantly expanded current therapeutic options for patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, new insights into the associations between clinical characteristics of chronic GVHD, pathophysiologic mechanisms of disease, and the clinical and biological effects of novel therapeutic agents are required to allow for a more individualized approach to treatment. The current report is focused on setting research priorities and direction in the treatment of chronic GVHD. Detailed correlative scientific studies should be conducted in the context of clinical trials to evaluate associations between clinical outcomes and the biological effect of systemic therapeutics. For patients who require systemic therapy but not urgent initiation of glucocorticoids, clinical trials for initial systemic treatment of chronic GVHD should investigate novel agents as monotherapy without concurrently starting glucocorticoids, to avoid confounding biological, pathological, and clinical assessments. Clinical trials for treatment-refractory disease should specifically target patients with incomplete or suboptimal responses to most recent therapy who are early in their disease course. Close collaboration between academic medical centers, medical societies, and industry is needed to support an individualized, biology-based strategic approach to chronic GVHD therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.004DOI Listing
September 2021

Relevance of Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 for Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 09 12;27(9):759.e1-759.e8. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a highly morbid form of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Several plasma proteins have been identified as biomarkers for BOS after lung transplantation. The relevance of these biomarkers in BOS patients after allogeneic HCT has not been examined. We hypothesized that biomarkers associated with BOS after lung transplantation are also associated with BOS after allogeneic HCT. We tested plasma samples from 33 adult HCT patients who participated in a phase II multicenter study of fluticasone, azithromycin, and montelukast (FAM) treatment for new-onset BOS (NCT01307462), and matched control samples of HCT patients who had non-BOS chronic GVHD (n = 31) and those who never experienced chronic GVHD (n = 29) (NCT00637689 and NCT01902576). Candidate biomarkers included matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), MMP-3, and chitinase-3-like-1 glycoprotein (YKL-40). MMP-9 concentrations were higher in the patients with BOS compared with those with non-BOS chronic GVHD (P = .04) or no chronic GVHD (P < .001). MMP-3 concentrations were higher in patients with BOS (P < .001) or non-BOS chronic GVHD (P < .001) compared with those with no chronic GVHD. YKL-40 concentrations did not differ statistically among the 3 groups. MMP-9 concentrations before starting FAM therapy were higher in patients who experienced treatment failure within 6 months compared with those with treatment success (P = .006), whereas MMP-3 or YKL-40 concentrations did not differ statistically between these 2 groups. Patients with an MMP-9 concentration ≥200,000 pg/mL before starting FAM therapy had worse overall survival compared with those with lower MMP-9 concentrations. Our data suggest that plasma MMP-9 concentration could serve as a relevant biomarker at diagnosis of BOS after allogeneic HCT for prognostication of survival and for prediction of treatment response. Further validation is needed to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.06.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8403632PMC
September 2021

Usefulness of hematopoietic progenitor cell monitoring to predict autologous peripheral blood stem cell harvest timing: A single-center retrospective study.

Transfus Apher Sci 2021 Aug 24;60(4):103150. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan.

Introduction: In autologous peripheral blood stem cell harvest (APBSCH), CD34-positive cells have been measured to assess the numbers of hematopoietic stem cells, but measurement requires specialized equipment. Recently, there was a report that peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are useful indicators of the presence of hematopoietic stem cells. We examined the usefulness of HPC monitoring to predict APBSCH timing.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between HPC and collected CD34-positive cells in 84 consecutive patients who underwent APBSCH.

Results: According to the receiver operating characteristics curve for the collection of ≥2 × 106 CD34-positive cells/kg, the HPC cut-off value on the day before collection was 21/μL, while that on the day of collection was 41/μL. No significant factors were found in the univariate analysis except for the HPC count on the day before collection (p < 0.001) and the day of collection (p < 0.001). According to the multivariate analysis, the HPC count on the day before collection (p < 0.001) and the day of collection (p < 0.001) were also factors that strongly influenced the quantity of CD34-positive cells collected.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the HPC count on not only the day of collection but also the day before collection is a good indicator for appropriate APBSCH timing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2021.103150DOI Listing
August 2021

Return to Work Among Young Adult Survivors of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in the United States.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08 22;27(8):679.e1-679.e8. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research), National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Young adult (YA) survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at risk for late psychosocial challenges, including the inability to return to work post-HCT. Work-related outcomes in this population remain understudied, however. We conducted this study to assess the post-HCT work status of survivors of allogeneic HCT who underwent HCT as YAs and to analyze the patient-, disease-, and HCT-related factors associated with their work status at 1 year post-HCT. Using Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data, we evaluated the post-HCT work status (full-time, part-time work, unemployed, or medical disability) of 1365 YA HCT survivors who underwent HCT between 2008 and 2015. Percentages of work status categories were reported at 4 time points: 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-HCT. Percentages of post-HCT work status categories at the 1-year time point were also described in relation to survivors' pre-HCT work status categories. Factors associated with 1-year post-HCT work status (full-time or part-time work) were examined using logistic regression. From 6 months to 3 years post-HCT, the percentage of survivors working full-time increased from 18.3% to 50.7% and the percentage working part-time increased from 6.9% to 10.5%. Of patients in full-time work pre-HCT, 50% were unemployed or on medical disability at 1 year post-HCT. Female sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.77), HCT Comorbidity Index score ≥3 (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.82), pre-HCT unemployment (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.56), medical disability (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.70), development of grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.80), and relapse within 1 year post-HCT (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.56) were associated with a lower likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Compared with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) with total body irradiation (TBI), MAC without TBI (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.53) was associated with a greater likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Graduate school-level education (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.49 to 4.10) was also associated with a greater likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Although the work status among YA HCT survivors continued to improve over time, a substantial subset became or remained unemployed or on medical disability. These findings underscore the need for effective interventions to support return to work in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425287PMC
August 2021

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: I. The 2020 Etiology and Prevention Working Group Report.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 06 2;27(6):452-466. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Division of Hematological Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Preventing chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains challenging because the unique cellular and molecular pathways that incite chronic GVHD are poorly understood. One major point of intervention for potential prevention of chronic GVHD occurs at the time of transplantation when acute donor anti-recipient immune responses first set the events in motion that result in chronic GVHD. After transplantation, additional insults causing tissue injury can incite aberrant immune responses and loss of tolerance, further contributing to chronic GVHD. Points of intervention are actively being identified so that chronic GVHD initiation pathways can be targeted without affecting immune function. The major objective in the field is to continue basic studies and to translate what is learned about etiopathology to develop targeted prevention strategies that decrease the risk of morbid chronic GVHD without increasing the risks of cancer relapse or infection. Development of strategies to predict the risk of developing debilitating or deadly chronic GVHD is a high research priority. This working group recommends further interrogation into the mechanisms underpinning chronic GVHD development, and we highlight considerations for future trial design in prevention trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217141PMC
June 2021

Severe acute graft-versus-host disease increases the incidence of blood stream infection and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: Japanese transplant registry study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 09 19;56(9):2125-2136. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

This study aimed to clarify the risk factors and prognosis associated with blood stream infection (BSI) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), and the relationship between BSI and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). This retrospective analysis included 11,098 patients in the Japanese national transplant registry. A total of 2172 patients developed BSI after allo-HCT, with 2332 identified pathogens. The cumulative incidences of BSI were 15.5% at 30 days and 20.9% at 100 days after allo-HCT. In a multivariate analysis, severe (grade III-IV) aGVHD was associated with a higher risk of BSI (vs. grade 0-I aGVHD: hazard ratio [HR] 3.34 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.85-3.92; P < 0.001]). In a multivariate analysis, severe aGVHD before BSI was associated with a higher risk of overall mortality after BSI (vs. grade 0-I aGVHD: HR 2.61 [95% CI 2.18-3.11; P < 0.001]). In addition, BSI (vs. no-BSI: HR 1.20 [95% CI, 1.12-1.29; P < 0.001]) and severe aGVHD (vs. grade 0-I aGVHD: HR 1.97 [95% CI, 1.83-2.12; P < 0.001]) were independent risk factors for overall mortality after allo-HCT. In the setting of allo-HCT, severe aGVHD was associated with increases in both BSI incidence and post-BSI overall mortality. Furthermore, BSI was an independent risk factor for overall mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01291-0DOI Listing
September 2021

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: IIb. The 2020 Preemptive Therapy Working Group Report.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08 6;27(8):632-641. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) commonly occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) despite standard prophylactic immune suppression. Intensified universal prophylaxis approaches are effective but risk possible overtreatment and may interfere with the graft-versus-malignancy immune response. Here we summarize conceptual and practical considerations regarding preemptive therapy of chronic GVHD, namely interventions applied after HCT based on evidence that the risk of developing chronic GVHD is higher than previously appreciated. This risk may be anticipated by clinical factors or risk assignment biomarkers or may be indicated by early signs and symptoms of chronic GVHD that do not fully meet National Institutes of Health diagnostic criteria. However, truly preemptive, individualized, and targeted chronic GVHD therapies currently do not exist. In this report, we (1) review current knowledge regarding clinical risk factors for chronic GVHD, (2) review what is known about chronic GVHD risk assignment biomarkers, (3) examine how chronic GVHD pathogenesis intersects with available targeted therapeutic agents, and (4) summarize considerations for preemptive therapy for chronic GVHD, emphasizing trial development, including trial design and statistical considerations. We conclude that robust risk assignment models that accurately predict chronic GVHD after HCT and early-phase preemptive therapy trials represent the most urgent priorities for advancing this novel area of research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.029DOI Listing
August 2021

Impact of Previously Unrecognized HLA Mismatches Using Ultrahigh Resolution Typing in Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

J Clin Oncol 2021 07 9;39(21):2397-2409. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Anthony Nolan Research Institute, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.

Purpose: Ultrahigh resolution (UHR) HLA matching is reported to result in better outcomes following unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation, improving survival and reducing post-transplant complications. However, most studies included relatively small numbers of patients. Here we report the findings from a large, multicenter validation study.

Methods: UHR HLA typing was available on 5,140 conventionally 10 out of 10 HLA-matched patients with malignant disease transplanted between 2008 and 2017.

Results: After UHR HLA typing, 82% of pairs remained 10 out of 10 UHR-matched; 12.3% of patients were 12 out of 12 UHR HLA-matched. Compared with 12 out of 12 UHR-matched patients, probabilities of grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) were significantly increased with UHR mismatches (overall = .0019) and in those patients who were HLA-DPB1 T-cell epitope permissively mismatched or nonpermissively mismatched (overall = .0011). In the T-cell-depleted subset, the degree of UHR HLA mismatch was only associated with increased transplant-related mortality (TRM) (overall = .0068). In the T-cell-replete subset, UHR HLA matching was associated with a lower probability of aGVHD (overall = .0020); 12 out of 12 UHR matching was associated with reduced TRM risk when compared with HLA-DPB1 T-cell epitope permissively mismatched patients, whereas nonpermissive mismatching resulted in a greater risk (overall = .0003).

Conclusion: This study did not confirm that UHR 12 out of 12 HLA matching increases the probability of overall survival but does demonstrate that aGVHD risk, and in certain settings TRM, is lowest in UHR HLA-matched pairs and thus warrants consideration when multiple 10 out of 10 HLA-matched donors of equivalent age are available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280068PMC
July 2021

Drug interaction between letermovir and voriconazole after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Int J Hematol 2021 Jun 7;113(6):872-876. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Pharmacy, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Letermovir has been approved for the prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Letermovir is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 inducer. Voriconazole, which is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent, is mainly metabolized by CYP2C19. Thus, voriconazole trough concentration may decrease due to the drug interaction between voriconazole and letermovir. This study aimed to clarify the effects of letermovir on voriconazole trough concentration in allogeneic HCT recipients. We retrospectively examined voriconazole trough concentration in 24 allogeneic HCT recipients who had letermovir for prevention of CMV infection. The median voriconazole C/D ratios significantly decreased after starting letermovir from 0.25 L/kg to 0.11 L/kg (p < 0.01), and increased after discontinuing letermovir from 0.15 L/kg to 0.24 L/kg (p = 0.02). The median fold change of voriconazole trough concentration during letermovir administration was 0.40. Our results suggest that voriconazole trough concentration decreases when voriconazole is combined with letermovir in allogeneic HCT recipients. Therefore, close therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole trough concentration is warranted in allogeneic HCT recipients after starting or discontinuing letermovir.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03105-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Characterization of readmission after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 06 7;56(6):1335-1340. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

To elucidate the incidence, causes, and risk factors associated with readmission due to transplant-related complications, we studied 213 consecutive patients who were discharged without progression of primary disease after their first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation at our center between 2013 and 2016. The median patient age was 50 years (range, 18-71 years). Eighty-three patients had AML or MDS, 66 had lymphoma, 28 had ALL, 23 had ATL, and 13 had other diseases. The median duration of hospitalization for transplantation was 56 days (range 27-325 days). The cumulative incidences of readmission due to transplant-related complications were 8% at 30 days, 16% at 100 days, and 25% at 1 year after discharge. The most frequent cause of readmission was infection, followed by graft-versus-host disease throughout the first year. In multivariate analysis, steroid use at discharge was the only risk factor associated with readmission within 30 days, and steroid use at discharge, absolute lymphocyte count < 500/µl at discharge, and documented bacterial infection during admission were risk factors associated with readmission within 1 year. Our results indicated that factors during hospitalization or discharge, but not at transplantation, were associated with readmission. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored carefully after discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01190-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of donor type on volume of blood transfusions required after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Int J Hematol 2021 Apr 3;113(4):518-529. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

We reviewed blood product use in 729 consecutive allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients at our center to assess the volume of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets required after allo-HCT. The median number of bags required by day 30 was 4 for RBCs (range 0-22) and 9.5 for platelets (0-53). Multivariate analysis showed that related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) required a significantly lower RBC transfusion volume by day 30 compared to unrelated bone marrow transplantation (UBMT). PBSCT from haplo-identical related donors and cord blood transplantation (CBT) required a significantly greater RBC transfusion volume. For platelet transfusion, related and unrelated PBSCT required a significantly lower volume than UBMT, and CBT a greater volume. Other factors independently associated with greater RBC transfusion volume were male sex, disease status other than complete remission, and major ABO mismatch. For platelet transfusion, these were male sex, disease status, and HCT-specific comorbidity index of 1. Although the burden of blood transfusions may not be the most important factor when choosing a donor type, our findings may provide a foundation for nationwide strategies to prepare blood products and inform aspects of national healthcare expenditures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-03041-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation With or Without Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease on the Risk of Nonrelapse Mortality.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 08;73(3):e620-e628

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

Background: Despite a strong association between acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and cytomegalovirus reactivation (CMVR), the joint effect of acute GVHD and CMVR on nonrelapse mortality (NRM) has not been well studied.

Methods: We evaluated the impact of CMVR on NRM stratified according to the development of acute GVHD using a landmark method. This study included 6078 patients who received their first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with a preemptive strategy for CMVR between 2008 and 2017.

Results: The cumulative incidences of grade 2-4 acute GVHD (G24GVHD), CMVR by day 100, and CMV disease by day 365 were 37.3%, 52.1%, and 2.9%, respectively. Patients with G24GVHD were associated with the subsequent development of CMVR, and the presence of CMVR also increased the risk of G24GVHD. In a landmark analysis at day 65, the cumulative incidence of NRM at 1 year was 5.4%, 10.0%, 13.9%, and 19.7% in patients with G24GVHD-/CMVR-, G24GVHD-/CMVR+, G24GVHD+/CMVR-, and G24GVHD+/CMVR+, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, CMVR was respectively associated with an increased risk of NRM by day 365 in patients without G24GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.05; P < .001) and with G24GVHD (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06-1.70; P = .014), but the interaction between G24GVHD and CMVR was not significant (P = .326). Subgroup analyses suggested that the joint effect of acute GVHD and CMVR might vary according to the baseline characteristics.

Conclusions: These data regarding the close relationship between acute GVHD and CMVR should provide important implications for the treatment strategy after HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1871DOI Listing
August 2021

Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia: An Evidence-Based Review from the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 01 20;27(1):6-20. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

EBMT Paris Study Office, Paris, France; Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

The role of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the management of newly diagnosed adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is reviewed and critically evaluated in this evidence-based review. An AML expert panel, consisting of both transplant and nontransplant experts, was invited to develop clinically relevant frequently asked questions covering disease- and HCT-related topics. A systematic literature review was conducted to generate core recommendations that were graded based on the quality and strength of underlying evidence based on the standardized criteria established by the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Steering Committee for evidence-based reviews. Allogeneic HCT offers a survival benefit in patients with intermediate- and high-risk AML and is currently a part of standard clinical care. We recommend the preferential use of myeloablative conditioning in eligible patients. A haploidentical related donor marrow graft is preferred over a cord blood unit in the absence of a fully HLA-matched donor. The evolving role of allogeneic HCT in the context of measurable residual disease monitoring and recent therapeutic advances in AML with regards to maintenance therapy after HCT are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.09.020DOI Listing
January 2021

Use of unapproved or off-label drugs in Japan for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease and post-transplant viral infection.

Int J Hematol 2020 Dec 1;112(6):841-850. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Many drugs are used for unapproved indications in Japan for post hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) complications. To investigate unapproved or off-label drug usage for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and virus infections after allogeneic HCT, we analyzed the data of Japanese HCT registry. Between 2006 and 2017, 39,941 adults and children received HCT for a variety of disease and their transplant data were captured in the registry. Among them, 14,687 and 8914 patients receiving treatment for acute and/or chronic GVHD, 24,828 patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or receiving therapies for CMV, and 4943 who received treatment for other viral infections were included in the analyses of off-label or unapproved drugs. For GVHD, mycophenolate mofetil was the most frequently used off-label drug, followed by beclomethasone, infliximab, and etanercept. For viral infections other than CMV, foscarnet was the most frequently used off-label drug. Cidofovir, which is not approved for use in Japan, was mainly used for adenovirus infection. This study demonstrated that numerous off-label and unapproved drugs have been used as key drugs for GVHD and post-transplant viral infection, and the real world date in the transplant registry may serve as an important asset to regulatory purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02972-0DOI Listing
December 2020

A Personalized Prediction Model for Outcomes after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 11 8;26(11):2139-2146. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Blood & Marrow Transplant Program, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, Ohio.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) remains the only potentially curative option for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Mortality after HCT is high, with deaths related to relapse or transplant-related complications. Thus, identifying patients who may or may not benefit from HCT is clinically important. We identified 1514 patients with MDS enrolled in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Registry and had their peripheral blood samples sequenced for the presence of 129 commonly mutated genes in myeloid malignancies. A random survival forest algorithm was used to build the model, and the accuracy of the proposed model was assessed by concordance index. The median age of the entire cohort was 59 years. The most commonly mutated genes were ASXL1(20%), TP53 (19%), DNMT3A (15%), and TET2 (12%). The algorithm identified the following variables prior to HCT that impacted overall survival: age, TP53 mutations, absolute neutrophils count, cytogenetics per International Prognostic Scoring System-Revised, Karnofsky performance status, conditioning regimen, donor age, WBC count, hemoglobin, diagnosis of therapy-related MDS, peripheral blast percentage, mutations in RAS pathway, JAK2 mutation, number of mutations/sample, ZRSR2, and CUX1 mutations. Different variables impacted the risk of relapse post-transplant. The new model can provide survival probability at different time points that are specific (personalized) for a given patient based on the clinical and mutational variables that are listed above. The outcomes' probability at different time points may aid physicians and patients in their decision regarding HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.08.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609542PMC
November 2020

[Successful treatment of very severe late-onset sinusoidal obstruction syndrome with recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin, steroids, and control of intra-abdominal pressure].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2020 ;61(7):734-739

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital.

We report a case of a 16-year-old woman who achieved her third complete remission of acute lymphoblastic leukemia after undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation for the second time from an unrelated donor. On post-transplantation day 30, she showed weight gain, hepatomegaly, right hypochondriac pain, and ascites. On day 35, ultrasonography (US) revealed portal vein regurgitation. She was subsequently diagnosed with late-onset sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) and was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) on day 36 for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation, requiring mechanical ventilation. Her SOS was graded as very severe upon ICU admission. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (380 U/kg/day) and methylprednisolone (2 mg/kg/day) therapies were initiated. Additionally, her intra-abdominal pressure had increased to 19 mmHg, which was thought to be the cause of MODS. Ascites drainage (1,000 ml/day), according to the treatment for abdominal compartment syndrome, improved her SOS and MODS. She was weaned from mechanical ventilation on the 10th day after ICU transfer, and US showed resolution of the portal vein regurgitation. She was transferred to the general ward on the 14th day. She had not experienced disease recurrence at her last visit (527 days after the second transplantation).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11406/rinketsu.61.734DOI Listing
September 2020
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