Publications by authors named "Yoon-Kyo An"

7 Publications

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Common mistakes with steroids.

Authors:
Yoon-Kyo An

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr;36 Suppl 1:30-31

Mater Hospital Brisbane; IBD Clinical Trials Unit, Mater Research; University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15458DOI Listing
April 2021

Switching Australian patients with moderate to severe inflammatory bowel disease from originator to biosimilar infliximab: a multicentre, parallel cohort study.

Med J Aust 2021 02 17;214(3):128-133. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, WA.

Objective: To examine whether non-medical switching of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from originator infliximab to a biosimilar (CT-P13, Inflectra) is safe and clinically non-inferior to continued treatment with originator infliximab.

Design: Prospective, open label, multicentre, parallel cohort, non-inferiority study in seven Australian hospitals over 48 weeks, May 2017 - October 2019.

Participants: Adults (18 years or older) with IBD receiving maintenance originator infliximab (Remicade) who had been in steroid-free clinical remission for at least 12 weeks.

Intervention: Managed program for switching patients in four hospitals from originator to biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13); patients in three other hospitals continued to receive originator infliximab (control).

Main Outcome Measures: Clinical disease worsening requiring infliximab dose escalation or change in therapy.

Results: The switch group included 204 patients, the control group 141 patients with IBD. Ten patients in the control group (7%) and 16 patients switched to CT-P13 (8%) experienced clinical deterioration; the adjusted risk difference (control v switch group) was -1.1 percentage points (95% CI, -6.1 to 8.2 percentage points), within our pre-specified non-inferiority margin of 15 percentage points. Serious adverse events leading to infliximab discontinuation were infrequent in both the switch (six, 3%) and control (six, 4%) groups.

Conclusion: Switching patients with IBD from originator to biosimilar infliximab is safe and non-inferior to continuing treatment with originator infliximab. Moreover, the introduction of biosimilar infliximab, by increasing market competition, has resulted in substantial cost savings for the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50824DOI Listing
February 2021

Monitoring Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Pregnancy Using Gastrointestinal Ultrasonography.

J Crohns Colitis 2020 Oct;14(10):1405-1412

Department of Gastroenterology, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background And Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] affects women during their childbearing years. Gastrointestinal ultrasonography [GIUS] accurately identifies disease activity in non-pregnant patients with IBD. The utility of GIUS in pregnancy has not been established. We aimed to determine the feasibility and accuracy of GIUS in the assessment of IBD during pregnancy progression.

Methods: A multicentre observational study of women with IBD undergoing GIUS during pregnancy. Clinicians assessed the adequacy of bowel views and disease activity in four colonic segments and the terminal ileum. Location[s] in which views were impeded by the uterus were documented. GIUS disease activity [bowel wall thickness >3 mm] was compared with biochemical disease activity [faecal calprotectin >100 μg/g].

Results: Ninety patients and 127 GIUS examinations were included [median gestation 19 weeks, range 4-33]. Adequate colonic views were obtained in 116/127 [91%] scans. Adequate ileal views were obtained in 62/67 [93%] scans <20 weeks and 30/51 [59%] scans at 20-26 weeks. There was a positive correlation between bowel wall thickness and calprotectin [r = 0.26, p = 0.03]. GIUS delivered a specificity of 83%, sensitivity of 74%, and negative predictive value of 90% compared with calprotectin.

Conclusions: GIUS is a feasible and accurate modality for monitoring IBD in pregnancy. Adequate GIUS views of the colon and terminal ileum can be obtained in the majority of patients up to 20 weeks of gestation. Beyond 20 weeks, GIUS provides good views of the colon but the terminal ileum becomes difficult to assess.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa082DOI Listing
October 2020

Gastrointestinal ultrasound in inflammatory bowel disease care: Patient perceptions and impact on disease-related knowledge.

JGH Open 2020 Apr 9;4(2):267-272. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

IBD Service, Department of Gastroenterology The Queen Elizabeth Hospital Adelaide South Australia Australia.

Background And Aim: Objective monitoring of disease activity is integral to therapeutic decision-making in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Data are sparse on patients' perspectives of tools used to monitor disease activity in IBD. To evaluate patients' perspectives of gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS) performed during routine IBD clinical care, along with its impact on IBD-specific knowledge.

Methods: Patients with a formal diagnosis of IBD who underwent GIUS at two tertiary IBD services between March 2017 and January 2019 participated in this prospective study. Participants completed a questionnaire measuring the acceptability, tolerability, and usefulness of GIUS using a visual analogue scale (VAS) from 0 (disagree) to 10 (strongly agree). Comparative acceptability of IBD monitoring tools and the impact of GIUS on IBD-specific knowledge was measured.

Results: A total of 121 participants completed the questionnaire, with a mean age of 42 years (range 17-78), 54 (45%) males, and 79 (65%) Crohn's disease patients. In the overall population, GIUS was scored as highly acceptable for monitoring IBD (mean 9.20 ± 1.37) compared to colonoscopy (7.94 ± 2.30), stool sampling (8.17 ± 1.96), blood sampling (8.87 ± 1.62), and imaging (8.67 ± 1.60);  < 0.01 for each comparison. GIUS caused little patient discomfort (1.88 ± 1.83), and 98 (81%) participants ranked GIUS as their preferred IBD monitoring tool. GIUS also improved patients' overall IBD-specific knowledge (VAS IBD-specific knowledge 7.96 ± 1.92), including their understanding of the need for medical therapy and disease extent.

Conclusion: GIUS is a highly acceptable and well-tolerated tool for monitoring disease activity in IBD patients. GIUS is preferred by patients and enhances IBD-specific knowledge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144798PMC
April 2020

Faecal calprotectin testing for identifying patients with organic gastrointestinal disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Med J Aust 2019 11 3;211(10):461-467. Epub 2019 Nov 3.

Mater Hospital Brisbane, Brisbane, QLD.

Objectives: To assess the clinical effectiveness of faecal calprotectin (FC) testing for distinguishing between organic gastrointestinal diseases (organic GID), such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and functional gastrointestinal disorders (functional GIDs).

Study Design: Studies that assessed the accuracy of FC testing for differentiating between IBD or organic GID and functional GIDs were reviewed. Articles published in English during January 1998 - June 2018 that compared diagnostic FC testing in primary care and outpatient hospital settings with a reference test and employed the standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent FC assay method with a cut-off of 50 or 100 μg/g faeces were included. Study quality was assessed with QUADAS-2, an evidence-based quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies.

Data Sources: MEDLINE and EMBASE; reference lists of screened articles.

Data Synthesis: Eighteen relevant studies were identified. For distinguishing patients with organic GID (including IBD) from those with functional GIDs (16 studies), the estimated sensitivity of FC testing was 81% (95% CI, 74-86%), the specificity 81% (95% CI, 71-88%); area under the curve (AUC) was 0.87. For distinguishing IBD from functional GIDs (ten studies), sensitivity was 88% (95% CI, 80-93%), specificity 72% (95% CI, 59-82%), and AUC 0.89. Assuming a population prevalence of organic GID of 1%, the positive predictive value was 4.2%, the negative predictive value 100%. The difference in sensitivity and specificity between FC testing cut-offs of 50 μg/g and 100 μg/g faeces was not statistically significant (P = 0.77).

Conclusions: FC testing is clinically useful for distinguishing organic GID (including IBD) from functional GIDs, and its incorporation into clinical practice for evaluating patients with lower gastrointestinal symptoms could lead to fewer patients with functional GIDs undergoing colonoscopy, reducing costs for both patients and the health system.

Prospero Registration: CRD4201810507.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50384DOI Listing
November 2019

Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Optimal Salvage Therapy in Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2019 06;25(7):1169-1186

Department of Gastroenterology, Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Infliximab is an effective salvage therapy in acute severe ulcerative colitis; however, the optimal dosing strategy is unknown. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the impact of infliximab dosage and intensification on colectomy-free survival in acute severe ulcerative colitis.

Methods: Studies reporting outcomes of hospitalized steroid-refractory acute severe ulcerative colitis treated with infliximab salvage were identified. Infliximab use was categorized by dose, dose number, and schedule. The primary outcome was colectomy-free survival at 3 months. Pooled proportions and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were reported.

Results: Forty-one cohorts (n = 2158 cases) were included. Overall colectomy-free survival with infliximab salvage was 79.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75.48% to 83.6%) at 3 months and 69.8% (95% CI, 65.7% to 73.7%) at 12 months. Colectomy-free survival at 3 months was superior with 5-mg/kg multiple (≥2) doses compared with single-dose induction (odds ratio [OR], 4.24; 95% CI, 2.44 to 7.36; P < 0.001). However, dose intensification with either high-dose or accelerated strategies was not significantly different to 5-mg/kg standard induction at 3 months (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.27; P = 0.24) despite being utilized in patients with a significantly higher mean C-reactive protein and lower albumin levels.

Conclusions: In acute severe ulcerative colitis, multiple 5-mg/kg infliximab doses are superior to single-dose salvage. Dose-intensified induction outcomes were not significantly different compared to standard induction and were more often used in patients with increased disease severity, which may have confounded the results. This meta-analysis highlights the marked variability in the management of infliximab salvage therapy and the need for further studies to determine the optimal dose strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izy383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6783899PMC
June 2019

Predicting response after infliximab salvage in acute severe ulcerative colitis.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Jul 27;33(7):1347-1352. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia.

Background And Aim: Acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) is a medical emergency requiring prompt therapeutic intervention. Although infliximab has been used as salvage therapy for over 15 years, clinical predictors of treatment success are lacking. We performed a retrospective analysis to identify factors that predict colectomy and may guide dose intensification.

Methods: Fifty-four hospitalized patients received infliximab for ASUC at seven Australian centers (April 2014-May 2015). Follow-up was over 12 months. The data were primarily analyzed for predictors of colectomy. Accelerated (AI) versus standard (SI) infliximab induction strategies were also compared.

Results: Of 54 patients identified, the overall colectomy rate was 15.38% (8/52) at 3 months and 26.92% (14/52) at 12 months. Two patients were lost to follow-up. There was a numerically higher colectomy rate in those treated with AI compared with SI (P = 0.3); however, those treated with AI had more severe biochemical disease. A C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio cut-off of 0.37 post-commencement of infliximab and before discharge was a significant predictor of colectomy with an area under receiver operating curve of 0.73. Pretreatment CRP and albumin levels were not predictive of colectomy. A Mayo Endoscopic Score of 2 had a 94% PPV for avoidance of colectomy following infliximab salvage.

Conclusions: The baseline Mayo Endoscopic Score and the CRP/albumin ratio following infliximab salvage are significant predictors of treatment response for ASUC and identify patients at high risk of colectomy. Whether this risk can be mitigated using infliximab dose intensification requires prospective evaluation before the CRP/albumin ratio can be integrated into ASUC management algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.14072DOI Listing
July 2018